United Nations

A/RES/46/152


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

18 December 1991

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



                                                  A/RES/46/152
                                                  77th plenary meeting
                                                  18 December 1991
 
 
  46/152.  Creation of an effective United Nations crime prevention and
                   criminal justice programme
 
  The General Assembly,
 
  Alarmed by the scope of criminality and by the dangers posed to the welfare
of all nations by the rising incidence of crime generally and by the many
forms of criminal activity that have international dimensions,
 
  Alarmed also by the high cost of crime in both human and material terms,
especially in its new and transnational forms, and aware of the effects of
crime both on States and on individual victims,
 
  Recalling that, in its resolution 45/108 of 14 December 1990, it decided to
establish an intergovernmental working group to produce a report elaborating
proposals for an effective crime prevention and criminal justice programme and
suggesting how that programme could most appropriately be implemented,
 
  Acknowledging with appreciation the work of the Intergovernmental Working
Group on the Creation of an Effective International Crime and Justice
Programme, which met at Vienna from 5 to 9 August 1991,
 
  Acknowledging with appreciation also the work of the Ministerial Meeting on
the Creation of an Effective United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Programme, held in Paris from 21 to 23 November 1991,
 
  Recognizing that criminality is a major concern of all nations and that it
calls for a concerted response from the international community aimed at
preventing crime and recidivism, improving the functioning of criminal justice
and law enforcement, and increasing respect for individual rights,
 
  Acknowledging that a United Nations programme devoted to crime prevention
and criminal justice can only be effective with the direct involvement of
Member States,
 
  Convinced that the principal purpose of such a programme should be to
provide practical assistance to States in combating both national and
transnational crime,
 
  Noting the principles contained in the Milan Plan of Action and the Guiding
Principles for Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in the Context of
Development and a New International Economic Order, as well as other pertinent
instruments formulated by United Nations congresses on the prevention of crime
and the treatment of offenders and approved by the General Assembly,
 
  Recalling its relevant resolutions in which it stressed the importance of
the Commission on Human Rights and the Centre for Human Rights of the
Secretariat with regard to respect for human rights in the administration of
justice, 
 
  Recognizing the urgent need to promote and intensify international
cooperation in crime prevention and criminal justice, and the fact that this
cooperation can be effective only if it is executed with the direct
participation of the receiving States, with due respect for their needs and
priorities,
 
  1.  Takes note with appreciation of the report of the Ministerial Meeting on
the Creation of an Effective United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Programme;
 
  2.  Approves the statement of principles and programme of action, annexed to
the present resolution, recommending the establishment of a United Nations
crime prevention and criminal justice programme;
 
  3.  Supports a clearer definition of the mandate of the programme with
regard to crime prevention and criminal justice, under the aegis and guidance
of the United Nations, whose aim will be to respond to the most pressing
priorities and needs of the international community in the face of both
national and transnational criminality;
 
  4.  Requests the Secretary-General to give a high level of priority within
the United Nations framework, and within the overall existing United Nations
resources, to the activities of the United Nations crime prevention and
criminal justice programme;
 
  5.  Decides that the United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice
programme shall be devoted to providing States with practical assistance, such
as data collection, information and experience sharing, and training, in order
to achieve the goals of preventing crime within and among States and of
improving the response to crime;
 
  6.  Invites Member States to give their political and financial support and
to take measures that will ensure the implementation of the provisions of the
statement of principles and programme of action as they relate to the
strengthening of the United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice
programme in terms of its structure, content and priorities;
 
  7.  Requests the Secretary-General to take the necessary action within the
overall existing United Nations resources in accordance with the financial
rules and regulations of the United Nations and to provide appropriate
resources for the effective functioning of the United Nations crime prevention
and criminal justice programme in accordance with the principles outlined in
the statement of principles and programme of action;
 
  8.  Urges all entities of the United Nations system, including the regional
commissions, the United Nations congresses on the prevention of crime and the
treatment of offenders, the United Nations institutes for the prevention of
crime and the treatment of offenders, the specialized agencies and the
relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, to assist the
United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice programme in fulfilling
its tasks;
 
  9.  Encourages all developed countries to review their aid programmes in
order to ensure that there is a full and proper contribution in the field of
criminal justice within the overall context of development priorities;
 
  10.  Decides to recommend that a commission on crime prevention and criminal
justice be established as a functional commission of the Economic and Social
Council, which would hold its inaugural meeting during 1992, and recommends
that the meeting of the Committee on Crime Prevention and Control scheduled
for February 1992 be cancelled and that the funds necessary for the work of
the new commission be made available within the programme budget for the
biennium 1992-1993;
 
