United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

9 December 1994


                                              83rd plenary meeting
                                              9 December 1994
            49/37. Comprehensive review of the whole question of peace-
                   keeping operations in all their aspects
      The General Assembly,
      Recalling its resolution 2006 (XIX) of 18 February 1965 and all other
relevant resolutions,
      Recalling, in particular, its resolutions 48/42 and 48/43 of 10 December
      Welcoming the progress made by the Special Committee on Peace-keeping
Operations during its recent sessions,
      Convinced that peace-keeping operations constitute a considerable part
of the efforts by the United Nations to maintain international peace and
security and to enhance the effectiveness of the United Nations in this
      Recognizing that the peacemaking activities of the Secretary-General and
of organs of the United Nations, which are actions to bring hostile parties to
agreement essentially through peaceful means such as those foreseen in Chapter
VI of the Charter of the United Nations, constitute an essential function of
the United Nations and are among the important means for the prevention,
containment and resolution of disputes, the continuance of which is likely to
endanger the maintenance of international peace and security,
      Taking note of the statements of the President of the Security Council
of 3 May  and 4 November 1994 and, in particular, welcoming the improvements
in respect of consultations with troop-contributing countries reported
      Bearing in mind that the increase in activities in the field of United
Nations peace-keeping requires both increasing and better managed human,
financial and material resources for the Organization,
      Taking note also of the report of the Secretary-General on the work of
the Organization, having examined the report of the Special Committee on
Peace-keeping Operations, and taking note further of the report of the
Secretary-General and the statement of the President of the Security Council
of 27 July 1994 concerning stand-by peace-keeping arrangements,
      Noting the various proposals and ideas regarding United Nations peace-
keeping put forward during the general debate at its forty-ninth session,
      Noting also the existence of humanitarian activities in support of
certain United Nations peace-keeping operations and the usefulness of
bilateral arrangements between concerned Member States for consultations on
providing legal protection to the personnel participating in such activities,
      1.    Welcomes the report of the Special Committee on Peace-keeping
                   Definition and implementation of mandates
      2.    Emphasizes that respect for the principles of sovereignty,
territorial integrity and political independence of States and non-
intervention in matters that are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction
of any State is crucial to common efforts, including peace-keeping operations,
to promote international peace and security;
      3.    Stresses the need to address effectively the underlying causes of
      4.    Also stresses that peace-keeping operations contribute to, but are
not a substitute for, political settlement of disputes and should be preceded
and accompanied, as appropriate, by the use of all possible means for the
peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with the provisions of the
Charter of the United Nations, and urges parties involved in long-standing
operations to find political solutions to outstanding disputes;
      5.    Expresses its belief that it is of paramount importance that there
be a clear and precise formulation of the mandate of peace-keeping operations,
based on a comprehensive analysis and assessment of the situation on the
ground by the Secretary-General and the Security Council and incorporating
objectives achievable within a clear time-frame, which objectives should
contribute to a political solution and are clearly related to the availability
of the resources essential for their implementation;
      6.    Underlines the importance of considering, on a case-by-case basis,
the establishment of demilitarized zones and the use of preventive deployment
of troops, as indicated its resolution 47/120 B of 20 September 1993;
      7.    Stresses the importance, taking into account the principles that
have guided peace-keeping operations and the increasingly complex nature of
those operations, of the elaboration of a set of principles and guidelines,
and the need to consider on a case-by-case basis the coordination between
political, military, civilian and humanitarian aspects, as well as the need
for United Nations peace-keeping operations to continue to fulfil their
mandates impartially, and requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with
Member States, to develop further common definitions of terms used in peace-
keeping and related activities;
                   Consultation and coordination mechanisms
      8.    Stresses that, while the Security Council bears primary
responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, the
Charter also provides for General Assembly functions and powers in this regard
and that, in addition to its responsibility for financing peace-keeping
operations, the Assembly could, inter alia, recommend, in accordance with
relevant articles of Chapter IV of the Charter, principles and guidelines for
the conduct of peace-keeping operations, for their effective management and,
consistent with the Charter, for encouraging support of their mandates;
      9.    Notes that the views of troop-contributing countries are of
critical importance, and calls for enhanced arrangements for consultations and
exchange of information with troop-contributing countries regarding peace-
keeping operations, including their planning, management and coordination,
throughout the duration of those operations;
      10.   Welcomes the recent practice of members of the Security Council,
including its President, of attending meetings between the Secretariat and
