United Nations

A/RES/45/158


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

18 December 1990

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



                                                   A/RES/45/158
                                                   69th plenary meeting
                                                   18 December 1990
 
     45/158.  International Convention on the Protection of the Rights
              of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Reaffirming once more the permanent validity of the principles and
standards set forth in the basic instruments regarding the international
protection of human rights, in particular in the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights, the International
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,
 
     Bearing in mind the principles and standards established within the
framework of the International Labour Organisation and the importance of the
task carried out in connection with migrant workers and their families in
other specialized agencies and in various organs of the United Nations,
 
     Reiterating that in spite of the existence of an already established body
of principles and standards, there is a need to make further efforts to
improve the situation and ensure the human rights and dignity of all migrant
workers and their families,
 
     Recalling its resolution 34/172 of 17 December 1979, in which it decided
to establish a working group open to all Member States to elaborate an
international convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant
workers and their families,
 
     Recalling also its resolutions 35/198 of 15 December 1980, 36/160 of
16 December 1981, 37/170 of 17 December 1982, 38/86 of 16 December 1983,
39/102 of 14 December 1984, 40/130 of 13 December 1985, 41/151 of 4 December
1986, 42/140 of 7 December 1987, 43/146 of 8 December 1988 and 44/155 of 15
December 1989, by which it renewed the mandate of the Working Group on the
Drafting of an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All
Migrant Workers and Their Families and requested it to continue its work,
 
     Having examined the report of the Working Group on its ninth
inter-sessional meeting, held from 29 May to 8 June 1990, with a view to
completing the remaining articles and considering the results of the technical
revision of the draft Convention entrusted to the Centre for Human Rights of
the Secretariat in accordance with resolution 44/155,
 
     Bearing in mind that the Working Group was able to achieve its goals in
accordance with the mandate entrusted to it by the General Assembly,
 
     1.   Expresses its appreciation to the Working Group for having concluded
the elaboration of the draft International Convention on the Protection of the
Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families;
 
     2.   Adopts and opens for signature, ratification and accession the
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant
Workers and Members of Their Families, contained in the annex to the present
resolution;
 
     3.   Calls upon all Member States to consider signing and ratifying or
acceding to the Convention as a matter of priority, and expresses the hope
that it will enter into force at an early date;
 
     4.   Requests the Secretary-General to provide all facilities and
assistance necessary for the dissemination of information on the Convention;
 
     5.   Invites United Nations agencies and organizations, as well as
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, to intensify their
efforts with a view to disseminating information on the Convention and to
promoting understanding thereof;
 
     6.   Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at
its forty-sixth session a report on the status of the Convention;
 
                                   Preamble
 
     The States Parties to the present Convention,
 
     Taking into account the principles embodied in the basic instruments of
the United Nations concerning human rights, in particular the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,
the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child,
 
     Taking into account also the principles and standards set forth in the
relevant instruments elaborated within the framework of the International
Labour Organisation, especially the Convention concerning Migration for
Employment (No. 97), the Convention concerning Migrations in Abusive
Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of
Migrant Workers (No. 143), the Recommendation concerning Migration for
Employment (No. 86), the Recommendation concerning Migrant Workers (No. 151),
the Convention concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour (No. 29) and the
Convention concerning Abolition of Forced Labour (No. 105),
 
     Reaffirming the importance of the principles contained in the Convention
against Discrimination in Education of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization,
 
     Recalling the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or
Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Declaration of the Fourth United
Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders,
the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, and the Slavery
Conventions,
 
     Recalling that one of the objectives of the International Labour
Organisation, as stated in its Constitution, is the protection of the
interests of workers when employed in countries other than their own, and
bearing in mind the expertise and experience of that organization in matters
related to migrant workers and members of their families,
 
     Recognizing the importance of the work done in connection with migrant
workers and members of their families in various organs of the United Nations,
in particular in the Commission on Human Rights and the Commission for Social
Development, and in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
and the World Health Organization, as well as in other international
organizations,
 
     Recognizing also the progress made by certain States on a regional or
bilateral basis towards the protection of the rights of migrant workers and
members of their families, as well as the importance and usefulness of
bilateral and multilateral agreements in this field,
 
     Realizing the importance and extent of the migration phenomenon, which
involves millions of people and affects a large number of States in the
international community,
 
     Aware of the impact of the flows of migrant workers on States and people
concerned, and desiring to establish norms which may contribute to the
harmonization of the attitudes of States through the acceptance of basic
principles concerning the treatment of migrant workers and members of their
families,
 
     Considering the situation of vulnerability in which migrant workers and
members of their families frequently find themselves owing, among other
things, to their absence from their State of origin and to the difficulties
they may encounter arising from their presence in the State of employment,
 
     Convinced that the rights of migrant workers and members of their
families have not been sufficiently recognized everywhere and therefore
require appropriate international protection,
 
     Taking into account the fact that migration is often the cause of serious
problems for the members of the families of migrant workers as well as for the
workers themselves, in particular because of the scattering of the family,
 
     Bearing in mind that the human problems involved in migration are even
more serious in the case of irregular migration and convinced therefore that
appropriate action should be encouraged in order to prevent and eliminate
clandestine movements and trafficking in migrant workers, while at the same
time assuring the protection of their fundamental human rights,
 
     Considering that workers who are non-documented or in an irregular
situation are frequently employed under less favourable conditions of work
than other workers and that certain employers find this an inducement to seek
such labour in order to reap the benefits of unfair competition,
 
     Considering also that recourse to the employment of migrant workers who
are in an irregular situation will be discouraged if the fundamental human
rights of all migrant workers are more widely recognized and, moreover, that
granting certain additional rights to migrant workers and members of their
families in a regular situation will encourage all migrants and employers to
respect and comply with the laws and procedures established by the States
concerned,
 
     Convinced, therefore, of the need to bring about the international
protection of the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families,
reaffirming and establishing basic norms in a comprehensive convention which
could be applied universally,
 
     Have agreed as follows:
                                    PART I
                            Scope and definitions
Article 1
     1.   The present Convention is applicable, except as otherwise provided
hereafter, to all migrant workers and members of their families without
distinction of any kind such as sex, race, colour, language, religion or
conviction, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin,
nationality, age, economic position, property, marital status, birth or other
status.
 