  11.  Requests the Economic and Social Council at its organizational session
for 1992:
 
  (a)  To dissolve the Committee on Crime Prevention and Control;
 
  (b)  To establish the commission on crime prevention and criminal justice as
a new functional commission of the Economic and Social Council, in accordance
with the recommendations contained in the statement of principles and
programme of action;
 
  (c)  To endorse the role and functions of the United Nations congresses on
the prevention of crime and the treatment of offenders, in accordance with the
recommendations contained in the statement of principles and programme of
action;
 
  12.  Decides that the present members of the Committee on Crime Prevention
and Control should be invited to participate during the first two days of the
inaugural session of the new commission, at the expense of their respective
Governments, except in the case of Committee members from least developed
countries, in order to facilitate an orderly transition;
 
  13.  Also decides to retain for the United Nations crime prevention and
criminal justice programme, without prejudice to additional funds that may be
made available by the Secretary-General, all funds currently allocated to the
programme, as well as any savings realized by restructuring;
 
  14.  Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly at its
forty-seventh session on measures taken to implement the statement of
principles and programme of action.
 
                                     ANNEX
 
         Statement of principles and programme of action of the United
            Nations crime prevention and criminal justice programme
 
  We, Member States of the United Nations,
 
  Assembled in Paris to consider ways and means of promoting international
cooperation in crime prevention and criminal justice and of strengthening the
United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice programme in order to
make it fully effective and responsive to the needs and priorities of Member
States,
 
  Considering that one of the purposes of the United Nations, as stated in the
Charter of the United Nations, is to achieve international cooperation in
solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural or
humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human
rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race,
sex, language, or religion,
 
  Convinced of the urgent need for more efficient international mechanisms to
assist States and to facilitate joint strategies in the field of crime
prevention and criminal justice, thus consolidating the role of the United
Nations as the focal point in that field,
 
  Noting the importance of the principles contained in the Milan Plan of
Action and the Guiding Principles for Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in
the Context of Development and a New International Economic Order, as well as
other pertinent instruments formulated by United Nations congresses on the
prevention of crime and the treatment of offenders and approved by the General
Assembly,
 
  Reaffirming the responsibility assumed by the United Nations in crime
prevention and criminal justice,
 
  Bearing in mind the goals of the United Nations in the field of crime
prevention and criminal justice, specifically the reduction of criminality,
more efficient and effective law enforcement and administration of justice,
the observance of human rights and the promotion of the highest standards of
fairness, humanity and professional conduct,
 
  Recognizing that it is essential to elicit active support for, and to
provide the means of assistance for the development of, an effective United
Nations crime prevention and criminal justice programme and to devise
appropriate implementation mechanisms,
 
  Deeply concerned about the extent and growth of crime, with its financial,
economic and social consequences,
 
  Alarmed at the high cost of crime in both human and material terms, as well
as in its new national and transnational forms, and aware of the effects of
crime both on States and on individual victims,
 
  Recognizing that the primary responsibility for crime prevention and
criminal justice rests with Member States,
 
  Emphasizing the need for strengthened regional and international cooperation
to combat crime and recidivism, to effect the improved functioning of criminal
justice systems, to promote respect for individual rights and to safeguard the
rights of victims of crime and the general security of the public,
 
  Aware that there is unanimity about the need to create a new, vigorous
United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice programme, as well as
agreement on the need to establish an intergovernmental body for policy-making
and priority-setting, to strengthen the effectiveness of the Secretariat unit
within the Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the
United Nations Office at Vienna, and to increase technical cooperation to help
countries, particularly developing countries, translate United Nations policy-
guidelines into practice, including training,
 
  Determined to translate our political will into concrete action:
 
  (a)  By creating the essential mechanisms for practical collaboration
against common problems;
 
  (b)  By providing a framework for inter-State cooperation and coordination
to respond to the serious new forms and transnational aspects and dimensions
of crime;
 
  (c)  By establishing information exchanges concerning the implementation and
effectiveness of the United Nations norms and standards in crime prevention
and criminal justice;
 
  (d)  By providing means of assistance, particularly to developing countries,
for more effective crime prevention and more human justice;
 
  (e)  By establishing an adequate resource base for a truly effective United
Nations crime prevention and criminal justice programme,
 
  Proclaim our strong commitment to the above-mentioned goals and agree on the
following:
 
                          I.  STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES
 
  1.  We recognize that the world is experiencing very important changes
resulting in a political climate conducive to democracy, to international
cooperation, to more widespread enjoyment of basic human rights and
fundamental freedoms, and to the realization of the aspirations of all nations
to economic development and social welfare. Notwithstanding these
developments, the world today is still beset by violence and other forms of
serious crime. These phenomena, wherever they occur, constitute a threat to
the maintenance of the rule of law.
 
