United Nations

A/RES/51/77


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

20 February 1997

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



Fifty-first session
Agenda item 106


                  RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

               [on the report of the Third Committee (A/51/615)]


                        51/77.  The rights of the child


      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolution 50/153 of 21 December 1995 and
Commission on Human Rights resolution 1996/85 of 24 April 1996, 1/

      Encouraged by the widespread commitment and political will shown
by the unprecedented number of States that have become parties to the
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2/ while noting that the goal
of achieving universal ratification by 1995 was not reached,

      Seriously concerned about those reservations to the Convention
which are contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention or
otherwise contrary to international treaty law, and recalling that the
Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the World
Conference on Human Rights, 3/ held at Vienna from 14 to 25 June
1993, urges States to withdraw such reservations,

      Reaffirming the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, which
states that national and international mechanisms and programmes
should be strengthened for the defence and protection of children, in
particular the girl child, abandoned children, street children,
economically and sexually exploited children, including through child
pornography, child prostitution or sale of organs, children victims of
diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, refugee and
displaced children, children in detention, children in armed conflict
and children victims of famine, drought and other emergencies, and
also requires measures against female infanticide and harmful child
labour,

      Reaffirming also that the best interests of the child shall be a
primary consideration in all actions concerning children,

      Noting with appreciation the important work carried out by the
United Nations, in particular the United Nations Children's Fund, the
Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Special Rapporteur of the
Commission on Human Rights on the sale of children, child prostitution
and child pornography and the expert designated by the Secretary-
General to undertake the study on the impact of armed conflict on
children,

      Recognizing the valuable work done by relevant intergovernmental
and non-governmental organizations for the promotion and protection of
the rights of the child,

      Profoundly concerned that the situation of children in many parts
of the world remains critical as a result of inadequate social and
economic conditions, poverty, natural disasters, armed conflicts,
displacement, exploitation, racism and all forms of intolerance,
unemployment, rural-to-urban migration, illiteracy, hunger, disability
and drug abuse, and convinced that urgent and effective national and
international action is called for,

      Recognizing that legislation per se is not enough to prevent
violations of the rights of the child, that stronger political
commitment is needed and that Governments should implement their laws
and complement legislative measures with effective action, inter alia,
in the fields of law enforcement and the administration of justice and
in social, educational and public health programmes,

      Recalling the recommendation made by the World Conference on
Human Rights that matters relating to human rights and the situation
of children be regularly reviewed and monitored by all relevant organs
and mechanisms of the United Nations system and by supervisory bodies
of the specialized agencies in accordance with their mandates, 4/

                                       I

          Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child

      1.    Welcomes the unprecedented number of one hundred and eighty-
seven States that have ratified or acceded to the Convention on the
Rights of the Child as a universal commitment to the rights of the
child;

      2.    Urges once again all States that have not yet done so to
sign and ratify or accede to the Convention as a matter of priority,
with a view to reaching the goal of universal adherence established by
the World Summit for Children, 5/ held in New York on 29 and 30
September 1990, and reiterated in the Vienna Declaration and Programme
of Action;

      3.    Reaffirms that all States have a duty to fulfil the
obligations they have undertaken under the various international
instruments, and, in this regard, emphasizes the importance of the
full implementation by States parties of the provisions of the
Convention;

      4.    Urges States parties to the Convention which have made
reservations to review the compatibility of their reservations with
article 51 of the Convention and other relevant rules of international
law, with the aim of withdrawing them;

      5.    Also urges States parties to the Convention to accept the
amendment to paragraph 2 of article 43 of the Convention, which would
increase the membership of the Committee on the Rights of the Child
from ten to eighteen experts;

      6.    Welcomes the report of the Committee on the Rights of the
Child, 6/ submitted pursuant to article 44, paragraph 5, of the
Convention, and notes with appreciation the constructive role played
by the Committee in creating awareness of the principles and
provisions of the Convention and in providing recommendations to
States parties on its implementation;

      7.    Calls upon States parties to the Convention to ensure that
the education of the child shall be carried out in accordance with
article 29 of the Convention and that the education be directed, inter
alia, to the development of respect for human rights and fundamental
freedoms, for the Charter of the United Nations and for different
cultures and to the preparation of the child for responsible life in a
free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance,
equality of the sexes and friendship among peoples, ethnic, national
and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin;