troop-contributing countries, agrees with the Secretary-General that this
constitutes a step towards the development of improved mechanisms for
effective consultation, and considers that such consultations are particularly
important when the Council is considering changes to or significant extensions
of the mandates of existing missions;
      11.   Also welcomes the statement of the President of the Security
Council of 4 November 1994 on consultations between members of the Council,
troop-contributing countries and the Secretariat;
      12.   Notes the important role played by countries of the region
concerned in supporting peace-keeping operations, welcomes the recognition, in
the statement of the President of the Security Council of 4 November 1994, of
the practice of informal communication between the President of the Council or
Council members and non-members, and encourages the inclusion of countries of
the region concerned, on a case-by-case basis, in those communications when
they relate to decisions regarding a peace-keeping operation that may affect
them directly;
      13.   Recommends the regular transmission of situation reports to troop-
contributing countries, members of the Security Council and, where possible,
other Member States, on all peace-keeping operations;
                           Evaluation of operations
      14.   Requests the Secretary-General, once again, to provide
periodically to Member States analytic reports on the performance of all
peace-keeping operations;
      15.   Takes note of the progress report of the Secretary-General on the
start-up phase of the in-depth evaluation of peace-keeping, and expresses its
belief that a continuing process of in-depth evaluation of various phases and
aspects of peace-keeping operations is important to the deliberations on
improving the capacity of the United Nations for peace-keeping;
                              Command and control
      16.   Stresses the need for a unified and well-defined United Nations
command and control structure, incorporating a clear delineation of functions
between United Nations Headquarters and the field, and notes that while
operational matters should essentially be the responsibility of the Force
Commander, Headquarters is responsible for overall control and political
      17.   Confirms, as a leading principle, that a peace-keeping operation
should be under the operational control of the United Nations in accordance
with its mandate, taking into account the intended tasks of the unit provided
and according to the agreement between the Secretary-General and the troop-
contributing countries, and that the appropriate channel for raising specific
national concerns regarding the course of actions pursued in an operation is
through Headquarters;
      18.   Also stresses the need for effective coordination between the
field headquarters and contingent commanders on issues affecting the planning
and management of a peace-keeping operation;
      19.   Urges that immediate steps be taken to strengthen current
arrangements in the United Nations for political direction, military command
and control and consultations, as well as to improve coordination, when
required, with the humanitarian and other civilian aspects of peace-keeping
operations, both at Headquarters and in the field;
                 Enhancing the capacity of the United Nations
                               for peace-keeping
      20.   Reaffirms that the financing of peace-keeping operations is the
collective responsibility of all Member States in accordance with Article 17,
paragraph 2, of the Charter, and reiterates its call upon all Member States to
pay their assessed contributions in full and on time, commends those Members
States which have offered voluntary contributions in addition to their
assessed ones, and encourages other Member States, including those directly
concerned in a dispute that has resulted in deployment of a peace-keeping
operation, to do the same, including contributions in kind, in accordance with
their financial capacity and the Financial Regulations and Rules of the United
      21.   Expresses deep concern about the adverse effect that the
deteriorating financial situation has on the reimbursement of troop
contributors, many of which are developing countries, placing an additional
burden on all troop-contributing countries and putting at risk the continuing
supply of troops to United Nations peace-keeping operations and, consequently,
the effective implementation of the mandates;
      22.   Takes note of the important proposals on rationalization of the
budgetary process contained in section V of the report of the Secretary-
General on improving the capacity of the United Nations for peace-keeping and
the proposals in the report of the Secretary-General on the effective
planning, budgeting and administration of peace-keeping operations;
      23.   Recommends that decisions on the allocation of additional
resources for peace-keeping operations should be taken without prejudice to
decisions on the allocation of future resources intended for international
cooperation for development;
      24.   Calls for a better mechanism of financial control, including
reinforcement of audit and inspection mechanisms, and recalls its
establishment of the Office of Internal Oversight Services in resolution
48/218 B of 29 July 1994;
      25.   Stresses the need to delegate the appropriate degree of financial
and administrative authority to Force Commanders or Special Representatives,
while ensuring that measures relating to responsibility and accountability are
strengthened in order to increase the capacity of missions to adjust to new
situations and specific requirements;
      26.   Requests the Secretary-General to continue his consultations with
Member States with a view to concluding, as soon as possible, his current
review of the rates of reimbursement for depreciation of contingent-owned
equipment deployed at the request of the United Nations and to report thereon
to the General Assembly;
      27.   Stresses the importance attached to the ongoing review of current
arrangements for compensation for death, injury or illness attributable to
