United Nations

A/RES/51/242


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

26 September 1997

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



Fifty-first session
Agenda item 10

                  RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

              [without reference to a Main Committee (A/51/L.78)]


            51/242.  Supplement to an Agenda for Peace


      The General Assembly,

      Taking note of the reports of the Secretary-General entitled "An
Agenda for Peace" 1/ and "Supplement to an Agenda for Peace", 2/

      Reaffirming its resolutions 47/120 A of 18 December 1992 and
47/120 B of 20 September 1993,

      Reaffirming also other resolutions adopted by the General
Assembly concerning various aspects of "An Agenda for Peace" and of
the "Supplement to an Agenda for Peace",

      Taking note of the statement on the "Supplement to an Agenda for
Peace"  made by the President of the Security Council on 22 February
1995, 3/ as well as the other statements by the President of the
Security Council on "An Agenda for Peace",

      Recalling the views expressed by Member States on "An Agenda for
Peace"  and the "Supplement to an Agenda for Peace" since the forty-
eighth session of the General Assembly,

      1.    Adopts the texts on coordination and the question of
sanctions imposed by the United Nations annexed to the present
resolution;

      2.    Notes the progress made in the areas of post-conflict peace-
building and preventive diplomacy and peacemaking;

      3.    Requests the President of the General Assembly to consult on
the possibility of continuing the activities of the Informal Open-
ended Working Group on An Agenda for Peace in the areas of post-
conflict peace-building and preventive diplomacy and peacemaking on
the basis of the work already accomplished in these areas and with a
view to concluding its work.


                                            107th plenary meeting
                                                15 September 1997


                                    ANNEX I

                                 Coordination


         I.  COORDINATION BETWEEN THE UNITED NATIONS AND MEMBER STATES

1.    The States that constitute the United Nations membership have a
central role to play in the prevention and resolution of conflicts,
including through their participation in and support for United
Nations efforts to those ends, in accordance with the Charter of the
United Nations.  The General Assembly underlines the need to
strengthen the role of the Assembly in improving coordination, in
accordance with its role and responsibilities under the Charter. 
Governments are responsible for the financing and provision of
personnel, equipment and other support to mandated United Nations
efforts to maintain international peace and security, whether through
preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacekeeping or peace-building. 
Coordination of efforts and sharing of information between the United
Nations and Member States is therefore of fundamental importance.

2.    Transparency, communication and consultation between the United
Nations and Member States is vital in the coordination of decisions
and activities under the Charter aimed at maintaining and enhancing
international peace and security.  Governments should ensure that
their policies in relation to the various parts and agencies of the
United Nations system are consistent and in accordance with those
aims, while the United Nations must ensure that its activities are in
conformity with the purposes and principles of the Charter, and that
States are kept fully informed, and are supportive, of the United
Nations efforts.

3.    Suitable arrangements for regular and timely consultations
between members of the Security Council, assisted by the Secretariat,
and States contributing troops to peacekeeping operations, as well as
prospective troop contributors, are essential in enhancing
transparency and coordination between the United Nations and Member
States.  Such consultations provide troop-contributing States with a
channel for communication and for ensuring that their views are taken
into consideration before decisions are made by the Council.  The
General Assembly welcomes the establishment of this consultation
mechanism, which should remain under review with the aim of improving
it further so as to strengthen the support for and the effectiveness
of peacekeeping operations.  In this connection, the Assembly stresses
the importance of respecting the principles agreed upon in the Special
Committee on Peacekeeping Operations and endorsed unanimously by the
Assembly.

4.    Among other possible forms of coordination between the United
Nations and Member States is the support and assistance given to the
Secretary-General by individual States or informal groups of Member
States, created on an ad hoc basis, with respect to his efforts in the
area of the maintenance of international peace and security. 
Operating within the framework of the Charter, groups such as the
"Friends of the Secretary-General" can be resorted to whenever
feasible, and can be considered as a valuable tool for the Secretary-
General in his efforts, supporting the mandate entrusted to him by
relevant United Nations bodies.  There should be contact with the
concerned State or States, and care should be taken to ensure the
necessary information and transparency in relation to other Member
States and to avoid duplication or overlapping of efforts.


