United Nations

A/RES/S-17/2


General Assembly

  8th plenary meeting
                                                       23 February 1990


                                                       

   Political Declaration and Global Programme of Action adopted by the General
   Assembly at its seventeenth special session, devoted to the question of
   international co-operation against illicit production, supply, demand,
   trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances

      The General Assembly

      Adopts the Political Declaration and the Global Programme of Action on
 international co-operation against illicit production, supply, demand,
 trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances
 annexed to the present resolution.
                                     ANNEX
                             Political Declaration

      We, the States Members of the United Nations,

      Assembled at the seventeenth special session of the General Assembly to
 consider the question of international co-operation against illicit
 production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances,

      Deeply alarmed by the magnitude of the rising trend in the illicit
 demand, production, supply, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances, which are a grave and persistent threat to the health
 and well-being of mankind, the stability of nations, the political, economic,
 social and cultural structures of all societies and the lives and dignity of
 millions of human beings, most especially of young people,

      Aware of the dangers posed for all countries alike by the illicit
 cultivation, production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of
 narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, and aware also of the need for a
 comprehensive approach in combating them,

      Conscious that the extraordinarily high levels of illicit consumption,
 cultivation and production of narcotic drugs and of illicit drug trafficking
 necessitate a more comprehensive approach to international co-operation in
 drug abuse control and counter-offensives at the national, regional and
 international levels,

      Reaffirming our determination to combat the scourge of drug abuse and
 illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in strict
 conformity with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the
 principles of international law, in particular respect for the sovereignty and
 territorial integrity of States, the principle of non-interference in the
 internal affairs of States and non-use of force or the threat of force in
 international relations, and the provisions of the international drug control
 conventions,

      Reaffirming also the provisions set forth in the Single Convention on
 Narcotic Drugs of 1961, and in that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol
 Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on
 Psychotropic Substances of 1971 and the United Nations Convention against
 Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances adopted in 1988,

      Reaffirming further the principle of shared responsibility in combating
 drug abuse and illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances,

      Recognizing the links between the illicit demand, consumption,
 production, supply, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances and the economic, social and cultural conditions in
 the countries affected by them,

      Deeply concerned about the violence and corruption generated by the
 illicit demand, production, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances and the high human, political, economic and social
 costs of drug abuse and of the fight against the drug problem, entailing the
 diversion of scarce resources from other national priorities, which in the
 case of developing countries includes development activities,

      Conscious that international co-operation for the development of the
 developing countries should be strengthened, allowing all countries to
 participate more fully in an effective fight against the drug problem,

      Recognizing the links between drug abuse and a wide range of adverse
 health consequences, including the transmission of human immunodeficiency
 virus (HIV) infection and the spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
 (AIDS),

      Recognizing also that illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances is a criminal activity and that its suppression
 requires a higher priority and concerted action at the national, regional and
 international levels by all States, including rapid ratification of and
 accession to the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic
 Drugs and Psychotropic Substances,

      Noting that the large financial profits derived from illicit drug
 trafficking and related criminal activities enable transnational criminal
 organizations to penetrate, contaminate and corrupt the structure of
 Governments, legitimate commercial activities and society at all levels,
 thereby vitiating economic and social development, distorting the process of
 law and undermining the foundations of States,

      Recognizing that a growing number of countries, in particular developing
 countries, are affected by illicit transit trafficking in narcotic drugs
 because of their geographical location or economic situation, which imposes
 serious burdens on the drug law enforcement machinery of those countries and
 forces diversion of scarce resources from pressing developmental needs and
 other national priorities,

      Convinced that the fight against illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs
 and psychotropic substances has to comprise effective measures aimed,
 inter alia, at eliminating illicit consumption, cultivation and production of
 narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; preventing the diversion from
 legitimate uses of precursor chemicals, specific substances, materials and
 equipment frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances; and preventing the use of the banking system and
 other financial institutions for the laundering of proceeds derived from
 illicit drug trafficking by making such activities criminal offences,

      Alarmed at the growing link between illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs
 and terrorist activities, which is aggravated by insufficient control of
 commerce in arms and by illicit or covert arms transfers, as well as by
 illegal activities of mercenaries,

      Mindful of the results already achieved by the United Nations in the
 field of drug abuse control, including the Declaration and the Comprehensive
 Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control, adopted
 at the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, as well
 as the United Nations Convention against Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs
 and Psychotropic Substances,

      Convinced that action against drug abuse and illicit production of and
 trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances should, as a shared
 responsibility, be accorded a higher priority by the international community
 and convinced also that the United Nations should be the main focus for
 concerted action and should play an enhanced role in that field,

      Considering that the goals of intensified international co-operation and
 increased efforts of States in that direction would be served by the
 proclamation of a United Nations decade against drug abuse,

      Agree on the following:

      1.   We resolve to protect mankind from the scourge of drug abuse and
 illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;

      2.   We affirm that the fight against drug abuse and illicit trafficking
 in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances should be accorded high priority
 by Governments and by all relevant regional and international organizations;

      3.   We are determined to take the necessary actions to combat the drug
 problem, taking into account the fundamental responsibility resting with each
 State in that regard;

      4.   We shall expand the scope and increase the effectiveness of
 international co-operation against illicit demand, production, supply,
 trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances,
 with strict respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States
 and the principle of non-interference in their internal affairs;

