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Oceans and Coastal Areas

Emerging Issues

Major Assessments

AIMS
FAO
  • aquacultureAQUACULTURE IN THE THIRD MILLENIUM - 2001
    NACA/FAO, 2001. Subasinghe, R.P., Bueno, P., Phillips, M.J., Hough, C., McGladdery, S.E., & Arthur, J.E. (Eds.) Technical Proceedings of the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, Bangkok, Thailand. 20-25 February 2000. NACA, Bangkok and FAO, Rome. 471pp. ISBN: 974-7313-55-3.

  • cdWORLD FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE ATLAS CD-ROM - 2001
    FAO Fisheries Department, FAO, Rome, 2001

  • THE STATE OF WORLD FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE (SOFIA) - 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002 , 2004
    FAO Fisheries Department, FAO, Rome
    The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) is the Fisheries Department's premier advocacy document. It is published every two years with the purpose of providing policy-makers, civil society and those who derive their livelihood from the sector a comprehensive, objective and global view of capture fisheries and aquaculture, including associated policy issues.

    sofia96 sofia98sofia00sofia02sofia04
GESAMP
  • hazardTHE REVISED GESAMP HAZARD EVALUATION PROCEDURE FOR CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES CARRIED BY SHIP - 2002
    GESAMP (IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/ WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection)
    IMO; 2002. London. Rep. Stud. GESAMP: No.64, 126 pp. Pub. no. 491/01, ISSN 1020-4873, ISBN 92-801-5131-2
    This report provides an updated set of criteria for evaluating the hazards of chemical substances that may enter the marine environment through operational discharge, accidental spillage, or loss overboard from ships.

  • A SEA OF TROUBLES - 2001
    PROTECTING THE OCEANS FROM LAND-BASED ACTIVITIES - 2001

    GESAMP (IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/ WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection)
    UNEP/GRID-arendal; 2001. Rep. Stud. GESAMP: No.70, 15 jan, 35 pp. ISBN 82-7701-010-9
    UNEP/GRID-arendal; 2001. Rep. Stud. GESAMP: No.71, 15 jan, 162 pp. ISBN 82-7701-011-7
    seaoceanThese reports are a major contribution to our understanding of the state of the marine environment and the impact of human activity. GESAMP is an advisory body consisting of specialized experts nominated by the Sponsoring Agencies. Its principal task is to provide scientific advice concerning the prevention, reduction and control of the degradation of the marine environment to the Sponsoring Agencies.

  • THE STATE OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT - 1990
    GESAMP (IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection)
    UNEP; 1990. Nairobi. Reports and Studies: No. 115, 111 p., and Technical Annexes RSRS: No. 114/1 and 114/2, 676 p

    More Reports and Studies are available at GESAMP website: http://gesamp.imo. org/publicat.htm
ICRAN
UN
  • OCEANS AND SEAS- REPORT TO THE SECRETARY GENERAL - 2001
    E/CN.17/2001/PC/16. prepared by the Subcommittee on Oceans and Coastal Areas of the Administrative Committee on Coordination as task manager for chapter 17 of Agenda 21, with contributions from international agencies and organizations. March 2001.

UNEP/GIWA
  • status of coral reefsArctic Greenland, East Greenland Shelf, West Greenland Shelf
    UNEP, 2004.
    GIWA Regional assessment 1b, 15, 16
    Pedersen, S.A., Madsen, J. and M. Dyhr-Nielsen
    ISSN 1651-940X
    Major concerns are due to overexploitation of fish, seabirds and marine mammals and toxic contamination of the marine resources due to long-range transport from chemical emissions to water and air in industrial areas in northern Asia, Europe and America. In the Northern part, severe impacts on the arctic habitats can be expected, if global warming continues unabated.

  • Baltic SeaBaltic Sea
    UNEP, 2005.
    GIWA Regional assessment 17
    Lääne, A., Kraav, E., and G. Titova
    ISSN 1651-940X
    The Baltic Sea region is one of the largest brackish water areas in the world. It is a semi-enclosed sea, which together with other physical as well as socio-economic characteristics makes it very sensitive to anthropogenic pressures. Eutrophication remains the most pressing problem in the region, as nitrogen and phosphorus inputs are still too high, despite considerable efforts to reduce discharges. The issue of overexploitation of fish is also considered as a severe problem, mainly due to the overutilisation of fishing quotas, high exploitation rate and oversized fleet capacity.

