United Nations

A/RES/51/240


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

15 October 1997

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



Fifty-first session
Agenda item 96 (b)


                  RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

                    [without reference to a Main Committee
                          (A/AC.250/1 (Parts I-III))]


            51/240.     Agenda for Development


      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolution 49/126 of 19 December 1994, in which it
decided to establish an ad hoc open-ended working group of the
Assembly to elaborate further an action-oriented, comprehensive agenda
for development, which was to begin its work as early as possible in
1995 under the chairmanship of the President of the Assembly,

      1.    Takes note of the report of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working
Group of the General Assembly on an Agenda for Development; 1/

      2.    Adopts the Agenda for Development, as set forth in the annex
to the present resolution.


                                                         103rd plenary meeting
                                                                  20 June 1997


                                     ANNEX

                            Agenda for Development

1.    Development is one of the main priorities of the United
      Nations.  Development is a multidimensional undertaking to
      achieve a higher quality of life for all people.  Economic
      development, social development and environmental protection
      are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of
      sustainable development.

      Sustained economic growth is essential to the economic and
      social development of all countries, in particular
      developing countries.  Through such growth, which should be
      broadly based so as to benefit all people, countries will be
      able to improve the standards of living of their people
      through the eradication of poverty, hunger, disease and
      illiteracy, the provision of adequate shelter and secure
      employment for all and the preservation of the integrity of
      the environment.

      Democracy, respect for all human rights and fundamental
      freedoms, including the right to development, transparent
      and accountable governance and administration in all sectors
      of society, and effective participation by civil society are
      also an essential part of the necessary foundations for the
      realization of social and people-centred sustainable
      development.

      The empowerment of women and their full participation on a
      basis of equality in all spheres of society is fundamental
      for development.

2.    Building on the outcome of recent United Nations conferences and
other relevant agreements, the Agenda for Development aims at
invigorating a renewed and strengthened partnership for development,
based on the imperatives of mutual benefits and genuine
interdependence.  It testifies to the renewed commitments of all
countries to mobilize national and international efforts in pursuit of
sustainable development and to revitalize and strengthen international
cooperation for development.  In that context, the Agenda for
Development acknowledges the primacy of national policy and measures
in the development process and calls for action towards a dynamic and
enabling international economic environment, including an open, rule-
based, equitable, secure, non-discriminatory, transparent and
predictable multilateral trading system and promotion of investment
and transfer of technology and knowledge, as well as for enhanced
international cooperation in the mobilization and provision of
financial resources for development from all sources, the strategy for
durable solutions to the external debt and debt-servicing problems of
developing countries and the efficient use of available resources.


                           I. SETTING AND OBJECTIVES

                                  A. Setting

                        Development, peace and security

3.    Peace and development are closely interrelated and mutually
supportive.  Development should also be pursued in its own right. 
Development is indispensable to the achievement and maintenance of
peace and security both within and among nations.  Without development
there can be neither peace nor security.  There is complementarity
between the processes related to the Agenda for Development and the
Agenda for Peace.  For peace and stability to endure, national action
and effective international cooperation are required to promote a
better life for all in larger freedom, a critical element of which is
the eradication of poverty.  

4.    Development cannot be attained in the absence of peace and
security or in the absence of respect for all human rights and
fundamental freedoms.  Under conditions of war, and during periods of
short-term emergencies and humanitarian needs, development efforts are
often neglected, diminished or abandoned.  Excessive military
expenditures, arms trade and investment for arms production,
acquisition and stockpiling have a negative impact on development
prospects.  With the relaxation of international tensions the
opportunity exists for reducing, as appropriate, military expenditures
and investments for arms production and acquisition, consistent with
national security requirements, in order to increase resources for
social and economic development.

(a)   Globalization, regional cooperation and interdependence:  the
      need for a commitment for partnership

5.    Profound changes have occurred, especially coupled with the end
of the cold war, which question some of the traditional ways of
addressing the challenge of development.

6.    One such increasingly important change affecting all countries is
the process of market-driven globalization, including as a result of
rapid progress in information exchange and telecommunications. 
Globalization encompasses the varying degrees of increasing
integration of world markets of goods, services, capital, technology
and labour.  This has generated greater openness and freer movement of
factors of production and has created greater opportunities for
international cooperation.  Greatly increased trade and capital flows
and technological developments open new opportunities for growth of
the world economy, particularly in developing countries.  Wider
dissemination of ideas, cultures and lifestyles brought about by
innovations in transportation and communications are also important
manifestations of the globalization process.  Globalization permits
countries to share experiences and to learn from one another's
achievements and difficulties and promotes a cross-fertilization of
ideals, cultural values and aspirations, taking into account the
recognition of cultural diversity.

7.    Globalization of the world economy presents opportunities and
challenges for the development process, as well as risks and
uncertainties.  As a result of the process of globalization and
growing interdependence in the economic, social and environmental
fields, an increasing number of issues cannot be effectively addressed
by countries individually.  Therefore, international cooperation is
required.  Furthermore, non-State actors with a global reach, such as
transnational corporations, private financial institutions and
non-governmental organizations, have important roles to play in the
emerging network of international cooperation.

8.    Greater interdependence among States has accelerated the
international transmission of macroeconomic policy decisions and
therefore their effects throughout the global economy.  This is
particularly true for the development prospects of the developing
countries, which have been particularly affected by globalization. 

9.    Global financial integration presents new challenges and
opportunities for the international community.  Sound domestic
macroeconomic policies in each country for promoting macroeconomic
stability and growth are primary elements for determining private
capital flows, and the coordination of macroeconomic policies, where
appropriate, and a favourable international economic environment play
an important role in reinforcing their effectiveness.  The
globalization of financial markets can generate new risks of
instability, including interest rate and exchange rate fluctuations
and volatile short-term capital flows, which require all countries to
pursue sound economic policies and to recognize the external economic
impact of their domestic policies.  There is a need for the expansion
of private capital flows and for broader access by all developing
countries to these flows, and therefore a need for the international
community to assist low-income countries, especially those in Africa,
in their efforts to create an enabling environment necessary to
attract such flows.

10.   Increasing the capacity to respond to these trends requires sound
domestic policies as well as a favourable international economic
environment.  Although new growth poles are emerging in a number of
developing countries which will provide an increasing share of the
stimulus to world development, it is likely that the role of the
developed countries in world finance will remain preponderant for a
long time.  The policies they follow in their domestic affairs will,
in the increasingly globalized capital markets, be of decisive
importance for the rest of the world as they have a significant
influence on world economic growth and, consequently, over the
international economic environment.

11.   Notwithstanding the importance of a favourable international
economic environment, ultimately each country bears primary
responsibility for its own economic and social policies for
development.  In order to take advantage of a rapidly integrating
world economy, all countries should adopt sound and stable domestic
policies, address external and internal imbalances and encourage a
continuous process of adjustment.  Sound national policies are also
essential for cushioning external shocks.  National policies of all
countries would also benefit from improved political institutions and
legal systems.  In this context, the international community should
give strong support to the efforts of developing countries to solve
their serious social and economic problems and should promote a
favourable international economic environment for development.

12.   Globalization and interdependence are deepening the need and
creating greater opportunities for international cooperation.  The
problems and questions that globalization and interdependence bring in
their wake show that there clearly exists a shared, common interest
among all countries in solving and answering them.  International
development cooperation, which is not only founded in solidarity but
also based on mutual interest and partnership, forms an essential part
of this effort.  With the waning of ideological confrontations, the
rise in globalization and the deepening of interdependence among
nations, the historic opportunity has arisen for constructive dialogue
among all countries, in particular among the developed and developing
countries, and political mobilization for the promotion of
international cooperation for development based on genuine partnership
and mutuality of interests and benefits.  The present Agenda for
Development manifests our commitment to grasp this opportunity.

13.   The deepening interdependence among countries has already led to
the emergence and strengthening of regional economic groupings and
arrangements.  They are recognized as important catalysts for global
economic growth and expansion of trade.  They offer a framework for
fostering and enhancing cooperation among States not only on economic
policy but on other areas of common concern as well.  Regional
economic groupings and arrangements that are outward oriented,
supportive of and complementary to the multilateral trading system are
important actors in the global development process.

(b)   Variety of development experiences and impact of globalization

14.   Development experiences among countries reflect differences with
both progress and setbacks.  A number of developing countries have
experienced rapid economic growth in the recent past and have become
dynamic partners in the international economy.  These countries, which
maintain a high rate of economic growth, have increased their share in
world trade and foreign direct investment, thereby expanding their
role in the global economy.

15.   At the same time, developing countries continue to face
difficulties participating in the globalization process.  Many risk
being marginalized and effectively excluded from the globalization
process.  Many of them continue to be mired in poverty, hunger,
malnutrition and economic stagnation, including slow or negative
economic growth.  The global changes in finance, communications and
technology have largely bypassed them, despite their efforts at
undertaking economic reforms, including structural adjustment
programmes.  The gap between the developed and developing countries
remains unacceptably wide.  Imbalances and uncertainties continue to
exist in the global economy, which affect all countries but in
particular the interests of the developing countries.  We reiterate
the need for broadening and strengthening the participation of
developing countries in the international economic decision-making
process.

16.   The development spectrum ranges widely not only among countries
but also within countries.  The varied country situations indicate
that, in addition to overall measures needed for the promotion of a
favourable international economic environment for development, there
is a need for specific measures in particular country situations. 
Success will often depend on the removal of key constraints, which
vary greatly from country to country.  Cooperation among developing
countries and sharing their experiences can greatly contribute to
achieving such success.  It also requires that international
development cooperation has to take into account the respective plans,
programmes, needs, priorities and policies of developing countries.  A
new international partnership is required for development at the
national, subregional, regional and international levels. 

(c)   Critical situations and special problems in developing countries

Critical situation in Africa

17.   The critical socio-economic situation in Africa is of priority
concern.  Africa is the only region where poverty is expected to
continue to increase substantially.  Much of the continent suffers
from, inter alia, inadequate physical and institutional
infrastructure, poor human resource development, lack of food
security, malnutrition, hunger, widespread epidemics and diseases and
unemployment and underemployment.  These conditions are further
compounded by a number of conflict and disaster situations.  All these
diverse limitations and constraints make it difficult for Africa to
benefit fully from the processes of globalization and liberalization
of trade and to integrate fully into the world economy.  Increased
mobilization of domestic and external resources for development, as
well as their more effective use, are critical for the success of the
economic and political reforms undertaken by African countries. 
International solidarity is fundamental to Africa's development and
international cooperation and support must necessarily complement the
national resources mobilized by the African countries themselves.

Critical situation in the least developed countries

18.   The critical situations of the least developed countries, which
are particularly marginalized from the world economy, require the
priority attention of the entire international community, in support
of appropriate domestic economic and social policies.  The heavy
burden of debt and debt servicing on their economies, deterioration in
the terms of trade, decline in real terms in recent years in the
overall level of official development assistance and limited flows of
private resources are some of the main factors that impede the already
limited opportunities for these countries to participate in and
benefit from the processes of globalization and liberalization.  By
most measures of economic and human well-being, the least developed
countries lag seriously behind.  Their social indicators are
consistently low and have worsened in some cases.  Their institutional
and physical infrastructures are fragile and therefore enhanced
national and international support is required to strengthen them.

Special problems in small island developing States

19.   The special problems of small island developing States also need
to be given priority attention by the international community.  The
special challenges and constraints to their development arising from,
inter alia, their limited market size and resource base, their
particular transportation and communication problems and their high
degree of vulnerability to natural and environmental disaster need to
be addressed.

Special problems in landlocked developing countries

20.   Lack of territorial access to the sea, aggravated by remoteness
and isolation from world markets and prohibitive transit costs and
risks, impose serious constraints on the overall socio-economic
development efforts of the landlocked developing countries.  The
special challenges and constraints specific to these countries need to
be addressed.

(d)   Post-cold-war realities and challenges

      (i)   Special problems and features of countries with economies in
            transition

21.   The special problems and features of countries with economies in
transition require particular attention in the post-cold-war era.  The
dual transition to democracy and to a market economy makes their
situation especially complex, particularly regarding their economic
growth and sustainable development.  This ongoing process is guided by
and based on  respect for human rights, transparent, representative
and accountable governance, the rule of law and civil peace.

22.   Considerable strains are put on the social fabric of the
societies of the countries with economies in transition.  Structural
adjustments bring economic benefits but are causing social problems
which were unknown before the transition.  Severe environmental
degradation, a worsening population situation and the problem of
conversion of military production to civilian in those countries are
of primary concern.

23.   The completion of the transition process and the integration of
those countries into the world economy and their effective involvement
in the multilateral institutions will have a positive impact not only
on the countries themselves but also on the global economy.  Thus, it
is especially important for them to promote effective cooperation in
trade, economy, finance, science and technology with all countries and
regions.  Their integration should  contribute to economic cooperation
with developing countries and to mutually beneficial exchanges of
scientific and industrial know-how.  Increased cooperation among
countries with economies in transition will also be important.  In
order to bring this integration about in a speedy manner, effective
international support for reforms in those countries is essential both
in terms of financial resources and of institutional expertise.  The
measures that should be undertaken in this regard must ensure the
maximization of the benefits from, and the minimization of the
negative effects of, trends in the world economy for all countries, in
particular for developing countries.

      (ii)  The end of the cold war and the developing countries

24.   While the end of the cold war has fostered a new spirit of
dialogue and cooperation at the global political level, there is a
need to improve the international economic environment so that it is
more conducive to the socio-economic development of developing
countries, including through the fulfilment of commitments agreed to
at the recent major United Nations conferences.

25.   In the post-cold-war situation, the record of development is so
far a mixed one.  The successful conclusion of the Uruguay Round of
multilateral trade negotiations, the consensus on development arising
from recent major United Nations conferences and the expansion in
private flows to developing countries are positive developments.  On
the other hand, the recent decline in real terms of official
development assistance, the deterioration in terms of trade and the
risk of marginalization from the world economy of developing
countries, in particular the least developed countries, are particular
concerns.  The international community and multilateral financial
institutions and the World Trade Organization should focus their
attention on ways to address these concerns effectively.

(e)   Democracy, transparent and accountable governance and the
      promotion and protection of all human rights and fundamental
      freedoms, including the right to development

26.   The waning of ideological conflicts has improved the climate of
cooperation at all levels.  Although there is no universal
prescription for successful development, a consensus has emerged,
inter alia, that economic development, social development and
environmental protection are interdependent and mutually reinforcing
components of sustainable development, which is the framework of our
efforts to achieve a higher quality of life for all people.  In this
context, we reaffirm that democracy, development and respect for human
rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development,
are interdependent and mutually reinforcing.

27.   Respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, democratic
and effective institutions, combating corruption, transparent,
representative and accountable governance, popular participation, an
independent judiciary, the rule of law and civil peace are among the
indispensable foundations for development.  At the same time, we
reaffirm that the right to development is a universal and inalienable
right and an integral part of human rights.  As stated in the
Declaration on the Right to Development, 2/ the human person is the
central subject of development.  Development facilitates the enjoyment
of all human rights, but the lack of development may not be invoked to
justify the abridgement of internationally recognized human rights.

28.   Efforts to reinforce democratic institutions and actions are
vital for achieving peace and economic and social progress.  Social
stability, needed for productive growth, is nurtured by conditions in
which people can readily express their will.  For this, strong
national participatory institutions are essential.

29.   The existence of widespread absolute poverty inhibits the full
and effective enjoyment of human rights and renders democracy and
popular participation fragile.  It is unacceptable that absolute
poverty, hunger and disease, lack of adequate shelter, illiteracy and
hopelessness should be the lot of over one billion people.  We commit
ourselves to the goal of eradicating poverty in the world through
decisive national actions and international cooperation as an ethical
social, political and economic imperative of humankind.

30.   Democracy, which is spreading everywhere, has raised development
expectations everywhere.  Their non-fulfilment risks the rekindling of
non-democratic forces.  Structural reforms that do not take social
realities into account could destabilize democratization processes as
they impede the fulfilment of those expectations.  While it is
recognized that States have the primary responsibility for securing a
sound and stable national political, economic and social environment
for development, international support, at the request of interested
Governments, and the creation of a favourable international economic
environment are crucial ingredients in this effort.

31.   It is increasingly recognized that the State's role in
development should be complemented by other relevant actors of civil
society, including the private sector.  The State has the overall
responsibility in various areas, including social, economic and
environmental policy formulation, and for creating an enabling
environment for the private sector; the State should encourage
effective participation by the private sector and major groups in
activities that complement and reinforce national objectives.

32.   Every State has an inalienable right to choose its political,
economic, social and cultural systems, without interference in any
form by another State.  By virtue of the principle of equal rights and
self-determination of peoples enshrined in the Charter of the United
Nations, all peoples have the right freely to determine, without
external interference, their political status and to pursue their
economic, social and cultural development, and every State has the
duty to respect this right in accordance with the provisions of the
Charter.

