United Nations

A/RES/50/95


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

2 February 1996

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 95 (a)


               RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

       [on the report of the Second Committee (A/50/617/Add.1)]


             50/95.    International trade and development


     The General Assembly,

     Reaffirming the Declaration on International Economic
Cooperation, in particular the Revitalization of Economic Growth and
Development of the Developing Countries,  1/ the International
Development Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development Decade, 2/ 
the United Nations New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the
1990s,  3/ the Programme of Action for the Least Developed
Countries for the 1990s,  4/ the Cartagena Commitment,  5/
Agenda 21,  6/ and the various agreements and conferences that
provide an overall policy framework for sustained economic growth and
sustainable development to address the challenges of the 1990s,

     Recalling its resolutions 1995 (XIX) of 30 December 1964, as
amended,  7/ on the establishment of the United Nations Conference
on Trade and Development as an organ of the General Assembly, 47/183
of 22 December 1992 on the eighth session of the Conference, and 48/55
of 10 December 1993 and 49/99 of 19 December 1994 on international
trade and development,

     Welcoming the appointment of the Secretary-General of the United
Nations Conference on Trade and Development,

     Noting the progress made by the Conference in the implementation
of the outcome of its eighth session, in particular its contribution,
within its mandate, to trade and development,

     Emphasizing the importance of an open, rule-based, equitable,
secure, non-discriminatory, transparent and predictable multilateral
trading system,

     Emphasizing also that a favourable and conducive international
economic and financial environment and a positive investment climate
are necessary for the economic growth of the world economy, including
the creation of employment, in particular for the sustained economic
growth and sustainable development of the developing countries, and
emphasizing further that each country is responsible for its own
economic policies for development,

     Welcoming the successful conclusion of the Uruguay Round of
multilateral trade negotiations at the Ministerial Meeting of the
Trade Negotiations Committee, held at Marrakesh, Morocco, from 12 to
15 April 1994, and noting that the Uruguay Round agreements  8/
represent a historic achievement, which is expected to contribute to
strengthening the world economy and to lead to more trade, investment,
employment and income growth throughout the world and in particular to
the promotion of sustained economic growth and sustainable
development, especially in the developing countries,

     Emphasizing the importance of strengthening and attaining a
greater universality of the international trading system and welcoming
the process directed towards the accession to the World Trade
Organization of economies in transition and developing countries that
are not members of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, thereby
contributing to their rapid and full integration into the multilateral
trading system,

     Noting the assessment and recommendations adopted at the Mid-term
Global Review of the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the
Least Developed Countries for the 1990s, held in New York from 25
September to 6 October 1995,

     Noting also that the Uruguay Round agreements should lead, inter
alia, to a substantial liberalization of international trade, the
strengthening of multilateral rules and disciplines to ensure more
stability and predictability in trade relations, and the establishing
of rules and disciplines in new areas, and noting further the founding
of a new institutional framework in the form of the World Trade
Organization, with an integrated dispute settlement mechanism which
should prevent the application of unilateral actions against
international trade rules,

     Recognizing that the developing countries have made a major
contribution to the success of the Uruguay Round, in particular by
accepting the challenges of trade liberalization reforms and measures,
and stressing that there is a need for positive efforts designed to
ensure that developing countries, especially the least developed among
them, secure a share in the growth in international trade commensurate
with their economic development needs,

     Recognizing also that the subregional and regional economic
integration processes, including those among developing countries,
which have intensified in recent years, impart substantial dynamism to
global trade and enhance trade and development possibilities for all
countries, and stressing that, in order to maintain the positive
aspects of such integration arrangements and to assure the prevalence
of their dynamic growth effects, Member States and groupings should be
outward oriented and supportive of the multilateral trading system,

     Expressing concern about possible adverse effects for the least
developed countries, particularly those in Africa and net food
importing developing countries, arising from the implementation of the
Uruguay Round agreements, as agreed in the Final Act Embodying the
Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, 9/ 
signed at Marrakesh, and recognizing the need to assist those
disadvantaged developing countries so that they benefit fully from the
implementation of the Uruguay Round,

     Welcoming the generous offer of the Government of South Africa to
act as host for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
at its ninth session,

     Recognizing the role of the United Nations Conference on Trade
and Development in identifying and analysing new and emerging issues
in the international trade agenda in accordance with agreed
conclusions 410 (XL) of 29 April 1994 of the Trade and Development
Board on the Uruguay Round,  10/ agreed conclusions 419 (XLI) of
30 September 1994 of the Board on the Uruguay Round,  11/ and
decision 426 (XLII) of 4 May 1995 of the Board,  12/ and with
the provisional agenda for the ninth session of the United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development,  13/

     Noting the importance of the inaugural Ministerial Conference of
the World Trade Organization, to be held in Singapore in December
1996,

     Stressing the need to promote, facilitate and finance, as
appropriate, access to and the transfer of environmentally sound
technologies and the corresponding know-how in particular to the
developing countries, on favourable terms, including concessional and
preferential terms, as mutually agreed, taking into account the need
to protect intellectual property rights, as well as the special needs
of the developing countries in the implementation of Agenda 21,