      5.   We shall increase our efforts and resources in order to intensify
 international co-operation and concerted action, based upon the principle of
 shared responsibility, including the necessary co-operation and assistance to
 affected States, when requested, in the economic, health, social, judicial and
 law enforcement sectors in order to strengthen the capabilities of States to
 deal with the problem in all its aspects;

      6.   We shall pursue strategies that are comprehensive and
 multidisciplinary in scope and that comprise measures to eliminate illicit
 demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, cultivation of illicit
 crops and illicit drug trafficking, to prevent the misuse of the financial and
 banking systems and to promote effective treatment, rehabilitation and social
 reintegration;

      7.   We commend the efforts made by some States in the fight against
 illicit drug production, trafficking and consumption and urge that current
 levels of international co-operation be increased and strengthened;

      8.   We condemn the crime of illicit drug trafficking in all its forms
 and reaffirm our political commitment to concerted international action;

      9.   We are convinced that the international fight against illicit drug
 trafficking should be pursued in full conformity with the principles of
 non-interference in internal affairs and respect for the territorial integrity
 of States and free from unrelated political motivations;

      10.  We shall continue our national efforts in the simultaneous fight on
 all levels against the phenomenon of illicit drug trafficking, with special
 emphasis on the need for stronger measures to eliminate illicit demand for
 narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;

      11.  We shall reinforce our policies aiming at the prevention, reduction
 and elimination of illicit demand;

      12.  We shall intensify our efforts in the fields of health, education
 and public information, including well-targeted campaigns involving the
 relevant United Nations specialized agencies and non-governmental
 organizations, as an essential measure to reduce illicit demand;

      13.  We urge the international community to increase economic and
 technical co-operation to developing countries and to facilitate trade flows
 in support of viable alternative income schemes, such as crop-substitution
 programmes, by means of integrated rural development strategies, including
 facilitation of appropriate efficient marketing and sound economic policies,
 so as to eliminate illicit cultivation and production of narcotic drugs;

      14.  We call for international co-operation to assist and support transit
 countries, in particular developing transit countries, by implementing
 appropriate programmes of technical and financial assistance through competent
 international or regional organizations for the purpose of expanding and
 strengthening the infrastructure needed for effective control and prevention
 of illicit drug trafficking;

      15.  We stress the need for effective action to prevent the diversion for
 illicit purposes of precursors and other chemicals, materials and equipment
 frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic
 substances;

      16.  We urge the international community to strengthen international
 co-operation under mutually agreed conditions through bilateral, regional and
 multilateral mechanisms;

      17.  We stress that all initiatives undertaken within the United Nations
 in the field of international drug abuse control shall take into consideration
 the competence of its organs as defined in the Charter of the United Nations;

      18.  We shall further develop and utilize, to the maximum extent,
 existing bilateral and other international instruments or arrangements for
 enhancing international legal and law enforcement co-operation;

      19.  We reaffirm the principles set forth in the Declaration of the
 International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking and undertake
 to apply, as appropriate, the recommendations of the Comprehensive
 Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control;

      20.  We urge States to ratify or accede to the United Nations conventions
 in the field of drug abuse control and illicit trafficking and, to the extent
 they are able to do so, to apply provisionally the terms of the United Nations
 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
 Substances;

      21.  We commend the important work carried out by the organizations of
 the United Nations system in the field of international drug abuse control
 with regard to combating the abuse and production of and trafficking in
 illicit drugs and psychotropic substances, as well as the work done in other
 multilateral forums;

      22.  We commend also the positive action undertakn by the Division of
 Narcotic Drugs of the Secretariat, the Internatonal Narcotics Control Board
 and its secretariat, and the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control;

      23.  We call upon the United Nations, the specialized agencies and other
 organizations of the United Nations system to give higher priority in their
 programmes of work, in accordance with existing procedures, to international
 measures to combat illicit production, supply, demand, trafficking and
 distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;

      24.  We emphasize the importance of the development and implementation of
 a United Nations system-wide action plan aimed at the fulfilment of all
 existing mandates for drug abuse control and the implementation of subsequent
 decisions of intergovernmental bodies throughout the United Nations system;

      25.  We shall strengthen and enhance the capability of the United Nations
 to achieve more effective and co-ordinated co-operation at the international,
 regional and national levels against the threats posed by illicit production
 and illicit trafficking and abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic
 substances;

      26.  We stress the need to reinforce United Nations structures for drug
 abuse control in order to increase their effectiveness and status;

      27.  We recognize the need for additional financial and human resources,
 which shall be made available for United Nations activities in the area of
 drug abuse control, bearing in mind the Organization's additional
 responsibilities in that regard;

      28.  We attach high priority to the speedy and effective implementation
 of the Global Programme of Action;

      29.  We proclaim the period from 1991 to 2000 the United Nations Decade
 against Drug Abuse, to be devoted to effective and sustained national,
 regional and international actions to promote the implementation of the Global
 Programme of Action, taking into account and paying due consideration to the
 guidelines for international decades recommended by the Economic and Social
 Council in its resolution 1988/63 of 27 July 1988;

      30.  We resolve to keep under constant review the activities set out in
 the present Declaration and in the Global Programme of Action.