     2.   The present Convention shall apply during the entire migration
process of migrant workers and members of their families, which comprises
preparation for migration, departure, transit and the entire period of stay
and remunerated activity in the State of employment as well as return to the
State of origin or the State of habitual residence.
 
Article 2
     For the purposes of the present Convention:
 
     1.   The term "migrant worker" refers to a person who is to be engaged,
is engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a State of which
he or she is not a national.
 
     2.   (a)  The term "frontier worker" refers to a migrant worker who
retains his or her habitual residence in a neighbouring State to which he or
she normally returns every day or at least once a week;
 
     (b)  The term "seasonal worker" refers to a migrant worker whose work by
its character is dependent on seasonal conditions and is performed only during
part of the year;
 
     (c)  The term "seafarer", which includes a fisherman, refers to a migrant
worker employed on board a vessel registered in a State of which he or she is
not a national;
 
     (d)  The term "worker on an offshore installation" refers to a migrant
worker employed on an offshore installation that is under the jurisdiction of
a State of which he or she is not a national;
 
     (e)  The term "itinerant worker" refers to a migrant worker who, having
his or her habitual residence in one State, has to travel to another State or
States for short periods, owing to the nature of his or her occupation;
 
     (f)  The term "project-tied worker" refers to a migrant worker admitted
to a State of employment for a defined period to work solely on a specific
project being carried out in that State by his or her employer;
 
     (g)  The term "specified-employment worker" refers to a migrant worker:
 
     (i)  Who has been sent by his or her employer for a restricted and
          defined period of time to a State of employment to undertake a
          specific assignment or duty; or
 
    (ii)  Who engages for a restricted and defined period of time in work that
          requires professional, commercial, technical or other highly
          specialized skill; or
 
   (iii)  Who, upon the request of his or her employer in the State of
          employment, engages for a restricted and defined period of time in
          work whose nature is transitory or brief;
 
and who is required to depart from the State of employment either at the
expiration of his or her authorized period of stay, or earlier if he or she no
longer undertakes that specific assignment or duty or engages in that work;
 
     (h)  The term "self-employed worker" refers to a migrant worker who is
engaged in a remunerated activity otherwise than under a contract of
employment and who earns his or her living through this activity normally
working alone or together with members of his or her family, and to any other
migrant worker recognized as self-employed by applicable legislation of the
State of employment or bilateral or multilateral agreements.
 
Article 3
     The present Convention shall not apply to:
 
     (a)  Persons sent or employed by international organizations and agencies
or persons sent or employed by a State outside its territory to perform
official functions, whose admission and status are regulated by general
international law or by specific international agreements or conventions;
 
     (b)  Persons sent or employed by a State or on its behalf outside its
territory who participate in development programmes and other co-operation
programmes, whose admission and status are regulated by agreement with the
State of employment and who, in accordance with that agreement, are not
considered migrant workers;
 
     (c)  Persons taking up residence in a State different from their State of
origin as investors;
 
     (d)  Refugees and stateless persons, unless such application is provided
for in the relevant national legislation of, or international instruments in
force for, the State Party concerned;
 
     (e)  Students and trainees;
 
     (f)  Seafarers and workers on an offshore installation who have not been
admitted to take up residence and engage in a remunerated activity in the
State of employment.
 
Article 4
     For the purposes of the present Convention the term "members of the
family" refers to persons married to migrant workers or having with them a
relationship that, according to applicable law, produces effects equivalent to
marriage, as well as their dependent children and other dependent persons who
are recognized as members of the family by applicable legislation or
applicable bilateral or multilateral agreements between the States concerned.
 
Article 5
     For the purposes of the present Convention, migrant workers and members
of their families:
 
     (a)  Are considered as documented or in a regular situation if they are
authorized to enter, to stay and to engage in a remunerated activity in the
State of employment pursuant to the law of that State and to international
agreements to which that State is a party;
 
     (b)  Are considered as non-documented or in an irregular situation if
they do not comply with the conditions provided for in subparagraph (a) of the
present article.
 
Article 6
     For the purposes of the present Convention:
 
     (a)  The term "State of origin" means the State of which the person
concerned is a national;
 
     (b)  The term "State of employment" means a State where the migrant
worker is to be engaged, is engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated
activity, as the case may be;
 
     (c)  The term "State of transit" means any State through which the person
concerned passes on any journey to the State of employment or from the State
of employment to the State of origin or the State of habitual residence.
 
                                   PART II
                  Non-discrimination with respect to rights
Article 7
     States Parties undertake, in accordance with the international
instruments concerning human rights, to respect and to ensure to all migrant
workers and members of their families within their territory or subject to
their jurisdiction the rights provided for in the present Convention without
distinction of any kind such as sex, race, colour, language, religion or
conviction, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin,
nationality, age, economic position, property, marital status, birth or other
status.
                                   PART III
      Human rights of all migrant workers and members of their families
 
Article 8
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall be free to leave
any State, including their State of origin.  This right shall not be subject
to any restrictions except those that are provided by law, are necessary to
protect national security, public order (ordre public), public health or
morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other
rights recognized in the present part of the Convention.
 
     2.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
at any time to enter and remain in their State of origin.
 
Article 9
     The right to life of migrant workers and members of their families shall
be protected by law.
 
Article 10
     No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be subjected to
torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
 
Article 11
     1.   No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be held in
slavery or servitude.
 
     2.   No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be required
to perform forced or compulsory labour.
 
     3.   Paragraph 2 of the present article shall not be held to preclude, in
States where imprisonment with hard labour may be imposed as a punishment for
a crime, the performance of hard labour in pursuance of a sentence to such
punishment by a competent court.
 