              II.  COORDINATION WITHIN THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

5.    In order to improve the capacity of the United Nations in the
maintenance of international peace and security, particularly in
conflict prevention and resolution, the General Assembly stresses the
need to ensure an integrated approach to considering, planning and
conducting activities in the sphere of peace in all their aspects,
through all phases of a potential or actual conflict to post-conflict
peace-building, at the various levels within the United Nations
system.  In coordinating such activities, the distinct mandates,
functions and impartiality of the various United Nations entities
involved should be respected.  On the understanding that action to
secure global peace, security and stability will be futile unless the
economic and social needs of people are addressed,  the Assembly also
stresses the need to strengthen coordination with those departments,
agencies and bodies responsible for development activities, in order
to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the United Nations
system for development.


            A.  Coordination within the United Nations Secretariat

6.    Within the Secretariat in New York, coordination is required
between and among all the various departments involved in peacemaking,
as well as in peace-building activities and peacekeeping operations
which can be multifunctional, so that they function as an integrated
whole under the authority of the Secretary-General.  The General
Assembly notes that the Secretary-General has entrusted the main
responsibility in this regard to the Task Force on United Nations
Operations and interdepartmental groups at the working level on each
major conflict where the United Nations is playing a peacemaking or
peacekeeping role.  The Assembly welcomes these moves to strengthen
coordination, and emphasizes the requirement for transparency. 
Efforts should be made, inter alia, to further harmonize the
interaction between operational units within the Secretariat so as to
avoid duplication in similar fields of action.

7.    The General Assembly notes the work being done within the
Framework for Coordination mechanism to ensure that the pertinent
departments of the Secretariat coordinate their respective activities
in the planning and implementing of such operations, through sharing
of information, consultations and joint action.  The Assembly
furthermore notes that an important element of the Framework for
Coordination is the provision for staff-level consultations by the
relevant departments and other parts of the Organization to undertake
joint analyses and to formulate joint recommendations.  The Assembly
welcomes the establishment of a standing interdepartmental framework
oversight group to support and ensure the initiation of such
consultations and encourages the implementation, further development
and improvement of the Framework for Coordination mechanism.


         B.  Coordination within the United Nations system as a whole

8.    The responsibilities involved in peacemaking, as well as in
peace-building activities and peacekeeping operations which can be
multifunctional, transcend the competence and expertise of any one
department, programme, fund, office or agency of the United Nations. 
Short-term and long-term programmes need to be planned and implemented
in a coordinated way in order to consolidate peace and development. 
Coordination is therefore required within the United Nations system as
a whole and between United Nations Headquarters and the head offices
of United Nations funds, programmes, offices and agencies.  In this
regard, the General Assembly would encourage improved coordination of
efforts, for example the establishment of coordination procedures
between the United Nations and other agencies involved, to facilitate
and coordinate measures to contribute to the prevention of conflicts
as well as the transition from peacekeeping to peace-building.  The
Assembly would encourage representatives of the United Nations
Secretariat and other relevant United Nations agencies and programmes,
as well as the Bretton Woods institutions, to meet and work together
to develop arrangements that would ensure coordination and increased
cooperation with respect to the provision of assistance to
institution-building and social and economic development.  The aim
should be to develop a network for programme coordination, involving
the United Nations system, bilateral donors and, whenever appropriate,
non-governmental organizations, both at the headquarters and in the
regional and field offices.

9.    The General Assembly welcomes the efforts of the Secretary-
General to make more effective the Administrative Committee on
Coordination, which periodically brings together the heads of the
specialized agencies, to achieve better coordination of the activities
of the various United Nations bodies, including towards the
consolidation of peace and security.  The Assembly also supports the
role of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee in ensuring a coordinated
and timely response to the humanitarian needs arising in complex
emergencies.


                         C.  Coordination in the field

10.   The General Assembly notes that the composition and
administration of United Nations operations in the field vary
considerably from one country situation to another, depending upon the
political security and humanitarian dimensions of a particular crisis. 
In certain cases, including where the Security Council has authorized
a peacekeeping operation, the Secretary-General may appoint a special
representative.  The special representative, working under the
operational control of the Secretary-General, exercises on his behalf
clearly defined authority over all the mission components.  To
strengthen cohesion and effective control of the military component of
multifunctional peacekeeping operations, which is the central and
fundamental part of such operations, the Assembly would stress the
necessity of establishing and respecting clear lines of military
command, as well as open channels of communication and sharing of
information between the field and United Nations Headquarters, and
coordinated guidance from United Nations Headquarters to the field. 
The Assembly underlines the need to adhere to United Nations mandates
and to respect United Nations operational control and the unity of
command in United Nations peacekeeping operations.  In peacekeeping
operations that include humanitarian elements, a field-based
humanitarian coordinator who works under the overall authority of the
special representative of the Secretary-General may be appointed.  The
Assembly considers it essential that all agencies and programmes
active in the field extend their full cooperation to the special
representative and encourages the efforts of the Secretary-General to
ensure this.  The Assembly notes the important role that the United
Nations resident coordinator can play in coordinating United Nations
activities in post-conflict peace-building.  Furthermore, the Assembly
would refer to the possibility of nominating a United Nations special
coordinator while numerous agencies and programmes are working in the
field during the period of transition to peace, even when there is no
peacekeeping operation.


