United Nations

A/RES/49/75


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

15 December 1994

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



                                              A/RES/49/75
                                              90th plenary meeting
                                              15 December 1994
 
            49/75. General and complete disarmament
 
                                       A
 
               Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive wastes
 
      The General Assembly,
 
      Bearing in mind resolutions CM/Res.1153 (XLVIII) of 1988 and CM/Res.1225
(L) of 1989, adopted by the Council of Ministers of the Organization of
African Unity, concerning the dumping of nuclear and industrial wastes in
Africa,
 
      Welcoming resolution GC(XXXIII)/RES/509 on the dumping of nuclear
wastes, adopted on 29 September 1989 by the General Conference of the
International Atomic Energy Agency at its thirty-third regular session,
 
      Welcoming also resolution GC(XXXIV)/RES/530 establishing a Code of
Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste,
adopted on 21 September 1990 by the General Conference of the International
Atomic Energy Agency at its thirty-fourth regular session,
 
      Considering its resolution 2602 C (XXIV) of 16 December 1969, in which
it requested the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, inter alia, to
consider effective methods of control against the use of radiological methods
of warfare,
 
      Recalling resolution CM/Res.1356 (LIV) of 1991, adopted by the Council
of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, on the Bamako Convention on
the Ban on the Import of Hazardous Wastes into Africa and on the Control of
Their Transboundary Movements within Africa,
 
      Aware of the potential hazards underlying any use of radioactive wastes
that would constitute radiological warfare and its implications for regional
and international security, in particular for the security of developing
countries,
 
      Recalling its resolutions 43/75 Q of 7 December 1988, 44/116 R of 15
December 1989, 45/58 K of 4 December 1990, 46/36 K of 6 December 1991, 47/52 D
of 9 December 1992 and 48/75 D of 16 December 1993,
 
      Desirous of promoting the implementation of paragraph 76 of the Final
Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly,
 
      1.    Takes note of the part of the report of the Conference on
Disarmament relating to a future convention on the prohibition of radiological
weapons; 
 
      2.    Expresses grave concern regarding any use of nuclear wastes that
would constitute radiological warfare and have grave implications for the
national security of all States;
 
      3.    Calls upon all States to take appropriate measures with a view to
preventing any dumping of nuclear or radioactive wastes that would infringe
upon the sovereignty of States;
 
      4.    Requests the Conference on Disarmament to take into account, in
the negotiations for a convention on the prohibition of radiological weapons,
radioactive wastes as part of the scope of such a convention;
 
      5.    Also requests the Conference on Disarmament to intensify efforts
towards an early conclusion of such a convention and to include in its report
to the General Assembly at its fiftieth session the progress recorded in the
negotiations on this subject;
 
      6.    Takes note of resolution CM/Res.1356 (LIV) of 1991, adopted by the
Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, on the Bamako
Convention on the Ban on the Import of Hazardous Wastes into Africa and on the
Control of Their Transboundary Movements within Africa;
 
      7.    Expresses the hope that the effective implementation of the
International Atomic Energy Agency Code of Practice on the International
Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste will enhance the protection of all
States from the dumping of radioactive wastes on their territories;
 
      8.    Requests the International Atomic Energy Agency to continue
keeping the subject under active review, including the desirability of
concluding a legally binding instrument in this field;
 
      9.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth
session the item entitled "Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive wastes".
 
                                       B
 
                   Review of the Declaration of the 1990s as
                         the Third Disarmament Decade
 
      The General Assembly,
 
      Recalling its resolution 45/62 A of 4 December 1990, by which it adopted
the text of the Declaration of the 1990s as the Third Disarmament Decade and
declared the 1990s as the Third Disarmament Decade,
 
      Noting the great changes in international relations that have occurred
since the adoption of the Declaration in 1990,
 
      Noting in particular the end of the cold war and bipolar rivalries
between the East and the West, thus heralding a new era of cooperation in
international relations,
 
      Alarmed, nevertheless, at the outbursts of ethnic and nationalist
conflicts as well as disturbing issues in arms control and disarmament in
different parts of the world and the consequent deterioration in security
situations in these areas, with negative implications for international peace
and security,
 
      Convinced of the need to review and assess the achievement of the
objectives of the Declaration and, if need be, to adapt them to meet the new
challenges of the post- cold-war era,
 
      1.    Decides to undertake, at its fiftieth session, the middle of the
Decade, a review and appraisal of the implementation of the Declaration of the
1990s as the Third Disarmament Decade;
 
      2.    Requests the Disarmament Commission, at its 1995 session, to make
a preliminary assessment of the implementation of the Declaration as well as
suggestions that may be put forward to ensure appropriate progress, and to
submit a report to the General Assembly at its fiftieth session;
 
      3.    Also requests the Disarmament Commission to include in the agenda
of its 1995 substantive session an item entitled "Review of the Declaration of
the 1990s as the Third Disarmament Decade";
 
      4.    Calls upon the Disarmament Commission to include in its assessment
relevant matters which, in the view of Member States, require such review;
 
      5.    Requests Member States to submit to the Secretary-General their
views and suggestions on such a review no later than 30 April 1995;
 
      6.    Requests the Secretary-General to give all necessary assistance to
the Disarmament Commission in implementing the present resolution;
 
      7.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth
session an item entitled "Review of the Declaration of the 1990s as the Third
Disarmament Decade".
 