      8.    Also calls upon States parties to the Convention, in
accordance with their obligation under article 42 of the Convention,
to make the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known
to adults and children alike;

      9.    Stresses that the implementation of the Convention
contributes to the achievement of the goals of the World Summit for
Children as emphasized in the report of the Secretary-General on the
progress at mid-decade on implementation of General Assembly
resolution 45/217 of 21 December 1990 on the World Summit for
Children; 7/


                                      II

               Protection of children affected by armed conflict

      10.   Invites all States to accede to relevant international human
rights and humanitarian instruments, and urges them to implement those
to which they are parties;

      11.   Urges States and other parties to armed conflict to respect
international humanitarian law;

      12.   Calls upon States fully to respect the provisions contained
in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 8/ and the Additional
Protocols thereto of 1977, 9/ as well as those contained in the
Convention on the Rights of the Child, which accord children affected
by armed conflict special protection and treatment;

      13.   Welcomes the report of the expert of the Secretary-General
on the impact of armed conflict on children, 10/ and takes note
with appreciation of the recommendations included therein which
address the prevention of the involvement of children in armed
conflict, the reinforcement of preventive measures, the relevance and
adequacy of existing standards, the measures required to improve the
protection of children affected by armed conflict and the actions
needed to promote the physical and psychological recovery and social
reintegration of children affected by armed conflict;

      14.   Notes with interest the participatory process through which
the report of the expert was prepared in close collaboration with
Member States and United Nations bodies and organizations, as well as
other relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations;

      15.   Requests the Secretary-General to ensure that the report of
the expert is disseminated as widely as possible among Member States
and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as
within the United Nations system;

      16.   Takes note with appreciation of the report of the Committee
on the Rights of the Child and the recommendations contained therein
concerning the situation of children affected by armed conflict; 11/

      17.   Welcomes resolution CM/Res.1659 (LXIV) on the plight of
African children in situations of armed conflict adopted by the
Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity at its
sixty-fourth ordinary session, held at Yaounde' from 1 to 5 July
1996; 12/

      18.   Recommends that States parties to the Convention promote
wide dissemination and awareness of relevant standards on the rights
of the child and develop education and training activities on the
rights of the child as a measure to ensure the protection of children
affected by armed conflict;

      19.   Calls upon States and United Nations bodies and
organizations to treat children in situations of armed conflict as a
priority concern in human rights, humanitarian and development
activities, including in field operations and country programmes, to
enhance coordination and cooperation throughout the United Nations
system and to ensure effective protection for children affected by
armed conflict;

      20.   Calls upon the executive boards of relevant United Nations
funds and programmes, the specialized agencies and other competent
bodies to explore ways and means by which they can contribute more
effectively to the protection of children in armed conflict;

      21.   Recommends that the humanitarian concerns relating to
children affected by armed conflict and their protection be fully
reflected in United Nations field operations, which, inter alia,
promote peace, prevent and resolve conflicts and implement peace
agreements;

      22.   Underlines the importance of including measures to ensure
respect for the rights of the child, including in the areas of health
and nutrition, education, physical and psychological recovery and
social reintegration, within emergency and other humanitarian
assistance policies and programmes;

      23.   Stresses the need for Governments and other parties to armed
conflict to take measures, including the establishment, for example,
of "days of tranquillity" and "corridors of peace", to ensure
humanitarian access, the delivery of humanitarian relief and the
provision of services, such as education and health, including
immunization of children affected by armed conflict;

      24.   Supports the work of the open-ended inter-sessional working
group of the Commission on Human Rights on the elaboration of a draft
optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child related
to the involvement of children in armed conflict, and expresses the
hope that it will make further progress prior to the fifty-third
session of the Commission with a view to finalizing this work;

      25.   Urges States and all other parties to armed conflict to
adopt all necessary measures to end the use of children as soldiers
and to ensure their demobilization and reintegration into society,
including through adequate education and training, in a manner that
fosters their self-respect and dignity, and invites the international
community to assist in this endeavour;