     Taking note with satisfaction of the recommendation on trade,
environment and sustainable development made by the Commission on
Sustainable Development at its third session,  14/ and
recognizing, in the spirit of a new global partnership for sustainable
development, the need for a balanced and integrated approach to
environment, trade and development issues,

     1.   Takes note of the reports of the Trade and Development Board
on the second part of its forty-first session  15/ and the first
part of its forty-second session,  16/ and calls upon all States
to take appropriate action to implement the outcome of those sessions;

     2.   Also takes note of the Trade and Development Report, 1995, 17/ 
and recognizes the contribution such reports have made to
the international trade and development dialogue;

     3.   Emphasizes the importance of follow-up and monitoring of the
implementation of the policies and measures contained in the Cartagena
Commitment, 5/ adopted by the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development at its eighth session, held at Cartagena de Indias,
Colombia, from 8 to 25 February 1992;

     4.   Stresses the urgent need to continue trade liberalization,
including liberalization through a substantial reduction of tariff and
other barriers to trade, in particular non-tariff barriers, and the
elimination of discriminatory and protectionist practices in
international trade relations, and to improve access to the markets of
all countries, in particular those of the developed countries, so as
to generate sustained economic growth and sustainable development;

     5.   Also stresses the need for the full integration of the
economies in transition, as well as other countries, into the world
economy, in particular through improved market access for their
exports and elimination of discriminatory tariff and non-tariff
measures and further liberalization of their trade regimes, including
vis-a`-vis developing countries, and recognizes in this respect the
importance of open regional economic integration of interested
economies in transition among themselves as well as with developed
and/or developing countries in creating new possibilities for
expanding trade and investment;

     6.   Further stresses the importance of the timely and full
implementation of the agreements contained in the Final Act Embodying
the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations
and the significance of the entering into force on 1 January 1995 of
the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization;  18/

     7.   Emphasizes the importance of the full and continuing
implementation of the provisions contained in the Final Act that
confer special and differential treatment for developing countries,
including decisions giving special attention to the situation of the
least developed countries and the net food-importing developing
countries;

     8.   Notes the work that has been undertaken jointly and
separately by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
and the World Trade Organization on the impact of the Uruguay Round on
developing countries, and looks forward to the integration of this
analysis into discussions, including those at ministerial conferences;

     9.   Invites the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development at its ninth session to transmit its assessment of
challenges and opportunities arising from the Uruguay Round agreements
from a development perspective to the Ministerial Conference of the
World Trade Organization;

     10.  Emphasizes the need for continued review and evaluation of
the implementation of the Uruguay Round agreements to ensure that the
benefits of the evolving multilateral trade system promote sustained
economic growth and sustainable development;

     11.  Also emphasizes the significance of the Ministerial
Conference of the World Trade Organization, to be held in Singapore in
December 1996, in helping to set the future direction of a rule-based
multilateral trading system;

     12.  Deplores any attempt to bypass or undermine multilaterally
agreed measures of trade liberalization, through resort to unilateral
actions over and above those agreed to in the Uruguay Round, and
reaffirms that environmental and social concerns should not be used
for protectionist purposes;

     13.  Notes the work of the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development on trade and environment, in particular the outcome of its
Ad Hoc Working Group on Trade, Environment and Development, and also
notes the work of the Committee on Trade and Environment of the World
Trade Organization;

     14.  Also notes the progress achieved by the joint United Nations
Environment Programme/United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development programme in the consideration of trade and environment
issues, and invites the two organizations to continue their work in
accordance with paragraph 59 of chapter I of the report of the
Commission on Sustainable Development on its third session;  19/

     15.  Reaffirms the need as a matter of priority to implement the
Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990s,
taking into account the assessment and recommendations adopted at the
Mid-term Global Review of the Implementation of the Programme of
Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990s, held in New
York from 25 September to 6 October 1995;

     16.  Emphasizes the urgent need for assistance to African
countries, inter alia, for evaluation of the impact of the Final Act
Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade
Negotiations and to enable them to identify and implement adaptive
measures to enhance their competitiveness;

     17.  Requests preference-giving countries to improve their
preferential schemes, and invites the 1996 policy review of the
generalized system of preferences to examine possible adaptations to
the system, taking into account paragraphs 134 to 140 of the Cartagena
Commitment, 5/ as well as the results of the Uruguay Round;

     18.  Reaffirms the role that the United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development has been playing as the focal point within the
United Nations for the integrated treatment of development and
interrelated issues in the areas of trade, finance, technology,
investment, services and sustainable development and, within this
context, stresses that there should be constructive and effective
cooperation between the Conference and the World Trade Organization,
based on the complementarity of their functions;

     19.  Decides to enable the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development to discharge its mandate, thereby making it a more
effective and efficient instrument for promoting development;