peace-keeping service, intended to develop equitable arrangements, takes note
of the report of the Secretary-General in this regard, and encourages
appropriate forums to consider this matter on an urgent basis;
      28.   Welcomes the work of the Stand-by Forces Unit of the Planning
Division of the Department of Peace-keeping Operations of the Secretariat and
notes that some Member States have made commitments to the Secretary-General
in this regard, looks forward to the completion of the compilation of lists of
units, forces, capabilities or resources that Member States would in principle
be prepared to put at the disposal of the United Nations on a case-by-case
basis, subject to the agreement of the Government concerned, and recommends
that the list be periodically updated and brought to the attention of Member
      29.   Recognizes the need to enhance the United Nations logistics
capability, considers that a first step is the operational support manual for
all areas of logistics support, and in this connection looks forward to the
completion and issue of all chapters of that manual to troop contributors;
      30.   Considers that all the implications of creating limited stockpiles
of equipment should be examined in the appropriate bodies of the United
      31.   Notes the growing weight of the civilian component in peace-
keeping operations, requests, in this respect, the Secretary-General to
develop a proposal for regularly updated data banks recording the type and
availability of resources that Member States could provide, at the request of
the United Nations, for civilian duties, and encourages the Secretary-General
to continue his efforts to include civilian personnel, such as police, in the
current stand-by arrangements and planning;
      32.   Urges the Secretary-General to consider the endowment of a
memorial medal honouring civilian participants in order to encourage their
                   Planning, organization and effectiveness
      33.   Encourages the Secretary-General to continue with his plans to
strengthen the Department of Peace-keeping Operations, in order to ensure the
best structure and capacity for successfully managing such operations, bearing
in mind the need to give due regard to the principle of equitable geographical
representation, and notes the organizational approach of the Secretary-General
as set out in his report on improving the capacity of the United Nations for
      34.   Welcomes the creation of a Policy and Analysis Unit and a Planning
Division within the Department of Peace-keeping Operations, and considers that
those units should be further developed to improve the capacity of the United
Nations to manage peace-keeping;
      35.   Considers it important that Force Commanders and other key
personnel be associated with the planning of peace-keeping operations from the
outset and that they should, where feasible, participate in preparatory
technical missions to the field, which should be designed with clear terms of
reference, and also considers that deployment of some of the members of
technical missions to the field at an early stage of an operation is useful;
      36.   Requests the Secretary-General to strengthen further the civilian
police function within the Department of Peace-keeping Operations, with
particular attention to planning, training, logistical support and
standardized doctrine and procedures, noting, in this connection, the views
expressed in his progress report on the start-up phase of the in-depth
evaluation of peace-keeping;
      37.   Requests the Secretariat immediately to make all necessary
arrangements for the updating and reissue of The Blue Helmets in 1995;
                Safety and security of United Nations personnel
      38.   Stresses the need for security of personnel to be an integral part
of the planning of any peace-keeping operation, and stresses also that
appropriate measures should be taken to ensure their safety and security;
      39.   Welcomes the adoption by the Sixth Committee of the Convention on
the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel;
      40.   Recognizes that overall responsibility for the safety and security
of the members of a peace-keeping operation lies with the Secretary-General,
who also has to follow the development of the situation, make timely
adjustments in the safety and security arrangements when the situation so
requires and cooperate closely with troop-contributing countries and the
Security Council in this regard, and urges the Secretary-General to initiate a
dialogue with Member States on possible additional safety measures that can be
taken in situations where current measures are deemed inadequate;
      41.   Requests the Secretary-General to keep troop-contributing
countries and the members of the Security Council informed as appropriate on
evacuation plans and arrangements;
      42.   Urges the Secretary-General to strengthen the Office of the United
Nations Security Coordinator, within existing resources, in order to
facilitate better coordination to ensure the security of the personnel
participating in peace-keeping operations;
                                Model agreement
      43.   Notes the importance of concluding arrangements between the United
Nations and troop contributing countries before deployment occurs, and
stresses that, as far as possible, those arrangements should be along the
lines of the model agreement outlined in the report of the Secretary-General
of 23 May 1991;
                              Public information
      44.   Stresses the need for the United Nations to adopt a more proactive
approach to public information policy for peace-keeping operations, to keep
local populations informed of the nature of United Nations operations, with a
view, inter alia, to facilitating constructive communication between the
parties to provide, where possible, troop-contributing countries with
materials on peace-keeping operations that may assist them in their domestic
public information efforts and to provide the international media with
objective information so as to promote a more accurate understanding of United
Nations actions, and encourages the Committee on Information to review ways to