                                 B. Objectives

          1. Strengthening international cooperation for development

(a)   Implementing all international agreements and commitments for
      development

33.   The new opportunities, challenges and risks opened by the
globalization of and growing interdependence in the world economy, the
critical situation and special problems in many developing countries
and the special problems of economies in transition heighten the need
for strengthened international cooperation.  A strong political will
is essential to sustain such cooperation.  Through the present Agenda,
we renew our commitment and seek to impart new vigour to a global
partnership for development.

34.   The international community has convened over the past five years
or so a number of major conferences and meetings that have adopted
decisions and made commitments on key development issues aimed at
reinvigorating the development process and international cooperation
for development.  These include the Declaration on International
Economic Cooperation, in particular the Revitalization of Economic
Growth and Development of the Developing Countries, 3/ the
International Development Strategy for the Fourth United Nations
Development Decade, 4/ the World Conference on Education for All held
at Jomtien, Thailand, the Second United Nations Conference on the
Least Developed Countries, the World Summit for Children, the United
Nations New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s, 5/ the
Cartagena Commitment, 6/ Agenda 21 7/ and the various consensus
agreements and conventions adopted before, at or after the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the World
Conference on Human Rights, the Global Conference on the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States, the International
Conference on Population and Development, the World Summit for Social
Development, the Fourth World Conference on Women, the ninth session
of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the United
Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and the World
Food Summit.

35.   Those conferences bear witness that the United Nations system is
and should continue to be more actively involved in the full spectrum
of development issues.  The accords, commitments and internationally
agreed targets reached at those conferences should be fully
implemented by all States and international organizations.  Only
through full implementation can we give credence to the notion that
these development initiatives are truly a priority issue for the
international community.

36.   Such implementation requires foremost political will by all
actors at all levels.  Too often the gap between what has been agreed
and what has been implemented leaves much to be desired at both the
national and the international levels.  The commitments we have made
individually and collectively need to be fulfilled if the development
needs of all countries, particularly the developing countries, are to
be addressed effectively.

37.   To this end we reaffirm, through the present Agenda for
Development, the continued relevance of the agreements reached at
these international conferences and other meetings of the United
Nations and stress the need for an integrated, interrelated and
coherent implementation of and coordinated follow-up to the outcomes
of those conferences.

(b)   Enhancing the role, capacity, effectiveness and efficiency of the
      United Nations system in development

38.   As we approach the twenty-first century, it is the collective
responsibility of the international community to ensure that within
the multidimensional and integrated character of its mandate the
United Nations system is equipped to show leadership in the fulfilment
of the commitments made on international cooperation for development
and to serve as a forum for the expression of global goals and as an
advocate for the promotion and protection of all human rights,
including the right to development and the protection of the
environment, as well as to respond to humanitarian assistance
requirements and to maintain peace and international security.

39.   The United Nations system, by virtue of its global reach, its
universal membership, its impartiality and the unique and
comprehensive mandate reflected in its Charter, has a vital role to
play in the development process.  Enhancing that role, capacity,
effectiveness and efficiency requires a continuous focus on
development issues and ensuring its sound financial basis.

40.   The wide array of issues which the United Nations system
addresses is reflected in its various functions, such as those of the
specialized agencies, including the Bretton Woods institutions, and
the regional commissions.  Each part of the system has a specific role
to play in addressing those issues.  Relative strengths and weaknesses
among the various parts of the system cannot be ignored.  Enhancing
the role, capacity, effectiveness and efficiency of the United Nations
system has to take those basic facts into account and programmes
should be concentrated on areas where particular needs and the special
capacity of the Organization converge.

41.   However, overarching these considerations of efficiency and
effectiveness of delivery is the political dimension of the
development agenda.  The United Nations is unique because it conducts
international political debates on all issues in the economic, social
and related fields.  These debates should provide political impetus to
other forums to undertake the necessary policies and measures.  Hence,
the political interaction of the United Nations not only with Member
States, the specialized agencies, including the Bretton Woods
institutions, and the regional commissions, as well as with
organizations such as the World Trade Organization, but also with
non-State actors should be intensified with a view to enhancing
effective action and coordination among them in the economic, social
and related fields.

42.   The present Agenda for Development sets out a new framework for
international cooperation, defines the role of the United Nations and
how both can make a particular contribution, sets out the development
priorities as well as time-frames for implementation and keeps the
implementation of the development agenda under political review.

           2. Promoting development based on an integrated approach

43.   Sustained economic growth is essential for expanding the resource
base for development and hence for economic, technical and social
transformation.  It generates the required financial, physical, human
and technological resources.  It is also essential to the eradication
of poverty.  An open and equitable framework for trade, investment and
technology transfer, as well as enhanced cooperation in the management
of a globalized world economy and in the formulation and
implementation of macroeconomic policies, are critical for the
promotion of growth and development.  While the private sector is a
motor for economic growth, the Government has an active and essential
role in the formulation of economic, social and environmental
policies.

44.   In order to ensure an integrated approach to development centred
on human beings and to achieve sustainable development, economic
growth on its own is not sufficient and environmental protection
cannot be considered in isolation from the development process.  The
goal of development is the improvement of human well-being and the
quality of life.  This involves the eradication of poverty, the
fulfilment of the basic needs of all people and the protection of all
human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to
development.  It requires that Governments apply active social and
environmental policies and promote and protect all human rights and
fundamental freedoms on the basis of democratic and widely
participatory institutions.

45.   Investments in health, education and training are particularly
critical in the development of human resources and should be pursued
in such a way that everyone, both women and men, are given an equal
opportunity to participate actively and productively in the
development process.  The improvement of the role and status of women,
including their empowerment, is central to all efforts to achieve
sustainable development in its economic, social and environmental
dimensions.  Diversion of resources away from social priorities and
needs should be avoided and, where it has occurred, be corrected. 
Basic social programmes and expenditures, in particular those
affecting people living in poverty and the disadvantaged and
vulnerable groups of society, should be protected from budget
reductions.  When formulating and implementing structural adjustment
policies and programmes such considerations should be taken into
account.

46.   Development is and should be centred on human beings.  Economic
development, social development and environmental protection are
interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable
development, which is the framework of efforts to achieve a higher
quality of life for all people.  As the well-being of human beings
depends on all facets of development, a multidimensional approach to
development is essential.  Therefore, any formulation of strategies,
policies and national, subregional, regional and international actions
has to be based on an integrated and comprehensive approach.  It is in
this spirit that we frame the present Agenda for Development.  All of
the areas identified for action are closely interrelated for
implementation of the Agenda.


            II. POLICY FRAMEWORK, INCLUDING MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION

47.   An encouraging development in recent years has been the almost
universal pursuit of increased economic openness and integration. 
This has contributed to a growing economic and social interdependence
among countries.  It is a common responsibility and in the common
interest to ensure that these trends continue and also to ensure that
all countries benefit from them.  The last point is fundamental:  the
benefits attributable to these various changes have been widespread,
but they have been neither universal nor achieved without costs.  A
primary objective of the implementation of the present Agenda should
be to contribute in such a way that the benefits stemming from future
growth and development are distributed equitably among all countries
and peoples.

48.   Achieving and maintaining an international environment favourable
to all countries is in the interest of all countries.  Global
economic, environmental and social issues can be approached
effectively only through a constructive dialogue and genuine
partnership among all countries.  This requires recognition not only
of the mutuality of interests and benefits but also of common, though
differentiated, responsibilities.  This mutual understanding has
permeated the ongoing sequence of United Nations world conferences and
summits.

49.   However, some of the commitments and agreements for development,
including those referring to international development cooperation,
resulting from these conferences and summits, as well as from previous
international undertakings, remain to be fulfilled.  Those
commitments, as well as the new and additional priority actions
identified here, should be implemented in the spirit of solidarity and
partnership.  In this context, efforts should be made to mobilize
public support for development cooperation, inter alia, through a
strategy based on partnership between developed and developing
countries, which incorporates, as appropriate, mutually agreed goals
for development.

                            A. Economic development

1. Macroeconomic policies geared towards sustained economic growth and
sustainable development

50.   National developmental policies should be formulated in
conformity with national needs, conditions and development priorities
and should take into account the lessons learned from decades of
development experience.  Among the latter, the dynamic role of the
private sector and the contribution of human resource development in
creating wealth figure prominently.  The challenge for public
authorities is, inter alia, to develop and implement policies that are
conducive to prosperity and that eradicate poverty and conserve the
environment.

51.   To this end, Governments should encourage a supportive
environment for the private sector, including active competition
policies, the application of the rule of law, an open framework for
trade and investment and sound fiscal and monetary policies.  In the
area of finance, policies need both to promote domestic savings and to
attract external resources for productive investment.  For both
purposes, it is necessary to improve the efficiency of domestic
financial markets.  Addressing the needs of people living in poverty
and the disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of society, and the
creation of more and better jobs, requires attention to be given to
conducive macroeconomic policies and to such issues as human resources
development, gender equality, public participation and social
integration.  Social and environmental factors should be considered as
important elements to be taken into account by all countries in the
formulation and implementation of macroeconomic policies.  Particular
attention should be paid to the effect of structural adjustment
programmes on people living in poverty and on disadvantaged and
vulnerable groups of society.

52.   Increased economic integration and interdependence place greater
responsibilities than before on all countries, but particularly the
developed countries, to contribute to ensuring that their domestic
policies are favourable to economic growth and development in the rest
of the world.  National and international actions are closely
interrelated and should be seen as mutually reinforcing components of
the overall goal of achieving development.  In order to foster a
supportive international environment for development, countries should
pursue economic stability, full employment, a low rate of inflation,
sustainable external and internal balances, including the avoidance of
excessive budget deficits, low long-term real interest rates and a
measure of exchange rate stability.  They should also ensure open
financial and commercial markets and, where appropriate, provide
concessional aid flows.  

53.   International cooperation in the formulation and implementation
of macroeconomic policies should be reinforced with a view to
promoting greater coherence and consistency of domestic policies and
thereby enhancing their effectiveness.  Measures should also be taken
to broaden cooperation among monetary authorities in order to maintain
a sound international financial system.  This enhanced cooperation
should take full account of the interests and concerns of all
countries.  Multilateral surveillance should correspondingly address
the policies and measures of all countries.  

                    2. International trade and commodities

54.   The growing, though far from complete, integration of all
countries in world trade and investment represents a historic
structural change in international economic relations.  In recent
years, trade of developing countries has increased, largely as a
result of their liberalization policies concerning trade and
investment.  The expansion of their markets appears to be creating a
virtuous circle in which mutually beneficial liberalization of trade
and investment can become a major means for generating the resources
necessary for development.

55.   The liberalization of trade regimes and the promotion of an open
and secure multilateral trading system are central requirements for
the promotion of economic development.  All Governments should commit
themselves to the liberalization of trade and investment policies and
should foster international cooperation towards this goal.  All
countries have a shared interest in an open, ruled-based, equitable,
non-discriminatory, transparent and predictable multilateral trading
system.  While many provisions in this area have been identified by
the General Assembly over the last five years, the agreements as
represented by the World Trade Organization are particularly
important.  In this regard, the World Trade Organization's dispute
settlements mechanism is a key element for the credibility of the
multilateral trade system.  The commitments agreed upon in the Final
Act of the Uruguay Round 8/ should be implemented fully.  Unilateral
actions of a protectionist nature, inconsistent with multilateral
trade agreements, should be avoided and prevented.  Appropriate
monitoring measures should be established to ensure that, in the
implementation of the Uruguay Round, the rights, interests and
concerns of all countries are protected, recognized and redressed.

56.   There is a need to promote greater integration in the world
economy of those countries that have not yet benefited from the
overall increase in trade and investment flows, in particular African
countries and the least developed countries.  Special attention should
be given to the full implementation of the specific provisions for the
least developed countries, including the provisions emanating from the
Marrakesh agreements, and to the needs of the net food-importing
developing countries, so that all countries benefit fully from the
results of the Uruguay Round.  These measures will also require
domestic efforts to promote greater diversification of trade of those
countries and to increase the competitiveness of their trading
sectors.

57.   Efforts to make trade and environment policies mutually
supportive in favour of sustainable development should continue. 
Trade liberalization measures should be complemented by sound
environmental policies, but measures adopted for environmental
purposes should not become a means of arbitrary and unjustifiable
trade discrimination or a disguised form of protectionism.  In the
same vein, social concerns should not be used for protectionist
purposes.

58.   Commodity exports continue to play a key role in the economies of
many developing countries, especially in terms of their export
earnings, the livelihoods of their people, and the dependence of
general economic vitality on those exports.  This makes the continuing
deterioration in their terms of trade of special concern, even if
there is some recent evidence of improvement in the prices of some
primary commodities.  Increased participation of developing countries
in the processing, marketing and distribution of their commodities, if
accompanied by improved market access, provides an alternative means
for ensuring greater value added, as well as predictability and
increased export earnings, from commodity production.  This
diversification will require such countries to continue their
macroeconomic, trade and investment policy reforms.

59.   It will also require a strong commitment by the international
community to support such policy reforms.  The international community
should endeavour to improve the functioning of commodity markets, with
greater transparency and more stable and predictable conditions. 
There should be further evaluation of the usefulness of commodity
agreements in this regard, taking into account the potential of new
financial and trading instruments and techniques.  Improved market
access for primary commodities, especially in their processed forms,
should be provided, particularly by developed countries.  They should
also respond favourably to requests for technical assistance aimed at
enhancing the diversification of the export sector in those developing
countries which are highly dependent on the export of a limited number
of commodities.  The strengthening of multilateral compensatory
financing schemes is a further means of addressing the short-term
difficulties that can arise as a result of heavy dependence on
commodity exports.  

60.   The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development must build
upon its comparative advantage and offer support appropriate to the
needs of developing countries to ensure that they participate in the
world economy on a more equitable basis.  Its policy research and
analytical work must illuminate the changes in the global economy as
they relate to trade, investment, technology, services and
development.  This work should be undertaken in cooperation with the
World Trade Organization and other relevant international
institutions.

                  3. Issues of internal and external finance

(a)   Mobilization of domestic resources for development

61.   Both domestic and external resources are required for
development.  In most countries, domestic savings contribute by far
the larger part of the resources utilized for investment and are
mainly mobilized through national fiscal and monetary policies,
including equitable taxation and fiscal incentives.  Exploring new
ways of generating new public and private financial resources, inter
alia, through the appropriate reduction of excessive military
expenditures, including global military expenditures and the arms
trade and investments for arms production and acquisition, taking into
consideration national security requirements, will be undertaken so as
to allow possible allocation of additional funds for social and
economic development.

62.   The experiences of those developing countries which have achieved
high rates of economic growth in recent years show that sustained
economic growth is linked to an effective strategy for domestic
resource mobilization.  Those economies have maintained significantly
higher rates of national savings and investment than other developing
countries.  However, some developing countries have limited scope for
increasing savings because of their low per capita income levels and
because levels of consumption are already low and are difficult to
restrain further; those countries will continue to need substantial
external resources as an important complement to domestic efforts to
stimulate their development.

(b)   External resources

63.   Total net resource flows to developing countries have expanded
rapidly in the 1990s.  However, the trend has not been universal, in
terms of either the types of financing or the recipients.  Within the
total, official (public sector) flows have languished; all the growth
has been accounted for by an increase in the private sector component. 
Secondly, while some low-income countries have been the recipients of
the increased private sector capital flows, others have not benefited
at all.

(c)   External debt

64.   There is an urgent need for effective, equitable,
development-oriented and durable solutions to the external debt and
debt-servicing problems of developing countries and to help them to
exit from the rescheduling process.  The evolving debt strategy has
contributed to the improvement in the debt situation of a number of
developing countries.  Debt-relief measures have been undertaken by
creditor countries both within the framework of the Paris Club and
through their cancellation and equivalent relief of bilateral official
debt.  Nevertheless, external debt and debt-servicing problems have
persisted, particularly for the poorest and most heavily indebted
countries.  Debt-servicing problems of middle-income countries should
continue to be addressed effectively. 

65.   Those developing countries that have continued, at great cost to
themselves, to meet their international debt and debt-servicing
obligations in a timely fashion have done so despite serious external
and domestic financial constraints.

(d)   Official development assistance

66.   Official development assistance is a small proportion of a
country's total resources for development, but is a significant source
of external resources for many developing countries, particularly
African countries and the least developed countries.  As such, it can
play an important complementary and catalytic role in promoting
economic growth.  Despite its critical importance, the overall decline
in official development assistance is a serious cause for concern. 

(e)   Role of multilateral financial institutions

67.   The multilateral financial institutions have an important role to
play in meeting the challenges and urgent needs of development and the
commitments made at a series of recent international conferences. 
Renewed efforts should be made in order to provide them with resources
commensurate with their role, while pursuing ongoing efforts to
increase efficiency and effectiveness. So  that international
financial facilities, particularly the International Development
Association, have more positive effects on development, the
commitments for their replenishment should be fully implemented in a
timely manner, thereby contributing more effectively to development.