     4.   For the purpose of the present article the term "forced or
compulsory labour" shall not include:
 
     (a)  Any work or service not referred to in paragraph 3 of the present
article normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of
a lawful order of a court or of a person during conditional release from such
detention;
 
     (b)  Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening
the life or well-being of the community;
 
     (c)  Any work or service that forms part of normal civil obligations so
far as it is imposed also on citizens of the State concerned.
 
Article 12
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.  This right shall include
freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of their choice and freedom
either individually or in community with others and in public or private to
manifest their religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and
teaching.
 
     2.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall not be subject
to coercion that would impair their freedom to have or to adopt a religion or
belief of their choice.
 
     3.   Freedom to manifest one's religion or belief may be subject only to
such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public
safety, order, health or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of
others.
 
     4.   States Parties to the present Convention undertake to have respect
for the liberty of parents, at least one of whom is a migrant worker, and,
when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious and moral education
of their children in conformity with their own convictions.
 
Article 13
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
to hold opinions without interference.
 
     2.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive
and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either
orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art or through any other media
of their choice.
 
     3.   The exercise of the right provided for in paragraph 2 of the present
article carries with it special duties and responsibilities.  It may therefore
be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are
provided by law and are necessary:
 
     (a)  For respect of the rights or reputation of others;
 
     (b)  For the protection of the national security of the States concerned
or of public order (ordre public) or of public health or morals;
 
     (c)  For the purpose of preventing any propaganda for war;
 
     (d)  For the purpose of preventing any advocacy of national, racial or
religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or
violence.
 
Article 14
     No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be subjected to
arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home,
correspondence or other communications, or to unlawful attacks on his or her
honour and reputation.  Each migrant worker and member of his or her family
shall have the right to the protection of the law against such interference or
attacks. 
 
Article 15
     No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be arbitrarily
deprived of property, whether owned individually or in association with
others.  Where, under the legislation in force in the State of employment, the
assets of a migrant worker or a member of his or her family are expropriated
in whole or in part, the person concerned shall have the right to fair and
adequate compensation.
 
Article 16
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
to liberty and security of person.
 
     2.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall be entitled to
effective protection by the State against violence, physical injury, threats
and intimidation, whether by public officials or by private individuals,
groups or institutions.
 
     3.   Any verification by law enforcement officials of the identity of
migrant workers or members of their families shall be carried out in
accordance with procedures established by law.
 
     4.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall not be subjected
individually or collectively to arbitrary arrest or detention; they shall not
be deprived of their liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with
such procedures as are established by law.
 
     5.   Migrant workers and members of their families who are arrested shall
be informed at the time of arrest as far as possible in a language they
understand of the reasons for their arrest and they shall be promptly informed
in a language they understand of any charges against them.
 
     6.   Migrant workers and members of their families who are arrested or
detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or
other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be
entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release.  It shall not be the
general rule that while awaiting trial they shall be detained in custody, but
release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial, at any other stage
of the judicial proceedings and, should the occasion arise, for the execution
of the judgement.
 
     7.   When a migrant worker or a member of his or her family is arrested
or committed to prison or custody pending trial or is detained in any other
manner:
 
     (a)  The consular or diplomatic authorities of his or her State of origin
or of a State representing the interests of that State shall, if he or she so
requests, be informed without delay of his or her arrest or detention and of
the reasons therefor;
 
     (b)  The person concerned shall have the right to communicate with the
said authorities.  Any communication by the person concerned to the said
authorities shall be forwarded without delay, and he or she shall also have
the right to receive communications sent by the said authorities without
delay;
 
     (c)  The person concerned shall be informed without delay of this right
and of rights deriving from relevant treaties, if any, applicable between the
States concerned, to correspond and to meet with representatives of the said
authorities and to make arrangements with them for his or her legal
representation.
 
     8.   Migrant workers and members of their families who are deprived of
their liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings
before a court, in order that that court may decide without delay on the
lawfulness of their detention and order their release if the detention is not
lawful.  When they attend such proceedings, they shall have the assistance, if
necessary without cost to them, of an interpreter, if they cannot understand
or speak the language used.
 
     9.   Migrant workers and members of their families who have been victims
of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable right to
compensation.
 
Article 17
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families who are deprived of
their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent
dignity of the human person and for their cultural identity.
 
     2.   Accused migrant workers and members of their families shall, save in
exceptional circumstances, be separated from convicted persons and shall be
subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted
persons.  Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought
as speedily as possible for adjudication.
 
     3.   Any migrant worker or member of his or her family who is detained in
a State of transit or in a State of employment for violation of provisions
relating to migration, shall be held, in so far as practicable, separately
from convicted persons or persons detained pending trial.
 
     4.   During any period of imprisonment in pursuance of a sentence imposed
by a court of law, the essential aim of the treatment of a migrant worker or a
member of his or her family shall be his or her reformation and social
rehabilitation.  Juvenile offenders shall be separated from adults and be
accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.
 
     5.   During detention or imprisonment, migrant workers and members of
their families shall enjoy the same rights as nationals to visits by members
of their families.
 
     6.   Whenever a migrant worker is deprived of his or her liberty, the
competent authorities of the State concerned shall pay attention to the
problems that may be posed for members of his or her family, in particular for
spouses and minor children.
 
     7.   Migrant workers and members of their families who are subjected to
any form of detention or imprisonment in accordance with the law in force in
the State of employment or in the State of transit shall enjoy the same rights
as nationals of those States who are in the same situation.
 
     8.   If a migrant worker or a member of his or her family is detained for
the purpose of verifying any infraction of provisions related to migration, he
or she shall not bear any costs arising therefrom.
 
Article 18
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
to equality with nationals of the State concerned before the courts and
tribunals.  In the determination of any criminal charge against them or of
their rights and obligations in a suit of law, they shall be entitled to a
fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal
established by law.
 
     2.   Migrant workers and members of their families who are charged with a
criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proven
guilty according to law.
 