                                       C
 
                           Transparency in armaments
 
      The General Assembly,
 
      Recalling its resolutions 46/36 L of 9 December 1991, 47/52 L of 15
December 1992 and 48/75 E of 16 December 1993 entitled "Transparency in
armaments",
 
      Continuing to take the view that an enhanced level of transparency in
armaments contributes greatly to confidence-building and security among States
and that the establishment of the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms
constitutes an important step forward in the promotion of transparency in
military matters,
 
      Welcoming the consolidated report of the Secretary-General on the
Register, which includes the returns of Member States for 1993,
 
      Welcoming also the response of Member States to the request contained in
paragraphs 9 and 10 of resolution 46/36 L to provide data on their imports and
exports of arms, as well as available background information regarding their
military holdings, procurement through national production and relevant
policies,
 
      Stressing that the continuing operation of the Register and its further
development should be reviewed in order to secure a Register which is capable
of attracting the widest possible participation,
 
      Taking note of the report of the Conference on Disarmament on its agenda
item entitled "Transparency in armaments",
 
      1.    Reaffirms its determination to ensure the effective operation of
the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms as provided for in paragraphs
7, 8, 9 and 10 of resolution 46/36 L;
 
      2.    Takes note of the report of the Secretary-General of 22 September
1994 on the continuing operation of the Register and its further development
and the recommendations contained therein;
 
      3.    Calls upon Member States to provide the requested data and
information for the Register, on the basis of resolutions 46/36 L and 47/52 L
and the annex and appendices to the report of the Secretary-General on the
continuing operation of the Register and its further development, to the
Secretary-General by 30 April annually;
 
      4.    Decides, with a view to further development of the Register, to
keep the scope of and participation in the Register under review, and, to this
end:
 
      (a)   Requests Member States to provide the Secretary-General with their
views on the continuing operation of the Register and its further development
and on transparency measures related to weapons of mass destruction;
 
      (b)   Requests the Secretary-General, with the assistance of a group of
governmental experts to be convened in 1997, on the basis of equitable
geographical representation, to prepare a report on the continuing operation
of the Register and its further development, taking into account work of the
Conference on Disarmament, the views expressed by Member States and the 1994
report of the Secretary-General on the continuing operation of the Register
and its further development, with a view to a decision at its fifty-second
session; 
 
      5.    Requests the Secretary-General to ensure that sufficient resources
are made available for the Secretariat to operate and maintain the Register;
 
      6.    Invites the Conference on Disarmament to consider continuing its
work undertaken in the field of transparency in armaments;
 
      7.    Reiterates its call upon all Member States to cooperate at the
regional and subregional levels, taking fully into account the specific
conditions prevailing in the region or subregion, with a view to enhancing and
coordinating international efforts aimed at increased openness and
transparency in armaments;
 
      8.    Also requests the Secretary-General to report to the General
Assembly at its fiftieth session on progress made in implementing the present
resolution;
 
      9.    Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth
session the item entitled "Transparency in armaments".
 
                                       D
 
             Moratorium on the export of anti-personnel land-mines
 
      The General Assembly,
 
      Recalling with satisfaction its resolution 48/75 K of 16 December 1993,
by which it, inter alia, called upon States to agree to a moratorium on the
export of anti- personnel land-mines that pose grave dangers to civilian
populations, and urged States to implement such a moratorium,
 
      Noting that there are approximately 85 million or more anti-personnel
land-mines in the ground throughout the world and that many thousands of such
mines continue to be laid in an indiscriminate manner,
 
      Expressing deep concern that anti-personnel land-mines kill or maim
hundreds of people every week, mostly unarmed civilians, obstruct economic
development and reconstruction and have other severe consequences, which
include inhibiting the repatriation of refugees and the return of internally
displaced persons,
 
      Welcoming the programmes of assistance which exist for demining and
humanitarian support for the victims of anti-personnel land-mines,
 
      Gravely concerned with the suffering and casualties caused to
non-combatants as a result of the proliferation, as well as the indiscriminate
and irresponsible use, of anti- personnel land-mines,
 
      Recognizing that States can move most effectively towards the ultimate
goal of the eventual elimination of anti-personnel land-mines as viable and
humane alternatives are developed,
 
      Recalling with satisfaction the report of the Secretary-General
concerning progress on the initiative in the aforementioned resolution,
 
      Convinced that moratoriums by States exporting anti-personnel land-mines
that pose grave dangers to civilian populations are important measures in
helping to reduce substantially the human and economic costs resulting from
the use of such devices,
 
      Noting with satisfaction that many States already have declared
moratoriums on the export, transfer or sale of anti-personnel land-mines and
related devices, with many of these moratoriums being declared as a result of
the aforementioned resolution,
 