(f)   United Nations financing for development

68.   At present, the capacity of United Nations funds and programmes
to respond to the needs of developing countries is being threatened by
the persistent insufficiency of resources for the operational
development activities of the United Nations, in particular the
decline in contributions to core resources.  At the same time, the
present sequence of global conferences and other international
meetings has resulted in a wide range of additional development
demands being imposed on the United Nations.  The efficiency,
effectiveness, accountability and impact of the operational activities
of the United Nations system must also be enhanced. 

(g)   Private investment flows

69.   Private resource flows to developing countries, including foreign
direct investment, have increased in recent years.  Key determinants
for attracting external private sector capital are, inter alia, a
stable domestic political, legal and economic environment, based on
the rule of law, sound economic policies and an openness to foreign
investment.  Other factors include the prospects for growth and a
favourable external environment.

70.   The growth in foreign direct investment in developing countries
is of particular importance since, in addition to finance, the
recipient economy usually benefits in terms of technology transfer and
enhanced access to export markets.  However, foreign direct investment
in developing countries, as well as the recent parallel surge in
international portfolio investment, has been concentrated in the more
advanced economies, the larger economies and those with high rates of
economic growth.  This situation needs to be addressed.  There is also
a need to promote favourable conditions for achieving international
stability in private capital flows and to prevent the destabilization
arising from swift movements of private capital flows.

(h)   Peace dividend

71.   When the cold war ended, a peace dividend appeared at hand.  The
relaxation of international tensions was thought to offer
opportunities for reducing military spending worldwide and for using
the resources so released to enhance spending on social and economic
development for the benefit of all countries.  There should be an
appropriate reduction of excessive military expenditures, including
global military expenditures and the arms trade, and investments for
arms production and acquisition, taking into consideration national
security requirements, so as to allow possible allocation of
additional funds for social and economic development.  While the
reduction in global political tensions has yielded many benefits, the
impact on development has not materialized in a tangible form or to
the extent that was foreseen. 

                           4. Science and technology

72.   The ability of countries to participate in, benefit from and
contribute to the rapid advances in science and technology can
significantly influence their development.  Hence, international
cooperation efforts should be intensified and strengthened towards
endogenous capacity-building in science and technology of developing
countries, including their capacity to utilize scientific and
technological developments from abroad and to adapt them to suit local
conditions.  There is a need to promote, facilitate and finance, as
appropriate, access to and transfer of environmentally sound
technologies and the corresponding know-how in particular to the
developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional
and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, taking into account the
need to protect intellectual property rights as well as the special
needs of developing countries.  In this regard, the international
community is called upon to meet all the objectives reaffirmed in
chapter 34 of Agenda 21. 

73.   Promotion of science and technology for development calls for a
clear definition of the respective roles in this area of the private
sector, Governments and international organizations.  The private
sector plays a role in the productive application of science and
technology and most commercially relevant technology is controlled by
the private sector.  Governments play a role in ensuring that there is
a propitious environment for the development, access to, transfer,
adaptation and application of environmentally sound technologies and
in providing appropriate regulatory frameworks and incentives for the
development of scientific and technological capabilities.  Promotion
of science and technology for development also requires a labour force
that has the professional and technical training necessary to utilize
newly introduced technologies.

74.   Developing countries should further advance their collective
efforts in promoting technology research, training, development and
dissemination, as well as facilitating access and exchange through
information and technology centres.  This development calls for
continued and enhanced support from the international community
through technical assistance and financing.  The international
community should also continue to promote the development of effective
and mutually beneficial technological cooperation between countries
with economies in transition and all other countries, including in the
area of new and emerging technologies.

75.   International cooperation can complement national science and
technology policy measures and is necessary in areas where global
interests are at stake.  The world community has a common interest in
the development and widespread dissemination of technology geared
towards environmental protection and conservation and the rational use
of energy and raw materials.  Governments should implement the
commitments they made in Agenda 21 on this subject.

                          5. South-South cooperation

76.   South-South cooperation is an integral and dynamic part of
international development cooperation.  The end of the cold war,
increasing globalization, liberalization, regional cooperation and
interdependence are all making such cooperation more imperative.  The
countries of the South exhibit common as well as varying development
experiences and know-how that offer many opportunities at the
bilateral, subregional, regional, interregional and international
levels for greater cooperation between them.  Grasping these
opportunities will result in a stronger basis for their self-reliance
and development as well as provide an important complement to
international development cooperation.

77.   Exploiting trade opportunities among countries of the South by
undertaking trade promotion activities, devising payment arrangements
and expanding availability of trade information is particularly
important.  At the same time, there are many other areas, such as
communications, information, transportation, investments, science and
technology, environment, food and agriculture, population, education
and human resource development, in which South-South cooperation can
be fostered and promoted.

78.   Technical cooperation, arrangements to improve market access,
technical and financial assistance, sharing of knowledge and
technology and exchange of information are some of the many ways and
actions by which developing countries that have been able to achieve
social and economic progress can assist those that have been less
successful.  The concept of triangular cooperation, which involves,
inter alia, technical, financial and other support by developed
countries and international organizations for South-South cooperation,
can also make a significant contribution to the promotion of
cooperation among developing countries.  All these collaborative
efforts should be accorded high priority and increased support from
the international community and assistance from all sources, including
relevant multilateral institutions and non-State actors.

                       6. Regional economic cooperation

79.   Regional economic integration and cooperation is increasingly
recognized as a means towards expanding trade and investment
opportunities, and for promoting economic growth and sustainable
development and other forms of cooperation between countries of
various regions.  Regional arrangements can also contribute to growth
of the world economy.

80.   Regional economic integration and cooperation should be actively
considered as a means of eliminating obstacles to trade and investment
and of fostering economic cooperation within a region.  However, there
is the risk that regional organizations may turn inward and that the
world will evolve into competing economic blocs.  Therefore,
reductions of barriers to trade and investment among members or
participants in regional groupings should be consistent with
internationally agreed rules, where applicable, and without detriment
to other economies.

81.   Regional economic groupings should be outward-oriented and
supportive of the multilateral trading system.  This requires a strong
commitment by the international community, in its pursuit of regional
economic integration and cooperation, to open regionalism within the
framework of an equitable, non-discriminatory and rule-based
multilateral trading system.

82.   Regional cooperation also provides a vehicle for addressing
environmental and social issues of common concern.  The development of
common approaches to environmental problems of a transboundary nature
is particularly pertinent.  National efforts at combating poverty and
unemployment and promoting social integration can also benefit from
regional cooperation.  Furthermore, possibilities could be explored
for using regional forums as a means of cooperation in supporting
national action to promote and protect all human rights and
fundamental freedoms, the rule of law and democratic institutions.

83.   Regional integration and cooperation should be complementary and
contributory to national policies and to global multilateralism.  In
order to take advantage of regionalism, multilateral economic and
trade institutions must have the capacity to accommodate regional
arrangements in their structures.  The challenge is to use both global
and regional arrangements in a mutually supportive way.

       7. Development in agriculture, industry and the services sectors

84.   The agricultural, industrial and services sectors need to be
developed in a balanced manner.  While it is recognized that the
private sector is the primary contributor to sectoral development,
Governments have an important role to play in creating the enabling
environment for sectoral development to flourish, particularly in the
agricultural and services sectors.  Besides promoting a dynamic and
competitive domestic economy, based on comparative advantages, and
providing physical and institutional infrastructures, domestic
sectoral policies should also seek to integrate the protection and
conservation of the environment and the achievement of social
development objectives into sectoral development plans.

85.   In implementing sectoral policies, particular attention should be
given to the potential of such policies to generate employment and
contribute to the eradication of poverty.  In this context, the
important contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises should be
recognized.  It is also essential to facilitate equal access of women
to resources, training, employment, market and trade and to strengthen
their economic capacity and commercial networks, as well as their
equal access to, and equal opportunity to participate in, scientific
and technological areas. 

86.   The agricultural sector remains the main source of income for the
majority of the population in developing countries.  Its
marginalization from the overall process of economic development
should be avoided.  Agricultural policies should particularly aim at
increasing food production, improving access to food by low-income
people and enhancing the income-generating potential of agriculture. 
Developing countries, with the support of the international community,
should promote the development of small and medium-sized
agro-industries and cooperatives and improve the processing,
transportation, distribution and marketing of food and other
agricultural products.  Governments should enhance, at the national
and local levels, the  income-generating potential of rural women by
facilitating their equal access to and control over productive
resources, land, credit, capital, property rights, development
programmes and cooperative structures.

87.   The industrial sector constitutes one of the key factors in
sustained economic growth and in achieving social objectives.  In
order to promote industrial development, policies in this area should
be geared towards ensuring the legal and institutional framework that
fosters entrepreneurship and attracts foreign investment, protecting
intellectual property rights and facilitating technology cooperation. 
Moreover, special support should be given to the promotion and
development of environmentally sustainable industry and attention
needs to be directed to rural industrial development, to
industrialization programmes for marginalized segments and regions and
to enhancing the role of women in industrial development.  

88.   The services sector is of increasing importance for the economies
of developing countries.  Developing countries should continue to
pursue policies to create conditions for the development of their
national services sector through the modernization of the necessary
infrastructure.  Measures should include enhancing the efficiency of
domestic sectors by encouraging human resource development and by
ensuring appropriate investment policies.  

89.   All countries should enhance the efficiency of domestic service
sectors through greater internal and external competition and by
ensuring the transparency, effectiveness and non-discriminatory nature
of domestic regulations, in accordance to each country's commitments,
and with the provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade,
including article IV on the increasing participation of developing
countries.  The developing countries face a major challenge of
strengthening the capabilities of their domestic services to derive
full benefits from the implementation of the General Agreement on
Trade in Services.  In this context, as reaffirmed at the ninth
session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
appropriate technical assistance should be extended to developing
countries to develop and strengthen their service sectors to help to
ensure that they reap the maximum benefits from liberalization of
trade in services.

90.   The domestic sectoral policies elaborated by developing countries
should be supported by favourable international action.  Trade
liberalization should be pursued on a global basis.  It should include
the liberalization of market access in sectors and modes of supply of
exports of interest to developing countries and should cover access to
technology on a commercial basis, to distribution channels and to
information networks.  With the growing internationalization of the
services sector, further action should be taken to facilitate the
participation of developing countries in international service
transactions.

                             B. Social development

91.   Equitable social development is a necessary foundation for
development and an important factor in the eradication of poverty. 
The commitments agreed upon at the World Summit for Social Development
should be fully implemented.

92.   The ultimate goal of development is to improve and enhance human
well-being and the quality of life of all people.  Social development
is best pursued if Governments actively promote empowerment and
participation in a democratic and pluralistic system respectful of all
human rights and fundamental freedoms.  Efforts to sustain broad-based
economic growth reinforce the promotion of social development. 
Processes to promote increased and equal economic opportunities, to
avoid exclusion and to overcome socially divisive disparities while
respecting diversity are also part of an enabling environment for
social development.

93.   It is the primary responsibility of States to attain social
development.  But the international community, the United Nations
system, the multilateral financial institutions, all regional
organizations and local authorities and all actors of civil society
also need to contribute their own share of efforts and resources to
promote social development and to reduce inequalities among people and
narrow the gap between developed and developing countries.  As part of
these shared responsibilities, interested developed and developing
country partners could agree on mutual commitments to allocate, on
average, 20 per cent of official development assistance and 20 per
cent of their national budget, respectively, to basic social
programmes.

                     1. Eradication of poverty and hunger

94.   Poverty continues to affect far too many people in the world. 
Hunger and malnutrition, ill-health, lack of access to safe drinking
water, little access to education and other public services and
resources, exclusion, lack of participation and violence are some of
the many aspects that characterize poverty.  Widespread poverty
affects the future of societies, as children growing up in poverty are
often permanently disadvantaged.  The burden of poverty is
disproportionately borne by women.  Although poverty occurs in all
countries, its extent and manifestation are particularly severe in
developing countries.

95.   The goal of eradicating poverty in the world is an ethical,
social, political and economic imperative.  It can be achieved only
through a multidimensional and integrated approach that combines
programmes targeted at people living in poverty with policies and
strategies that meet the basic needs of all, strengthen their
productive capacities, empower them to participate in decision-making
on policies that affect them, ensure access of all to productive
resources, opportunities and public services, enhance social
protection and reduce vulnerability.  Sustained and broad-based
economic growth, social development and environmental protection are
crucial for raising living standards and for eliminating poverty in a
sustained manner.

96.   At international conferences organized by the United Nations in
the recent years, Governments committed themselves to meet the basic
needs of all.  High priority should be placed on achieving and
monitoring the goals and targets set in the areas of education,
health, food security, shelter and access to safe drinking water and
sanitation, in partnership with major development actors.

97.   At the World Summit for Social Development, it was decided to
formulate or strengthen, preferably by 1996, national policies and
strategies geared to substantially reducing overall poverty in the
shortest possible time, reducing inequalities and eradicating absolute
poverty by a target date to be specified by each country.  National
budgets and policies should be designed with the strategic objective
of meeting basic needs, eradicating poverty and reducing inequalities.

98.   The eradication of poverty requires determined national actions. 
At the same time, the international community, bilaterally and through
the multilateral financial institutions and other international
organizations, should support the efforts of developing countries in
the eradication of poverty and in ensuring basic social protection.

99.   Commitments and targets agreed upon since 1990 to achieve the
overall goal of poverty eradication should be fully implemented by
Governments, in partnership with all development actors, the United
Nations system, including financial institutions, non-governmental
organizations and the international community as a whole.  The United
Nations system should make every effort to enhance the coordination of
actions relative to poverty eradication and to support developing
countries and other countries in that endeavour.

100.  Hunger and malnutrition continue to be the fate of hundreds of
millions of people, most of whom live in Africa and the least
developed countries.  Eliminating hunger and malnutrition and
achieving food security are major objectives of the present Agenda. 
Therefore, the institutional structures of the United Nations system
must be made more effective in this respect.

101.  The key to increasing food production lies in the sustainable
development of the agricultural sector and in improving market
opportunities.  Solving the problems in developing countries calls not
only for improving agricultural productivity, but also for financial
incentives to encourage investment in agriculture.  It is also
important to promote secure land tenure and access to resources and
technology for farmers, in particular women, whose role is crucial in
food supply and food security.  The macroeconomic and trade policy
issues and the social factors that constrain and limit the achievement
of food security in the least developed countries should also be
addressed.

102.  The international community should support the efforts of Africa
and the least developed countries to increase food security.  It
should strive to ensure coordinated and rapid delivery of food
assistance in situations of transitory food insecurity, in full
awareness of longer-term national and local development objectives and
the need to improve access to food of the most vulnerable groups of
the population.

                                 2. Employment

103.  Creating adequately and appropriately remunerated employment for
all and reducing unemployment and underemployment are essential for
combating poverty and for promoting social integration.

104.  Pursuing the goal of full employment should be a basic priority
of economic and social policies, so as to enable all men and women to
attain secure and sustainable livelihoods through freely chosen
productive employment and work.  At the World Summit for Social
Development, Governments agreed on those common goals and on a set of
objectives, policies and strategies to achieve them.

105.  Economic growth as well as the expansion of productive employment
should go hand in hand.  The expansion of adequately and appropriately
remunerated employment and the reduction of unemployment should be
placed at the centre of economic and social policies with the
participation of employers, workers and their respective
organizations.  The basic rights and interests of workers and the
quality of jobs should be ensured and the relevant conventions of the
International Labour Organization should be fully respected.  Also
essential is ensuring equal employment opportunities for women and
men.  Special efforts should be made against long-term and structural
unemployment and underemployment, particularly among youth and women. 
In employment creation, employment development strategies should take
into account the role of self-employment, entrepreneurship, small and
medium-sized enterprises and the informal sector.

106.  The United Nations should elaborate ways and means to implement,
follow up on and assess the outcome of the World Summit for Social
Development in relation to the goal of full employment through
expansion of productive employment and the reduction of unemployment. 
The General Assembly, through the Economic and Social Council with the
support of the Commission for Social Development and other relevant
bodies as well as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund,
should be involved in the implementation of, follow-up to and
assessment of international commitments on employment.  The
International Labour Organization, because of its mandate, has a
special role to play in this regard.

                             3. Social integration

107.  The aim of social integration is to create "a society for all",
where every individual, each with rights and responsibilities, has an
active role to play.  Since the founding of the United Nations, the
quest for humane, stable, safe, tolerant and just societies has shown
a mixed record.  While progress has been achieved in many areas, there
have also been negative developments, such as social polarization and
fragmentation, widening disparities and inequalities of income and
wealth within and among nations and marginalization of people,
families and social groups.  Even entire countries have been
negatively affected owing to rapid social change, economic
transformation, migration and major dislocations, particularly in
areas of armed conflicts and violence in its various manifestations.

