United Nations

A/RES/51/45


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

10 January 1997

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



Fifty-first session
Agenda item 71


                  RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

           [on the report of the First Committee (A/51/566/Add.11)]


            51/45.      General and complete disarmament

                                       A

        Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: 2000 Review
       Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation
               of Nuclear Weapons and its Preparatory Committee


      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolution 2373 (XXII) of 12 June 1968, the annex
to which contains the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear
Weapons,

      Noting the provisions of article VIII, paragraph 3, of the Treaty
regarding the convening of Review Conferences at five-year intervals,

      Recalling the decision on strengthening the review process for
the Treaty, of the 1995 Review and Extension Conference of Parties to
the Treaty 1/ in which it was agreed that Treaty Review Conferences
should continue to be held every five years and that, accordingly, the
next Review Conference should be held in the year 2000,

      Recalling also the decision of the 1995 Review and Extension
Conference that the first Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2000
Review Conference should be held in 1997,

      Recalling further its resolution 50/70 Q of 12 December 1995, in
which it took note of the various decisions of the 1995 Review and
Extension Conference,

      1.    Takes note of the decision of the parties to the Treaty on
the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, following appropriate
consultations, to hold the first meeting of the Preparatory Committee
in New York from 7 to 18 April 1997;

      2.    Requests the Secretary-General to render the necessary
assistance and to provide such services, including summary records, as
may be required for the 2000 Review Conference of the Parties to the
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and its Preparatory
Committee.

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       B

                  The nuclear-weapon-free southern hemisphere
                              and adjacent areas

      The General Assembly,

      Determined to continue to contribute to the prevention of the
proliferation of nuclear weapons in all its aspects and to the process
of general and complete disarmament under strict and effective
international control, in particular in the field of nuclear weapons
and other weapons of mass destruction, with a view to strengthening
international peace and security, in accordance with the purposes and
principles of the Charter of the United Nations,

      Stressing the importance of the treaties of Tlatelolco, 2/
Rarotonga, 3/ Bangkok 4/ and Pelindaba, 5/ establishing
nuclear-weapon-free zones, as well as the Antarctic Treaty, 6/

      Recalling that, at its first special session devoted to
disarmament, the General Assembly declared, inter alia, that the
establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones on the basis of agreements
or arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the zone
concerned constitutes an important disarmament measure; that the
States participating in such zones should undertake to comply fully
with all the objectives, purposes and principles of the agreements or
arrangements establishing the zones, thus ensuring that they are
genuinely free from nuclear weapons; and that the nuclear-weapon
States are called upon to give undertakings, negotiated with the
competent authority of each zone, in particular, to respect strictly
the status of the nuclear-weapon-free zone and to refrain from the use
or threat of use of nuclear weapons against the States of the zone,

      Recalling also that the 1995 Review and Extension Conference of
the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear
Weapons 7/ reaffirmed the conviction that the establishment of
internationally recognized nuclear-weapon-free zones, on the basis of
arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region
concerned, enhances global and regional peace and security, and
encouraged the development of nuclear-weapon-free zones, especially in
regions of tension, such as in the Middle East,

      Recalling further the applicable principles and rules of
international law relating to rights of passage through maritime
space,

      1.    Recognizes with satisfaction that the Antarctic Treaty 6/
and the treaties of Tlatelolco, 2/ Rarotonga, 3/ Bangkok 4/ and Pelindaba
5/ are gradually freeing the entire southern hemisphere and adjacent
areas covered by those treaties from nuclear weapons;

      2.    Calls for the ratification of the treaties of Tlatelolco,
Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba by all regional States, and calls
upon all concerned States to continue to work together in order to
facilitate adherence to the protocols to nuclear-weapon-free zone
treaties by all relevant States that have not yet done so;

      3.    Calls upon all States to consider proposals to establish
further nuclear-weapon-free zones, especially in areas such as the
Middle East and South Asia, on the basis of arrangements freely
arrived at among the States of the region concerned, to strengthen the
nuclear non-proliferation regime and, with particular reference to the
responsibilities of the nuclear-weapon States, to advance the process
of nuclear disarmament with the ultimate goal of eliminating all
nuclear weapons;

      4.    Calls upon the States parties and signatories to the
treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba, in order to
promote the common goals envisaged in those treaties, to explore and
implement further ways and means of cooperation, including the
consolidation of the status of the nuclear-weapon-free southern
hemisphere and adjacent areas;

      5.    Encourages the competent authorities of nuclear-weapon-free
zone treaties to provide assistance to the States parties and
signatories to such treaties so as to facilitate the accomplishment of
these goals;

      6.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session an item entitled "The nuclear-weapon-free southern
hemisphere and adjacent areas".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       C

        Convening of the fourth special session of the General Assembly
                            devoted to disarmament

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolutions 49/75 I of 15 December 1994 and 50/70 F
of 12 December 1995,

      Recalling also that, there being a consensus to do so in each
case, three special sessions of the General Assembly devoted to
disarmament were held in 1978, 1982 and 1988, respectively,

      Bearing in mind the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session
of the General Assembly, 8/ the first special session devoted to
disarmament, and the objective of general and complete disarmament
under effective international control,

      Welcoming the recent positive changes in the international
landscape, characterized by the end of the cold war, the relaxation of
tensions at the global level and the emergence of a new spirit
governing relations among nations,

      Taking note of paragraph 108 of the Final Document of the
Eleventh Conference of Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned
Countries, held at Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, from 18 to 20
October 1995, 9/ which supported the convening of the fourth
special session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament in
1997, which would offer an opportunity to review, from a perspective
more in tune with the current international situation, the most
critical aspects of the process of disarmament and to mobilize the
international community and public opinion in favour of the
elimination of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction and of
the control and reduction of conventional weapons,

      Taking note also of the interim report of the 1996 substantive
session of the Disarmament Commission on the item entitled "Exchange
of views on the fourth special session of the General Assembly devoted
to disarmament", 10/

      Desiring to build upon the constructive exchange of views on the
fourth special session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament
during the 1996 substantive session of the Disarmament Commission,

      Reiterating its conviction that a special session of the General
Assembly devoted to disarmament can set the future course of action in
the field of disarmament, arms control and related international
security matters,

      Emphasizing the importance of multilateralism in the process of
disarmament and arms control, peace and security,

      Noting that, with the completion of the Convention on the
Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of
Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction 11/ and the adoption of
the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty,  12/ as well as of
amended Protocol II 13/ and new Protocol IV 13/  to the Convention
on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional
Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have
Indiscriminate Effects, 14/ the following years would be opportune
for the international community to start the process of reviewing the
state of affairs in the entire field of disarmament and arms control
in the post-cold-war era,

      1.    Decides, subject to the emergence of a consensus on its
objectives and agenda, to convene its fourth special session devoted
to disarmament in 1999;

      2.    Notes the view of the Secretary-General that preparations
for the special session could begin in 1997;

      3.    Decides, subject to the outcome of deliberations concerning
the fourth special session of the General Assembly devoted to
disarmament at the 1997 substantive session of the Disarmament
Commission, to convene a meeting of the Preparatory Committee for the
Fourth Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to Disarmament
before the end of the fifty-first session of the Assembly in order to
set an exact date and to decide on organizational matters relating to
the convening of the special session, and requests the Preparatory
Committee to submit its progress report to the Assembly at its fifty-
second session;

      4.    Requests the Secretary-General to provide the Preparatory
Committee with all necessary assistance, including essential
background information and relevant documents as necessary;

      5.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session the item entitled "Convening of the fourth special
session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament" and, subject
to the outcome of deliberations at the 1997 substantive session of the
Disarmament Commission, to take up the report of the Preparatory
Committee for the Fourth Special Session of the General Assembly
Devoted to Disarmament.