      Believing that ongoing efforts to strengthen the Convention on
Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which
May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects,
particularly its Protocol II, are an important part of the overall effort to
address problems caused by anti-personnel land-mines,
 
      Recalling with satisfaction its resolution 48/7 of 19 October 1993
calling for assistance in mine clearance,
 
      1.    Welcomes the moratoriums already declared by certain States on the
export of anti-personnel land-mines;
 
      2.    Urges States that have not yet done so to declare such moratoriums
at the earliest possible date;
 
      3.    Requests the Secretary-General to prepare a report on steps taken
by Member States to implement such moratoriums and to submit it to the General
Assembly at its fiftieth session under the item entitled "General and complete
disarmament";
 
      4.    Emphasizes the importance of the Convention on Prohibitions or
Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to
Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and its Protocols
as the authoritative international instrument governing the responsible use of
anti-personnel land-mines and related devices;
 
      5.    Urges States that have not done so to adhere to the Convention and
its Protocols;
 
      6.    Encourages further international efforts to seek solutions to the
problems caused by anti-personnel land-mines, with a view to their eventual
elimination.
 
 
                                       E
 
                 Step-by-step reduction of the nuclear threat
 
      The General Assembly,
 
      Bearing in mind the goal of the total elimination of nuclear weapons,
 
      Desiring to reduce, progressively and systematically, the threat posed
by nuclear weapons,
 
      Welcoming the respite from the intense competition in the accumulation
of weapons-grade fissile materials, in the production of nuclear warheads and
in the deployment of nuclear-weapon systems which characterized the cold war,
 
      Mindful that processing of special fissionable material for weapon
purposes and production of nuclear warheads continues at a steady pace in some
States, and that many thousands of nuclear-weapon systems remain deployed at
the brink of war,
 
      Welcoming also the standing down of some nuclear-weapon systems from
full alert and the elimination of certain types of weapons,
 
      Mindful also that the military doctrines regarding the threat of use of
nuclear weapons remain unaltered, and that most agreed reductions do not
entail destruction of the nuclear warheads or delivery vehicles,
 
      Welcoming further the steps taken to increase transparency in armaments
and the emerging pattern of closing or converting nuclear-weapon production
facilities,
 
      Mindful further of the continuing lack of internationally verified
inventories of the nuclear arsenals and that plans for the redirection of
nuclear-weapon facilities to the task of dismantlement of the nuclear arsenals
are only at an early state of development,
 
      Wishing to further current efforts regarding multilateral negotiations
and agreements, and conscious of the urgent need for expeditious action for
this purpose,
 
      Confident that the Conference on Disarmament can serve as an effective
multilateral disarmament negotiating forum, as envisioned at its 1978 special
session devoted to disarmament and as evidenced recently by the successful
conclusion of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development,
Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction,
 
      Persuaded that agreement upon a five- to ten-year agenda on nuclear arms
control would provide a needed overall sense of direction to global
disarmament efforts,
 
      Convinced that the successful pursuit of such an agenda would
significantly advance the goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons from
national arsenals,
 
      1.    Identifies the following general areas for step-by-step reduction
of the nuclear threat:
 
      Area A.  Steps to counter, inter alia:
 
     (a) The acquisition and processing of special fissionable material for
nuclear- weapon purposes;
 
     (b) The manufacture and testing of nuclear warheads and their delivery
vehicles;
 
     (c) The assembly and deployment of nuclear-weapon systems;
 
by such means as:
 
          (i)  Prohibiting the test explosion of nuclear weapons;
 
         (ii)  Cutting off the production of special fissile materials for
               weapon purposes;
 
        (iii)  Ending production of nuclear warheads;
 
         (iv)  Ending the production and testing of intermediate- and
               long-range ballistic missiles for nuclear-weapon purposes;
 
          (v)  Effective, legally binding measures to deter the use or threat
               of use of nuclear weapons;
 
         (vi)  Other related measures;
 
     Area B.  Steps to actuate, inter alia:
 
     (a) The withdrawal from deployment and disassembly of nuclear-weapon
systems; 
 
     (b) The secure storage and dismantlement of nuclear warheads and their
delivery vehicles;
 
     (c) The elimination of special fissionable materials for nuclear-weapon
purposes;
 
by such means as:
 
          (i)  Standing down nuclear-weapon systems from high-alert status;
 
         (ii)  Separating nuclear warheads from their delivery vehicles;
 
        (iii)  Placing nuclear warheads in secure storage;
 
         (iv)  Converting delivery vehicles, where appropriate, to peaceful
               uses;
 
          (v)  Removing special nuclear materials from warheads;
 
         (vi)  Converting special nuclear materials to non-weapon purposes;
 
        (vii)  Other related measures;
 
     Area C.  Steps to prepare, under international auspices:
 
     (a) An inventory of the nuclear arsenals, including:
 
         (i) All special fissile materials, nuclear warheads and their
             delivery vehicles;
 