108.  These are compelling reasons for actions by Governments,
individually and, as appropriate, jointly, to foster social cohesion,
while recognizing and protecting diversity.  An inclusive society must
be based on respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, on
non-discrimination, tolerance, equality of opportunity, solidarity,
security and respect for diversity, and on participation of all
people, including the vulnerable and disadvantaged groups and persons. 
The problems of crime, violence and abuse of and trafficking in drugs
should also be addressed.  International cooperation in the area of
drugs should be reinforced in accordance with the Global Programme of
Action adopted in the context of the international decade to fight
drug abuse.  In this context, the convening of a special session of
the General Assembly in order to consider the fight against the
illicit production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of
narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and related activities, and
to propose new strategies, methods, practical activities and specific
measures to strengthen international cooperation in addressing the
problem of illicit drugs is of the highest importance.

                        4. Human resources development

109.  At the World Conference on Education for All and the World Summit
for Social Development, Governments committed themselves to ensuring
universal access to quality education, attaining the highest possible
standards of physical and mental health and ensuring access of all to
primary health care.  This should include efforts to rectify
inequalities relating to social conditions, race, national origin, age
or disability, and between urban and rural areas.  Appropriate steps
should be taken to close the gender gap at all levels of education and
to ensure the full access of women to health care throughout the life
cycle.

110.  Quality education is critical for enabling people to develop
their full capacities in health and dignity and to participate
actively in the social, economic and political process of development. 
It is also crucial for achieving the objectives of economic
development.  Education and vocational training are the key to higher
productivity and allow faster and easier adaptation to technological
and economic change.  They are vital for job creation and combating
unemployment and for sustained growth.

111.  Resolute and vigorous national actions are crucial for developing
human resources.  Governments have committed themselves to formulating
or strengthening strategies for the eradication of illiteracy and
universalization of basic education.  The link between education and
training and labour market policies should be strengthened, so as to
facilitate the adaptation of workers and employers to changing
economic conditions, technologies and labour markets.  Not only should
the importance of higher education and scientific research be
emphasized, but also that of broadening the means and scope of basic
education, of enhancing the learning environment and of promoting
life-long learning.

112.  From the perspective of the economy at large, it is of great
importance that the requisite policies be applied to ensure human
resources development, including a satisfactory level of education and
training of the workforce and increasing their receptivity to
technological innovations, in particular in the field of information
technology.

113.  Efforts to achieve the goals of national "health for all"
strategies, in line with the Alma Ata conference declaration on
primary health care, 9/ should be expedited.  The need for an
integrated and intersectoral approach to health strategies has been
recognized, as well as the importance of strengthening national and
international efforts to prevent and combat epidemics and other
diseases that are endemic in many developing countries, and in
particular to address malaria and the spread of human immunodeficiency
virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) more effectively.

114.  At previous international conferences, Governments agreed upon a
set of goals and objectives for national and international efforts in
the areas of education, literacy and health, in particular maternal
and child health, and the control of major communicable diseases.  We
are committed to achieving those goals within the time-frame we agreed
to.

115.  Enhanced international cooperation is also called for to advance
human resources development.  Concerted efforts should be made to
support the efforts of developing countries, especially the least
developed countries and other countries in need to develop their human
resources.  Developed countries have an important role to play.  Human
resources development and institution-building can also be promoted
through cooperation among developing countries.  International
organizations, including the international financial institutions,
must give high priority to supporting the objectives of human
resources development and to integrating them into their policies,
programmes and operations.  Support might include exchange of
information and training and skill development programmes, as well as
the provision of other forms of assistance.

                             5. Human settlements

116.  More people than ever are living in absolute poverty and without
adequate shelter.  Inadequate shelter and homelessness are growing
plights in many countries, threatening standards of health, security
and even life itself.  Urban settlements have the ability to support
large numbers of people while limiting their impact on the natural
environment.  Yet many cities are witnessing harmful patterns of
growth, production and consumption, land use, mobility and degradation
of their physical infrastructure.

117.  At the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat
II), the international community adopted the goals and principles of
adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements development
in an urbanizing world.  It reaffirmed its commitment to the full and
progressive realization of the right to adequate housing, as provided
for in international instruments.  The international community also
subscribed to the principles and goals of equitable human settlements,
in which all people have equal access to housing, infrastructure,
health services, adequate food and water, education and open spaces. 
It affirmed that eradication of poverty is essential for sustainable
human settlements. 

118.  Sustainable development is essential to human settlements
development and gives full consideration to the needs and necessities
of achieving economic growth, social development and environmental
protection.  Special consideration should be given to the specific
situation and needs of developing countries, and, as appropriate, of
countries with economies in transition.  Human settlements shall be
planned, developed and improved in a manner that takes full account of
sustainable development principles and all their components, as set
out in Agenda 21 and related outcomes of the United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development.

119.  Formulation and implementation of strategies for human
settlements development are primarily the responsibility of each
country at national and local levels within the legal framework of
each country.  National plans of action and other relevant national
programmes and actions to achieve the goals of adequate shelter for
all and sustainable human settlements development will need to be
developed or strengthened, where appropriate, and their implementation
will need to be monitored and evaluated by Governments in close
cooperation with their partners in development at the national level. 
There is also a need for an enabling international environment and for
integrated approaches at the national and international levels to
support these efforts.

120.  New and additional financial resources from various sources are
necessary to achieve the goals of adequate shelter for all and
sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world.  The
existing resources available to developing countries - public,
private, multilateral, bilateral, domestic and external - need to be
enhanced through appropriate and flexible mechanisms and economic
instruments to support adequate shelter for all and sustainable human
settlements development.  These should be accompanied by concrete
measures for international technical cooperation and information
exchange.

121.  The United Nations system, in cooperation with all States and
with relevant international and non-governmental organizations also
has a key role to play in promoting international cooperation on the
provision of adequate shelter and sustainable human settlements
development in an urbanizing world as well as in rural areas. 

                            C. Empowerment of women

122.  While the status of women has advanced in some important respects
in the past decade, progress has been uneven, inequalities between men
and women have persisted and major obstacles remain to women's
empowerment, with serious consequences for the well-being of all
people.

123.  The Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action adopted by
the Fourth World Conference on Women 10/ are important contributions
to the advancement of women worldwide and must be translated into
effective action by all States, the United Nations system and other
organizations concerned, as well as non-governmental organizations.

124.  Empowering women is essential for achieving the goals of
sustainable development centred on human beings.  It requires
appropriate public policies to ensure that women enjoy all human
rights and fundamental freedoms and participate fully and equally in
all spheres of public life, including  decision-making.  Public
policies to promote women's economic potential and independence and
their full and equal participation in development are also essential
for the empowerment of women.  Before decisions are taken in the areas
of social and economic development and of the environment, an analysis
should be made of their impact on women and men respectively.

125.  Measures should be taken to ensure the full enjoyment by women
and the girl child of all human rights and fundamental freedoms. 
Actions to be taken by States in this regard include fulfilling their
commitments regarding the ratification of, accession to and the
implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women 11/ so that universal ratification of
the Convention can be achieved by the year 2000, and avoiding as far
as possible resorting to reservations.  Measures should also be taken
to ensure women's full and equal access to economic resources and
social services through full respect for their human rights and
fundamental freedoms.

126.  Measures are needed to ensure women's equal access to education
and to training and retraining.  The targets set by the Fourth World
Conference on Women for achieving gender equality in primary and
secondary education should be implemented.  Measures should be taken
to ensure women's equal rights with men and their equal access to
economic resources and social services, including land, credit,
science and technology, vocational training, information,
communication, markets and education and the right to inheritance. 
Eliminating occupational segregation and wage inequality and creating
a flexible work environment that facilitates the restructuring of work
patterns and the sharing of family responsibilities are also major
goals.  Methods should be developed for assessing the value of
unremunerated work outside national accounts.  Policies and
development strategies that address the needs and efforts of women
living in poverty should be reviewed, adopted or maintained in line
with the recommendations of the Platform for Action.

127.  Measures are also needed to achieve the full participation of
women in decision-making processes in all walks of life and at all
levels.  The success of policies and measures aimed at supporting or
strengthening the promotion of gender equality and the improvement of
the status of women should be based on the integration of the gender
perspective in general policies relating to all spheres of society as
well as the implementation of positive measures with adequate
institutional and financial support at all levels.  Enhanced
participation by women will also contribute to ensuring that all
policies and programmes are designed, implemented and monitored in
full awareness of their possible or actual gender-specific effects. 

128.  The Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action should be
urgently implemented in their entirety.  Adequate mobilization of
resources at the national and international levels, as well as new and
additional resources to developing countries from all available
funding mechanisms to strengthen the advancement of women, are
required.  The implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking
Strategies for the Advancement of Women, 12/ aimed at achieving
equality by the year 2000, should be accelerated.  Also called for is
implementation of the relevant sections of Agenda 21 7/ and of the
Programme of Action adopted by the International Conference on
Population and Development 13/ and the Programme of Action of the
World Summit for Social Development, 14/ as well as of the Geneva
Declaration for Rural Women adopted by the Summit on the Economic
Advancement of Rural Women 15/ and the Vienna Declaration and
Programme of Action adopted by the World Conference on Human
Rights. 16/

                            D. Rights of the child

129.  Children are the most important resource for the future.  Greater
investment in children by parents and societies is essential to the
achievement of sustained economic growth, social development and
environmental protection.  Therefore, the promotion, to the fullest
extent, of the health, well-being and potential of all children,
adolescents and youth is a crucial objective.  The international
community expressed its commitment to that objective when it adopted
the Convention on the Rights of the Child 17/ and at the World
Summit for Children.  We call for full implementation of the
Convention on the Rights of the Child and encourage States to remove
all reservations to that Convention.

130.  Measures must be undertaken by States, with the support of the
international community, to achieve, by the year 2000, the goals
contained in the plan of action adopted at the World Summit for
Children and to reach the goals set by subsequent international forums
for the year 2000 and beyond.  The rights of children must be ensured,
with special attention paid to the particular situation of girls. 
Their rights to a standard of living adequate for their health and
well-being, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and
necessary social services, and their rights to education must be
ensured, recognizing the rights, duties and responsibilities of
parents and other persons legally responsible for children to provide,
in a manner consistent with the evolving capacity of the child,
appropriate direction.  The efforts of developing countries to achieve
those major goals must be supported.

131.  Exploitation, maltreatment, child prostitution and child abuse
should be combated, and the root causes of these phenomena have to be
addressed.  Actions are also needed for improving the situation and
protecting the rights of children in especially difficult
circumstances and ensuring that the vital importance of family
reunification is recognized, in line with the Convention on the Rights
of the Child and the Programme of Action of the International
Conference on Population and Development, and taking into account the
relevant provisions of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of
Refugees. 18/

132.  Another key issue with regard to the rights of the child is child
labour, which is pervasive in many parts of the world.  Overall
socio-economic conditions, income uncertainty, women's health and
education, schooling opportunities and the size of households all have
an impact on child labour.  Abolishing child labour requires setting
specific target dates for eliminating all forms of child labour that
are contrary to accepted international standards, in particular
article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, for ensuring
the full enforcement of relevant existing laws and, where appropriate,
for enacting the legislation necessary to implement the Convention on
the Rights of the Child, and relevant International Labour
Organization standards.  In this context, priority should be given to
the elimination of all extreme forms of child labour, such as forced
labour, bonded labour and other forms of slavery.  National efforts to
deal with the problem of working children can be complemented by
international support measures, which may include provision of
education facilities as well as compensatory support measures for
their families.

           E. Population and development and international migration

133.  The Programme of Action of the International Conference on
Population and Development emphasized the importance of translating
the Conference's recommendations into actions at all levels.  This
will involve decisive actions by Governments and increased support
from the international community.  The effective implementation of the
Programme of Action will require an increased commitment of financial
resources, both domestically and externally.  The developed countries
have committed themselves to complementing the national efforts of
developing countries on population and development.  The Programme of
Action includes commitments to increase substantially the availability
of international financial assistance to the developing countries in
the field of population and development in order to ensure that
population and development objectives and goals are met.

134.  In this connection, Governments should commit themselves at the
highest political level to achieving the goals and objectives
contained in the Programme of Action and should take a lead role in
coordinating the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of
follow-up actions.  The Programme of Action endorsed the crucial role
of non-governmental organizations, reflected in an effective
partnership between Government and non-governmental organizations in
all aspects of population and development-related programmes and
policies.  The capacity of non-governmental organizations for entering
into such a partnership needs to be enhanced.

135.  The Programme of Action and Agenda 21, among others, affirm that
demographic trends cannot be considered in isolation from development. 
Therefore, population programmes are not simply about numbers and
demographic targets, but rather about the human beings who are at the
centre of population and development activities.  Consequently, the
Programme of Action is grounded in a development and human rights
framework and underscores the need to reconcile the aspirations and
requirements of individual women and men with long-term development
objectives.

136.  Countries have learned much about the relationships between
population growth and sustainable development.  There is general
agreement that persistent widespread poverty as well as serious social
and gender inequalities have significant influences on, and are in
turn influenced by, such demographic parameters as population growth,
structure and distribution.  Gender equality, including full and equal
access to education by women, and universal access to basic health
care services, including those relating to reproductive health
services, are essential to achieving population and development
objectives.  Furthermore, integrating population into economic and
development strategies will both speed up the pace of sustainable
development and poverty eradication and contribute to the achievement
of population objectives and an improved quality of life of the
population.

137.  Successful reproductive health care, including family planning
programmes, must be based on the principle of free and responsible
choice of family size and child-spacing, which includes the ability of
men and women to make informed decisions on the number and spacing of
their children.  Such choice calls for access to the widest possible
range of health-care programmes and services and for greater support
for reproductive health services and appropriate educational
programmes.

138.  Concomitant support is needed for stronger, better coordinated
global actions against major diseases that take a heavy toll of human
lives, such as malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid and HIV/AIDS. 
In this context, the Joint and Co-sponsored United Nations Programme
on HIV/AIDS should be brought into full operation as quickly as
possible and the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and the
Economic and Social Council on malaria should be implemented.

139.  The international community also has a vital role to play in
attaining the objectives of the Programme of Action regarding
international migration and development, which reflects the special
importance attached to the impact of international migration on both
countries of origin and receiving States.  The flow of people between
countries, and indeed within countries, affects and is affected by the
development process.  As underlined in the Programme of Action,
international economic imbalances, poverty and environmental
degradation, combined with the absence of peace and security,
violations of human rights and the varying degrees of development of
judicial and democratic institutions are all factors in the movement
of people.

140.  There is a need to formulate or strengthen measures at the
national level to ensure respect for and protection of the human
rights of migrants, migrant workers and their families, to eliminate
the increasing acts of racism and xenophobia in sectors of many
societies and to promote greater harmony and tolerance in all
societies.  Ultimately, the long-term manageability of international
migration hinges on making the option to remain in one's country a
viable one for all people.  The possibility of convening an
international conference on migration and development could be
considered.

                        F. Environment and development

         1. Full implementation of Agenda 21 and other outcomes of the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

141.  The consensus on and basis for actions at global, regional,
subregional, national and local levels to ensure sustainable
development has been established by the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development in Agenda 21, 7/ the Rio Declaration on
Environment and Development 19/ and the Non-legally Binding
Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the
Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of
Forests, 20/ as well as in all international conventions on the
environment and development.  Priority must be given to the prompt and
full implementation of these commitments and recommendations.

142.  At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
an integrated approach towards development and environment was
adopted, whereby the protection of the environment would constitute an
integral part of the development process and could not be viewed in
isolation from it.  Depletion and degradation of nature and its
resources endanger the prospects for development for our generation
and even more so for future generations.  The cost of reversal will be
far higher than the cost of prevention.  Therefore, sustainable
development strategies and programmes which aim at integrating
environmental protection requirements into economic, social and
development policies should be formulated and implemented at all
levels.  All States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right
to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and
development policies and the responsibility to ensure that activities
within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the
environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national
jurisdiction, in keeping with the principles contained in the Rio
Declaration, Agenda 21 and relevant international environment
conventions.

143.  Eradication of poverty should have the highest priority on the
international agenda.  One of the adverse effects of poverty, which
affects mostly developing countries, is related to environmental and
natural resource degradation.  The essential task of eradicating
poverty is an indispensable requirement for sustainable development in
order to decrease the disparities in standards of living and better
meet the needs of the majority of the people of the world.  Strategies
aimed at poverty eradication are also important in avoiding
degradation of resources.

144.  While poverty results in certain kinds of environmental stress,
the major cause of the continued deterioration of the global
environment is the unsustainable patterns of consumption and
production, particularly in industrial countries, which is a matter of
grave concern, aggravating poverty and imbalances.  Promoting changes
in such consumption and production patterns should also be of the
highest priority.  All countries should strive to promote sustainable
consumption and production patterns.  In view of the different
contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common
but differentiated responsibilities.  Developed countries bear a
special responsibility and should take the lead in this area.  Action
is required to promote changes in unsustainable production and
consumption patterns through behavioural changes and through the
promotion of internalizing environmental costs and the potential use
of economic instruments that can both generate revenue for financing
sustainable development and send signals to the market to help to
change unsustainable consumption and production patterns.