                           Global Programme of Action
                                I.  INTRODUCTION

 1.   The international community confronts a dramatic problem of drug abuse
 and the illicit cultivation, production, processing, distribution and
 trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, insufficiently
 effective controls over or monitoring of specific chemical substances and
 monitoring of the economic benefits of drug trafficking.  States are not in a
 position to deal with this scourge individually.  Therefore, international
 solidarity and the concerted, collective and simultaneous action of the
 international community are required.

 2.   An important aspect of the fight against drug abuse has been the
 elaboration of international legal instruments.  The adoption of the Single
 Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and of that Convention as amended by the
 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and of
 the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 were first important steps
 in that direction.

 3.   By its resolution 40/122 of 13 December 1985, the General Assembly
 decided to convene an International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit
 Trafficking.  The Conference took place at Vienna from 17 to 26 June 1987 and
 adopted a Declaration and a Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future
 Activities in Drug Abuse Control.

 4.   In order to reinforce and supplement the measures provided in existing
 legal instruments and to counter the new magnitude and extent of illicit drug
 trafficking and its grave consequences, a United Nations plenipotentiary
 conference, held at Vienna from 25 November to 20 December 1988, adopted the
 United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and
 Psychotropic Substances.

 5.   The General Assembly, in its resolution 44/16 of 1 November 1989, decided
 to convene a special session of the Assembly to consider, as a matter of
 urgency, the question of international co-operation against illicit
 production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs,
 with a view to expanding the scope and increasing the effectiveness of such
 co-operation.

 6.   Cognizant of the above, and following extensive deliberations at its
 seventeenth special session, the General Assembly, in order to achieve the
 goal of an international society free of illicit drugs and drug abuse, adopts
 the present Global Programme of Action and commits itself to its full and
 speedy implementation, where necessary following due consideration of the
 modalities by the competent technical bodies.

 7.   In adopting the Global Programme of Action, and without prejudice to the
 existing procedures, the General Assembly also decides to accord, within the
 United Nations system, a higher priority to the allocation of the necessary
 financial, personnel and other resources.  There is a need for all parts of
 the United Nations system to galvanize efforts to improve international
 co-operation to stamp out the scourge of illicit drugs and drug abuse.  The
 requirement for additional resources for that purpose is explicitly
 recognized, in the full expectation that that will be reflected as a high
 priority in the medium-term plan for the period 1992-1997 and in the programme
 budget for the biennium 1992-1993, as well as future medium-term plans and
 biennial budgets.  The General Assembly also recognizes that the effective
 implementation of the Global Programme of Action will require examination of
 the structure of the existing drug control units based at the United Nations
 Office at Vienna with a view to enhancing their effectiveness and status in
 the system.

               II.  ACTIVITIES OF THE GLOBAL PROGRAMME OF ACTION

 8.   The Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug
 Abuse Control shall be used by national authorities and interested
 organizations as a basis for developing and translating into action, at the
 national, regional and international levels, to the widest extent possible,
 balanced strategies aimed at combating all aspects of drug abuse and illicit
 trafficking.  Those strategies shall include, in particular, the aspects
 described below.

 A.   Prevention and reduction of drug abuse with a view to elimination of the
      illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances

 9.   States shall give higher priority to prevention and reduction of drug
 abuse with a view to elimination of the illicit demand for narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances at the national and international levels.  National
 strategies, plans and programmes for combating drug abuse shall be elaborated,
 adopted and implemented through the necessary policy and legislative
 adjustments, including the allocation of appropriate resources and services
 for prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration.

 10.  The causes generating illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic
 substances, including its recent increase, shall be analysed and the necessary
 measures shall be identified in order to combat drug abuse at the root of the
 problem.  In this regard, special attention shall be given to the social
 causes underlying the drug problem, which should be adequately reflected in
 national social policies.

 11.  Information and education programmes shall be used to prevent the abuse
 of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and to increase awareness of
 their harmful effects.  In this context, States, relevant specialized agencies
 and non-governmental organizations shall co-ordinate and exchange information
 with a view to initiating well-targeted campaigns in this field.

 12.  The role of the United Nations as an advisory centre for collecting,
 analysing and disseminating information and experience in the field of
 reduction of illicit demand, for reviewing and evaluating national scientific
 programmes in the field of combating drug abuse and for co-ordinating efforts
 of States concerning those activities shall be further enhanced.  Bodies of
 the United Nations system such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific
 and Cultural Organization, the United Nations Children's Fund (including its
 national committees), the United Nations Development Programme, the World
 Health Organization, the International Labour Organisation and the United
 Nations information centres shall play a more active role in collecting and
 disseminating information and exchanging experience.

 13.  States shall establish and promote national systems to assess the extent
 of drug abuse and to collect data on trends of abuse.  For that purpose, they
 shall establish data bases that should be based on the international drug
 abuse assessment system being developed by the Division of Narcotic Drugs of
 the Secretariat with financial support from the United Nations Fund for Drug
 Abuse Control.  The Division, in collaboration with other United Nations drug
 control bodies and the World Health Organization, shall assist Governments in
 establishing such data bases and shall work to establish a data base
 concerning the nature and extent of drug abuse at the international level.

 14.  The Division of Narcotic Drugs shall publish and update periodically a
 digest listing national focal points that deal with various aspects of the
 drug problem, including information on direct channels of communication.