  • Barents seaBarents Sea
    UNEP, 2004.
    GIWA Regional assessment 11
    Matishov, G., Golubeva, N., Titova, G., Sydnes, A. and B. Voegele
    ISSN 1651-940X
    Overfishing of cod and haddock, nuclear waste storage, the invasion of the Red King crab and a projected six-fold increase in oil and gas transportation are some of the issues threatening the unique Barents Sea Arctic ecosystem.

  • caspian seaCaspian Sea
    UNEP, 2003.
    GIWA Regional assessment 23
    Stolberg, F., Borysova, O., Mitrofanov, I., Barannik, V. and P. Eghtesadi
    The Caspian Sea is the largest land-locked water body on earth, bordered by five countries and influenced by three more in the catchment area. The assessment of the current situation and historical trends identified that Habitat and community modification exerts the greatest impact on the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea.

UNEP
  • status of coral reefsCold-water coral reefs, Out of sight – no longer out of mind
    June 2004 by the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre as part of the Centre's Biodiversity Series.
    The document describes the various cold-water coral reef ecosystems and associations together with their known and potential worldwide geographical distribution. Case studies and observations from several locations illustrate the state of these reefs and highlight their vulnerability to threats caused by human activities, which have already destroyed or affected a large number of cold water coral reefs.

  • status of coral reefsWorld Atlas of Seagrasses - 2003
    UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 2003
    Edited by Edmund P. Green and Frederick T. Short
    310 pages .ISBN 0-520-24047-2.
    The Atlas is a collaboration of more than 50 authors from 25 nations. Fully illustrated, the Atlas contains the first global and regional maps of seagrass distribution and a wealth of information on key issues concerning this 'forgotten' ecosystem.
    Available from University of California Press, Tel +1 510 642-4243, website: http://www.ucpress.edu
    URL: http://www.unep-wcmc.org/marine/seagrassatlas/.

  • status of coral reefsFrom Ocean to Aquarium: The Global Trade in Marine Ornamentals - 2003
    UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 2003
    Citation: Wabnitz, C., Taylor, M., Green, E., Razak, T. 2003.
    From Ocean to Aquarium. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.
    URL: http://www.unep-wcmc.org/resources/publications/UNEP_WCMC_bio_series/17.htm.

  • WORLD ATLAS OF CORAL REEFS - 2001
    United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC)
    Mark D. Spalding, Corinna Ravilious, and Edmund P. Green.
    424 pages, ISBN 0-520-23255-0.
    The most detailed assessment ever of the status and distribution of the world's coral reefs prepared by the
    Available from University of California Press, Tel +1 510 642-4243, website: http://www.ucpress.edu
WorldFish Center
  • REEF BASE - 2002
    Project by the WorldFish Center, with support from the International Coral Reef Action Network (ICRAN) and UNEP
    ReefBase is an online information system on coral reefs, and was designed to provide relevant data and information to reef managers and scientists, as well as the general public.

Other Sources

  • riskREEFS AT RISK: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral Reefs - 1998
    by Dirk Bryant, Lauretta Burke, John McManus and Mark Spaulding. 56 p.
    WRI/ICLARM/WCMC/UNEP. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., 1998.
    This publication is a map-based indicator of threats to the world's coral reefs. This global analysis evaluated human pressure on coral reefs for 55,000 coral reef locations worldwide.

  • The Ocean ... Our Future - 1998
    Report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, M. Soares (ed.).
    Report to the UN General Assembly assessing the state of ocean management.
    Cambridge University Press, 1998.

  • A Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) is now in preparation, with a secretariat under UNEP hosted by the University of Kalmar, Sweden, and with financial support from the Global Environment Facility (GEF), UNEP and other donors. It is to develop a comprehensive strategic framework for the identification of priorities for remedial and mitigatory actions in international waters (both fresh and marine)

 

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