     3.   In the determination of any criminal charge against them, migrant
workers and members of their families shall be entitled to the following
minimum guarantees:
 
     (a)  To be informed promptly and in detail in a language they understand
of the nature and cause of the charge against them;
 
     (b)  To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of their
defence and to communicate with counsel of their own choosing;
 
     (c)  To be tried without undue delay;
 
     (d)  To be tried in their presence and to defend themselves in person or
through legal assistance of their own choosing; to be informed, if they do not
have legal assistance, of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to
them, in any case where the interests of justice so require and without
payment by them in any such case if they do not have sufficient means to pay;
 
     (e)  To examine or have examined the witnesses against them and to obtain
the attendance and examination of witnesses on their behalf under the same
conditions as witnesses against them;
 
     (f)  To have the free assistance of an interpreter if they cannot
understand or speak the language used in court;
 
     (g)  Not to be compelled to testify against themselves or to confess
guilt.
 
     4.   In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will
take account of their age and the desirability of promoting their
rehabilitation.
 
     5.   Migrant workers and members of their families convicted of a crime
shall have the right to their conviction and sentence being reviewed by a
higher tribunal according to law.
 
     6.   When a migrant worker or a member of his or her family has, by a
final decision, been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his
or her conviction has been reversed or he or she has been pardoned on the
ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has
been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a
result of such conviction shall be compensated according to law, unless it is
proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partly
attributable to that person.
 
     7.   No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be liable to
be tried or punished again for an offence for which he or she has already been
finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure
of the State concerned.
 
Article 19
     1.   No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be held
guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission that did not
constitute a criminal offence under national or international law at the time
when the criminal offence was committed, nor shall a heavier penalty be
imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when it was committed.
If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, provision is made by law for
the imposition of a lighter penalty, he or she shall benefit thereby.
 
     2.   Humanitarian considerations related to the status of a migrant
worker, in particular with respect to his or her right of residence or work,
should be taken into account in imposing a sentence for a criminal offence
committed by a migrant worker or a member of his or her family.
 
Article 20
     1.   No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be imprisoned
merely on the ground of failure to fulfil a contractual obligation.
 
     2.   No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be deprived
of his or her authorization of residence or work permit or expelled merely on
the ground of failure to fulfil an obligation arising out of a work contract
unless fulfilment of that obligation constitutes a condition for such
authorization or permit.
 
Article 21
     It shall be unlawful for anyone, other than a public official duly
authorized by law, to confiscate, destroy or attempt to destroy identity
documents, documents authorizing entry to or stay, residence or establishment
in the national territory or work permits.  No authorized confiscation of such
documents shall take place without delivery of a detailed receipt.  In no case
shall it be permitted to destroy the passport or equivalent document of a
migrant worker or a member of his or her family.
 
Article 22
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall not be subject
to measures of collective expulsion.  Each case of expulsion shall be examined
and decided individually.
 
     2.   Migrant workers and members of their families may be expelled from
the territory of a State Party only in pursuance of a decision taken by the
competent authority in accordance with law.
 
     3.   The decision shall be communicated to them in a language they
understand.  Upon their request where not otherwise mandatory, the decision
shall be communicated to them in writing and, save in exceptional
circumstances on account of national security, the reasons for the decision
likewise stated.  The persons concerned shall be informed of these rights
before or at the latest at the time the decision is rendered.
 
     4.   Except where a final decision is pronounced by a judicial authority,
the person concerned shall have the right to submit the reason he or she
should not be expelled and to have his or her case reviewed by the competent
authority, unless compelling reasons of national security require otherwise.
Pending such review, the person concerned shall have the right to seek a stay
of the decision of expulsion.
 
     5.   If a decision of expulsion that has already been executed is
subsequently annulled, the person concerned shall have the right to seek
compensation according to law and the earlier decision shall not be used to
prevent him or her from re-entering the State concerned.
 
     6.   In case of expulsion, the person concerned shall have a reasonable
opportunity before or after departure to settle any claims for wages and other
entitlements due to him or her and any pending liabilities.
 
     7.   Without prejudice to the execution of a decision of expulsion, a
migrant worker or a member of his or her family who is subject to such a
decision may seek entry into a State other than his or her State of origin.
 
     8.   In case of expulsion of a migrant worker or a member of his or her
family the costs of expulsion shall not be borne by him or her.  The person
concerned may be required to pay his or her own travel costs.
 
     9.   Expulsion from the State of employment shall not in itself prejudice
any rights of a migrant worker or a member of his or her family acquired in
accordance with the law of that State, including the right to receive wages
and other entitlements due to him or her.
 
Article 23
     Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to
have recourse to the protection and assistance of the consular or diplomatic
authorities of their State of origin or of a State representing the interests
of that State whenever the rights recognized in the present Convention are
impaired.  In particular, in case of expulsion, the person concerned shall be
informed of this right without delay and the authorities of the expelling
State shall facilitate the exercise of such right.
 
Article 24
     Every migrant worker and every member of his or her family shall have the
right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
 
Article 25
     1.   Migrant workers shall enjoy treatment not less favourable than that
which applies to nationals of the State of employment in respect of
remuneration and:
 
     (a)  Other conditions of work, that is to say, overtime, hours of work,
weekly rest, holidays with pay, safety, health, termination of the employment
relationship and any other conditions of work which, according to national law
and practice, are covered by this term;
 
     (b)  Other terms of employment, that is to say, minimum age of
employment, restriction on home work and any other matters which, according to
national law and practice, are considered a term of employment.
 
     2.   It shall not be lawful to derogate in private contracts of
employment from the principle of equality of treatment referred to in
paragraph 1 of the present article.
 
     3.   States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that
migrant workers are not deprived of any rights derived from this principle by
reason of any irregularity in their stay or employment.  In particular,
employers shall not be relieved of any legal or contractual obligations, nor
shall their obligations be limited in any manner by reason of any such
irregularity.
 
Article 26
     1.   States Parties recognize the right of migrant workers and members of
their families:
 
     (a)  To take part in meetings and activities of trade unions and of any
other associations established in accordance with law, with a view to
protecting their economic, social, cultural and other interests, subject only
to the rules of the organization concerned;
 
     (b)  To join freely any trade union and any such association as
aforesaid, subject only to the rules of the organization concerned;
 
     (c)  To seek the aid and assistance of any trade union and of any such
association as aforesaid.
 