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       D

               Relationship between disarmament and development

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling the provisions of the Final Document of the Tenth
Special Session of the General Assembly 8/  concerning the relationship
between disarmament and development,

      Recalling also the adoption on 11 September 1987 of the Final
Document of the International Conference on the Relationship between
Disarmament and Development, 15/

      Recalling further its resolutions 49/75 J of 15 December 1994 and
50/70 G of 12 December 1995,

      Bearing in mind the Final Document of the Eleventh Conference of
Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries, held at
Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, from 18 to 20 October 1995, 9/

      Stressing the growing importance of the symbiotic relationship
between disarmament and development in current international
relations,

      1.    Acknowledges the note by the Secretary-General 16/ and
actions taken in accordance with the Final Document of the
International Conference on the Relationship between Disarmament and
Development; 15/

      2.    Urges the international community to devote part of the
resources made available by the implementation of disarmament and arms
limitation agreements to economic and social development, with a view
to reducing the ever widening gap between developed and developing
countries;

      3.    Invites all Member States to communicate to the Secretary-
General, by 15 April 1997, their views and proposals for the
implementation of the action programme adopted at the International
Conference on the Relationship between Disarmament and
Development, 17/ as well as any other views and proposals with a
view to achieving the goals of the action programme, within the
framework of current international relations;

      4.    Requests the Secretary-General to continue to take action,
through appropriate organs and within available resources, for the
implementation of the action programme adopted at the International
Conference;

      5.    Also requests the Secretary-General to submit a report to
the General Assembly at its fifty-second session;

      6.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session the item entitled "Relationship between disarmament and
development".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       E

               Observance of environmental norms in the drafting
               and implementation of agreements on disarmament 
                               and arms control

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolution 50/70 M of 12 December 1995,

      Emphasizing the importance of the observance of environmental
norms in the preparation and implementation of disarmament and arms
limitation agreements,

      Recognizing that it is necessary duly to take into account the
agreements adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, as well as prior relevant agreements, in the drafting and
the implementation of agreements on disarmament and arms limitation,

      Mindful of the detrimental environmental effects of the use of
nuclear weapons,

      Taking note of the preamble to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban
Treaty, 18/ opened for signature on 24 September 1996, concerning
the contribution to environmental protection provided by the Treaty,

      Considering its resolution 2602 C (XXIV) of 16 December 1969, in
which it requested the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament,
19/ inter alia, to consider effective methods to control radiological
means of warfare, in the interest of averting the hazards of using
radioactive wastes as a means of radiological warfare, and of their
impact on international security and environmental preservation,

      Recognizing that prevention of the nuclear arms race on the
seabed and the ocean floor and in the subsoil thereof contributes to
keeping the peace and protecting the environment,

      Convinced of the general interest of mankind in the progress of
the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, and the
need to preserve the world's environment in this context,

      Desirous that, in the interest of mankind, Antarctica should
continue to be used for exclusively peaceful purposes and that the
balance of that important ecosystem should be preserved,

      Taking note of the environment-related provisions laid down in
the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production,
Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, 11/

      Convinced of the importance of strengthening the Convention on
the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of
Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their
Destruction 20/ through the adoption of appropriate measures,
including possible verification measures, and the drafting of
proposals to be included, as appropriate, in a legally binding
instrument, on the basis of the findings of the ad hoc working group
set up to that effect, and which, inter alia, should take into account
the necessity of ensuring the preservation of the environment,

      Conscious that the international transfer of relevant
technologies, services and know-how for peaceful purposes can
contribute positively to abiding by environmental norms in the
framework of the disarmament and arms limitation agreements,

      1.    Invites the Conference on Disarmament to take every
necessary measure to include the relevant environmental norms and
provisions in negotiating treaties and agreements on disarmament and
arms limitation, taking into account the need to preserve the world's
environment and to ensure the strict observance of such environmental
norms and provisions during the entire process of implementation of
the provisions of the aforementioned treaties and agreements,
particularly during the process of destruction of the arms covered by
them;

      2.    Requests the Conference on Disarmament to take into account,
in the negotiations for a convention on the prohibition of
radiological weapons, radioactive wastes as part of the scope of such
a convention, as well as express provisions relating to environmental
protection;

      3.    Expresses grave concern regarding any use of nuclear wastes
that would constitute radiological warfare and have grave implications
for the national security of all States and for preserving the
environment;

      4.    Urges States parties to comply strictly with the provisions
of the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons
and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean
Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, 21/ and calls on States that
possess nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction that
have not yet done so, to become parties to the Treaty, as a major
contribution to international peace and the ecologically rational use
of the environment;

      5.    Calls upon all States, especially those that have major
space programmes, to contribute actively to the attainment of the
goals of using outer space for peaceful purposes, preserving the
world's environment and preventing the arms race in outer space and,
for the sake of international peace and security and of promoting
international cooperation, to refrain from acting counter to the
spirit of that international legal instrument;

      6.    Welcomes the concrete measures taken by several countries to
ensure compliance with the Antarctic Treaty, 6/ and calls upon all
countries to refrain from carrying out any activity counter to the
spirit of that international legal instrument;

      7.    Emphasizes the importance of the compliance by all States
parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development,
Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their
Destruction, 11/ and calls upon them to cooperate and to preserve the
environment in the process of the implementation of the Convention in
all its relevant aspects;

      8.    Urges States parties to consider all the relevant norms
related to the protection of the environment in implementing the
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and
Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on
Their Destruction; 20/

      9.    Calls upon States to adopt unilateral, bilateral, regional
and multilateral measures so as to contribute to ensuring the
application of scientific and technological progress in the framework
of international security, disarmament and other related spheres,
without detriment to the environment or to its effective contribution
to attaining sustainable development;

      10.   Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session the item entitled "Observance of environmental norms in
the drafting and implementation of agreements on disarmament and arms
control".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       F

               Measures to curb the illicit transfer and use of
                               conventional arms

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolution 46/36 H of 6 December 1991 and its
decision 47/419 of 9 December 1992 on international arms transfers,

      Recalling also its resolutions 48/75 F and H of 16 December 1993,
49/75 M of 15 December 1994 and 50/70 J of 12 December 1995 on
measures to curb the illicit transfer and use of conventional arms,

      Recognizing that the availability of massive quantities of
conventional weapons and especially their illicit transfer, often
associated with destabilizing activities, are most disturbing and
dangerous phenomena, in particular for the internal situation of
affected States and the violation of human rights,

      Bearing in mind that in certain situations mercenaries,
terrorists and child soldiers are supplied with weapons acquired from
illicit transfers of conventional arms,

      Convinced that peace and security are inextricably interlinked
with and in some cases imperative for economic development and
reconstruction, including in war-stricken countries,

      Realizing the urgent need to resolve conflicts and to diminish
tension, and to accelerate efforts towards general and complete
disarmament with a view to maintaining regional and international
peace and security,

      Recognizing the curbing of the illicit transfer of arms as an
important contribution to the relaxation of tension and peaceful
reconciliation processes,

      Stressing the need for effective national control measures on the
transfer of conventional weapons,

      Convinced that effective measures to curb the illicit transfer
and use of conventional arms will help enhance regional and
international peace, security and economic development,

      1.    Welcomes the adoption by the Disarmament Commission of the
report on international arms transfers, with particular reference to
General Assembly resolution 46/36 H, as well as a text entitled
"Guidelines for international arms transfers in the context of General
Assembly resolution 46/36 H of 6 December 1991"; 22/



      2.    Invites Member States:

      (a)   To enact adequate national legislation and/or regulations
and adopt administrative procedures in order to exercise effective
control over armaments and the export and import of arms, inter alia,
with the aim of preventing trafficking in illicit arms and bringing
offenders to justice;

      (b)   To provide the Secretary-General, by 15 April 1997, with
relevant information on national control measures on arms transfers
with a view to preventing illicit arms transfers;

      3.    Also invites Member States to provide the Secretary-General,
by 15 April 1997, with their views on:

      (a)   Effective ways and means of collecting weapons transferred
illicitly, in particular in the light of experience gained by the
United Nations;

      (b)   Concrete proposals concerning measures at national, regional
and international levels to curb the illicit transfer and use of
conventional arms;