 15.  In order to assess the level of national and international progress
 towards prevention and reduction of the demand for narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances with a view to its elimination, and in implementing
 the seven targets set out in chapter I of the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary
 Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control, the Division of Narcotic
 Drugs shall submit, by 31 December each year, a succinct questionnaire to all
 Governments, regional intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental
 organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council.
 The questionnaire shall request details of action taken in this regard at the
 national and regional levels, the results achieved by the measures taken, and
 details of any practical difficulties encountered.  The Secretary-General is
 requested to prepare a report, in collaboration with the International Labour
 Organisation, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
 Organization and the World Health Organization, to be submitted to the
 Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its regular and special sessions analysing the
 information submitted and assessing, in particular, the best means of
 providing assistance to States in furthering demand-reduction strategies.

 16.  States and regional intergovernmental organizations shall co-operate
 fully in the preparation of that report by providing in good time the
 information required by the questionnaire.

 17.  In the light of the experience of operating that questionnaire and
 reporting system, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs shall consider the
 necessity and feasibility of elaborating, under the auspices of the United
 Nations, an international instrument that would deal especially with the
 reduction of the illicit demand for drugs and that would provide, inter alia,
 comprehensive and specific measures for the control and elimination of illicit
 demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, as well as for
 treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts.

 18.  The recommendations of all international high-level meetings aimed at the
 reduction and eventual elimination of illicit demand for narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances, including those of the World Ministerial Summit to
 Reduce Demand for Drugs and to Combat the Cocaine Threat, to be held in London
 from 9 to 11 April 1990, shall be submitted to States for reference, if
 requested, in order to make it possible for them to consider such
 recommendations in the elaboration of their national anti-drug campaigns and
 policies.

 19.  The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, in
 collaboration with the World Health Organization and other appropriate United
 Nations bodies, shall be encouraged to solicit, compile and analyse
 information on effective prevention strategies, including public information,
 education programmes and professional training, and on programme evaluation
 techniques and to disseminate that material to States upon request.

 20.  The United Nations Children's Fund shall be encouraged to give financial
 support to developing countries in order to enhance their campaigns to prevent
 drug abuse by children and the use of children for the illicit production and
 traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, as well as for
 implementing programmes to rehabilitate such children.

 21.  The International Labour Organisation shall be invited to provide, upon
 request, advice on education programmes to reduce drug abuse in the work-place
 and monitor their effectiveness.

 22.  Measures for the prevention of drug abuse shall be developed and included
 to the extent possible in the curricula of all educational institutions if
 circumstances so require.  The expertise of relevant United Nations bodies
 should be made available to all countries, in particular all developing
 countries, in order to assist them in elaborating such curricula.

 23.  Information on the rational prescribing and use of narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances and pharmaceutical preparations containing such
 substances shall be incorporated into the curricula of training institutions
 for health-care personnel.

 24.  The World Health Organization, in collaboration with United Nations drug
 control bodies, non-governmental organizations and other organizations
 involved in the rational use of pharmaceutical preparations containing
 narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, shall be encouraged to assist
 national educational authorities in developing training materials and
 conducting training courses to ensure that medical practitioners and other
 health personnel are well trained in rational prescribing and use of narcotic
 drugs and psychotropic substances.

 25.  The mass media shall be encouraged to publish and disseminate information
 in support of national and international strategies for the elimination of
 illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

 26.  The establishment of national committees or other ad hoc structures aimed
 at mobilizing public support and the participation of communities and at
 co-operating in and implementing the activities emanating from the Global
 Programme of Action shall be considered.

 27.  States shall, as appropriate, promote increased co-operation with and
 involvement of non-governmental organizations in the field of reduction of
 illicit demand, thus encouraging initiatives and programmes at the grass-roots
 level.

 28.  Appropriate United Nations bodies shall be invited to collaborate with
 non-governmental organizations with special expertise in the field of narcotic
 drugs and psychotropic substances to identify and make available technical
 expertise on strategies and methods for reduction of illicit demand.

 29.  The United Nations shall undertake a review of activities of the United
 Nations system and the specialized agencies for the reduction of illicit
 demand in order to identify the needs for intensified action consistent with
 the principles of the Global Programme of Action.

 B.   Treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration of drug addicts

 30.  National strategies in the health, social, legal and penal fields shall
 contain programmes for the social reintegration, rehabilitation and treatment
 of drug abusers and drug-addicted offenders.  Such programmes shall be in
 conformity with national laws and regulations and be based on respect for
 basic human rights and the dignity of the individual, showing due regard for
 the diverse needs of individual drug addicts.

 31.  The United Nations shall act as a clearing-house for information on
 effective policies and techniques, programme modalities and resource materials
 for the treatment, rehabilitation and occupational reintegration of former
 drug addicts.  the World Health Organization and the International Labour
 Organisation, in collaboration with other organizations of the United Nations
 system and non-governmental organizations, shall be encouraged to contribute
 to that end.

 32.  The relevant United Nations bodies should render assistance to interested
 States, in particular developing countries, in their programmes for treatment
 and rehabilitation of drug abusers.

 33.  Training programmes relating to the latest developments and techniques in
 the field of treatment of drug addiction and rehabilitation and reintegration
 of former addicts shall be conducted more regularly at the national, regional
 and international levels.  Governments, the relevant United Nations bodies,
 the specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental
 organizations in a position to do so shall, upon request, provide advice,
 information and proposals on existing training programmes, new methods and
 techniques and other general guidelines for States wishing to develop their
 training programmes further.