         (ii)  All facilities devoted to the processing, manufacture, assembly
               and deployment of those items;
 
     (b) A reorientation of those facilities necessary to the task of
implementing measures relating to area B;
 
     (c) The closure or conversion to peaceful purposes of all other such
facilities in furtherance of measures relating to area A;
 
     2.  Asks Member States, in particular the nuclear-weapon States, to
consider steps which they might take unilaterally, bilaterally, or in
cooperation with other States to promote progress in the identified areas, and
fully to inform the international community of any steps taken in this regard;
 
     3.  Recommends to the Conference on Disarmament that in 1995 it:
 
     (a) Develop from the three general areas identified in paragraph 1 of the
present resolution a comprehensive set of practical, verifiable measures for
possible negotiation in their next five- and ten-year periods;
 
     (b) Determine from that set a year-by-year sequence and combination of
negotiations on specific measures to be commenced during the next five- and
ten-year periods, with due regard to steps taken pursuant to paragraph 2;
 
     4.  Requests the Conference on Disarmament to include in its 1995 report
to the General Assembly a section on efforts undertaken in accordance with the
recommendation set out in paragraph 3;
 
     5.  Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth session
an item entitled "Step-by-step reduction of the nuclear threat".
 
                                       F
 
           1995 Review and Extension Conference of States Parties to
            the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recalling its resolution 2373 (XXII) of 12 June 1968, the annex to which
contains the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons,
 
     Noting the provisions of article X, paragraph 2, of that Treaty, which
stipulates the holding of a conference twenty-five years after the entry into
force of the Treaty to decide whether the Treaty shall continue in force
indefinitely or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods,
 
     Desirous of ensuring the consolidation of the Treaty with a view to
achieving ultimately the elimination of nuclear weapons,
 
     Aware of the need for the Treaty to attain universal adherence,
 
     Convinced that the decision on the extension of the Treaty should lead to
further progress in nuclear disarmament, in accordance with the preamble and
article VI of the Treaty,
 
     Noting, therefore, the necessity of giving careful consideration to all
possible options in order to take a decision that is appropriate and capable
of strengthening the non-proliferation regime in the pursuit of the ultimate
objective of the elimination of nuclear weapons,
 
     Conscious of the fact that there are various interpretations which have
been expressed concerning the application of article X, paragraph 2, of the
Treaty,
 
     1.  Calls upon States parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of
Nuclear Weapons to give appropriate consideration to the import of the Treaty
in its entirety and with special attention to its article X, paragraph 2;
 
     2.  Invites States parties to provide their legal interpretations of
article X, paragraph 2, of the Treaty and their views on the different options
and actions available, for compilation by the Secretary-General as a
background document of the 1995 Review and Extension Conference of States
Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, well before
the holding of that Conference.
 
                                       G
 
                 Assistance to States for curbing the illicit
                   traffic in small arms and collecting them
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recalling its resolutions 46/36 H of 6 December 1991, 47/52 G and 47/52 J
of 9 December 1992 and 48/75 H and 48/75 J of 16 December 1993,
 
     Considering that the circulation of massive quantities of small arms
throughout the world impedes development and is a source of increased
insecurity,
 
     Considering also that the illicit international transfer of small arms
and their accumulation in many countries constitute a threat to the
populations and to national and regional security and is a factor contributing
to the destabilization of States,
 
     Basing itself on the statement of the Secretary-General relating to the
request of Mali concerning United Nations assistance for the collection of
small arms,
 
     Gravely concerned at the extent of the insecurity and banditry linked to
the illicit circulation of small arms in Mali and the other affected States of
the Saharo-Sahelian subregion,
 
     Taking note of the first conclusions of the United Nations Advisory
Mission sent to Mali by the Secretary-General to study the best way of curbing
the illicit circulation of small arms and ensuring their collection,
 
     Noting the interest shown by other States of the subregion in receiving
the United Nations Advisory Mission,
 
     Noting also the actions taken and those recommended at the meetings of
the States of the subregion held at Banjul, Algiers and Bamako to establish
close regional cooperation with a view to strengthening security,
 
     1.  Welcomes the initiative taken by Mali concerning the question of the
illicit circulation of small arms and their collection in the affected States
of the Saharo- Sahelian subregion;
 
     2.  Also welcomes the action taken by the Secretary-General in
implementation of this initiative;
 
     3.  Thanks the Government of Mali for the appreciable help which it has
given to the United Nations Advisory Mission, and welcomes the declared
readiness of other States of the subregion to receive the Mission;
 
     4.  Congratulates the Secretary-General on his action within the context
of the relevant provisions of resolution 40/151 H of 16 December 1985, and
encourages him to continue his efforts to curb the illicit circulation of
small arms and to collect such arms in the affected States which so request,
with the support of the United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and
Disarmament in Africa and in close cooperation with the Organization of
African Unity;
 
     5.  Invites Member States to implement national control measures in order
to check the illicit circulation of small arms, in particular by curbing the
illegal export of such arms;
 
     6.  Invites the international community to give appropriate support to
the efforts made by the affected countries to suppress the illicit circulation
of small arms, which is likely to hamper their development;
 
     7.  Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly on
this issue at its fiftieth session.
 