      4.    Requests the Secretary-General:

      (a)   To submit to the General Assembly at its fifty-second
session a report containing the views expressed by Member States;

      (b)   To report to the General Assembly at its fifty-second
session on the effective implementation of the present resolution;

      5.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session the item entitled "Measures to curb the illicit
transfer and use of conventional arms".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       G

                Nuclear disarmament with a view to the ultimate
                        elimination of nuclear weapons

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolution 50/70 C of 12 December 1995,

      Recognizing that the end of the cold war has increased the
possibility of freeing the world from the fear of nuclear war,

      Appreciating the entry into force of the Treaty on the Reduction
and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, 23/ to which Belarus,
Kazakstan, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the United States of
America are party, and looking forward to the early entry into force
of the Treaty on Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic
Offensive Arms, 24/ which was ratified by the United States of
America,

      Welcoming the reductions in the nuclear arsenals of other
nuclear-weapon States,

      Welcoming also the decision of the 1995 Review and Extension
Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of
Nuclear Weapons to extend the Treaty indefinitely, 25/ taken
without a vote, as well as the decisions on strengthening the review
process for the Treaty 1/ and on the principles and objectives for
nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, 26/

      Noting the reference in the decision on the principles and
objectives for nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament to the
importance of the following measures for the full realization and
effective implementation of article VI of the Treaty on the
Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 27/ including the programme
of action as reflected below:

      (a)   The completion by the Conference on Disarmament of the
negotiations on a universal and internationally and effectively
verifiable comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty no later than 1996,
and utmost restraint that should be exercised by the nuclear-weapon
States pending the entry into force of that treaty;

      (b)   The immediate commencement and early conclusion of
negotiations on a non-discriminatory and universally applicable
convention banning the production of fissile material for nuclear
weapons or other nuclear explosive devices in accordance with the
statement of the Special Coordinator of the Conference on Disarmament
and the mandate contained therein;

      (c)   The determined pursuit by the nuclear-weapon States of
systematic and progressive efforts to reduce nuclear weapons globally,
with the ultimate goal of eliminating those weapons, and by all States
of general and complete disarmament under strict and effective
international control,

      Welcoming the adoption of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban
Treaty at the fiftieth session of the General Assembly 12/ and its
opening for signature at the beginning of the current session,

      Recalling that nuclear non-proliferation and the promotion of
nuclear disarmament are key elements in the maintenance of
international peace and security, which is one of the most important
purposes of the United Nations,

      1.    Urges States not parties to the Treaty on the Non-
Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 27/ to accede to it at the earliest
possible date, recognizing the importance of universal adherence to
the Treaty;

      2.    Calls for the determined pursuit by the nuclear-weapon
States of systematic and progressive efforts to reduce nuclear weapons
globally, with the ultimate goal of eliminating those weapons, and by
all States of general and complete disarmament under strict and
effective international control, and invites them to keep States
Members of the United Nations duly informed of the progress and
efforts made;

      3.    Calls upon all States parties to the Treaty on the
Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons to make their best efforts for a
smooth start of the strengthened review process of the Treaty as they
convene their first Preparatory Committee, in 1997, with a view to the
success of the next Review Conference which should be held in the year
2000;

      4.    Calls upon all States to implement fully their commitments
in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass
destruction.

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       H

                           Transparency in armaments

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolutions 46/36 L of 9 December 1991, 47/52 L of
15 December 1992, 48/75 E of 16 December 1993, 49/75 C of 15 December
1994 and 50/70 D of 12 December 1995,

      Continuing to take the view that an enhanced level of
transparency in armaments contributes greatly to confidence-building
and security among States and that the establishment of the United
Nations Register of Conventional Arms 28/ constitutes an important
step forward in the promotion of transparency in military matters,

      Welcoming the consolidated report of the Secretary-General on the
Register, 29/ which includes the returns of Member States for
1995,

      Welcoming also the response of Member States to the request
contained in paragraphs 9 and 10 of resolution 46/36 L to provide data
on their imports and exports of arms, as well as available background
information regarding their military holdings, procurement through
national production and relevant policies,

      Welcoming further the report of the Disarmament Commission at its
1996 session on the subject of international arms transfers, 30/
which was adopted by consensus,

      Stressing that the continuing operation of the Register and its
further development should be reviewed in order to secure a Register
that is capable of attracting the widest possible participation,

      1.    Reaffirms its determination to ensure the effective
operation of the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms 28/ as
provided for in paragraphs 7, 8, 9 and 10 of resolution 46/36 L;

      2.    Calls upon Member States to provide the requested data and
information for the Register, on the basis of resolutions 46/36 L and
47/52 L and the annex and appendices to the 1994 report of the
Secretary-General on the continuing operation of the Register and its
further development, 31/ to the Secretary-General by 30 April
annually;

      3.    Reaffirms its decision, with a view to the further
development of the Register, to keep the scope of and participation in
the Register under review, and, to that end:

      (a)   Recalls its request to Member States to provide the
Secretary-General with their views on the continuing operation of the
Register and its further development and on transparency measures
related to weapons of mass destruction;

      (b)   Recalls its request to the Secretary-General, with the
assistance of a group of governmental experts to be convened in 1997,
on the basis of equitable geographical representation, to prepare a
report on the continuing operation of the Register and its further
development, taking into account the report of the Disarmament
Commission at its 1996 session on the subject of international arms
transfers, 30/ the work of the Conference on Disarmament, the views
expressed by Member States and the 1994 report of the Secretary-
General on the continuing operation of the Register and its further
development, 31/ with a view to a decision at its fifty-second session;

      4.    Requests the Secretary-General to ensure that sufficient
resources are made available for the Secretariat to operate and
maintain the Register;

      5.    Invites the Conference on Disarmament to consider continuing
its work undertaken in the field of transparency in armaments;

      6.    Reiterates it call upon all Member States to cooperate at
the regional and subregional levels, taking fully into account the
specific conditions prevailing in the region or subregion, with a view
to enhancing and coordinating international efforts aimed at increased
openness and transparency in armaments;

      7.    Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General
Assembly at its fifty-second session on the progress made in
implementing the present resolution;

      8.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session the item entitled "Transparency in armaments".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       I

          Bilateral nuclear arms negotiations and nuclear disarmament

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its previous relevant resolutions,

      Recognizing the fundamental changes that have taken place with
respect to international security, which have permitted agreements on
deep reductions in the nuclear armaments of the States possessing the
largest inventories of such weapons, 

      Stressing that it is the responsibility and the obligation of all
States to contribute to the process of the relaxation of international
tension and to the strengthening of international peace and security
through disarmament, in particular, nuclear disarmament, which remains
the highest priority of our times,

      Stressing also that, as stipulated in many agreements and
recently reiterated by the unanimous decision by the International
Court of Justice, 32/ there exists the obligation to pursue in
good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear
disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective
international control,

      Welcoming the number of positive developments that have created
opportunities for nuclear disarmament, in particular, the completion
of the implementation of the 1987 Treaty between the United States of
America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination
of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, 33/
removing such weapons from deployed status, the conclusion of
bilateral agreements on de-targeting strategic missiles, the
cooperative efforts to ensure the safety, security and environmentally
sound destruction of nuclear weapons as well as the efforts to
deactivate all nuclear delivery systems or other steps to remove them
from alert status,

      Noting that there are still significant nuclear arsenals and that
the primary responsibility for nuclear disarmament, with the objective
of the elimination of nuclear weapons, rests with all nuclear-weapon
States, in particular, those possessing the largest stockpiles,

      Recalling the expressed commitment by the nuclear-weapon States
to pursue systematic and progressive efforts to reduce nuclear weapons
globally, with the ultimate goal of the elimination of those weapons,
which should be carried out within a time-bound framework,

      Recalling also the agreement between the Russian Federation and
the United States of America to intensify their dialogue to compare
conceptual approaches and to develop concrete steps to adapt the
nuclear forces and practices on both sides to the changed
international security situation, including the possibility, after
ratification of the Treaty on the Further Reduction and Limitation of
Strategic Offensive Arms, 24/ of further reductions of and limitations
on remaining nuclear forces,