 34.  The World Health Organization shall be encouraged to work with
 Governments with a view to facilitating access to drug-treatment programmes
 and to strengthening the capacity of primary health care to respond to
 drug-related health problems.

 35.  The World Health Organization shall be encouraged to continue to explore
 with Governments the development of health education programmes and policies
 for the reduction of risk and harm of drug abuse as a means of preventing the
 transmission by drug abusers of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and of
 securing appropriate treatment and counselling for drug abusers who are
 HIV-positive or who have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),
 and to report thereon.

 36.  The International Labour Organisation should prepare and publish
 guidelines for programmes to reintegrate former addicts into occupational
 activities or vocational training.

 37.  States shall, as appropriate, facilitate and promote the involvement of
 non-governmental organizations in all areas of treatment and rehabilitation
 and intensify their co-operation with the relevant United Nations bodies.

 C.  Control of supply of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances

     1.  Eradication and substitution of illicit production of narcotic drugs,
         and eradication of illicit processing of such drugs and of illicit
         production and diversion of psychotropic substances

 38.  States shall consider, at the national and international levels, means by
 which the internal sector of those economies that are affected by the illicit
 production and processing of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances might
 be strengthened, in order to support and strengthen the implementation, by
 competent national authorities, of effective anti-drug programmes, including
 the following measures:

      (a)  Prompt identification, eradication and substitution of illicit
 cultivation of narcotic plants, taking into account the need to protect the
 environment; for the purpose of crop surveys and monitoring efforts, such
 technologies as high-resolution satellite imagery and aerial photography could
 be used when agreement has been reached with the Government concerned;

      (b)  Further development and implementation of comprehensive and
 well-articulated reduction programmes with a view to eliminating illicit
 production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in countries affected
 by illicit production, taking particular account of traditional licit uses of
 such cultivation;

      (c)  Identification and provision of further incentives for crop
 substitution;

      (d)  Assessment and study, by the United Nations Environment Programme,
 of effects on the environment of the expanding cultivation and production of
 narcotic drugs and the use and disposal of chemical substances related to
 those activities, as well as methods used for the eradication of illicit
 production of narcotic drugs;

      (e)  Extension of the scope of economic and technical co-operation in
 support of crop substitution and integrated rural development programmes and
 other economic and technical programmes aimed at reducing illicit production
 and processing of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;

      (f)  Establishment of complementary programmes in the fields of
 employment, health, housing and education;

      (g)  Elaboration and implementation of programmes for agro-industrial
 development;

      (h)  Elaboration and implementation of programmes for economic recovery
 of the social and economic sectors in countries that are adversely affected by
 the diversion for supply-reduction programmes of resources that would
 otherwise be used for development.

 39.  The external sectors of those economies that are affected by illicit
 production and processing of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances shall
 be strengthened in order to support and strengthen the implementation by
 competent national authorities of effective anti-drug programmes by the
 following means:

      (a)  Consideration of measures to strengthen international co-operation
 to facilitate trade flows, in particular measures to create expanded
 opportunities for trade and investment in order to provide access to
 international markets for crop-substitution products and other goods produced
 by countries affected by the illicit production and processing of narcotic
 drugs;

      (b)  Consideration by States of entering into multilateral, bilateral or
 regional agreements with countries affected by illicit drug production and
 processing, with a view to facilitating access by those countries to
 international markets and to assisting them in strengthening and adapting
 their internal capacity to produce exportable goods;

      (c)  Consideration of economic and other forms of co-operation with
 developing countries directly affected by the illicit transit of narcotic
 drugs through their territories, including measures to create expanded
 opportunities for trade and investment;

      (d)  Regular submission by States to the relevant United Nations drug
 control bodies of information on the extent of the manufacture, availability
 and abuse of illicit synthetic drugs in their territories.

      2.   Licit production, manufacture and supply of narcotic
           drugs and psychotropic substances

 40.  A balance shall be maintained between demand and supply of raw materials,
 intermediates and final products for legitimate uses, including medical and
 scientific purposes.

 41.  International co-operation, solidarity and assistance are called for to
 overcome the problem of excess stock of opiate raw materials in traditional
 supplier countries.  This may include international assistance, particularly
 to developing countries, to help them establish the necessary opiate drug
 management regime to enable them to meet their potential legitimate need for
 opiates.
                   3.  Co-operation on the multilateral level

 42.  The United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, in collaboration, where
 appropriate, with the United Nations Development Programme and other United
 Nations bodies, is invited to elaborate for consideration by States a
 subregional strategy covering all aspects of drug abuse control and
 concentrating on the most affected areas where the problems are most complex
 and grave.  States shall increase their co-operation with the Fund in support
 of such a subregional strategy.

 43.  States should endeavour to obtain the support of international, regional
 and national financial institutions, within their respective areas of
 competence, with the goal of identifying alternative development and
 crop-substitution programmes to support countries so that they can carry out
 sound economic policies and effective programmes against illicit drugs.
 States should also encourage those institutions to consider the economic and
 social consequences of drug trafficking when analysing the economic systems of
 those countries.  In this regard, those institutions should consider availing
 themselves of assistance from and co-operation with the United Nations Fund
 for Drug Abuse Control.