  2.  We believe that justice based on the rule of law is the pillar on which
civilized society rests. We seek to improve its quality. A humane and
efficient criminal justice system can be an instrument of equity, constructive
social change and social justice, protecting basic values and peoples'
inalienable rights. Every right of the individual should enjoy the protection
of the law against violation, a process in which the criminal justice system
plays an essential role.
 
  3.  We have in mind the fact that the lowering of the world crime rate is
related to, among other factors, the improvement of the social conditions of
the population. The developed countries and the developing countries are
experiencing difficult situations in this respect. Nevertheless, the specific
problems encountered by the developing countries justify priority being given
to dealing with the situation confronting these countries.
 
  4.  We believe that rising crime is impairing the process of development and
the general well-being of humanity and is causing general disquiet within our
societies. If this situation continues, progress and development will be the
ultimate victims of crime.
 
  5.  We also believe that the growing internationalization of crime must
generate new and commensurate responses. Organized crime is exploiting the
relaxation of border controls designed to foster legitimate trade and, hence,
development. The incidence and scope of such crimes may increase further in
the coming years unless sound preventive measures are taken. It is thus
particularly important to anticipate events and to assist Member States in
mounting suitable preventive and control strategies.
 
  6.  We recognize that many criminal offences have international dimensions.
In this context, there is an urgent need for States to address, while
respecting the sovereignty of States, problems arising in collecting evidence,
extraditing offenders and promoting mutual legal assistance, for example, when
such offences are committed across frontiers or when frontiers are used to
escape detection or prosecution. Despite differences in legal systems,
experience has shown that mutual assistance and cooperation can be effective
countermeasures and can help to prevent conflicts of jurisdiction.
 
  7.  We also recognize that democracy and a better quality of life can
flourish only in a context of peace and security for all. Crime poses a threat
to stability and to a safe environment. Crime prevention and criminal justice,
with due regard to the observance of human rights, is thus a direct
contribution to the maintenance of peace and security.
 
  8.  We must ensure that any increases in the capacity and capabilities of
perpetrators of crime are matched by similar increases in the capacity and
capabilities of law enforcement and criminal justice authorities. By pooling
our knowledge and developing suitable countermeasures, success in the
prevention of crime and the reduction of victimization can be maximized. We
recognize in particular the need to improve and strengthen the means of the
crime prevention and control authorities in the developing countries, whose
critical economic and social situation is further increasing the difficulties
in this area.
 
  9.  We call on the international community to increase its support of
technical cooperation and assistance activities for the benefit of all
countries, including developing and smaller countries, and for the purpose of
expanding and strengthening the infrastructure needed for effective crime
prevention and viable, fair and humane criminal justice systems.
 
  10.  We acknowledge the contribution of the United Nations crime prevention
and criminal justice programme to the international community. We note that it
is a long-recognized fact that inadequate resources have been devoted to the
implementation of the programme, which has in the past been inhibited from
achieving its potential. We also note that a strengthening of the resources
devoted to the implementation of the programme was called for by the Sixth
United Nations Congress for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of
Offenders, the Seventh United Nations Congress for the Prevention of Crime and
the Treatment of Offenders and the Eighth United Nations Congress for the
Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. We further note that the
Committee on Crime Prevention and Control, at its eleventh session, gave
priority attention to the conclusions and recommendations of a subcommittee
established to provide an overview of the problem of crime and to assess the
most efficient means of stimulating practical international action in support
of Member States, in pursuance of General Assembly resolution 44/72 of 8
December 1989. The Committee, in its resolution 11/3 of 16 February 1990,
unanimously approved a report of the subcommittee on the need for the creation
of an effective international crime and justice programme. That report, which
was endorsed by the Eighth Congress, was used as an important tool for the
establishment of the United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice
programme, in line with the provisions of General Assembly resolution 45/108.
 
  11.  We accordingly recommend intensified international cooperation in crime
prevention and criminal justice, including the creation of an effective United
Nations crime prevention and criminal justice programme.
 