strengthen public information activities in support of peace-keeping;
      45.   Requests the Secretary-General to improve support for the planning
and implementation of public affairs programmes in peace-keeping missions,
including their print and broadcast needs, and, drawing upon the experience of
the United Nations and national expertise, to develop programmes and materials
to train public affairs officers;
      46.   Also requests the Secretary-General to train Headquarters and
mission staff in dealing with the media, in presenting the case for a peace-
keeping operation and commenting on it as it progresses;
      47.   Recognizes that, while the training of personnel for peace-keeping
operations is essentially the responsibility of Member States, the United
Nations should establish basic guidelines and performance standards and
provide descriptive materials;
      48.   Welcomes the efforts of the Secretary-General to develop manuals,
including a curriculum module, and a programme of correspondence instruction
which will enable Member States to train personnel provided for United Nations
peace-keeping operations in a standardized and cost-effective manner in
accordance with agreed common standards, skills, practices and procedures, and
looks forward to those manuals and other materials being made available to
Member States;
      49.   Requests the Secretary-General to investigate the means to
strengthen the leadership cadre available for peace-keeping, inter alia, by
coordinating relevant training for potential Force Commanders and other senior
military and civilian personnel for peace-keeping leadership and management
      50.   Also requests the Secretary-General to establish, on a trial
basis, a peace-keeping training coordination programme; such a programme,
administered by the United Nations, could include training-the-trainer
workshops, specialized training in community relations and conflict
resolution, arrangements to organize and rapidly dispatch training teams, at
the request of Member States, to assist in national training efforts, seminars
in mission management and short orientation courses at Headquarters or in the
field for staff officers before deployment to a new mission;
      51.   Encourages Member States that have peace-keeping training
programmes to share information and experience and, if requested, to enable
personnel from other Member States to participate in the work of national
staff colleges to help in the development of training programmes and to
receive personnel from other Member States interested in such programmes;
      52.   Encourages the establishment of peace-keeping training centres, on
a national or regional basis as deemed appropriate, for military and civilian
      53.   Recommends that the Training Unit, as the focal point for peace-
keeping training in the Department of Peace-keeping Operations, act as a
coordinating centre on peace-keeping training matters between the United
Nations and national and international peace-keeping training centres to
develop links with counterpart bodies and to encourage the exchange of
training materials with and between Member States;
      54.   Encourages Member States to examine the feasibility of developing,
in their regions, small short-term training teams from Member States
experienced in peace-keeping to assist other Member States;
      55.   Encourages the Secretary-General to examine the feasibility of
establishing a training advisory group providing a link to national and
regional peace-keeping training institutions to assist the Department of
Peace-keeping Operations in the periodic review of training requirements;
                    Cooperation with regional organizations
      56.   Stresses the need, bearing in mind the provisions of Chapter VIII
of the Charter, to enhance the cooperation and coordination between the United
Nations and those regional arrangements and organizations able to assist it in
its peace-keeping activities in accordance with their respective mandates,
scope and composition, and encourages the Secretary-General and Member States
to consider ways and means to assist those regional arrangements and
organizations in the activities described above;
      57.   Notes the recent initiative of the Secretary-General to convene an
informal meeting at Headquarters with representatives of regional arrangements
and organizations and with other intergovernmental organizations;
      58.   Also notes the recent work of the Special Committee on the Charter
of the United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role of the Organization
in elaborating the text of the Declaration on the Enhancement of Cooperation
between the United Nations and Regional Arrangements or Agencies in the
Maintenance of International Peace and Security;
      59.   Recommends that, should any of the proposals contained in the
present resolution result in budgetary implications for the biennium 1994-
1995, such additional costs should be accommodated within the appropriation
level approved by the General Assembly for that biennium;
      60.   Decides that the Special Committee on Peace-keeping Operations, in
accordance with its mandate, should continue its efforts for a comprehensive
review of the whole question of peace-keeping operations in all their aspects;
      61.   Requests the Special Committee on Peace-keeping Operations to
submit a report on its work to the General Assembly at its fiftieth session;
      62.   Invites Member States to submit further observations and
suggestions on peace-keeping operations to the Secretary-General by 1 March
1995, outlining practical proposals on specific items in order to allow for
more detailed consideration by the Special Committee;
      63.   Requests the Secretary-General to prepare, within existing
resources, a compilation of the above-mentioned observations and suggestions
and to submit it to the Special Committee by 30 March 1995;
      64.   Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fiftieth
session the item entitled "Comprehensive review of the whole question of
peace-keeping operations in all their aspects".