                                       H
 
                Nuclear disarmament with a view to the ultimate
                        elimination of nuclear weapons
 
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recognizing that the end of the cold war has increased the possibility of
creating a world free from the fear of nuclear war,
 
     Welcoming the efforts of the Russian Federation and the United States of
America for nuclear disarmament and the conclusion of the two treaties on the
reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms, and looking forward to
their early entry into force,
 
     Welcoming also the efforts of other nuclear-weapon States in the field of
nuclear disarmament,
 
     Attaching great importance to the contribution which the Treaty on the
Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons has made to the peace and security of the
world since its entry into force in 1970,
 
     Welcoming the positive developments in the negotiations for a
comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty based on the consensus achieved at its
forty-eighth session,
 
     1.  Urges States not parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of
Nuclear Weapons to accede to it at the earliest possible date, recognizing the
importance of the universality of the Treaty;
 
     2.  Calls upon the nuclear-weapon States to pursue their efforts for
nuclear disarmament with the ultimate objective of the elimination of nuclear
weapons in the framework of general and complete disarmament, and calls upon
all States to implement fully their commitments in the field of disarmament
and non- proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
 
 
                                       I
 
                Convening of the fourth special session of the
                    General Assembly devoted to disarmament
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recalling that three special sessions of the General Assembly devoted to
disarmament were held in 1978, 1982 and 1988,
 
     Bearing in mind the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of the
General Assembly, the first special session devoted to disarmament, and the
final objective of general and complete disarmament under effective
international control,
 
     Welcoming the recent positive changes in the international landscape,
characterized by the end of the cold war, the relaxation of tensions at the
global level and the emergence of a new spirit governing relations among
nations, 
 
     Stressing the central role of the United Nations for the promotion of
disarmament, peace and security,
 
     1.  Decides, in principle, to convene, in 1997 if possible, the fourth
special session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament, the date to be
determined at its fiftieth session;
 
     2.  Also decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth
session an item entitled "Fourth special session of the General Assembly
devoted to disarmament".
 
 
                                       J
 
               Relationship between disarmament and development
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recalling the provisions of the Final Document of the Tenth Special
Session of the General Assembly concerning the relationship between
disarmament and development,
 
     Recalling also the adoption on 11 September 1987 of the Final Document of
the International Conference on the Relationship between Disarmament and
Development,
 
     Recalling further its resolution 48/75 A of 16 December 1993,
 
     Bearing in mind the final documents of the Tenth Conference of Heads of
State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, held at Jakarta in September
1992,
 
     Stressing the growing importance of the symbiotic relationship between
disarmament and development in current international relations,
 
     1.  Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General of 5 October 1994 and
actions undertaken in accordance with the Final Document of the International
Conference on the Relationship between Disarmament and Development;
 
     2.  Requests the Secretary-General to continue to take action, through
appropriate organs and within available resources, for the implementation of
the action programme adopted at the International Conference;
 
     3.  Also requests the Secretary-General to submit a report to the General
Assembly at its fiftieth session;
 
     4.  Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth session
the item entitled "Relationship between disarmament and development".
 
 
                                       K
 
        Request for an advisory opinion from the International Court of
        Justice on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Conscious that the continuing existence and development of nuclear
weapons pose serious risks to humanity,
 
     Mindful that States have an obligation under the Charter of the United
Nations to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial
integrity or political independence of any State,
 
     Recalling its resolutions 1653 (XVI) of 24 November 1961, 33/71 B of 14
December 1978, 34/83 G of 11 December 1979, 35/152 D of 12 December 1980,
36/92 I of 9 December 1981, 45/59 B of 4 December 1990 and 46/37 D of 6
December 1991, in which it declared that the use of nuclear weapons would be a
violation of the Charter and a crime against humanity,
 
     Welcoming the progress made on the prohibition and elimination of weapons
of mass destruction, including the Convention on the Prohibition of the
Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and
Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction and the Convention on the Prohibition
of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on
Their Destruction,
 
     Convinced that the complete elimination of nuclear weapons is the only
guarantee against the threat of nuclear war,
 
     Noting the concerns expressed in the Fourth Review Conference of the
Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons that
insufficient progress had been made towards the complete elimination of
nuclear weapons at the earliest possible time,
 
     Recalling that, convinced of the need to strengthen the rule of law in
international relations, it has declared the period 1990-1999 the United
Nations Decade of International Law,
 
     Noting that Article 96, paragraph 1, of the Charter empowers the General
Assembly to request the International Court of Justice to give an advisory
opinion on any legal question,
 
     Recalling the recommendation of the Secretary-General, made in his report
entitled "An Agenda for Peace", that United Nations organs that are authorized
to take advantage of the advisory competence of the International Court of
Justice turn to the Court more frequently for such opinions,
 
     Welcoming resolution 46/40 of 14 May 1993 of the Assembly of the World
Health Organization, in which the organization requested the International
Court of Justice to give an advisory opinion on whether the use of nuclear
weapons by a State in war or other armed conflict would be a breach of its
obligations under international law, including the Constitution of the World
Health Organization,
 
     Decides, pursuant to Article 96, paragraph 1, of the Charter of the
United Nations, to request the International Court of Justice urgently to
render its advisory opinion on the following question:  "Is the threat or use
of nuclear weapons in any circumstance permitted under international law?".
 