      26.   Calls upon all States and relevant United Nations bodies,
including the Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Clearance,
to contribute on an ongoing basis to international mine-clearance
efforts, and urges States to take further action to promote gender and
age-appropriate mine-awareness programmes and child-centred
rehabilitation, thereby reducing the number and the plight of child
victims;

      27.   Welcomes international efforts aimed at restricting and
prohibiting the indiscriminate use of anti-personnel mines;

      28.   Reaffirms that rape in the conduct of armed conflict
constitutes a war crime and that under certain circumstances it
constitutes a crime against humanity and an act of genocide as defined
in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of
Genocide, 13/ and calls upon all States to take all measures
required for the protection of women and children from all acts of
gender-based violence, including rape, sexual exploitation and forced
pregnancy, and to strengthen mechanisms to investigate and punish all
those responsible and bring the perpetrators to justice;

      29.   Stresses the need for all humanitarian responses in conflict
situations to emphasize the special reproductive health needs of women
and girls, including those that arise from pregnancy as a result of
rape, sexual mutilation, childbirth at an early age or infection with
sexually transmitted diseases, as well as human immunodeficiency
virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and their access to family
planning services;

      30.   Urgently requests that appropriate measures be taken by
Member States and United Nations agencies, within the scope of their
respective mandates, to ensure humanitarian access to children
affected by armed conflict, to facilitate the extension of
humanitarian assistance, including education, and to ensure the
physical and psychological recovery and reintegration into society of
child soldiers, victims of landmines and victims of gender-based
violence;

      31.   Recommends that whenever sanctions are imposed their impact
on children be assessed and monitored and that humanitarian exemptions
be child-focused and formulated with clear application guidelines;

      32.   Recalls the importance of preventive measures such as early
warning systems, preventive diplomacy and education for peace to
prevent conflicts and their negative impact on the enjoyment of the
rights of the child, and urges Governments and the international
community to promote sustainable human development;

      33.   Requests the Secretary-General, in cooperation with Member
States, international organizations and relevant non-governmental
organizations, to consider modalities for organizing regional training
programmes for members of the armed forces relating to the protection
of children and women during armed conflict;

      34.   Invites Governments to integrate into their military
programmes, including those for peacekeeping personnel, instruction on
their responsibilities towards civilian communities and in particular
towards women and children;

      35.   Recommends that the Secretary-General appoint for a period
of three years a Special Representative on the impact of armed
conflict on children and ensure that the necessary support is made
available to the Special Representative for the effective performance
of his/her mandate, encourages the United Nations Children's Fund, the
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the
office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights/Centre
for Human Rights to provide support to the Special Representative, and
calls upon States and institutions concerned to provide voluntary
contributions for that purpose;

      36.   Recommends that the Special Representative:

      (a)   Assess progress achieved, steps taken and difficulties
encountered in strengthening the protection of children in situations
of armed conflict;

      (b)   Raise awareness and promote the collection of information
about the plight of children affected by armed conflict and encourage
the development of networking;

      (c)   Work closely with the Committee on the Rights of the Child,
relevant United Nations bodies, the specialized agencies and other
competent bodies, as well as non-governmental organizations;

      (d)   Foster international cooperation to ensure respect for
children's rights in these situations and contribute to the
coordination of efforts by Governments, relevant United Nations
bodies, notably the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for
Human Rights/Centre for Human Rights, the Office of the United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees, the United Nations Children's Fund,
the specialized agencies and the Committee on the Rights of the Child,
relevant special rapporteurs and working groups, as well as United
Nations field operations, regional and subregional organizations,
other competent bodies and non-governmental organizations;

      37.   Requests the Special Representative to submit to the General
Assembly and the Commission on Human Rights an annual report
containing relevant information on the situation of children affected
by armed conflict, bearing in mind existing mandates and reports of
relevant bodies;

      38.   Requests Governments, the specialized agencies, relevant
United Nations organs and regional, intergovernmental and
non-governmental organizations, as well as the Committee on the Rights
of the Child, other relevant human rights treaty bodies and human
rights mechanisms, to cooperate with the Special Representative and to
provide information on the measures adopted to ensure and respect the
rights of children affected by armed conflict;