145.  In general, the financing for the implementation of Agenda 21
will come from a country's own public and private sectors.  For
developing countries, particularly the least developed countries,
official development assistance is a main source of external funding,
and substantial new and additional funding for sustainable development
and implementation of Agenda 21 is required.  So far, the financial
resources provided to developing countries have fallen short of
expectations for the means of implementation set forth in Agenda 21. 
All countries should honour their commitments related to financial
resources and mechanisms for implementation, as laid down in chapter
33 of Agenda 21.  Both domestic budgets and development assistance,
including assistance by the United Nations system, should be
consistent with and supportive of the objectives of sustainable
development.  The potential of innovative, additional financial
resources should be urgently explored.

146.  The Global Environment Facility, whose additional grant and
concessional funding is designed to achieve global environmental
benefits, should meet the agreed incremental costs of relevant
activities under Agenda 21, in accordance with the Facility
instrument, in particular for developing countries.  The restructured
Facility, with initial commitments of 2 billion United States dollars
for three years, constitutes a first step in providing resources to
address global environment concerns.  The prime task now is for the
Facility to pursue its operational phase in line with its agreed
operational strategy, while ensuring that it continues to be
consistent with the guidelines of relevant conventions.  Facility
procedures could be further improved to speed up project
implementation without compromising the quality of appraisal and
participation.

147.  Another essential dimension of the commitments of the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development concerns concrete
measures for the transfer of environmentally sound technologies to
developing countries on favourable terms, including concessional and
preferential terms, as mutually agreed.  The Governments of developed
countries have a major role to play, both as a conduit for such
transfers and by providing market incentives for the private sector. 
Recognizing the importance of protecting intellectual property rights
and taking into account the special needs of developing countries are
two essential considerations in the transfer of environmentally sound
technology.

148.  The process relating to the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development culminated in a new global partnership for
sustainable development.  Implementing the recommendations of Agenda
21 is essential for strengthening this partnership based on common but
differentiated responsibilities.  In this partnership, the special
situation and needs of developing countries, particularly the least
developed countries and those most environmentally vulnerable, must
receive special priority.

149.  The United Nations system has a key role in stimulating and
supporting countries and major groups in the implementation of Agenda
21, in helping to build further consensus and in preparing the ground
for standard-setting on issues of sustainable development.

       2. Implementation of international conventions on the environment

150.  International legal instruments for the regulation of activities
affecting the environment form an essential framework for practical
efforts by the international community to reduce environmental
degradation and promote sustainable development.  In this context, it
is important to promote further the implementation and development of
international conventions in the field of environment and development,
taking into account the principles contained in the Rio Declaration.

151.  The full implementation of these instruments will be an important
contribution to ensuring the sustainable use of land, marine and air
resources, including through reduction and recycling of waste and
through nature management.  Governments should become parties to and
comply with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change 21/ and the Convention on Biological Diversity, 22/ signed
at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.  They
should also become parties to and implement the United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing
Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in
Africa; 23/ the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary
Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal; 24/ and the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. 25/
Countries are encouraged to sign and become parties to the Agreement
for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the
Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly
Migratory Fish Stocks, 26/ and to implement that agreement. 
Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States 27/ is also called
for.

152.  Developed countries parties to the United Nations Convention to
Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought
and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa, should support,
through fulfilling their commitments to mobilize substantial financial
resources and to facilitate the transfer of technology, knowledge and
know-how, the efforts of affected developing countries parties, in
particular African countries, to develop and implement their own long-
term plans and strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the
effects of drought.

153.  Developed country parties should fulfil their financial
commitments and enhance cooperative efforts to support developing
country parties in implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity
and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.  The
effective implementation of the two conventions and their
strengthening, in accordance with decisions adopted by the respective
conferences of the parties, should be ensured by the parties with the
support of the international community.  Developed country parties
should continue their efforts to support parties undergoing the
process of transition to a market economy in the implementation of
those conventions.

154.  Action towards sustainable development is an evolving process: 
additional commitments, actions and instruments may be required in the
light of new global, regional and subregional or national developments
and needs.  But this should in no way delay the implementation of what
has been agreed.

                    G. Humanitarian issues and development

155.  Humanitarian assistance is essential for the victims of natural
disasters and other emergencies, including major technological and
man-made disasters.  Emergency measures should be seen as a first step
towards long-term development.

156.  The General Assembly has recognized that humanitarian assistance
must be provided with the principles of humanity, neutrality and
impartiality.  It has also recognized that the sovereignty,
territorial integrity and national unity of States must be fully
respected in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. 
Humanitarian assistance should be provided with the consent of the
affected country and in principle on the basis of an appeal by the
affected country.

157.  At the same time, each State has the responsibility first and
foremost to take care of the victims of natural disasters and other
emergencies occurring on its territory and to provide for the security
of humanitarian personnel.  Hence, the affected State has the primary
role in the initiation, organization, coordination, and implementation
of humanitarian assistance within its territory.  To this end, the
United Nations is continuing to identify ways of strengthening the
coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United
Nations system.

158.  Many emergencies reflect the underlying crisis of development
facing many developing countries, which needs to be addressed by
Governments and the international community if the emergency is not to
recur.  Therefore, in order to prevent the occurrence or recurrence of
emergency situations, support is required for medium- and long-term
social and economic development.  The implementation of commitments to
sustainable development, including those related to economic growth,
will contribute to the ability of developing countries to undertake
disaster prevention and preparedness, including support for food
security and strengthening health and education systems in affected
countries, as well as equal access to education and the building up of
national institutions, and the rule of law, as well as for
strengthening the capacity of recipient institutions to manage
emergency situations.

          1. Continuum from relief to rehabilitation and development

159.  Where emergency situations arise, rapid provision of humanitarian
assistance by the international community remains, of course,
imperative.  However, this form of assistance must be planned with a
view to an equally rapid transition to rehabilitation and
reconstruction and be part of the continuum concept which aims at
resuming development at the earliest opportunity.  At the same time,
it should be recognized that the continuum concept may require
different approaches in different situations.

160.  Prevention, preparedness, emergency response, economic recovery
and rehabilitation are all part of a comprehensive response to reduce
developing country vulnerability to emergencies.  Thus far, however,
the international community has mostly been able only to react to
emergencies through the provision of humanitarian assistance, which
can only alleviate human suffering in a short-term perspective. 
Expenditure on relief activities should not have a negative impact on
development programmes.

161.  In virtually all post-emergency situations, resettlement of
refugees, displaced persons and other disaster victims, as well as the
restoration of physical infrastructure, are some of the major
conditions for recovery.  In cases of post-conflict peace-building
situations, programmes such as demining, demobilization and
reintegration of ex-combatants as well as confidence-building and
reconciliation measures are essential for moving forward in the
continuum towards development.  Equally important are restoring public
institutions, police and judicial systems and resuming economic and
social development, in preventing the possible resurgence of conflict
situations.

162.  Although certain intermediate phases can be established, the
distinction between different stages of the emergency-to-development
continuum is often vague.  This requires a comprehensive and
coordinated response not only to rehabilitation and reconstruction but
also to development needs by the United Nations system, including the
Bretton Woods institutions, the international community and
Governments.  The mandates of humanitarian agencies and development
organizations must be delineated clearly in order to counter the
tendency of these agencies and organizations to extend mandates,
either from relief to development or vice versa, without having
necessarily the institutional capacity to take on such new roles
effectively.

163.  In order for the international community to respond rapidly and
effectively to humanitarian emergencies at the various stages of the
continuum, the establishment of an international network of voluntary
humanitarian relief teams that can be deployed rapidly to cope with
humanitarian emergencies, such as the white helmet initiative acting
within the framework of the United Nations Volunteers, could be
considered.

          2. Early warning, prevention, preparedness and reduction of natural
             disasters

164.  In recent years, with, in many areas, ever larger populations at
risk, disasters have had increasingly stronger impacts in terms of
human and economic losses, impoverishment and long-term displacement
of populations.  The commitments of the Yokohama Strategy for a Safer
World, 28/ adopted by the World Conference on Natural Disaster
Reduction, which has defined concrete actions for disaster reduction,
should be implemented.

165.  Disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness are of primary
importance for reducing the need for disaster relief.  They should
become an integral part of national strategies and programmes for
sustainable development.  There should be greater efforts to enhance
national capabilities for early warning and disaster mitigation, which
should be supported with adequate financial resources and transfer of
technologies to developing countries and, as appropriate, countries
with economies in transition.

166.  Enhanced subregional, regional and international cooperation are
essential for disaster preparedness.  Prevention, mitigation and
preparedness for natural disasters, and actions to implement the
Yokohama Strategy, could be integrated into the country strategy note,
where appropriate.  A coordinated and timely preventive response of
Governments, non-governmental and other organizations, and agencies
and communities requires strengthening of the early-warning potential
of the United Nations system.

                 3. Response to other humanitarian emergencies

167.  Humanitarian emergency situations have become more frequent, more
widespread, more complex and longer lasting, combining inter-State and
internal conflicts, large-scale displacements of people, mass famine,
disruption of economic, political and social institutions and, in some
cases, natural disasters.  A result has been that a growing percentage
of development assistance is being devoted to such complex
emergencies.  There is a need to avoid the situation in which such a
trend has a negative impact on long-term development programmes.

168.  The response of the international community to complex
humanitarian emergencies has become better coordinated, more effective
and more efficient.  The United Nations plays a central role in the
international response to this daunting challenge, working closely
with other international agencies.  The creation of the Department of
Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat illustrates the determination
of the United Nations to respond more effectively to this task.  The
coordinating role of the Department among the various relevant
agencies should be further strengthened, including by developing
formal memoranda of understanding with them.

169.  Further progress requires the provision of adequate contingency
funds and the establishment of planning and logistical mechanisms to
allow a faster and more effective response to complex emergencies.

170.  Ways also have to be found to address basic needs during complex
emergencies.  Issues such as humanitarian needs of displaced persons,
which are not under the direct mandate of humanitarian agencies,
should also be addressed.  Coordination and clear mandates and
responsibilities, particularly in the field, are also essential in
cases where there is a humanitarian component to a peacekeeping
operation.  While peacekeeping, civilian, humanitarian, economic,
social and political activities are all part of the integrated process
of peace-building, special attention should be given to the observance
of the norms and principles of international law, including
international humanitarian law.

171.  The effective delivery assistance of relevant non-governmental
organizations and volunteers in situations of complex emergencies
should be further recognized as an important complementary part of the
coordinated international, regional and subregional response and
incorporated into the programming of actions.

                       4. Refugees and displaced persons

172.  The number of refugees and displaced persons has been rapidly
increasing owing to a number of complex factors which include armed
conflicts, human rights violations, political instability, absolute
poverty, social disintegration, lack of resources and environmental
degradation.  Most of the refugees are located in or move into
developing countries, often imposing an enormous burden on those
States which already face difficult economic and social conditions. 
International support for the activities of recipient countries for
refugees and displaced persons is hence a necessity.

173.  Some countries with economies in transition also face burdens
related to refugees and displaced persons.  There is, therefore, a
need for the international community to support them in order to
address those problems.

174.  The root causes of movements of refugees and displaced persons
should be tackled in a coordinated and integrated manner.  A durable
solution to the plight of the present large numbers of refugees and
asylum seekers should be found.  Their needs as regards protection in
accordance with internationally recognized standards and national law,
and as regards assistance, must receive the necessary support. 
Governments should strive to meet their basic needs and build their
self-sufficiency.  The conditions for voluntary repatriation of
refugees and returnees in safety and dignity, and for ensuring
adequate reception arrangements and smooth reintegration, should be
created.

                   H. Participatory approach to development

175.  There has been a multiplication of non-State actors in
development - those of the civil society - who are playing an
increasingly important role in development.  The State has overall
responsibility for policy formulation in the economic, social and
environmental spheres, including the correction of market failures,
the provision of public goods and the creation of a favourable
enabling environment for the private sector as well as a favourable
legal and regulatory framework.  It should also encourage effective
participation by the private sector and major groups in activities
that complement and reinforce national objectives.

176.  Participation is an essential component of successful and lasting
development.  It contributes to equity by involving people living in
poverty and other groups in planning and implementation. 
Participatory decision-making, together with the rule of law democracy
and transparent and accountable governance and administration in all
sectors of society, is an important requirement for the effectiveness
of development policies.

177.  Full participation in society should be achieved through the
promotion and protection by Governments of all human rights and
fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, bearing in
mind the interdependent and mutually reinforcing relationship between
democracy and respect for human rights.  Governments should make
public institutions more responsive to people's needs.  Therefore,
full respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, in
accordance with the conclusions of the Vienna Declaration and
Programme of Action, should be promoted.

178.  There is a large potential benefit to be derived from increased
participation.  In order for it to be realized, Governments should
establish institutional and legal frameworks and decentralized
processes that allow their people greater involvement in the decisions
that affect their lives.  This requires that Governments give adequate
support to the administration of justice as well as to public
administration, which should be responsive to the requirements of
their people.

179.  Governments are encouraged, where appropriate, to decentralize
their public institutions and services to a level that, compatible
with their overall responsibilities, priorities and objectives,
responds properly to local needs and facilitates local participation. 
To ensure effective decentralization and strengthening of local
authorities and their associations and networks, Governments, at the
appropriate levels, should review and revise, as necessary,
legislation to increase local autonomy and participation in decision-
making, implementation and resource mobilization and use, especially
with respect to human, technical and financial resources and local
enterprise development, within the overall framework of a national
economic, social and environmental strategy.  Governments, when they
consider it appropriate, could work on decentralization programmes
with the support of donors and international institutions.

180.  The key to participatory development means fulfilling the
potential of people by enlarging their capabilities, and this
necessarily implies empowerment of people, enabling them to
participate actively in their own development.  In order to fulfil
their potential, people, especially those who are vulnerable and
disadvantaged, must participate actively in establishing and
maintaining independent organizations representing their interests,
within each country's constitutional framework.  Political empowerment
is an integral aspect of participatory development.

181.  A vigorous civil society is indispensable for popular
participation at all levels and an essential component of any
successful development strategy.  Community organizations, business
and workers' organizations, non-governmental organizations and
self-help groups must be actively involved.  Governments should view
them as important actors and partners in development.  Greater
accountability and transparency in the activities of such
organizations would be helpful in this regard.  In countries where the
participation of civil society is weak, it should be a major purpose
of public policy to strengthen it.

182.  Broadening and strengthening the participation of developing
countries in the international economic decision-making process is
also necessary.


             I. Actions related to countries in special situations

183.  International cooperation for development should take account of
the development experiences and circumstances of countries in
formulating and implementing comprehensive development approaches.

184.  Action on many fronts is needed.  A combination of grant aid,
concessional loans and technical assistance, which can contribute to
the financing of the necessary economic and social infrastructure,
together with strategies designed, inter alia, to increase export
earnings, attract foreign direct investment and reduce external debt,
can provide sufficient conditions for development.

185.  The critical situation of Africa and the least developed
countries requires that priority should be given to those countries in
international cooperation for development and in the allocation of
official development assistance.  Those countries should implement at
the national level structural adjustment policies that take into
account social development goals, as well as effective development
strategies that create a more favourable climate for trade and
investment, give priority to human resources development and further
promote the development of democratic institutions.  These national
efforts should be supported by the international community.

                                   1. Africa

186.  The critical socio-economic condition in Africa concerns the
international community as a whole and requires global partnership and
solidarity in order to address and resolve it.  Although Africa is
faced with enormous problems, it also has great potential, both in
human and natural resources, for economic growth and development.  The
obstacles to the socio-economic development of Africa are well known. 
Tackling these problems and paving the way to accelerated and self-
sustaining growth and sustainable development through decisive
implementation of commitments and actions have, however, been lacking.

187.  The external debt problems of African countries require further
attention.  The measures taken by the Paris Club, including the Naples
terms, should be further implemented in a full, constructive and
expeditious manner.  Effective, equitable, development-oriented and
durable solutions have to be found to the problems of external debt
and the burden of debt, which continue to impede the socio-economic
development of African countries despite measures taken on both a
bilateral and a multilateral basis to reduce or reschedule their debt.

188.  The international community should reaffirm its commitment to
give full support to the development efforts of Africa.  This
requires, inter alia, measures to contribute to durable solutions to
the external debt and debt-servicing problems, to increase foreign
direct investment, to enhance national capacity-building, to deal with
the shortage of domestic resources for development and to facilitate
the integration of the African countries into subregional and regional
trade as well as into world trade.