                                       L
 
          Bilateral nuclear-arms negotiations and nuclear disarmament
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recalling its previous relevant resolutions,
 
     Recognizing the fundamental changes that have taken place with respect to
international security, which have permitted agreements on deep reductions in
the nuclear armaments of the States possessing the largest inventories of such
weapons, 
 
     Mindful that it is the responsibility and obligation of all States to
contribute to the process of the relaxation of international tension and to
the strengthening of international peace and security,
 
     Stressing the importance of strengthening international peace and
security through disarmament,
 
     Emphasizing that nuclear disarmament remains one of the principal tasks
of our times,
 
     Stressing also that it is the responsibility of all States to adopt and
implement measures towards the attainment of general and complete disarmament
under effective international control,
 
     Appreciating a number of positive developments in the field of nuclear
disarmament, in particular the treaty concluded on 8 December 1987 between the
former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America on
the elimination of their intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles, and
the treaties on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms,
 
     Noting that there are still significant nuclear arsenals and that the
primary responsibility for nuclear disarmament, with the objective of the
elimination of nuclear weapons, rests with the nuclear-weapon States, in
particular those which possess the largest stockpiles,
 
     Welcoming the steps that have already been taken by those States to begin
the process of reducing the number of nuclear weapons and removing such
weapons from a deployed status, and bilateral agreements on the issue of
de-targeting strategic nuclear missiles,
 
     Noting the new climate of relations between the United States of America
and the States of the former Soviet Union, which permits them to intensify
their cooperative efforts to ensure the safety, security and environmentally
sound destruction of nuclear weapons,
 
     Noting also that the Russian Federation and the United States of America
concurred that, once their Treaty on the Further Reduction and Limitation of
Strategic Offensive Arms was ratified, they would proceed to deactivate all
strategic delivery systems to be reduced under the Treaty by removing their
nuclear warheads or taking other steps to remove them from alert status,
 
     Noting further the agreement between the Russian Federation and the
United States of America to intensify their dialogue to compare conceptual
approaches and to develop concrete steps to adapt the nuclear forces and
practices on both sides to the changed international security situation,
including the possibility, after ratification of the Treaty on the Further
Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, of further reduction of
and limitations on remaining nuclear forces,
 
     Urging the further intensification of such efforts to accelerate the
implementation of agreements and unilateral decisions relating to nuclear-arms
reduction,
 
     Welcoming the reductions made by other nuclear-weapon States in some of
their nuclear-weapon programmes, and encouraging all nuclear-weapon States to
consider appropriate measures relating to nuclear disarmament,
 
     Affirming that bilateral and multilateral negotiations on nuclear
disarmament should facilitate and complement each other,
 
     1.  Welcomes the actions taken towards the ratification of the Treaty on
the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms signed in Moscow on
31 July 1991 by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United
States of America and the protocol to that Treaty signed at Lisbon on 23 May
1992 by the four parties thereto, and urges the parties to take the necessary
steps to ensure its entry into force at the earliest possible date;
 
     2.  Also welcomes the signing of the Treaty between the Russian
Federation and the United States of America on the Further Reduction and
Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms in Moscow on 3 January 1993, and urges
the parties to take the steps necessary to bring that Treaty into force at the
earliest possible date;
 
     3.  Expresses its satisfaction at the continuing implementation of the
treaty on the elimination of intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles, in
particular at the completion by the parties of the destruction of all their
declared missiles subject to elimination under the treaty;
 
     4.  Encourages the United States of America, the Russian Federation,
Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine to continue their cooperative efforts aimed at
eliminating nuclear weapons and strategic offensive arms on the basis of
existing agreements, and welcomes the contributions that other States are
making to such cooperation as well;
 
     5.  Encourages and supports the Russian Federation and the United States
of America in their efforts to reduce their nuclear armaments and to continue
to give those efforts the highest priority in order to contribute to the
objective of the elimination of nuclear weapons;
 
 
     6.  Invites the Russian Federation and the United States of America to
keep other States Members of the United Nations duly informed of progress in
their discussions and in the implementation of their strategic offensive arms
agreements and unilateral decisions.
 
