UN DESA | DPAD | Development Policy Analysis Division
CDP Sales Publications: Archive
Committee for Development Policy
Handbook on the Least Developed Country Category:
Inclusion, Graduation and Special Support Measures
This Handbook aims at promoting a better understanding of the LDC category and the benefits derived from membership therein. It contains a comprehensive explanation of the criteria, procedures and methodology used by the Committee for Development Policy for establishing which countries are eligible for inclusion in, or recommended for graduation from, the LDC category. It also provides an overview of the international support measures that can be derived from having least developed country status and the implications of graduating from the list in terms of the potential loss of such measures.
Committee for Development Policy, Policy Note
The International Development Agenda and the Climate
Focusing international cooperation on climate change solely on the establishment of emission targets is not adequate: the latter does not adequately address developmental challenges or help achieve internationally agreed goals. The international development agenda needs to specify the actions and approaches required for ensuring economic behaviour that is compatible with environmental constraints in a way that minimizes aggregate costs, protects the vulnerable and maximizes economic growth. The integration of climate-change and development goals will require a fundamental reorientation of the current developmental trajectory so that the carbon intensity of production is reduced while economic growth is still maintained. It will also require a more effective partnership between the developed and developing countries.
Committee for Development Policy, Policy Note
Strengthening the International Partnership for Effective Poverty Reduction
Important progress has been made towards developing a global partnership in support of national poverty reduction strategies. Nonetheless, the existing framework of that global partnership, the use of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers as its main instrument, appears to be neither adequate nor effective. Aid recipient countries need to gain more ownership of their poverty reduction strategies. Aid and other international support should be provided under conditions which enhance, rather than restrict, domestic policy space in recipient countries. Multilateral trade negotiations need to be consistent with poverty reduction objectives and should not conflict with the development assistance priorities.
Overcoming economic vulnerability and creating employment Report of the Committee for Development Policy on the eighth session (20-24 March 2006), United Nations, New York
The publication addresses two themes. The first is unemployment in developing countries. Tackling this problem requires a more balanced and coordinated international strategy for sustainable global growth. At the national level, economic growth is important, but the quality of such growth also matters. It is also necessary to create fiscal space to ensure the availability of a skilled workforce that can meet the technological challenges posed by globalization. The second theme is that of economic vulnerability and instability. Required domestic policy measures include the promotion of good governance, sound fiscal and financial management and enhanced human and social development. The promotion of an enabling international economic environment and actions to reduce the occurrence of systemic shocks are required.
Development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa and post-conflict countries
Report of the Committee for Development Policy on the seventh session (14–18 March 2005), United Nations, New York
Sub-Saharan Africa lags behind other regions in achieving the development goals. Success largely depends on countries themselves owning, planning and executing the necessary policies and programmes. Government’s capacity needs to be enhanced, and support from the international community is required. Both the quantity and the quality of aid need to be improved. Countries recovering from conflict face additional challenges. The Committee proposes that a monitoring unit be established within the United Nations to identify those countries most at risk from conflict and that a UN post-conflict reconstruction facility be created to serve as a prompt-response instrument for donor coordination.
Poverty reduction and good governance
Report of the Committee forDevelopment Policy on the sixth session(29 March–2 April 2004), United Nations, New York
Achieving poverty reduction in the least developed countries will require the mobilization of substantial financial resources. At the country level it will depend on (a) improved budgetary management and revenue collection and enhanced private savings and investment opportunities; (b) the generation of foreign exchange, through increased exports and remittances; (c) the ability, in partnership with donors, to reduce existing debt burdens while increasing the quantity, quality and effectiveness of new aid flows; and (d) the ability to attract private capital (investment and commercial inflows) and to reverse capital flight where it has occurred.. In designing institutions for good governance, an interactive process between donors and recipient countries is essential.
Local Development and Global Issues
Report of the Committee for Development Policy on the fifth session
(7-11 April 2003), United Nations, New York
The attainment of international development goals requires addressing rural poverty. Rural development must reflect the multi-dimensional nature of poverty and must thus be multi-targeted. Policy measures include the expansion of education and health services, and the provision of incentives to rural populations to make use of such services. Also important is an increase in agricultural productivity and the removal of distortions and barriers to trade. Adequate provision of global public goods can contribute to effective poverty reduction by mitigating global risks and reducing public “bads”. New institutional and financial arrangements need to be developed to help ensure the provision of global public goods.
Capacity-building in Africa: Effective aid and human capital Report of the Committee for Development Policy on the fourth session (8-12 April 2002), United Nations, New York
Sub-Saharan African countries continue to fall behind in terms of economic and social development. The persistence of conflict and post-conflict situations as well as the HIV/AIDS pandemic, calls for large additional transfers of resources. Aid needs to be better targeted towards countries with low incomes or special needs. It is only through the development of human and social capabilities that inequality and increased marginalization can be prevented. The creation of an African aid and development portal to provide a gateway to all development and aid projects in Africa, including those of non-governmental organizations, is proposed.
Participatory Development and Governance: Africa’s Special Needs Report of the Committee for Development Policy on the third session (2-6 April 2001), United Nations, New York
Africa needs to take control over its own development strategy through a participatory and coordinated approach that involves a more effective mobilization and use of domestic financial and non-financial resources, the development of innovative and dynamic partnerships, and improved governance at both the national and multilateral levels. Better governance requires enhanced transparency, sound management of resources and a stable economic and regulatory environment. Recommendations on how to enhance the effectiveness of the UN system and multilateral institutions to support participatory development in Africa are discussed. These include the need to address coordination failures and the introduction of improved methods of monitoring and evaluating development programmes.
Poverty amidst Riches: The Need for Change Report of the Committee for Development Policy on the second session (3-7 April 2000), United Nations, New, York
The targets of international development strategies have not been met in the past. A different approach is needed. Implementation should be readily monitored, progress measured and, where necessary, supplementary actions identified. A revitalized flow of development finance through both official channels and private institutions is necessary. Democratic processes of good governance and increased trade openness are also required for a peaceful and prosperous world. More effective integration of the developing countries into the global trading system remains a major challenge. Enhanced access to and improvement of education, skills, infrastructure and new technologies are increasingly needed to secure a higher standard of living.
Vulnerability and Poverty in a Global Economy Report of the Committee for Development Policy on the first session (26-30 April 1999), United Nations, New, York
The generation, quality and stability of employment are key strategic dimensions of development policy. Poverty is prominent among women; combating gender inequalities therefore forms an important component of poverty eradication. Policies for growth and job creation include support for labour-intensive sectors, self-employment and small and medium-sized enterprises. Macroeconomic stability and a consistent commitment to public investment in education, health, infrastructure and research are also required. In addition, new institutions are needed to improve the functioning of markets and countries’ adaptability to globalization. Liberalization should be accompanied by actions, in both the national and international spheres, for improving oversight and prudential regulation.