      39.   Calls upon Member States and relevant United Nations bodies
and non-governmental organizations to consider how the impact of armed
conflict on children can best be integrated into events designed to
commemorate the tenth anniversary of the World Summit for Children and
the entry into force of the Convention;


                                      III

                   Refugee and internally displaced children

      40.   Urges Governments to pay particular attention to the
situation of refugee and internally displaced children by continuing
to design and improve the implementation of policies for their care
and well-being with the necessary international cooperation, in
particular that of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees and the United Nations Children's Fund; 

      41.   Calls upon States and United Nations bodies, in recognizing
the particular vulnerability of refugee and internally displaced
children, to protect both their safety and their developmental needs,
including health, education and psychosocial rehabilitation;

      42.   Calls upon States and United Nations bodies and other
organizations to ensure the early identification and registration of
unaccompanied refugee and internally displaced children and to give
priority to programmes for family tracing and reunification;

      43.   Calls for the continual monitoring of the care arrangements
of unaccompanied refugee and internally displaced children;

      44.   Calls upon States and other parties to armed conflict to
recognize the particular vulnerability of refugee and internally
displaced children to recruitment into the armed forces and to sexual
violence, exploitation and abuse and to enhance protection and
assistance mechanisms;

      45.   Calls upon the United Nations Children's Fund and other
relevant United Nations bodies and agencies and governmental and non-
governmental organizations to continue to adopt all necessary measures
to ensure the survival, assistance and protection of internally
displaced children;

      46.   Stresses the special vulnerability of households headed by
children, and calls upon Governments and United Nations bodies to give
urgent attention to their situation and to develop policy and
programme guidelines to ensure their protection and care, in the best
interests of the child;

      47.   Also stresses that women and youth be fully involved in the
design, delivery, monitoring and implementation of measures to protect
them from sexual violence and from the recruitment of children into
the armed forces;

                                      IV

      Prevention and eradication of the sale of children and of their
      sexual exploitation, including child prostitution and child
      pornography

      48.   Welcomes the interim report of the Special Rapporteur of the
Commission on Human Rights on the sale of children, child prostitution
and child pornography; 14/

      49.   Expresses its support for the work of the Special Rapporteur
appointed by the Commission on Human Rights to examine, all over the
world, the question of the sale of children, child prostitution and
child pornography;

      50.   Requests the Secretary-General to provide the Special
Rapporteur with all necessary human and financial assistance to make
the full discharge of the mandate possible and to enable her to submit
an interim report to the General Assembly at its fifty-second session
and a report to the Commission on Human Rights at its fifty-third
session;

      51.   Supports the work of the open-ended inter-sessional working
group of the Commission on Human Rights on the elaboration of a draft
optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child related
to the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and
expresses the hope that it will make further progress prior to the
fifty-third session of the Commission with a view to finalizing this
work;

      52.   Calls upon all States parties to fulfil their obligation
under article 34 of the Convention, and also calls upon all States to
support efforts in the context of the United Nations system aimed at
adopting effective national, bilateral and multilateral measures for
the prevention and eradication of the sale of children and of their
sexual exploitation, including child prostitution and child
pornography, in particular by criminalizing the sexual exploitation of
children;

      53.   Welcomes the convening of the World Congress against
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, held at Stockholm from 27
to 31 August 1996, and expresses its appreciation to the Government of
Sweden for organizing it, in cooperation with the United Nations
Children's Fund, End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism and the Non-
Governmental Organizations Group for the Convention on the Rights of
the Child;

      54.   Welcomes with satisfaction the adoption and dissemination of
the Declaration and Agenda for Action of the World Congress against
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, 15/ which constitutes
an important contribution to the global efforts aimed at the
eradication of such practices;

      55.   Requests all States to implement on an urgent basis measures
to protect children from all forms of sexual exploitation, including
measures in line with those outlined in the Declaration and Agenda for
Action;

      56.   Calls upon States to criminalize the commercial sexual
exploitation of children and the other forms of sexual exploitation of
children and to condemn and penalize all those offenders involved,
whether local or foreign, while ensuring that children victims of this
practice are not penalized; 