                                       M
 
                 Measures to curb the illicit transfer and use
                             of conventional arms
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recalling its resolution 46/36 H of 6 December 1991 and its decision
47/419 of 9 December 1992 on international arms transfers,
 
     Recalling also its resolutions 48/75 F and 48/75 H of 16 December 1993 on
international arms transfers and measures to curb the illicit transfer and use
of conventional weapons, respectively,
 
     Realizing the urgent need to resolve conflicts and to diminish tensions
and accelerate efforts towards general and complete disarmament with a view to
maintaining regional and international peace and security,
 
     Recognizing that the availability of massive quantities of conventional
weapons and especially their illicit transfer, often associated with
destabilizing activities, are most disturbing and dangerous phenomena,
particularly for the internal situation of affected States and the violation
of human rights,
 
     Stressing the need for effective national control measures on the
transfer of conventional weapons,
 
     Recognizing also the curbing of the illicit transfer of arms as an
important contribution to the relaxation of tension and peaceful
reconciliation processes,
 
     Convinced that peace and security are inextricably interlinked with and
in some cases imperative for economic development and reconstruction,
 
     1.  Invites the Disarmament Commission to:
 
     (a) Expedite its consideration of the agenda item on international arms
transfers, with special emphasis on the adverse consequences of the illicit
transfer of arms and ammunition;
 
     (b) Study measures to curb the illicit transfer and use of conventional
arms;
 
     2.  Invites Member States to provide the Secretary-General with relevant
information on national control measures on arms transfers with a view to
preventing illicit arms transfers and, in this context, to take immediate,
appropriate and effective measures to seek to ensure that illicit transfers of
arms are discontinued;
 
     3.  Requests the Secretary-General to:
 
     (a) Seek the views of Member States on effective ways and means of
collecting weapons illicitly transferred in interested countries, as well as
on concrete proposals concerning measures at national, regional and
international levels to curb the illicit transfer and use of conventional
arms;
 
     (b) Study, within the existing resources, upon request from the concerned
Member States, the possibilities of the collection of weapons illicitly
transferred in the light of the experience gained by the United Nations and
the views expressed by Member States and to submit a report on the result of
his study to the General Assembly at its fiftieth session;
 
     4.  Also requests the Secretary-General to report to the Assembly at its
fiftieth session on the implementation of the present resolution;
 
     5.  Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth session
the item entitled "Measures to curb the illicit transfer and use of
conventional arms".
 
                                       N
 
                             Regional disarmament
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recalling its resolutions 45/58 P of 4 December 1990, 46/36 I of 6
December 1991, 47/52 J of 9 December 1992 and 48/75 I of 16 December 1993 on
regional disarmament,
 
     Believing that the efforts of the international community to move towards
the ideal of general and complete disarmament are guided by the inherent human
desire for genuine peace and security, the elimination of the danger of war
and the release of economic, intellectual and other resources for peaceful
pursuits,
 
     Affirming the abiding commitment of all States to the purposes and
principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations in the conduct of
their international relations,
 
     Noting that essential guidelines for progress towards general and
complete disarmament were adopted at the tenth special session of the General
Assembly,
 
     Taking note of the guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches
to disarmament within the context of global security adopted by the
Disarmament Commission at its 1993 substantive session,
 
     Welcoming the prospects of genuine progress in the field of disarmament
engendered in recent years as a result of negotiations between the two
super-Powers,
 
     Taking note also of the recent proposals for disarmament and nuclear
non-proliferation at the regional and subregional levels,
 
     Recognizing the importance of confidence-building measures for regional
and international peace and security,
 
     Convinced that endeavours by countries to promote regional disarmament,
taking into account the specific characteristics of each region and in
accordance with the principle of undiminished security at the lowest level of
armaments, would enhance the security of smaller States and would thus
contribute to international peace and security by reducing the risk of
regional conflicts,
 
     1.  Stresses that sustained efforts are needed, within the framework of
the Conference on Disarmament and under the umbrella of the United Nations, to
make progress on the entire range of disarmament issues;
 
     2.  Affirms that global and regional approaches to disarmament complement
each other and should therefore be pursued simultaneously to promote regional
and international peace and security;
 
     3.  Calls upon States to conclude agreements, wherever possible, for
nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and confidence-building measures at
regional and subregional levels;
 
     4.  Welcomes the initiatives towards disarmament, nuclear
non-proliferation and security undertaken by some countries at the regional
and subregional levels;
 
     5.  Supports and encourages efforts aimed at promoting
confidence-building measures at regional and subregional levels in order to
ease regional tensions and to further disarmament and nuclear
non-proliferation measures at regional and subregional levels;
 
     6.  Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth session
the item entitled "Regional disarmament".
 
 
                                       O
 
                 Conventional arms control at the regional and
                              subregional levels
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recalling its resolution 48/75 J of 16 December 1993,
 
     Recognizing the crucial role of conventional arms control in promoting
regional and international peace and security,
 
     Convinced that conventional arms control needs to be pursued primarily in
the regional and subregional contexts since most threats to peace and security
in the post- cold-war era arise mainly among States located in the same region
or subregion,
 
     Aware that the preservation of a balance in the defence capabilities of
States at the lowest level of armaments would contribute to peace and
stability and should be a prime objective of conventional arms control,
 
     Desirous of promoting agreements to strengthen regional peace and
security at the lowest possible level of armaments and military forces,
 
     Believing that militarily significant States, and States with larger
military capabilities, have a special responsibility in promoting such
agreements for regional security,
 
     Believing also that one of the principal objectives of conventional arms
control should be to prevent the possibility of military attack launched by
surprise,
 
     1.  Decides to give urgent consideration to the issues involved in
conventional arms control at the regional and subregional levels;
 
     2.  Requests the Conference on Disarmament, as a first step, to consider
the formulation of principles that can serve as a framework for regional
agreements on conventional arms control, and looks forward to a report of the
Conference on this subject;
 
     3.  Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth session
the item entitled "Conventional arms control at the regional and subregional
levels". 
 