     2.   No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other
than those that are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic
society in the interests of national security, public order (ordre public) or
the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
 
Article 27
     1.   With respect to social security, migrant workers and members of
their families shall enjoy in the State of employment the same treatment
granted to nationals in so far as they fulfil the requirements provided for by
the applicable legislation of that State and the applicable bilateral and
multilateral treaties.  The competent authorities of the State of origin and
the State of employment can at any time establish the necessary arrangements
to determine the modalities of application of this norm.
 
     2.   Where the applicable legislation does not allow migrant workers and
members of their families a benefit, the States concerned shall examine the
possibility of reimbursing interested persons the amount of contributions made
by them with respect to that benefit on the basis of the treatment granted to
nationals who are in similar circumstances.
 
Article 28
     Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to
receive any medical care that is urgently required for the preservation of
their life or the avoidance of irreparable harm to their health on the basis
of equality of treatment with nationals of the State concerned.  Such
emergency medical care shall not be refused them by reason of any irregularity
with regard to stay or employment.
 
Article 29
     Each child of a migrant worker shall have the right to a name, to
registration of birth and to a nationality.
 
Article 30
     Each child of a migrant worker shall have the basic right of access to
education on the basis of equality of treatment with nationals of the State
concerned.  Access to public pre-school educational institutions or schools
shall not be refused or limited by reason of the irregular situation with
respect to stay or employment of either parent or by reason of the
irregularity of the child's stay in the State of employment.
 
Article 31
     1.   States Parties shall ensure respect for the cultural identity of
migrant workers and members of their families and shall not prevent them from
maintaining their cultural links with their State of origin.
 
     2.   States Parties may take appropriate measures to assist and encourage
efforts in this respect.
 
Article 32
     Upon the termination of their stay in the State of employment, migrant
workers and members of their families shall have the right to transfer their
earnings and savings and, in accordance with the applicable legislation of the
States concerned, their personal effects and belongings.
 
Article 33
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
to be informed by the State of origin, the State of employment or the State of
transit as the case may be concerning:
 
     (a)  Their rights arising out of the present Convention;
 
     (b)  The conditions of their admission, their rights and obligations
under the law and practice of the State concerned and such other matters as
will enable them to comply with administrative or other formalities in that
State.
 
     2.   States Parties shall take all measures they deem appropriate to
disseminate the said information or to ensure that it is provided by
employers, trade unions or other appropriate bodies or institutions.  As
appropriate, they shall co-operate with other States concerned.
 
     3.   Such adequate information shall be provided upon request to migrant
workers and members of their families, free of charge, and, as far as
possible, in a language they are able to understand.
 
Article 34
     Nothing in the present part of the Convention shall have the effect of
relieving migrant workers and the members of their families from either the
obligation to comply with the laws and regulations of any State of transit and
the State of employment or the obligation to respect the cultural identity of
the inhabitants of such States.
 
Article 35
     Nothing in the present part of the Convention shall be interpreted as
implying the regularization of the situation of migrant workers or members of
their families who are non-documented or in an irregular situation or any
right to such regularization of their situation, nor shall it prejudice the
measures intended to ensure sound and equitable conditions for international
migration as provided in part VI of the present Convention.
 
                                   PART IV
        Other rights of migrant workers and members of their families
                 who are documented or in a regular situation
Article 36
     Migrant workers and members of their families who are documented or in a
regular situation in the State of employment shall enjoy the rights set forth
in the present part of the Convention in addition to those set forth in
part III.
 
Article 37
     Before their departure, or at the latest at the time of their admission
to the State of employment, migrant workers and members of their families
shall have the right to be fully informed by the State of origin or the State
of employment, as appropriate, of all conditions applicable to their admission
and particularly those concerning their stay and the remunerated activities in
which they may engage as well as of the requirements they must satisfy in the
State of employment and the authority to which they must address themselves
for any modification of those conditions.
 
Article 38
     1.   States of employment shall make every effort to authorize migrant
workers and members of their families to be temporarily absent without effect
upon their authorization to stay or to work, as the case may be.  In doing so,
States of employment shall take into account the special needs and obligations
of migrant workers and members of their families, in particular in their
States of origin.
 
     2.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
to be fully informed of the terms on which such temporary absences are
authorized.
 
Article 39
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
to liberty of movement in the territory of the State of employment and freedom
to choose their residence there.
 
     2.   The rights mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present article shall not
be subject to any restrictions except those that are provided by law, are
necessary to protect national security, public order (ordre public), public
health or morals, or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with
the other rights recognized in the present Convention.
 
Article 40
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
to form associations and trade unions in the State of employment for the
promotion and protection of their economic, social, cultural and other
interests.
 
     2.   No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other
than those that are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic
society in the interests of national security, public order (ordre public) or
the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
 
Article 41
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right
to participate in public affairs of their State of origin and to vote and to
be elected at elections of that State, in accordance with its legislation.
 
     2.   The States concerned shall, as appropriate and in accordance with
their legislation, facilitate the exercise of these rights.
 
Article 42
     1.   States Parties shall consider the establishment of procedures or
institutions through which account may be taken, both in States of origin and
in States of employment, of special needs, aspirations and obligations of
migrant workers and members of their families and shall envisage, as
appropriate, the possibility for migrant workers and members of their families
to have their freely chosen representatives in those institutions.
 
     2.   States of employment shall facilitate, in accordance with their
national legislation, the consultation or participation of migrant workers and
members of their families in decisions concerning the life and administration
of local communities.
 
     3.   Migrant workers may enjoy political rights in the State of
employment if that State, in the exercise of its sovereignty, grants them such
rights.
 
