Half a Century of Proposals for ‘Innovative’ Development Financing
- Reference number: ST/ESA/2013/DWP/125
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This paper recalls the history of proposed “innovative” mechanisms by which governments could strengthen financial cooperation for development. Such proposals sought more predictable and assured financial flows to facilitate recipient country programming, while also substantially adding to the volume of highly concessional international support for development. International discussions of these proposals mostly began in the 1960s and in many cases continue today, although implementation thus far has been modest. These discussions are contrasted with generally more recent proposals that proponents call “innovative” but that do not share the characteristics of the more radical thinking underlining the older proposals.
The distributional effects of fiscal austerity
- Reference number: ST/ESA/2013/DWP/129
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This paper examines the distributional effects of fiscal austerity. Using episodes of fiscal consolidation measures for a sample of 17 OECD countries over the period 1978-2009, we find that fiscal consolidation episodes have typically led to a significant and long-lasting increase in inequality. Tax-based consolidation episodes tend to have a larger and more persistent effect on inequality than spendingbased consolidations. The evidence also shows that while fiscal consolidations have typically led to a fall in wage income, they have not had a significant effect on profit and rent income.