 44.  Specialized agencies and other United Nations bodies such as the United
 Nations Development Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
 United Nations, as well as the international financial institutions, in
 accordance with their mandates, should consider the possibility of undertaking
 further activities in the field of prevention and substitution of illicit
 production of narcotic drugs.

                     4.  Monitoring and control mechanisms

 45.  States shall take all necessary measures, such as the conclusion of
 bilateral and regional agreements, to establish monitoring and control systems
 to prevent diversion from legitimate purposes of specific chemical substances,
 materials and equipment frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic
 drugs and psychotropic substances, in particular through the application of
 articles 12 and 13 of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in
 Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances adopted in 1988.

 46.  Consideration shall be given to the convening of an international
 conference on the production and distribution of chemical products used in the
 illicit production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, in order to
 co-ordinate efforts for more effective prevention of the diversion of
 precursor chemicals, specific substances, materials and equipment for illicit
 purposes.  It is desirable that States include representatives of
 manufacturing and distribution enterprises in their delegations to that
 conference.

 47.  The World Health Organization, in collaboration with the Division of
 Narcotic Drugs and the International Narcotics Control Board, should assist
 national drug regulatory authorities in developing and strengthening their
 pharmaceutical administrations and control laboratories in order to enable
 them to control pharmaceutical preparations containing narcotic drugs and
 psychotropic substances.

 48.  Governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and
 the United Nations shall be encouraged to co-operate in measures within the
 guidelines set out in the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future
 Activities in Drug Abuse Control to strengthen national and international
 systems of control of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, in
 particular those established under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of
 1961, and that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single
 Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and the Convention on Psychotropic
 Substances of 1971.

 49.  The International Narcotics Control Board is invited to advise States, at
 their request, and to extend its technical co-operation activities with a view
 to furthering the aims of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and
 that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention
 on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971
 and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs
 and Psychotropic Substances adopted in 1988.

 50.  Special attention shall be paid to co-operation that will enable States
 to strengthen their drug detection and pharmaceutical control laboratories, as
 well as their police and customs activities in the field of drug control.

               D.  Suppression of illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs
                   and psychotropic substances

                                  1.  Traffic
 51.  States shall proceed rapidly and make every effort to ratify or accede to
 the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and
 Psychotropic Substances, adopted in 1988, in order to enable the entry into
 force of the Convention, preferably by the end of 1990.

 52.  The United Nations, in particular the Division of Narcotic Drugs, the
 International Narcotics Control Board and the United Nations Fund for Drug
 Abuse Control, shall provide expertise and assistance to States, at their
 request, to enable them to establish the legislative and administrative
 measures for the ratification and effective implementation of the United
 Nations Convention.

 53.  States shall, to the extent and where they are able to do so, apply
 provisionally the measures set forth in the United Nations Convention.

 54.  Consistent with the United Nations Convention, consideration shall be
 given to the conclusion of bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and
 other arrangements aimed at suppressing illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs
 and psychotropic substances.

 55.  States that have not yet done so shall consider ratification of or
 accession to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and that
 Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on
 Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.

 56.  States in a position to do so and the organizations of the United Nations
 system, in particular the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, shall
 provide appropriate technical and financial support to enable States, at their
 request, to establish effective mechanisms against illicit trafficking in
 narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.  Particular attention shall be
 given, in that regard, to the strengthening of interdiction capabilities of
 transit States, including control of land, sea and air boundaries.  To that
 end, States should undertake an analysis of the methods and routes used for
 illicit transit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, and
 should monitor them in their respective territories on a continuing basis,
 bearing in mind that the routes and methods used change frequently and affect
 a growing number of States.  States shall consider appropriate
 information-sharing in this respect on a bilateral, regional or multilateral
 basis.

 57.  Interested States may consider, in conformity with international law and
 the Charter of the United Nations, the possibility of jointly establishing
 border inspection check-points, with a view to suppressing illicit
 trans-boundary movement of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, without
 affecting the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of States.

 58.  Specialized agencies such as the International Civil Aviation
 Organization and the International Maritime Organization, in collaboration
 with member States and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations,
 shall be invited to expand the development of programmes whereby such
 organizations and member States work with the transportation industry to
 suppress illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

 59.  States shall make increased use of the meetings of Heads of National Drug
 Law Enforcement Agencies and other intergovernmental organizations, such as
 the Customs Co-operation Council and the International Criminal Police
 Organization (Interpol), regional co-operation arrangements and other relevant
 institutional frameworks, for the purpose of co-ordinating co-operation in law
 enforcement and expanding programmes of training for law enforcement personnel
 in investigative matters and methods, interdiction and narcotics intelligence.

 60.  The United Nations, in particular the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse
 Control, should assist States, at their request, in equipping and
 strengthening their law enforcement authorities and criminal justice systems.

                                2.  Distribution

 61.  States shall strengthen their national efforts to curb and eradicate
 domestic illicit commerce and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic
 substances.

            E.  Measures to be taken against the effects of money derived
                from, used in or intended for use in illicit drug trafficking,
                illegal financial flows and illegal use of the banking system

 62.  Priority shall be accorded to the implementation of the United Nations
 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
 Substances, adopted in 1988, and the conclusion of bilateral, regional and
 multilateral agreements on tracing, freezing and seizure and forfeiture or
 confiscation of property and proceeds derived from, used in or intended for
 use in illicit drug trafficking.