  12.  We are convinced that there is a need for Governments to define more
clearly the role and functions of the United Nations crime prevention and
criminal justice programme and the secretariat of the programme and to
determine priorities within that programme.
 
  13.  We strongly believe that the review of the programme should aim at
strengthening its effectiveness, improving its efficiency and establishing an
adequate Secretariat support structure.
 
                           II.  PROGRAMME OF ACTION
 
                                A.  DEFINITION
 
  14.  The United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice programme
shall bring together the work of the commission on crime prevention and
criminal justice, the United Nations institutes for the prevention of crime
and the treatment of offenders, the network of government-appointed national
correspondents in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice, the
Global Crime and Criminal Justice Information Network and the United Nations
congresses on the prevention of crime and the treatment of offenders in
providing assistance to Member States in their efforts to reduce the incidence
and costs of crime and in developing the proper functioning of their criminal
justice systems. The establishment of this programme will be effected in
accordance with the procedures defined below and within the framework of the
total available resources of the United Nations.
 
                                   B.  GOALS
 
  15.  The programme shall be designed to assist the international community
in meeting its pressing needs in the field of crime prevention and criminal
justice and to provide countries with timely and practical assistance in
dealing with problems of both national and transnational crime.
 
  16.  The general goals of the programme shall be to contribute to the
following:
 
  (a)  The prevention of crime within and among States;
 
  (b)  The control of crime both nationally and internationally;
 
  (c)  The strengthening of regional and international cooperation in crime
prevention, criminal justice and the combating of transnational crime;
 
  (d)  The integration and consolidation of the efforts of Member States in
preventing and combating transnational crime;
 
  (e)  More efficient and effective administration of justice, with due
respect for the human rights of all those affected by crime and all those
involved in the criminal justice system;
 
  (f)  The promotion of the highest standards of fairness, humanity, justice
and professional conduct.
 
    C.      SCOPE OF THE UNITED NATIONS CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE
            PROGRAMME
 
  17.  The programme shall include appropriate forms of cooperation for the
purpose of assisting States in dealing with problems of both national and
transnational crime. In particular, it may include:
 
  (a)  Research and studies at the national, regional and global levels on
specific prevention issues and criminal justice measures;
 
  (b)  Regular international surveys to assess trends in crime and
developments in the operation of criminal justice systems and in crime
prevention strategies;
 
  (c)  Exchange and dissemination of information among States on crime
prevention and criminal justice, particularly with regard to innovative
measures and the results achieved in their application;
 
  (d)  Training and upgrading of the skills of personnel working in the
various areas of crime prevention and criminal justice;
 
  (e)  Technical assistance, including advisory services, particularly in
respect of the planning, implementation and evaluation of crime prevention and
criminal justice programmes, training and the use of modern communication and
information techniques; such assistance may be implemented by means of, for
example, fellowships, study tours, consultancies, secondments, courses,
seminars and demonstration and pilot projects.
 
  18.  Within the framework of the programme, the United Nations should
directly carry out the above-mentioned forms of cooperation or should act as a
coordinating or facilitating agent. Special attention should be paid to the
creation of mechanisms to provide flexible and appropriate assistance and to
respond to the needs of Member States at their request, without duplicating
the activities of other existing mechanisms.
 
  19.  For the purpose of those forms of cooperation, Member States should
establish and maintain reliable and effective channels of communication among
themselves and with the United Nations.
 
  20.  The programme may also include, as appropriate, while respecting the
sovereignty of States, a review of the effectiveness and application of and,
where necessary, further development and promotion of international
instruments on crime prevention and criminal justice.
 
                           D.  PROGRAMME PRIORITIES
 
  21.  In developing the programme, areas of priority shall be determined in
response to the needs and concerns of Member States, with particular
consideration being given to the following:
 
  (a)  Empirical evidence, including research findings and other information
on the nature and extent of crime and on trends in crime;
 
  (b)  The social, financial and other costs of various forms of crimes and/or
crime control to the individual, the local, national and international
community, and to the development process;
 
  (c)  The need of developing or developed countries, which are confronting
specific difficulties related to national or international circumstances, to
have recourse to experts and other resources necessary for establishing and
developing programmes for crime prevention and criminal justice that are
appropriate at the national and local levels;
 
  (d)  The need for a balance within the programme of work between programme
development and practical action;
 
  (e)  The protection of human rights in the administration of justice and the
prevention and control of crime;
 
  (f)  The assessment of areas in which concerted action at the international
level and within the framework of the programme would be most effective;
 
  (g)  Avoidance of overlapping with the activities of other entities of the
United Nations system or of other organizations.
 