           III.  COOPERATION WITH REGIONAL ARRANGEMENTS OR AGENCIES

11.   The General Assembly stresses that, on the subject of cooperation
between the United Nations and regional arrangements or agencies, the
relevant tasks and responsibilities should be carried out with full
respect for the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter, relevant
decisions of the Security Council and of the General Assembly, as well
as the respective mandates of regional arrangements or agencies and
the Declaration on the Enhancement of Cooperation between the United
Nations and Regional Arrangements or Agencies in the Maintenance of
International Peace and Security, approved by the General Assembly in
its resolution 49/57 of 9 December 1994.

12.   The General Assembly considers that practical cooperation between
the United Nations and regional arrangements and agencies, including
the recognition of the variety of mandates, scope and composition of
regional arrangements or agencies, has been and can be developed
further through a number of means, including consultation by working-
level contacts and high-level meetings, diplomatic and operational
support, staff exchanges, and joint and cooperative operations.  The
Assembly notes the proposals that the Secretary-General has made in
respect of Africa in his report on improving preparedness for conflict
prevention and peacekeeping in Africa, 4/ and encourages him to
pursue consultations with the Organization of African Unity on the
matter.

13.   While recalling its resolution 49/57, the General Assembly also
notes the principles identified by the Secretary-General upon which
cooperation between the United Nations and regional arrangements or
agencies should be based, in particular the primacy of the United
Nations as set out in the Charter, the defined and agreed division of
labour and consistency by members of regional arrangements or
agencies.  The Assembly considers it important to develop further such
principles, in cooperation with regional arrangements or agencies. 
The Assembly also agrees with the Secretary-General that, given the
varied nature of regional arrangements or agencies, establishment of a
universal model for their relationship with the United Nations would
not be appropriate.

14.   The General Assembly notes the meetings organized and arranged by
the Secretary-General with regional arrangements or agencies, most
recently in February 1996, and would encourage the continuation and
further development of this practice on a regular basis.  The Assembly
underlines the importance of informing it about such meetings.


         IV.  COOPERATION AND DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE UNITED NATIONS AND
              NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS                    

15.   Non-governmental organizations can play an important role in
support of United Nations activities.  Appropriate cooperation and
dialogue between the United Nations system and non-governmental
organizations can contribute to ensuring that the efforts of those
organizations are consistent with, and properly coordinated with, the
activities and objectives of the United Nations.  Such coordination
should not compromise the impartiality of the United Nations or the
non-governmental nature of the organizations.


                                   ANNEX II

              Question of sanctions imposed by the United Nations


1.    An effectively implemented regime of collective Security Council
sanctions can operate as a useful international policy tool in the
graduated response to threats to international peace and security.  As
Security Council action under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United
Nations, sanctions are a matter of the utmost seriousness and concern. 
Sanctions should be resorted to only with the utmost caution, when
other peaceful options provided by the Charter are inadequate.  The
Council should give as thorough consideration as possible to the
short-term and long-term effects of sanctions, having due regard to
the need for the Council to act speedily in certain cases.

2.    Sanctions should be established in strict conformity with the
Charter,  with clear objectives, provision for regular review and
precise conditions for their lifting.  The implementation of sanctions
must adhere to the terms of the applicable Security Council
resolutions.  In this context, the Council must act in accordance with
Article 24, paragraph 2, of the Charter.  At the same time, the
Council's ability to act speedily, in the objective interest of
maintaining international peace and security, must be recognized.

3.    The Security Council has the ability to determine the time-frame
of sanctions.  This question is of the greatest importance and should
be seriously considered in connection with the objective of changing
the behaviour of the target party while not causing unnecessary
suffering to the civilian population.  The Council should define the
time-frame for sanctions regimes taking these considerations into
account.