 63.  Mechanisms shall be developed to prevent the banking system and other
 financial institutions from being used for the processing and laundering of
 drug-related money.  To this end, consideration should be given by States to
 entering into bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and developing
 mechanisms to trace property and proceeds derived from, used in or intended
 for use in drug-related activities through the international banking system,
 facilitate access to banking records and provide for the exchange of
 information between law enforcement, regulatory or investigative agencies
 concerning the financial flow of property or proceeds related to illicit drug
 trafficking.

 64.  The Division of Narcotic Drugs of the Secretariat, in co-operation with
 the Customs Co-operation Council and the International Criminal Police
 Organization (Interpol), should promote bilateral or regional exchanges of
 information between governmental regulatory or investigative agencies
 concerning the financial flow of illicit drug proceeds.

 65.  The Division of Narcotic Drugs and Interpol shall be invited to develop a
 repository of laws and regulations on money laundering, currency reporting,
 bank secrecy and forfeiture of property and proceeds, as well as procedures
 and practices designed to prevent banking systems and other financial
 institutions from money laundering, and shall make this information available
 to States, at their request.

 66.  States shall consider enacting legislation to prevent the use of the
 banking system for the processing and laundering of drug-related money,
 inter alia, through declaring such activities criminal offences.

 67.  States shall consider enacting legislation to permit the seizure and
 forfeiture of property and proceeds derived from, used in or intended for use
 in illicit drug trafficking.  To that end, consideration should be given by
 States to concluding bilateral and multilateral agreements to enhance the
 effectiveness of international co-operation, taking into particular account
 article 5, paragraph 5, of the United Nations Convention against Illicit
 Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

 68.  States shall encourage international, regional and national financial
 associations to develop guidelines to assist their members in co-operating
 with government authorities in identifying, detecting, tracing, freezing and
 seizing proceeds and property related to illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs
 and psychotropic substances.

 69.  The elaboration of international agreements providing for stringent
 controls on money derived from, used in or intended for use in drug-related
 activities and penalizing the laundering of such money might be considered.
 Such instruments might also deal with the forfeiture or confiscation of funds,
 proceeds and property acquired through revenues deriving from drug-related
 activities.

 70.  States shall consider measures on an international level, including the
 feasibility of a United Nations facility to strengthen the gathering,
 collation and exchange of information on the financial flow from drug-related
 funds, giving particular emphasis to principles, rules and national law
 concerning the protection of ongoing law enforcement investigations and of
 individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data.

 71.  States should encourage international, regional and national financial
 institutions, within their respective areas of competence, to pay special
 attention, in their analyses of the economies of States, to the
 characteristics and magnitude of the conversion and transfer of drug-related
 monies in order to contribute to international efforts aimed at counteracting
 the negative economic and social consequences of the drug problem.

 72.  States shall consider the possibility of using forfeited property and
 proceeds for activities to combat drug abuse and illicit trafficking.  In that
 context, the possible use of such proceeds and property or their equivalent
 value for United Nations drug-related activities shall also be taken into
 consideration.

 73.  All measures and proposals on possible action to prevent the use of the
 banking systems and financial institutions for money laundering, such as the
 conclusions arising from the study undertaken by the Financial Action Task
 Force, established at the Summit of seven major industrial nations, held in
 Paris from 14 to 16 July 1989, shall be made available to all States for
 information.

     F.   Strengthening of judicial and legal systems, including law enforcement

 74.  States shall, as soon as possible, ratify or accede to the United Nations
 conventions in the field of drug abuse control and illicit trafficking.

 75.  States in a position to do so and the United Nations, strengthening their
 action in co-ordination with the regional institutes of the United Nations
 with mandates in this sphere, shall provide advice and legal and technical
 assistance to enable States, at their request, to adapt their national
 legislation to international conventions and decisions dealing with drug abuse
 and illicit trafficking.

 76.  States are invited to give consideration to the model treaties on mutual
 assistance in criminal matters and on extradition, which contain specific
 provisions related to illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic
 substances and are to be dealt with by the Eighth United Nations Congress on
 the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.

 77.  States shall encourage international and regional organizations to
 elaborate model agreements on co-operation among customs officials, law
 enforcement agencies and other interested organs in the field of combating
 drug abuse and illicit trafficking.

 78.  The scope of international co-operation in support of technical
 assistance programmes aimed at the strengthening of judicial, legal and law
 enforcement systems, in particular in the field of the administration of
 justice, shall be extended.  Particular attention shall be given to the
 training of personnel at all levels.

 79.  Measures to protect the judiciary from any form of exposure and
 intimidation threatening its independence and integrity shall be studied and
 promoted.

 80.  The United Nations shall act as a clearing-house for information on
 training programmes in drug law enforcement, including training for national
 narcotics agents in investigative methods, interdiction and narcotics
 intelligence.

 81.  Consideration shall be given to establishing a capability within the
 United Nations system to co-ordinate the provision by States of training and
 equipment to other States, at their request, for their own anti-drug
 operations, within their territories, to inhibit the use, interdict the supply
 and eliminate the illicit trafficking of drugs.

 82.  Since the International Law Commission has been requested to consider the
 question of establishing an international criminal court or other
 international trial mechanism with jurisdiction over persons alleged to be
 engaged in illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs across national frontiers,
 the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination shall consider, in its annual
 adjustments to the United Nations system-wide action plan on drug abuse
 control requested by the General Assembly in its resolution 44/141 of
 15 December 1989, the report of the International Law Commission on the
 question.