Article 43
     1.   Migrant workers shall enjoy equality of treatment with nationals of
the State of employment in relation to:
 
     (a)  Access to educational institutions and services subject to the
admission requirements and other regulations of the institutions and services
concerned;
 
     (b)  Access to vocational guidance and placement services;
 
     (c)  Access to vocational training and retraining facilities and
institutions;
 
     (d)  Access to housing, including social housing schemes, and protection
against exploitation in respect of rents;
 
     (e)  Access to social and health services, provided that the requirements
for participation in the respective schemes are met;
 
     (f)  Access to co-operatives and self-managed enterprises, which shall
not imply a change of their migration status and shall be subject to the rules
and regulations of the bodies concerned;
 
     (g)  Access to and participation in cultural life.
 
     2.   States Parties shall promote conditions to ensure effective equality
of treatment to enable migrant workers to enjoy the rights mentioned in
paragraph 1 of the present article whenever the terms of their stay, as
authorized by the State of employment, meet the appropriate requirements.
 
     3.   States of employment shall not prevent an employer of migrant
workers from establishing housing or social or cultural facilities for them.
Subject to article 70 of the present Convention, a State of employment may
make the establishment of such facilities subject to the requirements
generally applied in that State concerning their installation.
 
Article 44
     1.   States Parties, recognizing that the family is the natural and
fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and
the State, shall take appropriate measures to ensure the protection of the
unity of the families of migrant workers.
 
     2.   States Parties shall take measures that they deem appropriate and
that fall within their competence to facilitate the reunification of migrant
workers with their spouses or persons who have with the migrant worker a
relationship that, according to applicable law, produces effects equivalent to
marriage, as well as with their minor dependent unmarried children.
 
     3.   States of employment, on humanitarian grounds, shall favourably
consider granting equal treatment, as set forth in paragraph 2 of the present
article, to other family members of migrant workers.
 
Article 45
     1.   Members of the families of migrant workers shall, in the State of
employment, enjoy equality of treatment with nationals of that State in
relation to:
 
     (a)  Access to educational institutions and services, subject to the
admission requirements and other regulations of the institutions and services
concerned;
 
     (b)  Access to vocational guidance and training institutions and
services, provided that requirements for participation are met;
 
     (c)  Access to social and health services, provided that requirements for
participation in the respective schemes are met;
 
     (d)  Access to and participation in cultural life.
 
     2.   States of employment shall pursue a policy, where appropriate in
collaboration with the States of origin, aimed at facilitating the integration
of children of migrant workers in the local school system, particularly in
respect of teaching them the local language.
 
     3.   States of employment shall endeavour to facilitate for the children
of migrant workers the teaching of their mother tongue and culture and, in
this regard, States of origin shall collaborate whenever appropriate.
 
     4.   States of employment may provide special schemes of education in the
mother tongue of children of migrant workers, if necessary in collaboration
with the States of origin.
 
Article 46
     Migrant workers and members of their families shall, subject to the
applicable legislation of the States concerned, as well as relevant
international agreements and the obligations of the States concerned arising
out of their participation in customs unions, enjoy exemption from import and
export duties and taxes in respect of their personal and household effects as
well as the equipment necessary to engage in the remunerated activity for
which they were admitted to the State of employment:
 
     (a)  Upon departure from the State of origin or State of habitual
residence;
 
     (b)  Upon initial admission to the State of employment;
 
     (c)  Upon final departure from the State of employment;
 
     (d)  Upon final return to the State of origin or State of habitual
residence.
 
Article 47
     1.   Migrant workers shall have the right to transfer their earnings and
savings, in particular those funds necessary for the support of their
families, from the State of employment to their State of origin or any other
State.  Such transfers shall be made in conformity with procedures established
by applicable legislation of the State concerned and in conformity with
applicable international agreements.
 
     2.   States concerned shall take appropriate measures to facilitate such
transfers.
 
Article 48
     1.   Without prejudice to applicable double taxation agreements, migrant
workers and members of their families shall, in the matter of earnings in the
State of employment:
 
     (a)  Not be liable to taxes, duties or charges of any description higher
or more onerous than those imposed on nationals in similar circumstances;
 
     (b)  Be entitled to deductions or exemptions from taxes of any
description and to any tax allowances applicable to nationals in similar
circumstances, including tax allowances for dependent members of their
families.
 
     2.   States Parties shall endeavour to adopt appropriate measures to
avoid double taxation of the earnings and savings of migrant workers and
members of their families.
 
Article 49
     1.   Where separate authorizations to reside and to engage in employment
are required by national legislation, the States of employment shall issue to
migrant workers authorization of residence for at least the same period of
time as their authorization to engage in remunerated activity.
 
     2.   Migrant workers who in the State of employment are allowed freely to
choose their remunerated activity shall neither be regarded as in an irregular
situation nor shall they lose their authorization of residence by the mere
fact of the termination of their remunerated activity prior to the expiration
of their work permits or similar authorizations.
 
     3.   In order to allow migrant workers referred to in paragraph 2 of the
present article sufficient time to find alternative remunerated activities,
the authorization of residence shall not be withdrawn at least for a period
corresponding to that during which they may be entitled to unemployment
benefits.
 
Article 50
     1.   In the case of death of a migrant worker or dissolution of marriage,
the State of employment shall favourably consider granting family members of
that migrant worker residing in that State on the basis of family reunion an
authorization to stay; the State of employment shall take into account the
length of time they have already resided in that State.
 
     2.   Members of the family to whom such authorization is not granted
shall be allowed before departure a reasonable period of time in order to
enable them to settle their affairs in the State of employment.
 
     3.   The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of the present article may not
be interpreted as adversely affecting any right to stay and work otherwise
granted to such family members by the legislation of the State of employment
or by bilateral and multilateral treaties applicable to that State.
 
Article 51
     Migrant workers who in the State of employment are not permitted freely
to choose their remunerated activity shall neither be regarded as in an
irregular situation nor shall they lose their authorization of residence by
the mere fact of the termination of their remunerated activity prior to the
expiration of their work permit, except where the authorization of residence
is expressly dependent upon the specific remunerated activity for which they
were admitted.  Such migrant workers shall have the right to seek alternative
employment, participation in public work schemes and retraining during the
remaining period of their authorization to work, subject to such conditions
and limitations as are specified in the authorization to work.
 