                                       P
 
          Bilateral nuclear-arms negotiations and nuclear disarmament
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recalling its previous relevant resolutions,
 
     Recognizing the fundamental changes that have taken place with respect to
international security, which have permitted agreements on deep reductions in
the nuclear armaments of the States possessing the largest inventories of such
weapons, 
 
     Mindful that it is the responsibility and obligation of all States to
contribute to the process of the relaxation of international tension and to
the strengthening of international peace and security,
 
     Stressing the importance of strengthening international peace and
security through disarmament,
 
     Emphasizing that nuclear disarmament remains one of the principal tasks
of our times,
 
     Stressing also that it is the responsibility of all States to adopt and
implement measures towards the attainment of general and complete disarmament
under effective international control,
 
     Appreciating a number of positive developments in the field of nuclear
disarmament, in particular the treaty concluded on 8 December 1987 between the
former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America on
the elimination of their intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles and the
treaties on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms,
 
     Noting that there are still significant nuclear arsenals and that the
primary responsibility for nuclear disarmament, with the objective of the
elimination of nuclear weapons, rests with the nuclear-weapon States, in
particular those which possess the largest stockpiles,
 
     Welcoming the steps that have already been taken by those States to begin
the process of reducing the number of nuclear weapons and removing such
weapons from a deployed status, and bilateral agreements on the issue of
de-targeting strategic nuclear missiles,
 
     Noting the new climate of relations between the United States of America
and the States of the former Soviet Union, which permits them to intensify
their cooperative efforts to ensure the safety, security and environmentally
sound destruction of nuclear weapons,
 
     Noting also that the Russian Federation and the United States of America
concurred that, once their Treaty on the Further Reduction and Limitation of
Strategic Offensive Arms was ratified, they would proceed to deactivate all
strategic delivery systems to be reduced under the Treaty by removing their
nuclear warheads or taking other steps to remove them from alert status,
 
     Noting further the agreement between the Russian Federation and the
United States of America to intensify their dialogue to compare conceptual
approaches and to develop concrete steps to adapt the nuclear forces and
practices on both sides to the changed international security situation,
including the possibility, after ratification of the Treaty on the Further
Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, of further reductions of
and limitations on remaining nuclear forces,
 
     Urging the further intensification of such efforts to accelerate the
implementation of agreements and unilateral decisions relating to nuclear-arms
reduction,
 
     Welcoming the reduction made by other nuclear-weapon States in some of
their nuclear-weapon programmes, and encouraging all nuclear-weapon States to
consider appropriate measures relating to nuclear disarmament,
 
     Affirming that bilateral and multilateral negotiations on nuclear
disarmament should facilitate and complement each other,
 
     1.  Welcomes the actions taken towards the ratification of the Treaty on
the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, signed in Moscow on
31 July 1991 by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United
States of America, and the protocol to that Treaty signed at Lisbon on 23 May
1992 by the parties thereto, inter alia, the trilateral statement by the
Presidents of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the United States of America
signed on 14 January 1994, and urges the parties to take the necessary steps
to ensure the Treaty's entry into force at the earliest possible date;
 
     2.  Also welcomes the signing of the Treaty between the Russian
Federation and the United States of America on the Further Reduction and
Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms in Moscow on 3 January 1993, and urges
the parties to take the steps necessary to bring that Treaty into force at the
earliest possible date;
 
     3.  Expresses its satisfaction at the continuing implementation of the
treaty on the elimination of intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles, in
particular at the completion by the parties of the destruction of all their
declared missiles subject to elimination under the treaty;
 
     4.  Encourages the United States of America, the Russian Federation,
Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine to continue their cooperative efforts aimed at
eliminating nuclear weapons and strategic offensive arms on the basis of
existing agreements, and welcomes the contributions that other States are
making to such cooperation as well;
 
     5.  Welcomes the accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of
Nuclear Weapons of Belarus and Kazakhstan as non-nuclear-weapon States and
would welcome similar action on the part of Ukraine;
 
     6.  Encourages and supports the Russian Federation and the United States
of America in their efforts to reduce their nuclear armaments and to continue
to give those efforts the highest priority in order to contribute to the
objective of the elimination of nuclear weapons;
 
     7.  Invites the Russian Federation and the United States of America to
keep other States Members of the United Nations duly informed of progress in
their discussions and in the implementation of their strategic offensive arms
agreements and unilateral decisions.