     20.  Recognizes that the Conference at its ninth session will,
inter alia, consider its future role, including its relationship with
other international institutions, to generate synergies among them
and, on the basis of its mandate and with a view to strengthening the
United Nations system, the ninth session should enable the United
Nations Conference on Trade and Development to become a more effective
instrument for promoting development;

     21.  Invites the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development to consider, in close cooperation with other competent
organizations, new and emerging issues in the international trade
agenda, taking into account the new multilateral trade framework, with
a view to fostering international consensus-building among Member
States in such areas as trade and environment and competition policy,
and, in this regard, recognizes the role of the Conference in
preparing the background work and consensus-building on such issues in
accordance with agreed conclusions 410 (XL) and 419 (XLI) and decision
426 (XLII) of the Trade and Development Board;

     22.  Also invites the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development, in close cooperation with other competent organizations,
to follow developments in the international trading system, in
particular their implications for developing countries, and to
identify new trading opportunities arising from the implementation of
the Uruguay Round agreements so as to provide information and
technical support with a view to facilitating the integration of those
countries into the system and to assist them in taking full advantage
of new trading opportunities, in accordance with agreed conclusions
410 (XL) of the Trade and Development Board;

     23.  Requests the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development to monitor, analyse and review the development of trade
between economies in transition and developing countries and to
recommend appropriate measures for its revival, thus contributing to
the strengthening of the multilateral trading system;

     24.  Welcomes the measures taken by the secretariats of the
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Trade
Organization and invites them to continue to develop their working
relationship, mutual cooperation and complementarity;

     25.  Emphasizes the importance to the international trading
system of the inclusion in multilateral trade agreements of all
countries that are not members of the World Trade Organization, and
urges the international community to assist appropriately and
adequately those countries that are not members of the World Trade
Organization in the steps towards acceding to that Organization;

     26.  Requests the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development, and invites the World Trade Organization, in accordance
with their respective mandates and competence and in close cooperation
with other competent United Nations bodies and the regional
commissions, to address trade and environment matters comprehensively
and to report, through the Commission on Sustainable Development, to
the Economic and Social Council and to the General Assembly at its
special session in 1997 on the concrete progress achieved on the issue
of trade and environment;

     27.  Also requests the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development to continue its special role in the field of trade and
environment, including analytical and empirical work, conceptual and
empirical studies, policy analysis, and consensus-building, with a
view to ensuring transparency and coherence in making environmental
and trade policies mutually supportive, taking into account the need
for continuing close cooperation and complementarity in the work of
the Conference, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World
Trade Organization;

     28.  Further requests the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development to focus and intensify, where necessary, its technical
assistance in the light of the Uruguay Round agreements, in
cooperation with relevant international organizations, in particular
the International Trade Centre and the World Trade Organization, with
the aim of increasing the capacities of developing countries,
especially the least developed countries, African countries, and small
island developing States, so that they may participate effectively in
the international trading system;

     29.  Requests the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development to continue to provide technical assistance to economies
in transition, bearing in mind the needs of developing countries, in
particular with regard to their full integration into the multilateral
trading system, so as to contribute to the expansion of their external
trade, inter alia, with developing countries.

                                             96th plenary meeting
                                                 20 December 1995


                              Notes

1/   Resolution S-18/3, annex.

2/   Resolution 45/199, annex.

3/   Resolution 46/151, annex, sect. II.

4/   Report of the Second United Nations Conference on the Least
Developed Countries, Paris, 3-14 September 1990 (A/CONF.147/18), part
one.

5/   See Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on Trade
and Development, Eighth Session, Report and Annexes (TD/364/Rev.1)
(United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.II.D.5), part one, sect. A.

6/   Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992 (A/CONF.151/26/Rev.1 (Vol.
I and Vol. I/Corr.1, Vol. II, Vol. III and Vol. III/Corr.1)) (United
Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigenda), vol. I:
Resolutions Adopted by the Conference, resolution 1, annex II.

7/   See resolutions 2904 A (XXVII), 31/2 A and B and 34/3.

8/   Legal Instruments Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round
of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994
(GATT secretariat publication, Sales No. GATT/1994-7).

9/   Ibid., vol. 1.

10/  See Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-ninth
Session, Supplement No. 15 (A/49/15), vol. I, part one, chap. II,
sect. A.

11/  Ibid., vol. II, chap. II, sect. A.

12/  See A/50/15 (Vol. II).

13/  See A/50/15 (Vol. I), chap. I, sect. A.

14/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1995,
Supplement No. 12 (E/1995/32), chap. I, paras. 47-72.

15/  A/50/15 (Vol. I).

16/  A/50/15 (Vol. II).

17/  United Nations publication, Sales No. E.95.II.D.16.

18/  See Legal Instruments Embodying the Results of the Uruguay
Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, done at Marrakesh on 15
April 1994 (GATT secretariat publication, Sales No. GATT/1994-7),
vols. 1 and 27-31.

19/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1995,
Supplement No. 12 (E/1995/32).

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Date last posted: 15 January 2000 16:15:30
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