      Taking note of the joint statement of 10 May 1995 by the Russian
Federation and the United States of America on the Treaty on the
Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems,

      Welcoming the reductions made by other nuclear-weapon States in
some of their nuclear-weapons programmes, and encouraging all nuclear-
weapon States to consider appropriate measures relating to nuclear
disarmament,

      Affirming that bilateral and multilateral negotiations on nuclear
disarmament should facilitate and complement each other,

      1.    Welcomes the entry into force and implementation of the
Treaty on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, 23/
signed in Moscow on 31 July 1991 by the former Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics and the United States of America, including the
Protocol to that Treaty, signed at Lisbon on 23 May 1992 by the
parties thereto, and the exchange of documents of ratification between
the United States of America, Belarus, Kazakstan, the Russian
Federation and Ukraine on 5 December 1994 at Budapest, as well as the
ratification by the United States of America of the 1993 Treaty on
Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, 24/ and
urges the parties concerned to make further efforts to bring that
Treaty into force at the earliest possible date;

      2.    Encourages the United States of America and the Russian
Federation to continue their efforts aimed at eliminating nuclear
weapons and strategic offensive arms on the basis of existing
agreements, and welcomes the contributions that other States are
making to such cooperation as well;

      3.    Welcomes the removal of all nuclear weapons from the
territory of Kazakstan, as from June 1995, and from the territory of
Ukraine, as from June 1996;

      4.    Encourages and supports the Russian Federation and the
United States of America in intensifying their work for deep
reductions in their nuclear armaments, and calls upon those States to
accord the highest priority to this work, in order to contribute to
the elimination of nuclear weapons within a time-bound framework;

      5.    Invites the Russian Federation and the United States of
America to keep the States Members of the United Nations and the
Conference on Disarmament duly informed of progress in their
discussions and in the implementation of their strategic offensive
arms agreements and unilateral decisions;

      6.    Calls upon the Conference on Disarmament to take such
information into account in the negotiations to be held on nuclear
disarmament leading to the elimination of nuclear weapons within a
time-bound framework.

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       J

               Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive wastes

      The General Assembly,

      Bearing in mind resolutions CM/Res.1153 (XLVIII) of 1988 34/
and CM/Res.1225 (L) of 1989, 35/ adopted by the Council of
Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, concerning the dumping
of nuclear and industrial wastes in Africa,

      Welcoming resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530 establishing a Code of
Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive
Waste, adopted on 21 September 1990 by the General Conference of the
International Atomic Energy Agency at its thirty-fourth regular
session, 36/

      Welcoming also resolution GC(XXXVIII)/RES/6, adopted on 23
September 1994 by the General Conference of the International Atomic
Energy Agency at its thirty-eighth regular session, 37/ inviting
the Board of Governors and the Director General of the Agency to
commence preparations for a convention on the safety of radioactive
waste management, and noting the progress that has been made in that
regard,

      Taking note of the commitment by the participants at the Summit
on Nuclear Safety and Security, held in Moscow on 19 and 20 April
1996, to ban the dumping at sea of radioactive wastes, 38/

      Considering its resolution 2602 C (XXIV) of 16 December 1969, in
which it requested the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, 19/
inter alia, to consider effective methods of control against the use
of radiological methods of warfare,

      Recalling resolution CM/Res.1356 (LIV) of 1991, adopted by the
Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, 39/ on
the Bamako Convention on the Ban on the Import of Hazardous Wastes
into Africa and on the Control of Their Transboundary Movements within
Africa,

      Aware of the potential hazards underlying any use of radioactive
wastes that would constitute radiological warfare and its implications
for regional and international security, in particular for the
security of developing countries,

      Recalling all its resolutions on the matter since its forty-third
session in 1988, including its resolution 50/70 E of 12 December 1995,

      Desirous of promoting the implementation of paragraph 76 of the
Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly, 8/
the first special session devoted to disarmament,

      1.    Takes note of the part of the report of the Conference on
Disarmament relating to a future convention on the prohibition of
radiological weapons; 40/

      2.    Expresses grave concern regarding any use of nuclear wastes
that would constitute radiological warfare and have grave implications
for the national security of all States;

      3.    Calls upon all States to take appropriate measures with a
view to preventing any dumping of nuclear or radioactive wastes that
would infringe upon the sovereignty of States;

      4.    Requests the Conference on Disarmament to take into account,
in the negotiations for a convention on the prohibition of
radiological weapons, radioactive wastes as part of the scope of such
a convention;

      5.    Also requests the Conference on Disarmament to intensify
efforts towards an early conclusion of such a convention and to
include in its report to the General Assembly at its fifty-second
session the progress recorded in the negotiations on this subject;

      6.    Takes note of resolution CM/Res.1356 (LIV) of 1991, adopted
by the Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, on
the Bamako Convention on the Ban on the Import of Hazardous Wastes
into Africa and on the Control of Their Transboundary Movements within
Africa;

      7.    Expresses the hope that the effective implementation of the
International Atomic Energy Agency Code of Practice on the
International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste will enhance
the protection of all States from the dumping of radioactive wastes on
their territories;

      8.    Welcomes the current efforts of the International Atomic
Energy Agency in the preparation of a draft convention on the safe
management of radioactive wastes and the appropriate recommendations
made by the participants at the Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security,
held in Moscow on 19 and 20 April 1996, in particular their call on
all States generating nuclear wastes with nuclear installations to
participate actively in the preparation of this convention under the
auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and to encourage
its effective finalization and prompt adoption;

      9.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session the item entitled "Prohibition of the dumping of
radioactive wastes".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       K

                             Regional disarmament

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolutions 45/58 P of 4 December 1990, 46/36 I of
6 December 1991, 47/52 J of 9 December 1992, 48/75 I of 16 December
1993, 49/75 N of 15 December 1994 and 50/70 K of 12 December 1995 on
regional disarmament,

      Believing that the efforts of the international community to move
towards the ideal of general and complete disarmament are guided by
the inherent human desire for genuine peace and security, the
elimination of the danger of war and the release of economic,
intellectual and other resources for peaceful pursuits,

      Affirming the abiding commitment of all States to the purposes
and principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations in the
conduct of their international relations,

      Noting that essential guidelines for progress towards general and
complete disarmament were adopted at the tenth special session of the
General Assembly, 8/

      Taking note of the guidelines and recommendations for regional
approaches to disarmament within the context of global security
adopted by the Disarmament Commission at its 1993 substantive
session, 41/

      Welcoming the prospects of genuine progress in the field of
disarmament engendered in recent years as a result of negotiations
between the two super-Powers,

      Taking note of the recent proposals for disarmament and nuclear
non-proliferation at the regional and subregional levels,

      Recognizing the importance of confidence-building measures for
regional and international peace and security,

      Convinced that endeavours by countries to promote regional
disarmament, taking into account the specific characteristics of each
region and in accordance with the principle of undiminished security
at the lowest level of armaments, would enhance the security of
smaller States and would thus contribute to international peace and
security by reducing the risk of regional conflicts,

      1.    Stresses that sustained efforts are needed, within the
framework of the Conference on Disarmament and under the umbrella of
the United Nations, to make progress on the entire range of
disarmament issues;

      2.    Affirms that global and regional approaches to disarmament
complement each other and should therefore be pursued simultaneously
to promote regional and international peace and security;

      3.    Calls upon States to conclude agreements, wherever possible,
for nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and confidence-building
measures at the regional and subregional levels;

      4.    Welcomes the initiatives towards disarmament, nuclear
non-proliferation and security undertaken by some countries at the
regional and subregional levels;

      5.    Supports and encourages efforts aimed at promoting
confidence-building measures at the regional and subregional levels in
order to ease regional tensions and to further disarmament and nuclear
non-proliferation measures at the regional and subregional levels;

      6.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session the item entitled "Regional disarmament".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       L

                 Assistance to States for curbing the illicit
                   traffic in small arms and collecting them