 83.  States shall consider the appropriateness of establishing arrangements,
 on the basis of bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements, which would
 allow them to benefit from one another's criminal justice system in dealing
 with similar drug-related offences.

 84.  Consideration shall be given to establishing a register of anti-drug
 expertise and services, under the supervision of the Division of Narcotic
 Drugs, which could be made available to States, at their request.

 85.  A review should be undertaken of international and regional law
 enforcement activities funded or sponsored by the United Nations, as well as
 those of other intergovernmental organizations and regional arrangements, to
 ensure a coherent approach to law enforcement activities within the overall
 context of the Global Programme of Action.

      G.     Measures to be taken against the diversion of arms and explosives
             and illicit traffic by vessels, aircraft and vehicles

 86.  States shall consider the adoption of measures, within their territories,
 to strengthen arrangements for controlling or monitoring the licit
 transportation of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, including the
 vessels, aircraft and vehicles being used for that purpose, so as to prevent
 their misuse for the illicit transportation of narcotic drugs and psychotropic
 substances.

 87.  Effective measures should be taken to prevent illicit and covert
 transfers of arms and explosives and their diversion to illicit drug
 traffic-related activities.

 88.  Alarmed by the growing link between illicit traffic in narcotic drugs,
 illegal activities of mercenaries and subversive and terrorist activities,
 States shall take prompt measures on their prevention.

 89.  States shall take strict measures to prevent private aircraft, vessels
 and vehicles registered in their territory from engaging in illicit drug
 trafficking and related activities.

                          H.  Resources and structure

 90.  There is need both for optimum utilization of existing resources of the
 United Nations drug-related units and for additional resources to be allocated
 to those units in order to enable them fully to implement their mandates,
 bearing in mind their increased responsibilities.

 91.  A higher priority shall be accorded to United Nations drug control
 activities in the medium-term plan for the period 1992-1997 and in the
 corresponding biennial budgets, and the General Assembly, at its forty-fifth
 session, is invited to take appropriate action in this regard, in accordance
 with existing procedures.

 92.  Priority shall be given to providing, on both a short-term and long-term
 basis, extrabudgetary support to enhance the efficiency of the United Nations
 structure for drug abuse control and to achieve and promote a truly
 comprehensive global programme of action.

 93.  Intensification of efforts at the national level and increased
 intergovernmental co-operation require a commensurate strengthening of the
 United Nations drug control organs and their secretariats.  Against this
 background, the functioning of the United Nations structure for drug abuse
 control needs to be reviewed and assessed, in accordance with the mandate
 given to the Secretary-General by the General Assembly in paragraph 4 of its
 resolution 44/141, for the purpose of identifying alternative structural
 possibilities, the end result being the establishment of a stronger, more
 efficient United Nations drug control structure with enhanced status, with a
 report to be made to the General Assembly at its forty-fifth session.

 94.  Attention shall be given to the need for (a) coherence of actions within
 the United Nations drug-related units and co-ordination, complementarity and
 non-duplication of all drug-related activities across the United Nations
 system; (b) integration of drug-related information within the United Nations
 system; (c) integration of the reduction of illicit demand in United Nations
 programming; (d) integration of law enforcement field expertise in United
 Nations programmes; (e) compliance with all non-discretionary obligations
 mandated by the three drug control conventions; and (f) an estimate of
 resources necessary to carry out these mandates successfully.

 95.  More States should contribute financial and other resources to the
 operational activities of the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control in
 order to enable the Fund to expand its technical co-operation programmes and
 to develop an operational structure capable of assisting States in joint
 efforts on the subregional level.

                            III.  FOLLOW-UP MEASURES

 96.  States should take the necessary measures to promote and implement the
 Global Programme of Action and to translate it into practical action to the
 widest possible extent at the national, regional and international levels.
 The United Nations and its relevant bodies and specialized agencies, other
 relevant intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations
 should extend their co-operation and assistance to States in the promotion and
 implementation of the Global Programme of Action.

 97.  The Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the United Nations drug control
 bodies should continuously monitor the progress on the implementation of the
 Global Programme of Action, and the Secretary-General should report annually
 to the General Assembly on all activities relating to the Global Programme of
 Action and the efforts of Governments.

 98.  The Secretary-General shall, in consultation with all Member States,
 identify, whenever necessary, a limited number of experts, from different
 regions of the world, on various aspects pertaining to the drug problem to
 advise him and existing United Nations drug control units and other bodies and
 specialized agencies on specific issues dealt with in the Global Programme of
 Action that may require further elaboration.  These experts shall be funded
 exclusively from voluntary contributions.

 99.  The United Nations Decade against Drug Abuse, covering the years 1991 to
 2000, as proclaimed by the General Assembly in the Political Declaration
 adopted at its seventeenth special session, is a period for intensifying and
 sustaining international, regional and national efforts in the fight against
 drug abuse on the basis of the measures contained in the Global Programme of
 Action.

 100. The International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking,
 26 June, as proclaimed by the General Assembly in its resolution 42/112 of
 7 December 1987, shall be observed in the continuing effort to raise public
 awareness of the fight against drug abuse and illicit trafficking in narcotic
 drugs and psychotropic substances, as well as to promote preventive measures.
                               -----

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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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