  22.  The commission on crime prevention and criminal justice shall not be
bound by mandates conferred prior to its formation, but shall assess them on
their merits by applying the principles mentioned in paragraph 21 above.
 
                         E.  STRUCTURE AND MANAGEMENT
 
    1.  Commission on crime prevention and criminal justice
 
  23.  A commission on crime prevention and criminal justice shall be
established as a functional commission of the Economic and Social Council. The
commission shall have the power to create ad hoc working groups and to appoint
special rapporteurs, as it deems necessary.
 
Membership
 
  24.  The commission shall consist of forty Member States of the United
Nations, elected by the Economic and Social Council on the basis of the
principle of equitable geographical distribution. Its members shall serve for
a term of three years, except that the terms of one half of the first elected
members, whose names shall be chosen by lot, shall expire after two years.
Each Member State shall make every effort to ensure that its delegation
includes experts and senior officials with special training and practical
experience in crime prevention and criminal justice, preferably with policy
responsibility in the field. Provisions should be made in the regular budget
of the United Nations to defray the travel costs of the representatives of the
least developed countries that are members of the Commission.
 
Sessions 
 
  25.  The commission shall hold annual sessions of not more than ten working
days.
 
Functions
 
  26.  The commission shall have the following functions:
 
  (a)  To provide policy guidance to the United Nations in the field of crime
prevention and criminal justice;
 
  (b)  To develop, monitor and review the implementation of the programme on
the basis of a system of medium-term planning in accordance with the priority
principles provided in paragraph 21 above;
 
  (c)  To facilitate and help to coordinate the activities of the United
Nations institutes for the prevention of crime and the treatment of offenders;
 
  (d)  To mobilize the support of Member States for the programme;
 
  (e)  To prepare for the United Nations congresses on the prevention of crime
and the treatment of offenders and to consider suggestions regarding possible
subjects for the programme of work as submitted by the congresses.
 
                 2.  Committee on Crime Prevention and Control
 
  27.  The Committee on Crime Prevention and Control should be dissolved by
the Economic and Social Council upon the establishment by the Council of the
commission on crime prevention and criminal justice. There will be a basic
need for involving independent experts in the area of crime prevention and
control. 
 
  28.  The commission shall, when necessary, use the services of a limited
number of qualified and experienced experts, either as individual consultants
or in working groups, in order to assist in the preparations for and follow-up
work of the commission. Their advice shall be transmitted to the commission
for consideration. The commission shall be encouraged to seek such advice
whenever it is needed. One of the major tasks of the experts shall be to
assist in the preparations for the United Nations congresses on the prevention
of crime and the treatment of offenders.
 
  3.  United Nations congresses on the prevention of crime and the treatment
      of offenders
 
  29.  The United Nations congresses on the prevention of crime and the
treatment of offenders, as a consultative body of the programme, shall provide
a forum for:
 
  (a)  The exchange of views between States, intergovernmental organizations,
non-governmental organizations and individual experts representing various
professions and disciplines;
 
  (b)  The exchange of experiences in research, law and policy development;
 
  (c)  The identification of emerging trends and issues in crime prevention
and criminal justice;
 
  (d)  The provision of advice and comments to the commission on crime
prevention and criminal justice on selected matters submitted to it by the
commission;
 
  (e)  The submission of suggestions, for the consideration of the commission,
regarding possible subjects for the programme of work.
 
  30.  In order to enhance the effectiveness of the programme and to achieve
optimal results, the following arrangements should be implemented:
 
  (a)  The congresses should be held every five years, for a period of between
five and ten working days;
 
  (b)  The commission shall select precisely defined topics for the congresses
in order to ensure a focused and productive discussion;
 
  (c)  Quinquennial regional meetings should be held under the guidance of the
commission on issues related to the agenda of the commission or of the
congresses, or on any other matters, except when a region does not consider it
necessary to hold such a meeting. The United Nations institutes for the
prevention of crime and the treatment of offenders should be fully involved,
as appropriate, in the organization of those meetings. The commission shall
give due consideration to the need to finance such meetings, in particular in
developing regions, through the regular budget of the United Nations;
 
  (d)  Action-oriented research workshops on topics selected by the
commission, as part of the programme of a congress, and ancillary meetings
associated with the congresses should be encouraged.
 