4.    While there is a need to maintain the effectiveness of sanctions
imposed in accordance with the Charter, unintended adverse side
effects on the civilian population should be minimized by making the
appropriate humanitarian exceptions in the Security Council
resolutions.  Sanctions regimes must also ensure that appropriate
conditions are created for allowing an adequate supply of humanitarian
material to reach the civilian population.

5.    The purpose of sanctions is to modify the behaviour of a party
that is threatening international peace and security and not to punish
or otherwise exact retribution.  Sanctions regimes should be
commensurate with these objectives.

6.    Clarity should be a goal in the formulation of Security Council
resolutions imposing sanctions.  The steps required from the target
country for the sanctions to be lifted should be precisely defined.

7.    Before sanctions are applied, a clear warning could be expressed
in unequivocal language to the target country or party.

8.    The Security Council could also provide for imposing sanctions
that may be partially lifted, in the event the target country or party
complies with previously defined requirements imposed by specific
resolutions.  It could also consider the possibility of introducing a
range of sanctions and lifting them progressively as each target is
achieved.

9.    Sanctions shall be implemented in good faith and uniformly by all
States.  Violations must be brought to the attention of the general
membership of the United Nations through the appropriate channels.

10.   Just as the Security Council periodically reviews sanctions, it
should also consider whether they are being fully implemented by all
States.

11.   It bears recalling that monitoring and compliance is first and
foremost the responsibility of individual Member States.  Member
States should endeavour to prevent or correct activities in violation
of the sanctions measures within their jurisdiction.

12.   International monitoring by the Security Council or by one of its
subsidiary organs of compliance with sanctions measures, in accordance
with relevant Security Council resolutions, can contribute to the
effectiveness of United Nations sanctions.  States that may require
assistance in the implementation and monitoring of sanctions may seek
the assistance of the United Nations or relevant regional
organizations.

13.   States should be encouraged to cooperate in exchanging
information about the legislative, administrative and practical
implementation of sanctions.

14.   Sanctions often have a serious negative impact on the development
capacity and activity of target countries.  Efforts should continue to
be made to minimize unintended side effects of sanctions, especially
with regard to the humanitarian situation and the development capacity
that has a bearing on the humanitarian situation.  In some instances
the application of sanctions may not be compatible, however, with
bilateral and multilateral development programmes.

15.   Humanitarian assistance should be provided in an impartial and
expeditious manner.  Means should be envisaged to minimize the
particular suffering of the most vulnerable groups, keeping in mind
emergency situations, such as mass refugee flows.

16.   With a view to addressing the humanitarian impact of sanctions,
the assistance of concerned international financial and other
intergovernmental and regional organizations should be sought for
providing an assessment of the humanitarian needs and the
vulnerabilities of target countries at the time of the imposition of
sanctions and regularly thereafter while they are being implemented. 
The appropriate department of the Secretariat could play a
coordinating role in this context.

17.   Guidelines for the formulation of the humanitarian exceptions
mentioned in paragraph 4 above should be developed, bearing in mind
that the humanitarian requirements may differ according to the stage
of development, geography, natural resources and other features of the
target country.

18.   Foodstuffs, medicines and medical supplies should be exempted
from United Nations sanctions regimes.  Basic or standard medical and
agricultural equipment and basic or standard educational items should
also be exempted; a list should be drawn up for that purpose.  Other
essential humanitarian goods should be considered for exemption by the
relevant United Nations bodies, including the sanctions committees. 
In this regard it is recognized that efforts should be made to allow
target countries to have access to appropriate resources and
procedures for financing humanitarian imports.

19.   The work of United Nations humanitarian agencies should be
facilitated in accordance with applicable Security Council resolutions
and sanctions committee guidelines.

20.   The concept of "humanitarian limits of sanctions" deserves
further attention and standard approaches should be elaborated by the
relevant United Nations bodies.

21.   The target country should exert all possible efforts to
facilitate equitable distribution and sharing of humanitarian
assistance.

22.   Having assumed great importance for a large number of countries,
specific sanctions regimes would necessitate the submission of special
reports by the Security Council to the General Assembly for its
consideration.

23.   The Secretary-General in his "Supplement to an Agenda for Peace"
noted that there was an urgent need for action to respond to the
expectations raised by Article 50 of the Charter.  He also noted that
sanctions were measures taken collectively and that the costs involved
in their application should be borne equitably by all Member States.