Article 52
     1.   Migrant workers in the State of employment shall have the right
freely to choose their remunerated activity, subject to the following
restrictions or conditions.
 
     2.   For any migrant worker a State of employment may:
 
     (a)  Restrict access to limited categories of employment, functions,
services or activities where this is necessary in the interests of this State
and provided for by national legislation;
 
     (b)  Restrict free choice of remunerated activity in accordance with its
legislation concerning recognition of occupational qualifications acquired
outside its territory.  However, States Parties concerned shall endeavour to
provide for recognition of such qualifications.
 
     3.   For migrant workers whose permission to work is limited in time, a
State of employment may also:
 
     (a)  Make the right freely to choose their remunerated activities subject
to the condition that the migrant worker has resided lawfully in its territory
for the purpose of remunerated activity for a period of time prescribed in its
national legislation that should not exceed two years;
 
     (b)  Limit access by a migrant worker to remunerated activities in
pursuance of a policy of granting priority to its nationals or to persons who
are assimilated to them for these purposes by virtue of legislation or
bilateral or multilateral agreements.  Any such limitation shall cease to
apply to a migrant worker who has resided lawfully in its territory for the
purpose of remunerated activity for a period of time prescribed in its
national legislation that should not exceed five years.
 
     4.   States of employment shall prescribe the conditions under which a
migrant worker who has been admitted to take up employment may be authorized
to engage in work on his or her own account.  Account shall be taken of the
period during which the worker has already been lawfully in the State of
employment.
 
Article 53
     1.   Members of a migrant worker's family who have themselves an
authorization of residence or admission that is without limit of time or is
automatically renewable shall be permitted freely to choose their remunerated
activity under the same conditions as are applicable to the said migrant
worker in accordance with article 52 of the present Convention.
 
     2.   With respect to members of a migrant worker's family who are not
permitted freely to choose their remunerated activity, States Parties shall
consider favourably granting them priority in obtaining permission to engage
in a remunerated activity over other workers who seek admission to the State
of employment, subject to applicable bilateral and multilateral agreements.
 
Article 54
     1.   Without prejudice to the terms of their authorization of residence
or their permission to work and the rights provided for in articles 25 and 27
of the present Convention, migrant workers shall enjoy equality of treatment
with nationals of the State of employment in respect of:
 
     (a)  Protection against dismissal;
 
     (b)  Unemployment benefits;
 
     (c)  Access to public work schemes intended to combat unemployment;
 
     (d)  Access to alternative employment in the event of loss of work or
termination of other remunerated activity, subject to article 52 of the
present Convention.
 
     2.   If a migrant worker claims that the terms of his or her work
contract have been violated by his or her employer, he or she shall have the
right to address his or her case to the competent authorities of the State of
employment, on terms provided for in article 18, paragraph 1, of the present
Convention.
 
Article 55
     Migrant workers who have been granted permission to engage in a
remunerated activity, subject to the conditions attached to such permission,
shall be entitled to equality of treatment with nationals of the State of
employment in the exercise of that remunerated activity.
 
Article 56
     1.   Migrant workers and members of their families referred to in the
present part of the Convention may not be expelled from a State of employment,
except for reasons defined in the national legislation of that State, and
subject to the safeguards established in part III.
 
     2.   Expulsion shall not be resorted to for the purpose of depriving a
migrant worker or a member of his or her family of the rights arising out of
the authorization of residence and the work permit.
 
     3.   In considering whether to expel a migrant worker or a member of his
or her family, account should be taken of humanitarian considerations and of
the length of time that the person concerned has already resided in the State
of employment.
                                    PART V
          Provisions applicable to particular categories of migrant
                    workers and members of their families
Article 57
     The particular categories of migrant workers and members of their
families specified in the present part of the Convention who are documented or
in a regular situation shall enjoy the rights set forth in part III and,
except as modified below, the rights set forth in part IV.
 
Article 58
     1.   Frontier workers, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (a), of the
present Convention, shall be entitled to the rights provided for in part IV
that can be applied to them by reason of their presence and work in the
territory of the State of employment, taking into account that they do not
have their habitual residence in that State.
 
     2.   States of employment shall consider favourably granting frontier
workers the right freely to choose their remunerated activity after a
specified period of time.  The granting of that right shall not affect their
status as frontier workers.
 
Article 59
     1.   Seasonal workers, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (b), of the
present Convention, shall be entitled to the rights provided for in part IV
that can be applied to them by reason of their presence and work in the
territory of the State of employment and that are compatible with their status
in that State as seasonal workers, taking into account the fact that they are
present in that State for only part of the year.
 
     2.   The State of employment shall, subject to paragraph 1 of the present
article, consider granting seasonal workers who have been employed in its
territory for a significant period of time the possibility of taking up other
remunerated activities and giving them priority over other workers who seek
admission to that State, subject to applicable bilateral and multilateral
agreements.
 
Article 60
     Itinerant workers, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (e), of the
present Convention, shall be entitled to the rights provided for in part IV
that can be granted to them by reason of their presence and work in the
territory of the State of employment and that are compatible with their status
as itinerant workers in that State.
 
Article 61
     1.   Project-tied workers, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (f), of
the present Convention, and members of their families shall be entitled to the
rights provided for in part IV except the provisions of article 43,
paragraphs 1 (b) and (c), article 43, paragraph 1 (d), as it pertains to
social housing schemes, article 45, paragraph 1 (b), and articles 52 to 55.
 
     2.   If a project-tied worker claims that the terms of his or her work
contract have been violated by his or her employer, he or she shall have the
right to address his or her case to the competent authorities of the State
which has jurisdiction over that employer, on terms provided for in
article 18, paragraph 1, of the present Convention.
 
     3.   Subject to bilateral or multilateral agreements in force for them,
the States Parties concerned shall endeavour to enable project-tied workers to
remain adequately protected by the social security systems of their States of
origin or habitual residence during their engagement in the project.  States
Parties concerned shall take appropriate measures with the aim of avoiding any
denial of rights or duplication of payments in this respect.
 