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolutions 46/36 H of 6 December 1991, 47/52 G and
J of 9 December 1992, 48/75 H and J of 16 December 1993, 49/75 G of 15
December 1994 and 50/70 H of 12 December 1995,

      Considering that the illicit circulation of massive quantities of
small arms throughout the world impedes development and is a source of
increased insecurity,

      Considering also that the illicit international transfer of small
arms and their accumulation in many countries constitute a threat to
the populations and to national and regional security and are a factor
contributing to the destabilization of States,

      Basing itself on the statement of the Secretary-General relating
to the request of Mali concerning United Nations assistance for the
collection of small arms,

      Gravely concerned at the extent of the insecurity and banditry
linked to the illicit circulation of small arms in Mali and the other
affected States of the Saharo-Sahelian subregion,

      Taking note of the first conclusions of the United Nations
advisory missions sent to the affected countries of the subregion by
the Secretary-General to study the best way of curbing the illicit
circulation of small arms and ensuring their collection,

      Taking note also of the interest shown by other States of the
subregion in receiving a United Nations advisory mission,

      Noting the actions taken and those recommended at the meetings of
the States of the subregion held at Banjul, Algiers and Bamako to
establish close regional cooperation with a view to strengthening
security,

      1.    Welcomes the initiative taken by Mali concerning the
question of the illicit circulation of small arms and their collection
in the affected States of the Saharo-Sahelian subregion;

      2.    Also welcomes the action taken by the Secretary-General in
implementation of this initiative in the context of General Assembly
resolution 40/151 H of 16 December 1985;

      3.    Thanks the Governments concerned in the subregion for the
substantial support that they have given to the United Nations
advisory missions, and welcomes the declared readiness of other States
to receive the United Nations Advisory Mission;

      4.    Encourages the Secretary-General to continue his efforts, in
the context of the implementation of resolution 49/75 G and of the
recommendations of the United Nations advisory missions, to curb the
illicit circulation of small arms and to collect such arms in the
affected States that so request, with the support of the United
Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa and in
close cooperation with the Organization of African Unity;

      5.    Notes that, as part of its efforts to halt the flow of small
arms into Mali and the Saharo-Sahelian subregion, the Malian
Government oversaw the destruction, at the "Flame of Peace" ceremony
held at Timbuktu on 27 March 1996, of thousands of small arms handed
over by ex-combatants of the armed movements of northern Mali;

      6.    Encourages the setting up in the countries of the Saharo-
Sahelian subregion of national commissions against the proliferation
of small arms;

      7.    Requests the Secretary-General to continue to examine the
issue and to report to the General Assembly at its fifty-second
session.

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       M

                Advisory opinion of the International Court of
                Justice on the legality of the threat or use  
                              of nuclear weapons

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolution 49/75 K of 15 December 1994, in which it
requested the International Court of Justice to render an advisory
opinion on whether the threat or use of nuclear weapons is permitted
in any circumstance under international law,

      Mindful of the solemn obligations of States parties, undertaken
in article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear
Weapons, 27/ particularly to pursue negotiations in good faith on
effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at
an early date and to nuclear disarmament,

      Recalling its resolution 50/70 P of 12 December 1995, in which it
called upon the Conference on Disarmament to establish an ad hoc
committee on nuclear disarmament to commence negotiations on a phased
programme of nuclear disarmament and for the eventual elimination of
nuclear weapons within a time-bound framework,

      Recalling also the principles and objectives for nuclear
non-proliferation and disarmament adopted at the 1995 Review and
Extension Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-
Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 26/ and in particular the objective of
determined pursuit by the nuclear-weapon States of systematic and
progressive efforts to reduce nuclear weapons globally, with the
ultimate goal of eliminating those weapons,

      Recognizing that the only defence against a nuclear catastrophe
is the total elimination of nuclear weapons and the certainty that
they will never be produced again,

      Desiring to achieve the objective of a legally binding
prohibition of the development, production, testing, deployment,
stockpiling, threat or use of nuclear weapons and their destruction
under effective international control,

      Reaffirming the commitment of the international community to the
goal of the total elimination of nuclear weapons, and welcoming every
effort towards this end,

      Reaffirming also the central role of the Conference on
Disarmament as the single multilateral disarmament negotiating forum,

      Noting the adoption of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
by the General Assembly in its resolution 50/245 of 10 September 1996,

      Regretting the absence of multilaterally negotiated and legally
binding security assurances against the threat or use of nuclear
weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States,

      Convinced that the continuing existence of nuclear weapons poses
a threat to all humanity and that their use would have catastrophic
consequences for all life on Earth,

      1.    Expresses its appreciation to the International Court of
Justice for responding to the request made by the General Assembly at
its forty-ninth session;

      2.    Takes note of the advisory opinion of the International
Court of Justice on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear
Weapons, issued on 8 July 1996; 42/

      3.    Underlines the unanimous conclusion of the Court that there
exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion
negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under
strict and effective international control;

      4.    Calls upon all States to fulfil that obligation immediately
by commencing multilateral negotiations in 1997 leading to an early
conclusion of a nuclear-weapons convention prohibiting the
development, production, testing, deployment, stockpiling, transfer,
threat or use of nuclear weapons and providing for their elimination;

      5.    Requests the Secretary-General to provide the necessary
assistance to support the implementation of the present resolution;

      6.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session an item entitled "Follow-up to the Advisory Opinion of
the International Court of Justice on the Legality of the Threat or
Use of Nuclear Weapons".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       N

         Consolidation of peace through practical disarmament measures

      The General Assembly,

      Reaffirming the purpose of the United Nations to maintain peace
and security and, in this context, reaffirming in particular the role
of the United Nations in the field of disarmament, as well as the
commitment of Member States to take concrete steps in order to
strengthen that role,

      Convinced that a comprehensive and integrated approach towards
certain practical disarmament measures, such as, inter alia, arms
control, particularly with regard to small arms and light weapons,
confidence-building measures, demobilization and reintegration of
former combatants, demining and conversion, often is a prerequisite to
maintaining and consolidating peace and security and thus provides a
basis for effective rehabilitation and social and economic
development,

      Noting in this context the reports of the Secretary-General
entitled "An Agenda for Peace" 43/ and "Supplement to an Agenda
for Peace" in which the Secretary-General, inter alia, stressed the
urgent need for "practical disarmament in the context of the conflicts
the United Nations is actually dealing with and of the weapons, most
of them light weapons, that are actually killing people in the
hundreds of thousands", 44/ and in which, with regard to practical
disarmament measures, the Secretary-General stated that "the assembly,
control and disposal of weapons has been a central feature of most of
the comprehensive peace settlements in which the United Nations has
played a peacekeeping role", 45/

      Recalling its resolutions 49/75 M of 15 December 1994 and 50/70 B
and 50/70 J of 12 December 1995 concerning small arms and light
weapons, as well as the control and the illicit transfer of such
weapons, and, in this context, encouraging the work of the United
Nations expert panel on small arms,

      Welcoming the adoption by the Disarmament Commission of the
"Guidelines for international arms transfers in the context of General
Assembly resolution 46/36 H of 6 December 1991", 30/

      Recalling its resolutions 49/75 G of 15 December 1994 and 50/70 H
of 12 December 1995, in which it welcomed the initiative taken by Mali
concerning the question of illicit circulation of small arms and their
collection in the affected States of the Saharo-Sahelian subregion, as
well as the action taken by the Secretary-General in the
implementation of that initiative,

      Welcoming, in this context, the measures taken and other ongoing
efforts by the Central African States to promote, within the framework
of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security
Questions in Central Africa, confidence-building and conflict
prevention in their subregion,

      Recalling its resolution 50/70 D of 12 December 1995 on
transparency in armaments, and continuing to take the view that an
enhanced level of transparency could contribute to confidence-building
and security among States,

      Recalling also its resolutions 50/70 O and 50/74 of 12 December
1995 and 50/82 of 14 December 1995 addressing the global landmine
problem,