189.  The international community should support African countries so
that they benefit fully from the results of the Uruguay Round and to
mitigate any adverse effect of the Final Act.  It is essential to
implement the measures decided upon in the Final Act and the
complementary provisions specified in the Marrakesh agreement in
favour of least developed countries and concerning the possible
negative effects of the reform programme on these countries and on the
net food-importing developing countries.  In this regard, there is
urgent need for financial and technical assistance to African
countries to enable them to evaluate the impact of the Final Act and
to identify and implement adaptive measures to enhance their
competitiveness and trade performance in order to benefit from the
Uruguay Round.  In addition, it is essential to support the efforts of
African countries to diversify their economies.  New export capacities
and opportunities have to be created and diversification across
markets and products should be encouraged.  The call for financing the
preparatory phase of commodity diversification projects and programmes
should be pursued.  State participants in the African Development Fund
and multilateral institutions are urged to pay special attention to
the diversification of African commodities and to contribute to the
preparatory phase of African diversification projects.  In order to
support effectively efforts to diversify commodity exports and boost
earnings, the international community, particularly the major trading
partners, should continue to commit themselves to granting enhanced
market access to Africa's exports through substantial reduction in or
removal of trade barriers and through preferential arrangements, in
accordance with the Uruguay Round agreements.

190.  There is an urgent need for concerted and better coordinated
international action on the myriad of adverse socio-economic factors
that compound poverty in Africa and hamper its prospects for growth
and development.  This includes addressing effectively and
comprehensively the issues of conflict resolution, including
post-conflict peace-building and the continuum from relief to
rehabilitation and development; stronger and better coordinated global
actions against major diseases that take a heavy toll in human lives;
and alleviating the effects of natural disasters through programmes on
early warning, preparedness, prevention and mitigation.  The
international community should also assist African countries in their
efforts to eradicate poverty and meet basic human needs.

191.  The United Nations system also has a major role to play in
coordinating and implementing activities that address the critical
situation in Africa, including through the implementation of the
United Nations New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s
and the follow-up to the outcome of the Tokyo International Conference
on African Development and other related initiatives.

                         2. Least developed countries

192.  Despite the adoption of the Paris Declaration and the Programme
of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990s, 29/ there
has been a decline in real terms of total official development
assistance for least developed countries and continued marginalization
of those countries, and their number has increased from 41 to 48
without a proportionate increase in support measures despite national
and international efforts.  Reversing the further marginalization of
the least developed countries and achieving their integration in the
world economy are essential for their growth and development and pose
a major challenge to the international community.

193.  In order to succeed, the full support of the international
community is required.  Appropriate economic and social policies are
also required and technical capacity and physical and institutional
infrastructures need to be built up.  Special support should therefore
be given to the least developed countries in their development
efforts, in order to facilitate their integration into the world
economy, to enable them to participate in and to allow them to fully
benefit from the processes of globalization and liberalization of
trade and the increase in international private resource flows.

194.  In view of their limited domestic resources, the least developed
countries will continue to need enhanced external financial assistance
and other support.  Achieving the accepted United Nations target for
official development assistance to the least developed countries of
0.15 per cent of the gross national product of donor countries is
particularly urgent.  Donor countries that have not met this target
should make their best efforts to reach it as soon as possible, and
donor countries that have met the 0.15 per cent target should
undertake to reach 0.20 per cent by the year 2000.  Further
improvements should be made in aid coordination and effectiveness.

195.  Many least developed countries face serious debt problems and
more than half are considered debt-distressed.  Most of their debt is
owed to official creditors, both bilateral and multilateral.  The
serious debt problems of least developed countries necessitate
continued efforts in the framework of the international debt strategy. 
This strategy includes concrete measures to alleviate the debt burden
and economic policy measures, which will be critical to the
revitalization of growth and development.  Those least developed
countries should continue to benefit from substantial debt relief
schemes.  Paris Club creditors are invited to continue to implement
fully, constructively and expeditiously the very concessional
treatment under the Naples terms, and the Bretton Woods institutions
are encouraged to expedite the ongoing consideration of ways to
address the issue of the multilateral debt, including those concerning
the least developed countries.

196.  The international community should support least developed
countries so that they benefit fully from the results of the Uruguay
Round and to mitigate any adverse effect of the Final Act.  It is
essential to implement the measures decided upon in the Final Act and
the complementary provisions specified in the Marrakesh agreement in
favour of the least developed countries and concerning the possible
negative effects of the reform programme on these countries and on the
net food-importing developing countries.  Urgent steps are needed to
provide enhanced market access to major markets for products
originating from least developed countries.  There is also scope for
further improvement of the Generalized System of Preferences schemes
and other supportive measures in favour of least developed countries.

197.  In 1990, through the adoption of the Declaration and Programme of
Action of the Second United Nations Conference on the Least Developed
Countries, the international community agreed on measures to
revitalize the development of the least developed countries.  At the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the
International Conference on Population and Development and the World
Summit for Social Development, and within the framework of other
relevant conferences, agreements and conventions, further commitments
have been made to support the efforts of those countries.  At the
Mid-term Global Review of the Implementation of the Programme of
Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990s, 30/ concrete
measures and recommendations were agreed upon to implement the
Programme of Action.  They should be operationalized and implemented
as appropriate.  The international community must give high priority
to the full and timely implementation of the Programme of Action and
fulfil all its commitments in favour of the least developed countries.

                       3. Small island developing States

198.  The international community, international organizations and the
United Nations system should cooperate in the implementation of the
Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States 27/ and of Agenda 21 7/ and support the economic
transformation of those States.  This requires adequate, predictable,
new and additional financial resources, transfer of environmentally
sound technologies, including on concessional and preferential terms
as mutually agreed, and promoting fair and non-discriminatory trading
arrangements.  Appropriate exchanges among small island developing
States and between them and other States with similar development
experiences are also to be encouraged.  The Global Environment
Facility should constitute an important channel of assistance to small
island developing States in responding to their special needs and
vulnerabilities.

199.  The sustainable development of small island developing States
requires concrete action by the international community to address the
constraints to their development outlined in the Programme of Action
and in Agenda 21.  It also requires a supportive international
institutional framework, including a strong monitoring and review role
by the Commission on Sustainable Development.  Appropriate support
should be given to the information network for small island developing
States, known as SIDSNET, and the technical assistance programme,
known as SIDSTAP, which are important instruments for technical
cooperation and for promoting information exchange.

                      4. Landlocked developing countries

200.  Specific action at national, bilateral, subregional, regional and
international levels should be taken as a matter of urgency and
priority to address the special development problems and needs of
landlocked developing countries.  To that end, international support,
through appropriate technical cooperation and financial assistance by
developed countries and multilateral financial and development
institutions, is needed to enhance the capacity of the landlocked
developing countries to participate effectively in the rapidly
globalizing world economy, including global trading, investment and
technology transfer processes.

201.  Particular emphasis should be given to the cooperative and
collaborative efforts of the landlocked and transit developing
countries in dealing with the transit problems, inter alia, through
improving the transit transport infrastructure facilities and
concluding bilateral agreements to govern transit transport
operations; development of joint ventures in the area of transit
transport; and strengthening of institutions and human resources
dealing with transit transport.  Active and consistent efforts are
needed to implement the Global Framework for Transit Transport Cooperation
between Landlocked and Transit Developing Countries and the Donor
Community 31/ endorsed by the General Assembly at its fiftieth
session.  Since most transit countries are themselves developing
countries facing serious economic problems, their efforts at
developing a viable transit infrastructure also need financial and
technical support.

                   5. Countries with economies in transition

202.  The international community should continue to give attention to
the needs of countries with economies in transition and support in
particular their efforts to integrate into the world economy.  A
number of international meetings and conferences, including those held
under United Nations auspices, have recognized the specific needs of
those countries in various areas of development and the necessity to
provide them with temporary assistance upon their request aimed at
solutions to the most acute problems.  Such recommendations should be
fully implemented by the international community and the United
Nations system.  To this end, an appropriate strategy should be
defined for strengthening solidarity with these countries, taking into
account the need to preserve the United Nations system's high
priorities in development, in particular international development
cooperation.

                          J. Means of implementation

203.  The effective implementation of the present Agenda, as well as of
the decisions and commitments reached at the recent series of United
Nations global conferences, summits and other meetings, requires the
urgent mobilization and more efficient use of resources for
development.  It is critical to generate the political will to
mobilize and make available the necessary resources - public and
private, financial and human, national and international - if all
States, the United Nations system and the international community as a
whole are to mount a full and effective response to the Agenda.  In
formulating this response, attention has to be given to both the
quantitative and the qualitative aspects of development as well as to
time-frames for implementation.

             1. Mobilization of domestic resources for development

204.  All countries should continue to implement policies and measures
to mobilize domestic resources according to national strategies and
priorities and to achieve an appropriate level of domestic savings. 
Measures should include the maintenance of sound fiscal and monetary
policies, efficient and equitable taxation systems, low budget
deficits and an efficient allocation of budgetary resources in which
due priority is given to productive expenditure.

205.  Political institutions and legal systems that ensure the
equitable distribution of domestic resources enhance the effectiveness
and flexibility of national policy frameworks.  Public expenditures
offer significant opportunities for promoting growth and the equitable
redistribution of resources.

206.  All countries should explore new ways of generating new public
and private financial resources, inter alia, through the appropriate
reduction of excessive military expenditures, including global
military expenditures and the arms trade and investments for arms
production and acquisition, taking into consideration national
security requirements, so as to allow possible allocation of
additional funds for social and economic development.

                             2. External resources

207.  The savings efforts of developing countries, in particular
African countries and the least developed countries, to generate
sufficient domestic savings need to be supplemented by external
resources so as to raise investment to the levels necessary for
adequate sustained economic growth.  New and innovative ideas for
generating resources for development should be explored.

(a)   External debt

208.  The international community, including the international
financial institutions, is invited to continue to explore ways of
implementing additional and innovative measures to alleviate
substantially the debt burdens of developing countries, in particular
the highly indebted low-income countries, in order to help them to
achieve sustained economic growth without falling into a new debt
crisis.

209.  In this context, the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Debt
Initiative endorsed by the Interim Committee of the International
Monetary Fund and the Development Committee of the World Bank and the
International Monetary Fund, which is designed to enable eligible
heavily indebted poor countries to achieve a sustainable debt
situation through coordinated action by all creditors on the basis of
adjustment efforts by the debtor countries, is welcomed.  It is
recognized that the implementation of the Initiative requires
additional financial resources from both bilateral and multilateral
creditors without affecting the support required for development
activities of developing countries.  The importance of implementing
the Initiative's eligibility criteria flexibly so as to ensure
sufficient coverage of the heavily indebted countries is stressed.

210.  All the members of the Paris Club are encouraged to implement
fully the initiatives which aim at substantially reducing the
bilateral component of the debt burden of the poorest and most heavily
indebted countries and at permitting countries sufficiently advanced
in an adjustment strategy to exit from the rescheduling process.  To
achieve the first aim mentioned above, the Paris Club should continue
to apply the Naples terms in a full, expeditious and constructive
manner in order to contribute to a durable solution to the debt
problems of these countries.

211.  Private creditors and, in particular, commercial banks should be
encouraged to continue their initiatives and efforts to address the
commercial debt of developing countries.

212.  The international community should implement fully the
appropriate actions identified in the Mid-term Global Review of the
Progress towards the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the
Least Developed Countries for the 1990s concerning the external debt
problems of those countries.

213.  Multilateral debt accounts for a high proportion of the external
debt of a number of heavily indebted developing countries.  The
international financial institutions are invited to examine further
proposals to tackle the problems of a number of developing countries
with regard to multilateral debt, taking into account the specific
situation of each country.  Such proposals need to preserve the
preferred creditor status of the multilateral financial institutions,
in order to ensure that they can continue to provide concessional
financing for development to developing countries.

(b)   Official development assistance

214.  It is important to reverse the overall decline in official
development assistance flows and to achieve internationally agreed
official development assistance targets as soon as possible.  Such
assistance should focus on developing countries, with particular
priority given to Africa and the least developed countries.  Some
donor countries have achieved or exceeded the accepted United Nations
targets to allocate 0.7 per cent of gross national product for overall
official development assistance and 0.15 per cent of gross national
product for official development assistance for the least developed
countries and are encouraged to continue to do so.  Other developed
countries reaffirm the commitments undertaken to fulfil these targets
as soon as possible.  Countries that are in a position to do so should
strive to augment their assistance in the framework of development
cooperation.  Countries should also honour the commitments made in
Agenda 21 to provide resources to promote sustainable development.

(c)   Role and resources of multilateral financial institutions,
      including regional development banks

215.  The multilateral financial institutions should continue to play a
major role in development and in promoting the stability of the
international financial system.  In their responses to the development
needs, priorities and specific circumstances of developing countries,
the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund should continue to
adjust to the wide-ranging changes in global circumstances.  Their
programmes should respond to the economic and social conditions,
concerns and needs of each country, and should also explicitly include
social development goals, in particular eradicating poverty, promoting
productive employment, enhancing social integration, and supporting
people living in poverty and vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of
society.  To this end, they are urged to increase cooperation with
other development activities of the United Nations system.  At the
same time, both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
need an enhanced capacity to fulfil their roles effectively.  In
particular, resources for the International Development Association
should be replenished adequately and in a timely manner.

216.  Regional development banks should continue to play an important
role in the financing of development.  In this context, the adequate
and timely replenishment of their concessional mechanisms is
essential.  Regional development banks should respond effectively to
development priorities.

(d)   United Nations financing for development

217.  The fulfilment of the role of the United Nations system in
development and in promoting development cooperation requires
resources to be provided on a sound, predictable, continuous and
assured basis.  The international community should support the
development efforts of the United Nations system by providing a
substantial increase in resources for operational activities
commensurate with the needs of the developing countries and the
overall resources of the United Nations.  This requires both political
commitment by all States and an appropriate balance in terms of
resources devoted to all United Nations activities and to development. 
New approaches to financing the international development cooperation
activities undertaken by the United Nations, including innovative
funding sources, should continue to be examined.

(e)   Private investment flows

218.  Special attention should be given by all countries to measures
aimed at promoting international investment flows and enhancing their
contribution to development.  In order to encourage domestic
investment and to attract foreign direct investment, it is essential
to have in place a stable, supportive, effective and transparent legal
framework.  Intellectual property protection is an essential component
of an environment conducive to the creation and international transfer
of technology.  Investment agreements which signal that investment is
valued and that all investors will be treated fairly also promote
investment.  Governments in the developed countries should facilitate
long-term investment flows to developing countries.  All countries
should take measures to ensure that these flows have a positive impact
on development, equitable growth, productive capacity, infrastructure,
transfer of technology, eradication of poverty, trade expansion,
employment and social programmes.

219.  The globalization and growth of financial markets has given rise
to the need for improved measures to address the negative effects of
the volatility of international capital flows.  The prevention of
financial crises will require enhanced early warning mechanisms,
including improved and effective surveillance of national and
international financial market developments.  If prevention fails,
responding to financial market distress will require enhancing the
capacity of multilateral institutions to respond in a quick and
coordinated fashion.  Financial mechanisms need to be developed for
this purpose as well as to meet the challenges of the twenty-first
century.  In this context, the international community should explore
ways to broaden appropriate enhanced cooperation and, where
appropriate, coordination of macroeconomic policy among interested
countries and monetary and financial authorities and institutions, so
as to enhance preventive consultation arrangements between such
institutions as a means of promoting a stable international financial
environment conducive to economic growth, particularly in developing
countries, taking into account the needs of developing countries as
well as situations that may have a significant impact on the
international financial system.

               3. Qualitative aspects of development cooperation

220.  The quantitative efforts set out above should be complemented by
measures to improve the qualitative aspects of international
development cooperation, particularly a better focus on its
distribution; greater national capacities to coordinate national and
international resources; improved national ownership of externally
financed programmes; international cooperation based on national
priorities, involving other development partners, including civil
society; and strengthened national capacities to plan for, manage,
monitor and evaluate the impact of development cooperation.

221.  To translate the Agenda for Development into practical action, it
is essential that further steps are taken to enhance the performance
of the United Nations in development.  Maintaining adequate levels of
funding for United Nations operational activities must be coupled with
continued improvements in their performance, including monitoring and
evaluation and the measurement of output rather than input.

                             4. Capacity-building

222.  If development activities are to have a lasting impact, the
future provision of technical cooperation must focus on strengthening
national capacities rather than using international expertise, which
is often expensive, and procuring equipment tied to aid.  The United
Nations system needs to scrutinize whether its activities contribute
to the promotion of national ownership and capacity-building.  Such
promotion should be the central objective of its field-level
activities.

223.  The international community, including the United Nations system,
shall give preference, wherever possible, to the utilization of
competent national experts or, where necessary, of competent experts
from within the subregion or region or from other developing
countries, in project and programme design, preparation and
implementation and to the building of local expertise where it does
not exist.

224.  National execution should be the principal modality for the
implementation of programmes by the United Nations system.  The pace
at which national execution is utilized by recipient countries must
depend upon their needs and capacities.  Effective national execution
also requires both the United Nations system and other actors involved
in the provision of technical assistance to give increased priority to
assisting recipient countries in building or enhancing the necessary
capacity to undertake services at the field level.