      57.   Also calls upon States to review and revise, where
appropriate, laws, policies, programmes and practices to eliminate the
commercial sexual exploitation of children;

      58.   Further calls upon States to enforce relevant laws, policies
and programmes to protect children from sexual exploitation, in
particular by penalizing all those offenders involved, and to
strengthen communication and cooperation between law enforcement
authorities;

      59.   Stresses the need to combat the existence of a market that
encourages such criminal practices against children;

      60.   Urges States, in cases of sex tourism, to develop or
strengthen and to implement laws to criminalize the acts of nationals
of the countries of origin when committed against children in the
countries of destination, to ensure that a person who exploits a child
for sexual abuse purposes in another country is prosecuted by
competent national authorities, either in the country of origin or in
the country of destination, to strengthen laws and law enforcement,
including confiscation and seizure of assets and profits and other
sanctions, against those who commit sexual crimes against children in
countries of destination and to share relevant data;

      61.   Requests States to step up cooperation and concerted action
by all relevant law enforcement authorities and institutions with a
view to dismantling national, regional and international networks in
trafficking in children; 

      62.   Invites States to allocate resources to provide
comprehensive programmes designed to heal and to rehabilitate into
society child victims of trafficking and sexual exploitation,
including through job training, legal assistance and confidential
health care, and to take all appropriate measures to promote their
physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration;

      63.   Stresses the need to strengthen partnerships between
Governments, international organizations and all sectors of civil
society, in particular non-governmental organizations, in order to
achieve these objectives;

                                       V

                  Elimination of exploitation of child labour

      64.   Encourages Member States that have not yet done so to ratify
and implement the conventions of the International Labour Organization
relating to the elimination of exploitation of child labour, in
particular those concerning the minimum age for employment, the
abolition of forced labour and the prohibition of particularly
hazardous work for children;

      65.   Calls upon Governments to take legislative, administrative,
social and educational measures to ensure the protection of children
from economic exploitation, in particular protection from performing
any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the
child's education or be harmful to the child's health or physical,
mental, spiritual, moral or social development;

      66.   Urges Governments to take all necessary measures, as a
matter of priority, to eliminate all extreme forms of child labour,
such as forced labour, bonded labour and other forms of slavery;

      67.   Encourages, in particular, Governments to take the necessary
legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to
provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment,
appropriate regulations of the hours and conditions of employment and
appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective
enforcement of these measures;

      68.   Invites Governments, in accordance with the commitments made
at the World Summit for Social Development held at Copenhagen from 6
to 12 March 1995, 16/ to set specific target dates for eliminating
all forms of child labour which are contrary to accepted international
standards, to ensure the full enforcement of relevant existing laws
and, where appropriate, to enact the legislation necessary to
implement obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child 16/ 
and International Labour Organization standards ensuring the
protection of working children;

      69.   Encourages Member States to strengthen international
cooperation, including through the United Nations programme of
advisory services in the field of human rights, the International
Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour of the International
Labour Organization and the activities of the United Nations
Children's Fund, as a means of assisting Governments in preventing or
combating violations of the rights of the child, including the
exploitation of child labour;

      70.   Recognizes the measures taken by Governments to eliminate
the exploitation of child labour, and calls upon relevant United
Nations bodies and specialized agencies, in particular the United
Nations Children's Fund and the International Labour Organization, to
support national efforts in this regard;

      71.   Requests that measures be taken by Governments, at the
national and international levels, within the framework of
multisectoral approaches, to end the exploitation of child labour in
line with the commitments undertaken at the World Summit for Social
Development and at the Fourth World Conference on Women, 17/ held
at Beijing from 4 to 15 September 1995, and taking into account the
results of other relevant United Nations conferences;

      72.   Calls upon Governments to translate into concrete action
their commitment to the progressive and effective elimination of child
labour and to implement, inter alia, national action plans and the
International Labour Organization resolution on the elimination of
child labour, adopted on 18 June 1996 by the International Labour
Conference at its eighty-third session at Geneva, as well as other
relevant resolutions on the subject adopted by the General Assembly
and the Commission on Human Rights;