      Welcoming the adoption on 3 May 1996 of an amended Protocol II by
the Review Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on
Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional
Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have
Indiscriminate Effects 13/ as a further step, and also welcoming
respective national measures adopted by a growing number of States,

      1.    Stresses the particular importance of certain practical
disarmament measures, such as the collection, control and disposal of
arms, especially small arms and light weapons, coupled with restraint
over the production and procurement as well as transfers of such arms,
the demobilization and reintegration of former combatants, demining
and conversion, for the maintenance and consolidation of peace and
security in areas that have suffered from conflict;

      2.    Underlines the important role of the United Nations in
providing a political framework for such practical disarmament
measures in those areas and in facilitating their implementation;

      3.    Requests the Secretary-General, in the light of experience
gained from conflict resolution, to make recommendations and
suggestions for an integrated approach to such practical disarmament
measures, taking also into account the work of the United Nations
expert panel on small arms, and to report thereon to the General
Assembly at its fifty-second session;

      4.    Also requests the Secretary-General, in this connection, to
seek the views of Member States on this subject and to include them in
his report;

      5.    Calls upon Member States, as well as regional arrangements
or agencies, to assist the Secretary-General in his endeavours in this
regard and to contribute actively to the implementation of such
practical disarmament measures;

      6.    Encourages United Nations organs and agencies to join in
this task within the framework of their responsibilities, in
particular the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research on
the basis of its Disarmament and Conflict Resolution Project;

      7.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session an item entitled "Consolidation of peace through
practical disarmament measures".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       O

                              Nuclear disarmament

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolution 49/75 E of 15 December 1994 on a step-
by-step reduction of the nuclear threat, and its resolution 50/70 P of
12 December 1995 on nuclear disarmament,

      Reaffirming the commitment of the international community to the
goal of the total elimination of nuclear weapons and the creation of a
nuclear-weapon-free world,

      Determined to achieve the objective of prohibiting the
development, production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons and
their destruction, and to conclude such an international convention or
conventions at an early date,

      Bearing in mind paragraph 50 of the Final Document of the Tenth
Special Session of the General Assembly, 8/ the first special session
devoted to disarmament, calling for the urgent negotiation of
agreements for the cessation of the qualitative improvement and
development of nuclear-weapon systems, and for a comprehensive and
phased programme with agreed time-frames, wherever feasible, for
progressive and balanced reduction of nuclear weapons and their means
of delivery, leading to their ultimate and complete elimination at the
earliest possible time,

      Taking note of the adoption of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban
Treaty by the General Assembly in its resolution 50/245 on 10
September 1996,

      Recognizing that the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and
any proposed treaty on fissile material for nuclear weapons or other
nuclear explosive devices must constitute disarmament measures, and
not only non-proliferation measures, and that these measures, together
with an international legal instrument on adequate security assurances
for non-nuclear-weapon States and an international convention
prohibiting the use of nuclear weapons, must be integral steps leading
to the total elimination of nuclear weapons within a time-bound
framework,

      Recognizing also that the end of the cold war has brought about
favourable conditions for creating a world free of nuclear weapons,

      Welcoming the entry into force of the Treaty on the Reduction and
Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, 23/ to which Belarus, Kazakstan,
the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the United States of America are
States parties,

      Welcoming also the conclusion of the Treaty on Further Reduction
and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms 24/ by the Russian Federation
and the United States of America and the ratification of that Treaty
by the United States of America, and looking forward to the full
implementation of the START I 23/ and START II 24/ Treaties by the States
parties, and to further concrete steps for nuclear disarmament by all
nuclear-weapon States,

      Noting with appreciation the unilateral measures by the nuclear-
weapon States for nuclear arms limitation, and encouraging them to
undertake further such measures,

      Recognizing the complementarity of bilateral and multilateral
negotiations on nuclear disarmament, and that bilateral negotiations
can never replace multilateral negotiations in this respect,

      Noting the support expressed in the Conference on Disarmament and
in the General Assembly for the elaboration of an international
convention to assure non-nuclear-weapon States against the use or
threat of use of nuclear weapons, and the multilateral efforts in the
Conference on Disarmament to reach agreement on such an international
convention at an early date,

      Taking note of the advisory opinion of the International Court of
Justice dated 8 July 1996 on the Legality of the Threat or Use of
Nuclear Weapons, 42/ and welcoming the unanimous reaffirmation by all
Judges of the Court that there exists an obligation for all States to
pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to
nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective
international control,

      Taking note also of paragraph 84 and other relevant
recommendations in the Final Document of the Eleventh Conference of
Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries, held at
Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, from 18 to 20 October 1995, 9/ calling
upon the Conference on Disarmament to establish, on a priority basis,
an ad hoc committee to commence negotiations early in 1996 on a phased
programme of nuclear disarmament and for the eventual elimination of
nuclear weapons within a time-bound framework, and paragraph 26 of the
Communique' of the Meeting of Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads
of Delegations of the Non-Aligned Countries, held in New York on 25
September 1996, 46/

      Expressing its regret that the Conference on Disarmament has not
been able as yet to establish an ad hoc committee on nuclear
disarmament, as called for in Assembly resolution 50/70 P,

      Taking note of the proposal of twenty-eight delegations to the
Conference on Disarmament that are members of the Group of 21 for a
programme of action for the elimination of nuclear weapons, 47/
and expressing its conviction that this proposal will be an important
input and will contribute to negotiations on this question in the
Conference, 

      1.    Recognizes that, in view of the end of the cold war and
recent political developments, the time is now opportune for all
nuclear-weapon States to undertake effective disarmament measures with
a view to the total elimination of these weapons within a time-bound
framework;

      2.    Recognizes also that there is a genuine need to de-emphasize
the role of nuclear weapons, and to review and revise nuclear
doctrines accordingly;

      3.    Urges the nuclear-weapon States to stop immediately the
qualitative improvement, development, production and stockpiling of
nuclear warheads and their delivery systems;

      4.    Calls upon the nuclear-weapon States to undertake the step-
by-step reduction of the nuclear threat and a phased programme of
progressive and balanced deep reductions of nuclear weapons, and to
carry out effective nuclear disarmament measures with a view to the
total elimination of these weapons within a time-bound framework;

      5.    Calls upon the Conference on Disarmament to establish, on a
priority basis, an ad hoc committee on nuclear disarmament to commence
negotiations early in 1997 on a phased programme of nuclear
disarmament and for the eventual elimination of nuclear weapons within
a time-bound framework through a nuclear weapons convention;

      6.    Urges the Conference on Disarmament to take into account in
this regard the proposal of the twenty-eight delegations for a
programme of action for the elimination of nuclear weapons;

      7.    Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General
Assembly at its fifty-second session a report on the implementation of
the present resolution;

      8.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session the item entitled "Nuclear disarmament".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       P

         Measures to uphold the authority of the 1925 Geneva Protocol

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its previous resolutions on the subject, in particular
resolution 43/74 of 7 December 1988,

      Determined to act with a view to achieving effective progress
towards general and complete disarmament under strict and effective
international control,

      Recalling the long-standing determination of the international
community to achieve the effective prohibition of the development,
production, stockpiling and use of chemical and biological weapons as
well as the continuing support for measures to uphold the authority of
the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating,
Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare,
signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925, 48/ as expressed by consensus in
many previous resolutions,

      Welcoming the end of the cold war, the ensuing easing of
international tension and the strengthening of trust between States,

      Welcoming also the recent initiatives by some States parties to
withdraw their reservations to the 1925 Geneva Protocol,

      1.    Renews its previous call to all States to observe strictly
the principles and objectives of the Protocol for the Prohibition of
the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of
Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925,
48/ and reaffirms the vital necessity of upholding its provisions;

      2.    Calls upon those States that continue to maintain
reservations to the 1925 Geneva Protocol to withdraw those
reservations;

      3.    Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General
Assembly at its fifty-third session a report on the implementation of
the present resolution.