225.  The need to promote capacity-building and national execution
should be taken into account in the design stage of development
programmes.  Governments will need to take a lead role in identifying
such needs at the planning stage and in ensuring that there is
adequate national ownership of the programmes as well as in maximizing
the efficiency of projects and programmes by keeping overhead costs to
a minimum.

226.  The United Nations system must also be prepared to address the
capacity requirements of different national development partners,
including, in addition to Governments, members of civil society, such
as the private sector and non-governmental organizations.

227.  When building national capacities a number of issues will need to
be taken into consideration.  These include the articulation of clear
development goals, strategies and priorities that are nationally
prescribed and supported, where necessary, by external partners;
effective performance of functions through a well-trained human
resource base; competent organizations and management effectively to
utilize and retain skilled people; a policy and institutional
environment that can facilitate the performance and accountability of
the public sector and other national institutions; and sensitivity to
the overall social, economic and cultural environment in which
capacity development is to take place.

228.  Technical and economic cooperation among developing countries is
an instrument that can make important contributions to building
national capacities through exchange of information, experiences and
expertise.


                    III. INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES AND FOLLOW-UP

         A. Strengthening of international cooperation for development

229.  The international community is entering a new and challenging
phase in invigorating institutions in support of international
cooperation for development.  Globalization, liberalization and
interdependence have become key features of the world economy.  In
addition, economic growth and progress in a growing interdependent
world are influenced by the process of globalization.  Particular
attention should be accorded to national and international action to
broaden the benefits of the process of globalization and to avoid the
risk of marginalization of developing countries, in particular the
least developed countries, in the world economy.  For developing
countries, the most important challenge is the realization of
development, which, among other things, calls for economic growth and
favourable external conditions.  International cooperation for
development is more than ever acknowledged as a necessity that derives
from recognized mutual interest.  Therefore, it is necessary that such
cooperation be strengthened.  In this effort the United Nations
occupies a central position and key role.

230.  The United Nations system has a crucial role to play in
international cooperation for revitalizing development.  In this
regard, the United Nations has convened a number of global conferences
on major issues.  From these conferences, a consensus has emerged on a
multidimensional, comprehensive and integrated approach to development
which recognizes, among other things, that economic development,
social development and environmental protection are interdependent and
mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development. 
Fulfilling the goals and commitments reached at major international
conferences, particularly on international cooperation for
development, is essential if development is to materialize to its
fullest extent and in all its facets.  There is, therefore, a need to
revitalize the system of international cooperation for development,
which plays an important role in realizing those goals and
commitments.

231.  Among the many actors in international development, the United
Nations, because of its unique universal character and impartiality
and because of its physical presence in many parts of the world, plays
a central role in promoting international development cooperation. 
Through the present Agenda, recommendations are made for a stronger
and more effective and efficient United Nations so that it and the
United Nations system as a whole can better contribute to development
in all countries, in particular the developing countries, through the
strengthening of its role in all relevant fields of international
development cooperation.  Institutional issues must, therefore, be
addressed while safeguarding the transparent, democratic and truly
universal character of the Organization and taking into account the
overall ongoing processes of reform of the United Nations.

                 B. Role of the United Nations in development

232.  In accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, the
Organization aims at the creation of conditions of stability and
well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations
among nations, based on respect for the principles of sovereign
equality of all its Members, equal rights and self-determination of
peoples, and at achieving international cooperation in solving
international problems of an economic, social, cultural or
humanitarian character.  The role and functions of the United Nations
in international economic and social cooperation, as defined in the
Charter and as further elaborated in various international agreements,
including in the outcomes of major United Nations conferences, range
wide and deep and should be fulfilled.

233.  Among the key characteristics of the United Nations are its
universal membership and comprehensive mandate.  The United Nations
occupies a unique position for addressing the challenges of promoting
development in the context of the globalization of the world economy
and deepening interdependence among nations.  It must play a central
and more active and effective role in promoting international
cooperation for development and providing policy guidance on global
development issues.  The responsibilities of the United Nations in the
economic, social and related fields should be fulfilled, taking into
account the importance of its activities in these spheres vis-a`-vis
those in other fields.

234.  The United Nations constitutes a unique forum for building
international consensus on global priorities for which there exists no
substitute.  Forging consensus and commitments through, inter alia,
various international conferences on international economic, social
and related issues is one of the most important functions of the
United Nations system.  To this end, the capacity of the United
Nations and its various bodies to undertake analytical and
policy-oriented work in the economic and social fields must be fully
utilized.

235.  The United Nations is also singularly well placed to forge
international consensus in the field of development through
intergovernmental processes and instruments.  Furthermore, the United
Nations plays a prominent role in raising public awareness and in
promoting and advocating internationally agreed principles and
commitments, and their implementation, in this context.  It also
implements concrete programmes which aim to respond to developmental
and humanitarian needs and to promote social justice and the
protection of the environment through its activities at the field
level and through the collection and dissemination of information.

236.  The United Nations has the unique mandate to address issues of
peace and development in an integrated manner.  In addition, the
United Nations has a vital role to play in mobilizing the
international community to respond in a comprehensive and coordinated
way to rehabilitation and reconstruction as well as to longer-term
development needs in connection with humanitarian emergency
situations.  At the same time, a balance should be ensured between
those activities and the Organization's consideration of and actions
on development issues.

237.  The United Nations, in cooperation with the Bretton Woods
institutions, other bodies of the United Nations system, including its
specialized agencies, and the World Trade Organization, has a key role
in fostering greater coherence, complementarity and coordination in
economic policy-making at the global level, including macroeconomic
policy issues, and in ensuring the principles of transparency and
effective participation and representation, as well as the effective
implementation of internationally agreed policies and goals.  In this
context, the respective competencies of these institutions should be
taken into account.

238. An important feature of the United Nations is its operational
activities for development in the field.  Their fundamental
characteristics should be, inter alia, their universal, voluntary and
grant nature, their neutrality and their multilateralism, as well as
their ability to respond to the needs of the developing countries in a
flexible manner.  The United Nations development system should take
into account the specific needs and requirements of the countries with
economies in transition and other recipient countries.  Furthermore,
because of its mandate, the Organization is well suited to promote a
balanced approach to development.  Therefore, the challenge for the
United Nations and its funds and programmes is to effectively support
Governments, particularly those of the developing countries, in their
efforts to address increasingly complex issues of development in an
interdependent world.

239.  The Organization will become more effective and relevant in
responding to the needs of the Member States only as a result of
ensuring adequate and predictable funding; high-quality performance in
the field of international cooperation for development; transparency
and full accountability to its Member States; revitalization of its
institutional structures; avoidance of overlapping and duplication;
and responsiveness to changing conditions and trends.

240.  There is a need for a clear relationship between the policy work
of the United Nations and its operational role.

          C. Enhancing the role, capacity, effectiveness and efficiency of the
             United Nations system in development

241.  Over the past 50 years the United Nations system has grown and
expanded in the economic, social and related sectors.  Through its
activities, the system has contributed significantly to the
development process.  The Organization should respond more effectively
to changing development needs, particularly to the needs of enhancing
international cooperation for development and promoting the
development of the developing countries.  Strengthening system-wide
coordination of activities and institutions will contribute to
enhancing the role, capacity, effectiveness and efficiency of the
United Nations system in development.  In this context, building
collaboration between national Governments and regional and other
multilateral agencies in support of country-driven processes should be
taken into account.

242.  Essential to improving the coordination and focus of the
development activities of the United Nations system is to ensure that
it is guided by a clear set of priorities and strategies identified by
the General Assembly, with the support of the Economic and Social
Council, that incorporate the outcomes of recent major international
conferences.  Also essential is that the Council has the capacity to
fulfil its role in overall coordination in the economic, social and
related sectors and in guidance of operational activities.

243.  Efforts are needed to continue the process of enhancing the
effectiveness and efficiency of the Assembly, the Council and its
subsidiary bodies, the United Nations Secretariat and other parts of
the United Nations system as well as the framework for operational
activities.  Furthermore, achieving greater coordination, coherence
and complementarity among related activities and improving linkages
between them will also contribute to strengthening the organizational
structure of the United Nations system.

244.  Ensuring complementarity and avoiding overlapping and duplication
of work between the Assembly and the Council, including its functional
commissions, is of particular importance for an effective and
coordinated follow-up to major United Nations conferences.

                              1. General Assembly

245.  The General Assembly is the highest intergovernmental mechanism
for the formulation and appraisal of policies in the economic, social
and related fields and the main forum where Governments pursue the
development dialogue in its political context.  This dialogue aims
both at promoting an integrated view of matters relating to the
economic, social and related fields, thus fostering the deeper
political understanding needed for enhanced international development
cooperation, and at generating impulses for action and launching
initiatives.  The Assembly should exert greater policy leadership on
development issues inasmuch as the Charter of the United Nations
provides the Assembly with broad mandates concerning these issues.

246.  Measures have to be identified to enhance the ability of the
debate in the General Assembly to generate substantive solutions to
specific policy problems and to take an integrated approach to
development.  To facilitate discussions based on an integrated
approach to development issues, the possibility should be explored of
choosing a principal theme or themes in order to focus substantive
debate under each "cluster" in the agenda without prejudice to the
right of delegations to raise any other specific issue in the debates.

247.  In the strengthening and revitalization of the Assembly, this
body should consider, in the context of all its Main Committees,
promoting the use of innovative mechanisms, in accordance with its
rules of procedure, such as panel discussions with delegations and
interactive debates with the active participation of Secretariat and
agency representatives as well as outside experts.

248.  Better use should be made of the forum of the Assembly to deal
with major economic, social and related issues.  The Assembly has the
overall responsibility for ensuring the implementation of the results
of United Nations conferences and facilitating and reviewing progress
achieved.  In this context, the Assembly should provide policy
guidance and carry out, on a periodic basis, an overall review of the
implementation of the outcomes of the conferences.  Such conferences
should be complementary to the Assembly's in-depth consideration of
major issues of concern to the international community.

249.  At the same time, for the Assembly to perform fully its Charter
role, measures also have to be taken in addition to the strengthening
of the Assembly itself to ensure that priorities set by the Assembly
are fully implemented and followed up by the entire United Nations
system.  The policy guidance role of the Assembly in promoting
international cooperation to solve international problems of an
economic and social character should be fully exercised in all areas
of development, including macroeconomic issues.

250.  The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, as a
principal organ of the Assembly, has a contribution to make in
strengthening policy-oriented debates in the Second Committee.

                        2. Economic and Social Council

251.  In accordance with the relevant provisions of the Charter, the
Economic and Social Council must continue to strengthen its role as
the central mechanism for coordination of the United Nations system
and its specialized agencies and supervision of subsidiary bodies, in
particular its functional commissions, in the economic and social
fields.  The ongoing efforts to reform the Council call for more
effective procedures and review of its work programme and working
methods and should result in an increased capacity of the Council to
provide overall guidance and to monitor and coordinate the United
Nations development system.  These reforms should be allowed to take
root and be built upon.

252.  In this context, the Council should:

      (a)   Consider, in a high-level segment with ministerial
participation, major issues for international cooperation in the
economic, social and related fields.  The high-level segment should be
used for improving the synergy between the economic and social sectors
of the United Nations system.  In doing so, the Council should also
contribute towards enhancing the interaction between the United
Nations, the Bretton Woods institutions and the World Trade
Organization;

      (b)   Ensure a coordinated follow-up to the implementation of
major United Nations conferences through its subsidiary machinery and
provide overall guidance and coordination to the United Nations system
as a whole in the economic, social and related fields.  A strengthened
coordination function also requires a closer interaction between the
Council and the Administrative Committee on Coordination, which should
include in its reports to the Council action-oriented recommendations
to improve United Nations system-wide coordination on issues for
consideration by the Council;

      (c)   Fully exercise its role as the overall coordinating body of
all United Nations development funds and programmes.  This should
include providing guidance to the Executive Boards of funds and
programmes and monitoring the implementation of General Assembly
policies and guidelines, including operational aspects of the
follow-up to major United Nations conferences.  The Council should
promote greater coherence and closer interaction between the work of
its subsidiary bodies and the work of the United Nations funds and
programmes;

      (d)   Encourage its subsidiary bodies to improve their working
methods as mandated by the Assembly;

      (e)   In the context of its general segment, whose primary
function is that of an action-oriented review of the activities,
reports and recommendations of its subsidiary bodies, avoid a
repetition of the debates held in those bodies and focus attention on
major policy issues that require a prioritized and coordinated
response from the United Nations system as a whole.

253.  The Bureau of the Council should play an active role by meeting
regularly, including by convening open-ended informal consultations of
the Council.  The Bureau shall brief the Council on its deliberations
and shall not have the authority to make decisions on any substantive
matters.  The Bureau should be encouraged to continue its role as
facilitator.

(a)   Subsidiary bodies of the Economic and Social Council

254.  The Council should fully exercise its authority vis-a`-vis its
subsidiary bodies.  Better guidance by the Council to its functional
commissions and expert groups and bodies is particularly important. 
The functional commissions should in a coordinated way be able to give
the best possible support to the Council in its role of providing
overall coordination and guidance and in the follow-up to major United
Nations conferences.  It is therefore crucial to ensure that these
commissions, groups and bodies can effectively serve as catalysts for
action.

255.  In the case of the functional commissions with primary
responsibility for the follow-up to and review of the implementation
of the outcome of a major conference, the Council shall ensure the
harmonization and coordination of their agendas and work programmes by
promoting a clearer division of labour among them and providing clear
policy guidance to them.  Within their respective mandates, functional
commissions should focus on the core issues relating to the Conference
for which they are responsible and obtain inputs from other relevant
bodies on related issues.

256.  The Council shall undertake a review of its functional
commissions, expert groups and bodies as mandated by the relevant
sections of annex I to General Assembly resolution 50/227.  Following
this review, which the Council should complete by the fifty-second
session of the General Assembly, the Council should continue to
monitor the effectiveness and efficiency of its subsidiary bodies.

(b)   Regional commissions

257.  The regional commissions play an important role in bringing the
work of the United Nations closer to specific development situations
and concerns of countries and regions.  This would include fostering
economic cooperation, economic integration and economic development by
providing the Assembly, through the Council, with substantive
analytical and policy-oriented work, and assisting countries in each
region in the implementation and monitoring of recommendations of
conferences as well as other commitments.  The United Nations should
also give a stronger focus to regional problems and prospects in the
socio-economic fields in a cost-effective manner.  For this purpose,
the regional commissions should be more fully utilized, in accordance
with their respective mandates.  In this context, the results of the
review mandated by the Assembly should be taken into account.  The
Council shall ensure the active participation of the regional
commissions in its examination of the follow-up to major conferences. 
The Council shall also encourage the regional commissions, under the
guidance of their member States, to continue to undertake their own
management and functional assessment for adjusting their priorities,
mandates, tasks and structures, taking into account the fact that
numerous other regional institutions have been created.

                    3. United Nations funds and programmes

258.  United Nations funds and programmes are important vehicles for
advancing development cooperation.  There is need for a substantial
increase in resources for operational activities for development on a
predictable, continuous and assured basis commensurate with the
increasing needs of developing countries, which should be addressed
urgently and expeditiously.  Innovative sources of funding could be an
additional element for the provision of resources for operational
activities for development.  The urgent and specific needs of the
low-income countries, in particular the least developed countries,
should receive priority allocation of grant resources of programmes
and projects provided through the funds and programmes.

259.  The United Nations operational activities for development should
be implemented by the funds and programmes in accordance with Assembly
resolutions adopted, particularly in the context of the triennial
policy review of operational activities.  The Council should provide
overall guidance to the funds and programmes in accordance with
policies and priorities formulated by the Assembly.  The funds and
programmes should build capacities for national execution in recipient
countries and should seek out, as appropriate, the expertise of the
specialized agencies with a view to improving the quality of services
and carrying out cooperation activities more effectively and
efficiently.  Memoranda of understanding that clearly outline
individual responsibilities and areas of cooperation have proved
useful and should be encouraged between related funds, programmes and
specialized agencies.

260.  The roles of the funds and programmes should be periodically
reviewed with a view to ensuring their responsiveness to the needs of
Member States and improving the quality and impact of United Nations
operational activities.  The efficiency, effectiveness and impact of
the operational activities of the United Nations system must be
enhanced by, inter alia, a substantial increase in their funding on a
predictable, continuous and assured basis, commensurate with the
increasing needs of developing countries, as well as through the full
implementation of relevant Assembly resolutions.  At the same time,
operational activities should be country-driven, carried out for the
benefit of recipient countries at their request and in accordance with
their own policies and priorities.