24.   More frequently resorted to in the recent past, sanctions have
been causing problems of an economic nature in third countries.  The
importance of the subject has been reflected in intensive
consideration of the question in its conceptual and specific forms by
the General Assembly in the last few years.

25.   Taking into account the importance of the resolutions adopted by
consensus, the Security Council, the General Assembly and other
relevant organs should intensify their efforts to address the special
economic problems of third countries affected by sanctions regimes. 
They should also take into consideration the proposals presented on
the subject during the debate in the Informal Open-Ended Working Group
of the General Assembly on an Agenda for Peace and other relevant
bodies.

26.   Bearing in mind that this question has been under intensive
discussion in the Sixth Committee and that those discussions are to
continue during the fifty-second session of the General Assembly, it
is agreed that this aspect should be addressed in an appropriate
manner by the Sixth Committee during that session.

27.   Security Council resolutions should include more precise mandates
for sanctions committees, including a standard approach to be followed
by the committees.

28.   The mandates of sanctions committees should be such that they can
be fulfilled in practical terms.

29.   While noting the improvements in the functioning of the sanctions
committees following upon the notes by the President of the Security
Council of 29 March 1995, 5/ 31 May 1995 6/ and 24 January 1996 7/
and that all committees are already working on the basis of those
notes, it is recognized that the process needs to be encouraged and
further developed.

30.   The sanctions committees should give priority to handling
applications for the supply of humanitarian goods meant for the
civilian population.  Those applications should be dealt with
expeditiously.

31.   The sanctions committees should give priority to the humanitarian
problems that could arise from the application of sanctions.  Whenever
they  consider that a humanitarian problem is about to arise in a
target country, such a situation should immediately be brought to the
attention of the Security Council.  The committees may suggest changes
in specific sanctions regimes to address particular humanitarian
issues with a view to taking urgent corrective steps.

32.   Likewise, when a committee considers that a sanctions enforcement
problem has arisen, it should bring the situation to the attention of
the Security Council.  The committees may suggest changes in specific
sanctions regimes to address particular enforcement issues with a view
to taking urgent corrective steps.

33.   Further improvements in the working methods of sanctions
committees that promote transparency, fairness and effectiveness and
help the committees to speed up their deliberations are necessary.

34.   Measures additional to those contemplated in the aforementioned
notes by the President of the Security Council might include, among
others, improvements in the decision-making procedures of the
sanctions committees and the possibility for affected States to
implement more effectively their right to make representation to the
committees against their decisions.

35.   Improvements in the "authorized signatory system" should be
sought so that delays in clearing proposals may be avoided.  The
reasons for putting applications on hold or blocking them should be
immediately communicated to the applicant.

36.   The practice of hearing technical presentations of information by
organizations assisting in the enforcement of Security Council
sanctions during closed meetings of the sanctions committees should be
continued, while respecting the existing procedures followed by such
committees.  The target or affected countries, as well as concerned
organizations, should be better able to exercise the right of
explaining or presenting their points of view to the sanctions
committees.  The presentations should be expert and comprehensive.

37.   Sanctions committee secretariats should be adequately staffed,
from within existing resources.  This is necessary to expedite the
processing of applications and the giving of clearances.

38.   Sanctions committees could analyse available information so as to
determine whether regimes are being effectively implemented.  They
could bring their conclusions and, if appropriate, recommendations in
this respect to the attention of the Security Council.

39.   Clarifying statements and decisions by the sanctions committees
are an important contribution to the uniform application of a given
sanctions regime.  Such statements and decisions must be consistent
with Security Council resolutions and with one another.



                                     Notes

1/    A/47/277-S/24111; see Official Records of the Security Council,
Forty-seventh Year, Supplement for April, May and June 1992, document
S/24111.

2/    A/50/60-S/1995/1; see Official Records of the Security Council,
Fiftieth Year, Supplement for January, February and March 1995,
document S/1995/1.

3/    Official Records of the Security Council, Fiftieth Year,
Resolutions and Decisions of the Security Council, 1995, document
S/PRST/1995/9.

4/    A/50/711-S/1995/911; see Official Records of the Security
Council, Fiftieth Year, Supplement for October, November and December
1995, document S/1995/911.

5/    Official Records of the Security Council, Fiftieth Year,
Supplement for January, February and March 1995, document S/1995/234.

6/    Ibid., Supplement for April, May and June 1995, document
S/1995/438.

7/    Ibid., Fifty-first Year, Supplement for January, February and
March 1996, document S/1996/54.

 

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