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       Q

                   Conventional arms control at the regional
                            and subregional levels

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolutions 48/75 J of 16 December 1993, 49/75 O of
15 December 1994 and 50/70 L of 12 December 1995,

      Recognizing the crucial role of conventional arms control in
promoting regional and international peace and security,

      Convinced that conventional arms control needs to be pursued
primarily in the regional and subregional contexts since most threats
to peace and security in the post-cold-war era arise mainly among
States located in the same region or subregion,

      Aware that the preservation of a balance in the defence
capabilities of States at the lowest level of armaments would
contribute to peace and stability and should be a prime objective of
conventional arms control,

      Desirous of promoting agreements to strengthen regional peace and
security at the lowest possible level of armaments and military
forces,

      Noting with particular interest the initiatives taken in this
regard in different regions of the world, in particular the
commencement of consultations among a number of Latin American
countries and the proposals for conventional arms control made in the
context of South Asia, and recognizing, in the context of this
subject, the relevance and value of the Treaty on Conventional Armed
Forces in Europe, 49/ which is a cornerstone of European security,

      Believing that militarily significant States, and States with
larger military capabilities, have a special responsibility in
promoting such agreements for regional security,

      Believing also that an important objective of conventional arms
control in regions of tension should be to prevent the possibility of
military attack launched by surprise and to avoid aggression,

      1.    Decides to give urgent consideration to the issues involved
in conventional arms control at the regional and subregional levels;

      2.    Requests the Conference on Disarmament, as a first step, to
consider the formulation of principles that can serve as a framework
for regional agreements on conventional arms control, and looks
forward to a report of the Conference on this subject;

      3.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session the item entitled "Conventional arms control at the
regional and subregional levels".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       R

          Bilateral nuclear arms negotiations and nuclear disarmament

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its previous relevant resolutions,

      Recognizing the fundamental changes that have taken place with
respect to international security, which have permitted agreements on
deep reductions in the nuclear armaments of the States possessing the
largest inventories of such weapons,

      Mindful that it is the responsibility and obligation of all
States to contribute to the process of the relaxation of international
tension and to the strengthening of international peace and security
and, in this connection, to adopt and implement measures towards the
attainment of general and complete disarmament under strict and
effective international control,

      Appreciating a number of positive developments in the field of
nuclear disarmament, in particular the Treaty between the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America on the
Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, 33/
and the treaties on the reduction and limitation of strategic
offensive arms,

      Appreciating also the indefinite extension of the Treaty on the
Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 27/ and acknowledging the
importance of the determined pursuit by the nuclear-weapon States of
systematic and progressive efforts to reduce nuclear weapons globally,
with the ultimate goal of eliminating those weapons, and by all States
of general and complete disarmament under strict and effective
international control,

      Welcoming the steps that have already been taken by the Russian
Federation and the United States of America to begin the process of
reducing the number of nuclear weapons and removing such weapons from
a deployed status, and bilateral agreements on the issue of
de-targeting strategic nuclear missiles,

      Noting the new climate of relations between the States of the
former Soviet Union and the United States of America, which permits
them to intensify their cooperative efforts to ensure the safety,
security and environmentally sound destruction of nuclear weapons,

      Noting also that the Russian Federation and the United States of
America concurred that, once the Treaty between them on Further
Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms 24/ was ratified,
they would proceed to deactivate all nuclear delivery systems to be
reduced under the Treaty by removing their nuclear warheads or taking
other steps to remove them from alert status,

      Noting further the commitment between the Russian Federation and
the United States of America to intensify their dialogue to compare
conceptual approaches and to develop concrete steps to adapt the
nuclear forces and practices on both sides to the changed
international security situation, including the possibility, after
ratification of the Treaty on Further Reduction and Limitation of
Strategic Offensive Arms, of further reductions of and limitations on
remaining nuclear forces,

      Taking note of the joint statement of 10 May 1995 by the Russian
Federation and the United States of America on the Treaty on the
Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems,

      Recalling the Moscow Summit Declaration on Nuclear Safety and
Security of April 1996, 50/

      Urging early action to complete the ratification of the Treaty on
the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms and
further intensification of efforts to accelerate the implementation of
agreements and unilateral decisions relating to nuclear arms
reduction,

      Welcoming the significant reductions made by other nuclear-weapon
States, and encouraging all nuclear-weapon States to consider
appropriate measures relating to nuclear disarmament,

      1.    Welcomes the entry into force of the Treaty on the Reduction
and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, 23/ signed in Moscow on 31
July 1991 by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the
United States of America, including the Protocol to that Treaty,
signed at Lisbon on 23 May 1992 by the parties thereto, and the
exchange of documents of ratification between the United States of
America, Belarus, Kazakstan, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on 5
December 1994 at Budapest;

      2.    Also welcomes the signing of the Treaty between the Russian
Federation and the United States of America on Further Reduction and
Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms 24/ in Moscow on 3 January 1993,
and urges the parties to take the steps necessary to bring that Treaty
into force at the earliest possible date;

      3.    Expresses its satisfaction at the entry into force and
ongoing implementation of the 1991 Treaty as well as the ratification
by the United States of America of the 1993 Treaty, and expresses the
hope that it will soon be possible for the Russian Federation to
ratify that Treaty also;

      4.    Expresses further satisfaction at the continuing
implementation of the Treaty between the United States of America and
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their
Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, 33/ in particular at the
completion by the parties of the destruction of all their declared
missiles subject to elimination under the Treaty;

      5.    Welcomes the removal of all nuclear weapons from the
territory of Kazakstan as of 1 June 1995, and from the territory of
Ukraine as of 1 June 1996;

      6.    Encourages the Russian Federation, the United States of
America, Belarus, Kazakstan and Ukraine to continue their cooperative
efforts aimed at eliminating nuclear weapons and strategic offensive
arms on the basis of existing agreements, and welcomes the
contributions that other States are making to such cooperation as
well;

      7.    Welcomes the accession to the Treaty on the
Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 27/, of Belarus, Kazakstan and
Ukraine as non-nuclear-weapon States, which thereby provided notable
enhancement to the non-proliferation regime;

      8.    Encourages and supports the Russian Federation and the
United States of America in their efforts to reduce their nuclear
weapons and to continue to give those efforts the highest priority in
order to contribute to the ultimate goal of eliminating those weapons;

      9.    Invites the Russian Federation and the United States of
America to keep other States Members of the United Nations duly
informed of progress in their discussions and in the implementation of
their strategic offensive arms agreements and unilateral decisions.

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       S

          An international agreement to ban anti-personnel landmines

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling with satisfaction its resolutions 48/75 K of 16
December 1993, 49/75 D of 15 December 1994 and 50/70 O of 12 December
1995, in which it, inter alia, urged States to implement moratoriums
on the export of anti-personnel landmines,

      Also recalling with satisfaction its resolutions 49/75 D and
50/70 O, in which it, inter alia, established as a goal of the
international community the eventual elimination of anti-personnel
landmines,

      Noting that, according to the 1995 report of the Secretary-
General entitled "Assistance in mine clearance", 51/ it is
estimated that there are one hundred and ten million landmines in the
ground in more than sixty countries throughout the world,

      Noting also that, according to the same report, the global
landmine crisis continues to worsen as an estimated two million new
landmines are laid each year, while only an estimated one hundred and
fifty thousand were cleared in 1995,

      Expressing deep concern that anti-personnel landmines kill or
maim hundreds of people every week, mostly innocent and defenceless
civilians and especially children, obstruct economic development and
reconstruction, inhibit the repatriation of refugees and the return of
internally displaced persons, and have other severe consequences for
years after emplacement,

      Gravely concerned about the suffering and casualties caused to
non-combatants as a result of the proliferation, as well as the
indiscriminate and irresponsible use, of anti-personnel landmines,

      Recalling with satisfaction its resolutions 48/7 of 19 October
1993, 49/215 A of 23 December 1994 and 50/82 of 14 December 1995
calling for assistance in mine clearance,