  4.  Organizational structure of the secretariat and of the programme
 
  31.  The secretariat of the programme shall be the permanent body
responsible for facilitating the implementation of the programme, the
priorities of which shall be established by the commission on crime prevention
and criminal justice and for assisting the commission in conducting
evaluations of the progress made and analyses of the difficulties encountered.
For that purpose, the secretariat shall:
 
  (a)  Mobilize existing resources, including institutes, intergovernmental
organizations, non-governmental organizations and other competent authorities
for the implementation of the programme;
 
  (b)  Coordinate research, training and the collection of data on crime and
justice, and provide technical assistance and practical information for Member
States, particularly through the Global Crime and Criminal Justice Information
Network; 
 
  (c)  Assist the commission in the organization of its work and in the
preparations, in accordance with the directions of the commission, for the
congresses and any other events relating to the programme;
 
  (d)  Ensure that the potential donors of criminal justice assistance are put
in touch with countries needing the help in question;
 
  (e)  Make the case for assistance in the field of criminal justice to the
appropriate funding agencies.
 
  32.  It is recommended to the Secretary-General that, in recognition of the
high priority that should be accorded to the programme, an upgrading of the
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch of the Centre for Social
Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat into a division should
be effected as soon as possible, under the conditions set out in paragraph 14
above, bearing in mind the structure of the United Nations Office at Vienna.
 
  33.  The Professional staff of the secretariat of the programme shall be
called "Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Officers".
 
  34.  The secretariat of the programme shall be directed by a senior official
responsible for the overall day-to-day management and supervision of the
programme, communicating with the relevant government officials, the
specialized agencies and intergovernmental organizations whose activities are
relevant to the programme.
 
                             F.  PROGRAMME SUPPORT
 
  1.  United Nations institutes for the prevention of crime and the treatment
      of offenders
 
  35.  The activities of the United Nations institutes for the prevention of
crime and the treatment of offenders should be supported by Member States and
the United Nations, with particular attention being given to the needs of such
institutes located in developing countries. Given the important role of such
institutes, their contributions to policy development and implementation, and
their resource requirements, especially those of the United Nations African
Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, should
be fully integrated into the overall programme.
 
  2.  Coordination among the United Nations institutes for the prevention of
      crime and the treatment of offenders
 
  36.  The institutes should keep one another and the commission on crime
prevention and criminal justice informed on a regular basis about their
programme of work and its implementation.
 
  37.  The commission may request the institutes, subject to the availability
of resources, to implement select elements of the programme. The commission
may also suggest areas for inter-institute activities.
 
  38.  The commission shall seek to mobilize extrabudgetary support for the
activities of the institutes.
 
  3.  Network of government-appointed national correspondents in the field of
      crime prevention and criminal justice
 
  39.  Member States should designate one or more national correspondents in
the field of crime prevention and criminal justice as focal points for the
purpose of maintaining direct communication with the secretariat of the
programme and other elements of the programme.
 
  40.  The national correspondents shall facilitate contact with the
secretariat on matters of legal, scientific and technical cooperation,
training, information on national laws and regulations, legal policy, the
organization of the criminal justice system, crime prevention measures and
penitentiary matters.
 
  4.  Global Crime and Criminal Justice Information Network
 
  41.  Member States shall support the United Nations in the development and
maintenance of the Global Crime and Criminal Justice Information Network in
order to facilitate the collection, analysis, exchange and dissemination, as
appropriate, of information and the centralization of inputs from non-
governmental organizations and scientific institutions in the field of crime
prevention and criminal justice.
 
  42.  Member States shall undertake to provide the Secretary-General on a
regular basis and upon request with data on the dynamics, structure and extent
of crime and on the operation of crime prevention and criminal justice
strategies in their respective countries.
 
 
           5.  Intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations
 
  43.  Intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and the scientific
community are a valuable source of professional expertise, advocacy and
assistance. Their contributions should be fully utilized in programme
development and implementation.
 
                         G.  FUNDING OF THE PROGRAMME
 
  44.  The programme shall be funded from the regular budget of the United
Nations. Funds allocated for technical assistance may be supplemented by
direct voluntary contributions from Member States and interested funding
agencies. Member States are encouraged to make contributions to the United
Nations Trust Fund for Social Defence, to be renamed the United Nations Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice Fund. They are also encouraged to contribute
in kind for the operational activities of the programme, particularly by
seconding staff, organizing training courses and seminars, and providing the
requisite equipment and services.