      73.   Requests the Secretary-General, when reporting on the
implementation of the present resolution, to cooperate closely and at
an early stage with relevant actors and United Nations organizations
and bodies, in particular the International Labour Organization and
the United Nations Children's Fund, in order to provide information on
initiatives aimed at eliminating exploitation of child labour and to
recommend ways and means of improving cooperation at the national and
international levels in this field;


                                      VI

                         The plight of street children

      74.   Expresses grave concern at the continued growth in the
number of incidents worldwide and at reports of children living or
working on the streets being involved in and affected by serious
crime, drug abuse, violence and prostitution;

      75.   Urges Governments to continue actively to seek comprehensive
solutions to tackle the problems of children living or working on the
streets, to take measures to ensure their reintegration into society
and to provide, inter alia, adequate nutrition, shelter, health care
and education, taking into account the fact that such children are
particularly vulnerable to all forms of abuse, exploitation and
neglect;

      76.   Strongly urges all Governments to guarantee the respect for
all human rights and fundamental freedoms, particularly the right to
life, and to take urgent measures to prevent the killing of street
children and to combat torture and violence against them, and to
ensure that legal and juridical processes respect children's rights in
order to protect them against the arbitrary deprivation of liberty,
maltreatment or abuse;

      77.   Emphasizes that strict compliance with the provisions of the
Convention on the Rights of the Child and other relevant human rights
instruments constitutes a significant step towards solving the
problems of children living or working on the streets, including
problems of exploitation, abuse and abandonment of children, and
recommends that the Committee on the Rights of the Child and other
relevant treaty monitoring bodies give attention to this growing
problem when examining reports of States parties;

      78.   Calls upon the international community to support, through
effective international cooperation, the efforts of States to improve
the situation of children in need of special protection measures,
including child well-being in urban settlements, in accordance with
the Habitat Agenda adopted by the United Nations Conference on Human
Settlements (Habitat II), held at Istanbul, Turkey, from 3 to
14 June 1996, 18/ and encourages States parties to the Convention
on the Rights of the Child, in preparing their reports to the
Committee on the Rights of the Child, to bear this problem in mind and
to consider requesting technical advice and assistance for initiatives
aimed at improving the situation of street children, in accordance
with article 45 of the Convention;

                                      VII

      79.   Invites Governments, United Nations bodies and
organizations, including the United Nations Children's Fund and the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and
relevant mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights and
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to cooperate with
one another to ensure greater awareness and more effective action to
solve the problem of children living in exceptionally difficult
conditions by, among other measures, initiating and supporting
development projects that can have a positive impact on the situation
of those children;

      80.   Requests the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human
Rights on the sale of children, child prostitution and child
pornography to submit an interim report to the General Assembly at its
fifty-second session;

      81.   Requests the Secretary-General to submit a report on the
rights of the child to the General Assembly at its fifty-second
session, containing information on the status of the Convention on the
Rights of the Child and the problems of exploitation of child labour,
its causes and consequences, in accordance with paragraph 73 above;

      82.   Decides to continue its consideration of this question at
its fifty-second session under the item entitled "Promotion and
protection of the rights of children".


                                                          82nd plenary meeting
                                                              12 December 1996


                                     Notes

1/    See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1996,
Supplement No. 3, (E/1996/23), chap. II, sect. A.

2/    Resolution 44/25, annex.

3/    A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), chap. III.

4/    Ibid., chap. III, sect. II, para. 51.

5/    See A/45/625, annex.

6/    Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-first Session,
Supplement No. 41 (A/51/41).

7/    A/51/256.

8/    United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, Nos. 970-973.

9/    Ibid., vol. 1125, Nos. 17512 and 17513.

10/   A/51/306 and Add.1.

11/   Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-first Session,
Supplement No. 41 (A/51/41), chap. I, sect. C. 1.

12/   See A/51/524, annex I.

13/   Resolution 260 A (III).

14/   A/51/456, annex.

15/   A/51/385, annex.

16/   See A/CONF.166/9.

17/   See A/CONF.177/20 and Add.1.

18/   A/CONF.165/14, chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.

 

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