      Welcoming the recent decisions taken at the Review Conference of
the States Parties to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions
on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be
Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, particularly
with respect to the amended Protocol II 13/ to the Convention, and 
believing that the amended Protocol is an essential part of the global
effort to address problems caused by the proliferation, as well as the
indiscriminate and irresponsible use, of anti-personnel landmines,

      Welcoming also the adoption of the declaration entitled "Towards
a Global Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines" by participants at the Ottawa
International Strategy Conference on 5 October 1996, 52/ including
its call for the earliest possible conclusion of a legally binding
international agreement to ban anti-personnel landmines, and further
welcoming the follow-on conference at Brussels in June 1997,

      Welcoming further the recent decisions taken by States to adopt
various bans, moratoriums or other restrictions on the use,
stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel landmines, and
other measures taken unilaterally as well as multilaterally,

      Recognizing the need to conclude an international agreement to
ban all anti-personnel landmines as soon as possible,

      1.    Urges States to pursue vigorously an effective, legally
binding international agreement to ban the use, stockpiling,
production and transfer of anti-personnel landmines with a view to
completing the negotiation as soon as possible;

      2.    Urges States that have not yet done so to accede to the
Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain
Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious
or to Have Indiscriminate Effects 14/ and Protocol II as amended on 3
May 1996, 13/ and urges all States immediately to comply to the fullest
extent possible with the applicable rules of Protocol II as amended;

      3.    Welcomes the various bans, moratoriums or other restrictions
already declared by States on anti-personnel landmines;

      4.    Calls upon States that have not yet done so to declare and
implement such bans, moratoriums or other restrictions - particularly
on operational use and transfer - at the earliest possible date;

      5.    Requests the Secretary-General to prepare a report on steps
taken to complete an international agreement banning the use,
stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel landmines, and
on other steps taken by Member States to implement such bans,
moratoriums or other restrictions and to submit it to the General
Assembly at its fifty-second session under the item entitled "General
and complete disarmament";

      6.    Requests Member States to provide the requested information
for the report of the Secretary-General on steps taken to complete an
international agreement banning the use, stockpiling, production and
transfer of anti-personnel landmines, and on other steps taken to
implement bans, moratoriums or other restrictions on anti-personnel
landmines and to submit such information to the Secretary-General by
15 April 1997.

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                       T

        Status of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development,
        Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on     
                               Their Destruction

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its previous resolutions on the subject of chemical and
bacteriological (biological) weapons, in particular resolution 47/39
of 30 November 1992, adopted without a vote, in which it commended the
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production,
Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, 11/

      Noting with satisfaction that, since the Convention was opened
for signature at a signing ceremony held in Paris from 13 to 15
January 1993, one hundred and sixty States have signed the Convention,

      Determined to achieve the effective prohibition of the
development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of
chemical weapons and their destruction,

      Convinced of the urgent necessity of universal adherence to the
Convention so as to abolish an entire category of weapons of mass
destruction, and thus eliminate the risk to mankind of renewed use of
these inhumane weapons,

      Noting the ongoing work of the Preparatory Commission for the
Organization on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons,

      1.    Welcomes the fact that the required sixty-five instruments
of ratification have now been deposited and that the Convention on the
Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of
Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction 11/ will therefore enter into
force on 29 April 1997;

      2.    Stresses the importance to the Convention that all
possessors of chemical weapons, chemical weapons production facilities
or chemical weapons development facilities should be among the
original parties to the Convention and, in this context, the
importance of the United States of America and the Russian Federation,
having declared possession of chemical weapons, being among the
original States parties to the Convention;

      3.    Also stresses that this would promote the full realization
and effective implementation of the Convention;

      4.    Calls upon all States that have not yet done so to sign
and/or ratify the Convention without delay;

      5.    Notes that the Preparatory Commission for the Organization
on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, at its fourteenth session from
22 to 26 July 1996, entrusted the Chairman of the Commission, in close
consultation with its member States, with the task of convening, as
necessitated by circumstances in connection with the occurrence of the
trigger point, a meeting of the Commission to provide appropriate
guidance;

      6.    Urges the Preparatory Commission for the Organization on the
Prohibition of Chemical Weapons to intensify efforts to complete its
remaining work;

      7.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-
second session an item entitled "Implementation of the Convention on
the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of
Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction".

                                                          79th plenary meeting
                                                              10 December 1996


                                     Notes

1/    1995 Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Treaty
on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Final Document, Part I
(NPT/CONF.1995/32 (Part I)), annex, decision 1.

2/    Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America
and the Caribbean.

3/    South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty.

4/    Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone.

5/    African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty.

6/    United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 402, No. 5778.

7/    See 1995 Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Final Document,
Part I (NPT/CONF.1995/32 (Part I)).

8/    Resolution S-10/2.

9/    A/50/752-S/1995/1035, annex III; see Official Records of the
Security Council, Fiftieth Year, Supplement for October, November and
December 1995, document S/1995/1035.

10/   Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-first Session,
Supplement No. 42 (A/51/42), para. 30.

11/   Ibid., Forty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 27 (A/47/27),
appendix I.

12/   See resolution 50/245.

13/   See CCW/CONF.I/16 (Part I).

14/   See The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, vol. 5:  1980
(United Nations publication, Sales No. E.81.IX.4), appendix VII.

15/   United Nations publication, Sales No. E.87.IX.8.

16/   A/51/207.

17/   United Nations publication, Sales No. E.87.IX.8, para. 35.

18/   A/50/1027, annex.

19/   The Conference of the Committee on Disarmament became the
Committee on Disarmament as from the tenth special session of the
General Assembly.  The Committee on Disarmament was redesignated the
Conference on Disarmament as from 7 February 1984.

20/   Resolution 2826 (XXVI), annex.

21/   Resolution 2660 (XXV), annex.

22/   Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-first Session,
Supplement No. 42 (A/51/42), para. 29 and annex I.

23/   The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, vol. 16:  1991 (United
Nations publication, Sales No. E.92.IX.1), appendix II.

24/   Ibid., vol. 18:  1993 (United Nations publication, Sales No.
E.94.IX.1), appendix II.

25/   1995 Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Treaty
on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Final Document, Part I
(NPT/CONF.1995/32 (Part I)), annex, decision 3.

26/   Ibid., decision 2.

27/   United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 729, No. 10485.

28/   See resolution 46/36 L.

29/   A/51/300 and Add.1 and 2.

30/   Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-first Session,
Supplement No. 42 (A/51/42), annex I.

31/   A/49/316.

32/   Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory
Opinion (A/51/218, annex); see also Official Records of the General
Assembly, Fifty-first Session, Supplement No. 4 (A/51/4), paras.
176-183.

33/   The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, vol. 12:  1987 (United
Nations publication, Sales No. E.88.IX.2), appendix VII.

34/   See A/43/398, annex I.

35/   See A/44/603, annex I.

36/   See International Atomic Energy Agency, Resolutions and Other
Decisions of the General Conference, Thirty-fourth Regular Session,
17-21 September 1990 (GC(XXXIV)/RESOLUTIONS (1990)).

37/   Ibid., Thirty-eighth Regular Session, 19-23 September 1994
(GC(XXXVIII)/RES/DEC (1994)).

38/   A/51/131, annex I, para. 20.

39/   See A/46/390, annex I.

40/   See Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-first
Session, Supplement No. 27 (A/51/27), sect. III.F.

41/   Ibid., Forty-eighth Session, Supplement No. 42 (A/48/42), annex
II.

42/   A/51/218, annex.

43/   A/47/277-S/24111; see Official Records of the Security Council,
Forty-seventh Year, Supplement for April, May and June 1992, document
S/24111.

44/   A/50/60-S/1995/1, para. 60; see Official Records of the Security
Council, Fiftieth Year, Supplement for January, February and March
1995, document S/1995/1.

45/   Ibid., para. 62.

46/   A/51/473-S/1996/839, annex.

47/   A/C.1/51/12, annex.

48/   League of Nations, Treaty Series, vol. XCIV (1929), No. 2138.

49/   CD/1064.

50/   A/51/131, annex I.

51/   A/50/408.

52/   A/C.1/51/10, annex.

 

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