261.  The United Nations system has made a serious effort to improve
the impact of its development assistance at the country level. 
Efforts have been and continue to be made to improve the functioning
of funds and programmes at the country and headquarters levels. 
However, further simplification and harmonization of rules of
procedure used by the United Nations development system in its
operational activities is called for, in particular by the promotion
of greater consistency in the presentation of budgets at the
headquarters level, as well as in sharing administrative systems and
services in the field, where possible, and in developing common
databases in consultation with national Governments.  The country
programming cycles of the United Nations Development Programme, the
United Nations Population Fund and the United Nations Children's Fund
should also be harmonized.

262.  National plans and priorities constitute the only viable frame of
reference for the national programming of operational activities
within the United Nations system, which should be country-driven.  In
this context, individual mandates and complementarities of the
organizations and bodies of the United Nations development system
should be taken into account.  Also, the country strategy note, which
remains a voluntary initiative of the recipient countries, should be
formulated by interested recipient countries with the assistance of
and in cooperation with the United Nations system, under the
leadership of the resident coordinator, in all recipient countries
where the Government so decides.  Reform efforts, in accordance with
relevant Assembly resolutions, should aim at, inter alia, enhancing
the effectiveness and efficiency of the delivery of United Nations
assistance at the country level including through the resident
coordinator system.  The Secretary-General, in support of the
intergovernmental process, has an important role to play in this
respect.  The resident coordinator, in full consultation with
Governments, should facilitate a coherent and coordinated United
Nations follow-up to major international conferences at the field
level.

             4. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

263.  The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development is the
focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of
development and interrelated issues in the areas of trade, finance,
technology, investment and sustainable development.  Having a
comparative advantage in tackling trade-related development issues,
the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development should continue
to facilitate the integration of developing countries and countries
with economies in transition into the international trading system, in
a complementary manner with the World Trade Organization, and to
promote development through trade and investment in cooperation and
coordination with the International Trade Centre, relevant
institutions of the United Nations system and other international
organizations.

264.  The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, as part
of the United Nations system and as a contributor to its
revitalization, has adopted far-reaching reforms, as embodied in the
Midrand Declaration and the document entitled "A Partnership for
Growth and Development", 32/ adopted by consensus at the ninth
session of the Conference, thus adapting itself to new economic and
institutional modalities created by the process of globalization, the
conclusion of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations
agreements and the creation of the World Trade Organization.  These
reforms should be implemented, take root and be built upon, in
accordance with the decisions taken at the ninth session of the
Conference.

265.  The efforts of the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development to facilitate the integration of developing countries, in
particular the least developed countries, particularly those in
Africa, into the global economy and the international trading system
are important for the successful implementation of the Agenda for
Development.  The tenth session of the Conference, to be held in
Thailand in the year 2000, should provide an opportunity to assess
progress made and to advance the global partnership for growth and
development.

             5. Specialized agencies of the United Nations system

266.  Specialized agencies, as defined in Chapter IX of the Charter,
play a vital role in furthering the implementation of various aspects
of the global consensus on international cooperation for development
and in promoting and securing the international cooperation needed. 
Activities, priorities and basic programmes of specialized agencies
should be periodically assessed in order to ensure that they remain
relevant to the interests of their Member States.  In accordance with
Article 58 of the Charter, the Organization shall make recommendations
for the coordination of the policies and activities of the specialized
agencies.  The Secretary-General is invited to make recommendations
thereon.

267.  Mechanisms should be elaborated to enable the Economic and Social
Council, within its mandate, to provide guidance to the specialized
agencies and to transmit institutional priorities as formulated by the
Assembly.  The specialized agencies and the United Nations funds and
programmes should engage in a focused dialogue with the Council with a
view to identifying how their activities can be adjusted in response
to such priorities.  The Council should also provide appropriate
recommendations in order to ensure coherence and complementarity of
efforts of all bodies, taking into account the role of the funds and
programmes.

268.  Efforts are also called for to enhance the transparency of the
operations of the agencies.  Cooperation and coordination on themes of
common interest among the specialized agencies, and where appropriate
between these agencies and other bodies of the United Nations system,
need to be strengthened.  The effectiveness and efficiency of
activities of the Council could also be improved by increasing
interaction with specialized agencies, including the provision of
regular reports to the Assembly, through the Council, in accordance
with the relevant provisions of the Charter.  In this regard, it will
be essential to effectively monitor the follow-up to the conclusions
of the Council by the different entities of the United Nations system.

269.  Cooperation and coordination within the United Nations system in
providing effective support in the field of industrial development is
essential.  In this context, the ongoing process of reform and
revitalization pursued by the United Nations Industrial Development
Organization should lead to better defining and enhancing its role and
to increasing the relevance, effectiveness and impact of the
activities of the United Nations system in the field of industrial
development in line with the priorities of its Member States.

                                6. Secretariat

270.  The structure and functioning of the Secretariat and the support
services that it provides in the economic, social and related fields
are important and must be strengthened and improved in order to
increase the effectiveness of the United Nations in the field of
development.  They cannot be considered in isolation from the overall
management structure, desired lines of authority and decision-making
processes of the Organization.  In particular, a dispersion of efforts
and resources leading to unnecessary overlapping of responsibilities
and fragmentation of the decision-making processes in the Secretariat
should be avoided.  Furthermore, the relationship of the Secretary-
General with the specialized agencies is crucial and needs to be
further enhanced.

271.  Ways and means should be explored in accordance with priorities
set by the Assembly to reallocate the savings resulting from reform
and improved overall cost effectiveness with a view to strengthening
United Nations development activities.  The Secretary-General is
requested to present proposals to this end.

272.  It is acknowledged that the Secretary-General, as the chief
administrative officer of the Organization, is responsible for the
functioning of the Secretariat in accordance with the Charter.  The
restructuring of the Secretariat is a vital part of the revitalization
of the United Nations role in the economic, social and related fields. 
In order for the United Nations to act more effectively in support of
development with greater coherence, coordination and complementarity,
further reform should be aimed at:

      (a)   Ensuring a comprehensive and effective implementation of the
objectives of the Agenda for Development and of the relevant
objectives of the Charter and the mandates entrusted by the policy-
making organs;

      (b)   Rationalizing the structure of the Secretariat in such a
manner that would improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its
work, avoid duplication, meet the requirements of Member States and
ensure accountability in its operations;

      (c)   Ensuring transparency and effective implementation of
recruitment procedures, principles and practices; ensuring the
exclusively international character of the staff; and securing the
highest standards of efficiency, competence and integrity as well as a
more effective application of the principles governing the recruitment
of staff, including recruitment on as wide a geographical basis as
possible, respecting the relevant articles of the Charter;

      (d)   Ensuring that any reorganization of the economic and social
departments of the Secretariat and other proposals for Secretariat
reform preserve and promote the independence, intellectual diversity
and visibility of the United Nations in policy analysis;

      (e)   Ensuring that initiatives for Secretariat reform consider
measures already adopted and allow for these to take root.  The
restructuring of the Secretariat should be conducted in a manner that
effectively meets the requirements of Member States and takes fully
into account the development concerns of all Member States, in
particular the developing countries;

      (f)   Giving consideration to decentralization, as appropriate,
from Headquarters to the regional and field levels, including the
regional commissions, in order to enhance the capacity of the United
Nations to provide stronger focus on regional problems and prospects
in a cost-effective manner, taking into consideration the ongoing
process of restructuring and revitalization of the United Nations in
the economic, social and related fields.

                                 7. Reporting

273.  Reports to intergovernmental bodies should be concise and action-
oriented.  Where necessary, intergovernmental bodies should make
efforts to rationalize and simplify reporting procedures.  All
documentation should be provided within the specified timetables and
in all the official languages of the United Nations.

                         8. Inter-agency coordination

274.  Better inter-agency coordination within the system is essential
to support the goals of the Agenda for Development.  This includes
coordination and cooperation on themes of common interest and
identification of respective strengths and weaknesses in order to
ensure a more effective and efficient role of the United Nations
system while taking into account respective mandates.  In this
context, the Administrative Committee on Coordination should have an
enhanced function for inter-agency coordination purposes for the
United Nations system.  The Committee should bring system-wide
coordination issues to the attention of the Economic and Social
Council and make recommendations thereon.  Further efforts should be
made to enhance the role of the Committee and its standing committees
to ensure that the United Nations system operates in a coherent,
coordinated and complementary manner.  A systematic exchange of
information and an appropriate distribution of tasks should be ensured
within the Committee machinery and with any specific inter-agency
mechanism, including ad hoc inter-agency thematic task forces set up
in the context of the follow-up to conferences.  Full information for
the Member States on the work of the Committee should be made
available and wider distribution of the report of the Committee should
be pursued.

               9. Participation of non-governmental organizations
                  and other major groups

275.  The constructive contribution of non-governmental organizations
and other major groups, including the private sector, to the
implementation of the Agenda for Development should be encouraged. 
The existing mechanisms for the involvement and participation of
non-governmental organizations in United Nations activities should be
fully utilized and, as appropriate, be further improved, taking into
account the relevant rules of procedure of the United Nations and the
outcome of the meetings of the Open-ended High-level Working Group of
the General Assembly on the Strengthening of the United Nations
System.

          D. Interaction between the United Nations and other multilateral
             development institutions, including the Bretton Woods
             institutions and the World Trade Organization

276.  Increased interaction and cooperation between the United Nations
and the multilateral development institutions, including the Bretton
Woods institutions and the World Trade Organization, are necessary to
respond to the challenges of development.  Also, cooperative working
relations between the United Nations and other international
organizations should be strengthened.  Examples of such cooperation
already exist.  There is a need to develop further effective and
innovative approaches to this interaction and cooperation.

277.  The strengthening of collaboration between the United Nations and
the Bretton Woods institutions requires an integrated approach,
encompassing a closer policy dialogue at the intergovernmental level
on relevant areas of international development policy issues, taking
into account their respective competencies.  In support of this
dialogue, closer relationships should be developed between the United
Nations, through the General Assembly and the Economic and Social
Council, and the Bretton Woods institutions, in particular the Interim
Committee of the International Monetary Fund and the Development
Committee of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.  In
this regard, the Assembly should play a more active role in global
economic matters, including the deliberations on macroeconomic issues.

278.  International financial and trade institutions should be more
closely involved in the preparations and deliberations, when
appropriate, of the high-level segment of the Council.  Their heads
should actively contribute to the discussion on the topic chosen for
that segment.  Decisions already taken by the Council to ensure their
closer involvement, through, inter alia, furnishing relevant reports,
should be implemented.

279.  A further opportunity to consider global issues of high priority
and to identify areas where these institutions can mutually support
their respective efforts in promoting development could be provided by
high-level special meetings of the Council.

280.  Concrete modalities for strengthening the exchange of information
on development issues between the United Nations and the Bretton Woods
institutions should be explored.  Similar modalities may also be
explored with the World Trade Organization.  Joint meetings between
the Secretary-General and the executive heads of the United Nations
funds and programmes, the World Trade Organization and the Bretton
Woods institutions and other relevant organizations on selected
themes, including those identified by the Assembly, should be
encouraged.

281.  At the field level, the United Nations development system and the
Bretton Woods institutions, acting pursuant to their respective
mandates, should cooperate more closely, including in the areas of
capacity-building and field operations, in accordance with priorities
determined by recipient countries.  Under the overall guidance of
national Governments, they should expand, whenever appropriate, their
collaboration in co-financing of field programmes and projects and
explore innovative ways to combine and maximize their resources.  In
consultation and agreement with Governments, efforts should be made to
promote complementarity between the country strategy notes, where they
exist, the policy framework papers of the Bretton Woods institutions
and the World Bank's country assistance strategies.  In channelling
financial and technical assistance through multilateral development
finance institutions, donor countries are encouraged to take into
account the respective roles and functions of the United Nations
programmes and funds and the Bretton Woods institutions so as to
ensure the complementarity of development assistance.

282.  In post-emergency situations, the United Nations and the Bretton
Woods institutions must support the transition from emergency to
rehabilitation, reconstruction and long-term development.  To this
end, coordination between the United Nations and the Bretton Woods
institutions should be improved.

                        E. Follow-up and implementation

283.  The intergovernmental follow-up to the Agenda for Development
shall be undertaken by the General Assembly as the highest
intergovernmental mechanism and the principal policy-making and
appraisal organ of the United Nations system.  The Assembly has called
for the renewal of the dialogue on strengthening international
cooperation for development through partnership, which should serve as
an important mechanism through which the intergovernmental follow-up
and assessment of the Agenda and its implementation will be conducted. 
Such dialogue should also be used as an opportunity to discuss new and
emerging issues concerning international cooperation for development.

284.  The Economic and Social Council, within its mandate, shall assist
the Assembly in overseeing United Nations system-wide implementation
of the Agenda and by providing recommendations in this regard.  At the
same time, Governments as well as regional economic integration
organizations have an important role to play at their respective
levels in the follow-up to the Agenda.

285.  Closely related to the follow-up to and implementation of the
Agenda is the urgent need for an integrated, interrelated and coherent
implementation of and follow up at the national, subregional,
regional, and international levels to the recommendations and
commitments of recent United Nations major conferences and agreements
on development.  The progress of the implementation of the results of
those conferences should be reviewed so as to identify progress
achieved as well as obstacles hindering their full and effective
implementation.  While Governments have the primary responsibility for
the implementation of the declarations and programmes of action
adopted by international conferences, the international community, in
particular the United Nations system, including the multilateral and
regional financial institutions, has an important role in contributing
to, assisting in, facilitating and reviewing the progress of the
implementation of the results of those conferences at all levels and
in further promoting their goals and objectives.

286.  A strong political commitment by the international community is
needed to implement a strengthened international cooperation for
development as reflected in the present Agenda.  The mobilization of
domestic and international financial resources for development from
all sources is an essential component for the comprehensive and
effective implementation of the Agenda.  In this connection, enhanced
efforts should be made for the mobilization and provision of new and
additional financial resources for the development of developing
countries.  Despite an increase in private capital flows, official
development assistance remains an essential source of external
funding.  Developed countries reaffirm the commitments undertaken to
fulfil as soon as possible the agreed United Nations targets of 0.7
per cent of their gross national product for overall official
development assistance and of 0.15 per cent of the gross national
product for official development assistance for the least developed
countries.  Donor countries that have met the 0.15 per cent target
will seek to undertake to reach 0.20 per cent.  Further efforts are
also needed to improve the effectiveness of official development
assistance and to focus such aid on the poorest countries.

287.  Due consideration should be given to modalities for conducting an
intergovernmental dialogue on the financing of development, taking
into account the recommendation by the Secretary-General.


                                     Notes

1/    A/AC.250/1 (Parts I-III).  For the final text, see Official
Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-first Session, Supplement No.
45 (A/51/45).

2/    Resolution 41/128, annex.

3/    Resolution S-18/3, annex.

4/    Resolution 45/199, annex.

5/    Resolution 46/151, annex, sect. II.

6/    See Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development, Eighth Session, Report and Annexes (TD/364/Rev.1)(United
Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.II.D.5), part one, sect. A.

7/    Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992 (United Nations
publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigenda), vol. I:  Resolutions
Adopted by the Conference, resolution 1, annex II.

8/    See Legal Instruments Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round
of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994
(GATT secretariat publication, Sales No. GATT/1994-7).

9/    E/ICEF/L.1387, annex, sect. V.

10/   Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15
September 1995 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.96.IV.13),
chap. I, resolution 1, annexes I and II.

11/   Resolution 34/180, annex.

12/   Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the
Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality,
Development and Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985 (United Nations
publication, Sales No. E.85.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.

13/   Report of the International Conference on Population and
Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994 (United Nations publication,
Sales No. E.95.XIII.18), chap. I, resolution 1, annex.

14/   Report of the World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, 6-
12 March 1995 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.96.IV.8), chap.
I, resolution 1, annex II.

15/   A/47/308-E/1992/97, annex.

16/   A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), chap. III.

17/   Resolution 44/25, annex.

18/   United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 189, No. 2545.

19/   Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992 (United Nations
publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigenda), vol. I:  Resolutions
Adopted by the Conference, resolution 1, annex I.

20/   Ibid., annex III.

21/   A/AC.237/18 (Part II)/Add.1 and Corr.1, annex I.

22/   United Nations Environment Programme, Convention on Biological
Diversity (Environmental Law and Institution Programme Activity
Centre), June 1992.

23/   A/49/84/Add.2, annex, appendix II.

24/   United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1673, No. 28911
(forthcoming).

25/   Ibid., vol. 1522, No. 26369 (forthcoming).

26/   A/CONF.164/37; see also A/50/550, annex I.

27/   Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States, Bridgetown, Barbados, 25 April-6 May
1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.I.18 and corrigenda),
chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.

28/   Report of the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction,
Yokohama, Japan, 23-27 May 1994 (A/CONF.172/9 and Add.1), chap. I,
resolution 1, annex I.

29/   See Report of the Second United Nations Conference on the Least
Developed Countries, Paris, 3-14 September 1990 (A/CONF.147/18), part
one.

30/   Resolution 50/103, annex.

31/   TD/B/42(1)/11-TD/B/LDC/AC.1/7, annex I.

32/   See A/51/308.

 

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