     4.   Without prejudice to the provisions of article 47 of the present
Convention and to relevant bilateral or multilateral agreements, States
Parties concerned shall permit payment of the earnings of project-tied workers
in their State of origin or habitual residence.
 
Article 62
     1.   Specified-employment workers as defined in article 2,
paragraph 2 (g), of the present Convention, shall be entitled to the rights
provided for in part IV, except the provisions of article 43, paragraphs 1 (b)
and (c), article 43, paragraph 1 (d), as it pertains to social housing
schemes, article 52, and article 54, paragraph 1 (d).
 
     2.   Members of the families of specified-employment workers shall be
entitled to the rights relating to family members of migrant workers provided
for in part IV of the present Convention, except the provisions of article 53.
 
Article 63
     1.   Self-employed workers, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (h), of
the present Convention, shall be entitled to the rights provided for in
part IV with the exception of those rights which are exclusively applicable to
workers having a contract of employment.
 
     2.   Without prejudice to articles 52 and 79 of the present Convention,
the termination of the economic activity of the self-employed workers shall
not in itself imply the withdrawal of the authorization for them or for the
members of their families to stay or to engage in a remunerated activity in
the State of employment except where the authorization of residence is
expressly dependent upon the specific remunerated activity for which they were
admitted.
                                   PART VI
            Promotion of sound, equitable, humane and lawful conditions
            in connection with international migration of workers and
                          members of their families
 
Article 64
     1.   Without prejudice to article 79 of the present Convention, the
States Parties concerned shall as appropriate consult and co-operate with a
view to promoting sound, equitable and humane conditions in connection with
international migration of workers and members of their families.
 
     2.   In this respect, due regard shall be paid not only to labour needs
and resources, but also to the social, economic, cultural and other needs of
migrant workers and members of their families involved, as well as to the
consequences of such migration for the communities concerned.
 
Article 65
     1.   States Parties shall maintain appropriate services to deal with
questions concerning international migration of workers and members of their
families.  Their functions shall include, inter alia:
 
     (a)  The formulation and implementation of policies regarding such
migration;
 
     (b)  An exchange of information, consultation and co-operation with the
competent authorities of other States Parties involved in such migration;
 
     (c)  The provision of appropriate information, particularly to employers,
workers and their organizations on policies, laws and regulations relating to
migration and employment, on agreements concluded with other States concerning
migration and on other relevant matters;
 
     (d)  The provision of information and appropriate assistance to migrant
workers and members of their families regarding requisite authorizations and
formalities and arrangements for departure, travel, arrival, stay, remunerated
activities, exit and return, as well as on conditions of work and life in the
State of employment and on customs, currency, tax and other relevant laws and
regulations.
 
     2.   States Parties shall facilitate as appropriate the provision of
adequate consular and other services that are necessary to meet the social,
cultural and other needs of migrant workers and members of their families.
 
Article 66
     1.   Subject to paragraph 2 of the present article, the right to
undertake operations with a view to the recruitment of workers for employment
in another State shall be restricted to:
 
     (a)  Public services or bodies of the State in which such operations take
place;
 
     (b)  Public services or bodies of the State of employment on the basis of
agreement between the States concerned;
 
     (c)  A body established by virtue of a bilateral or multilateral
agreement.
 
     2.   Subject to any authorization, approval and supervision by the public
authorities of the States Parties concerned as may be established pursuant to
the legislation and practice of those States, agencies, prospective employers
or persons acting on their behalf may also be permitted to undertake the said
operations.
 
Article 67
     1.   States Parties concerned shall co-operate as appropriate in the
adoption of measures regarding the orderly return of migrant workers and
members of their families to the State of origin when they decide to return or
their authorization of residence or employment expires or when they are in the
State of employment in an irregular situation.
 
     2.   Concerning migrant workers and members of their families in a
regular situation, States Parties concerned shall co-operate as appropriate,
on terms agreed upon by those States, with a view to promoting adequate
economic conditions for their resettlement and to facilitating their durable
social and cultural reintegration in the State of origin.
 
Article 68
     1.   States Parties, including States of transit, shall collaborate with
a view to preventing and eliminating illegal or clandestine movements and
employment of migrant workers in an irregular situation.  The measures to be
taken to this end within the jurisdiction of each State concerned shall
include: 
 
     (a)  Appropriate measures against the dissemination of misleading
information relating to emigration and immigration;
 
     (b)  Measures to detect and eradicate illegal or clandestine movements of
migrant workers and members of their families and to impose effective
sanctions on persons, groups or entities which organize, operate or assist in
organizing or operating such movements;
 
     (c)  Measures to impose effective sanctions on persons, groups or
entities which use violence, threats or intimidation against migrant workers
or members of their families in an irregular situation.
 
     2.   States of employment shall take all adequate and effective measures
to eliminate employment in their territory of migrant workers in an irregular
situation, including, whenever appropriate, sanctions on employers of such
workers.  The rights of migrant workers vis-a-vis their employer arising from
employment shall not be impaired by these measures.
 
Article 69
     1.   States Parties shall, when there are migrant workers and members of
their families within their territory in an irregular situation, take
appropriate measures to ensure that such a situation does not persist.
 
     2.   Whenever States Parties concerned consider the possibility of
regularizing the situation of such persons in accordance with applicable
national legislation and bilateral or multilateral agreements, appropriate
account shall be taken of the circumstances of their entry, the duration of
their stay in the States of employment and other relevant considerations, in
particular those relating to their family situation.
 
Article 70
     States Parties shall take measures not less favourable than those applied
to nationals to ensure that working and living conditions of migrant workers
and members of their families in a regular situation are in keeping with the
standards of fitness, safety, health and principles of human dignity.
 
Article 71
     1.   States Parties shall facilitate, whenever necessary, the
repatriation to the State of origin of the bodies of deceased migrant workers
or members of their families.
 
     2.   As regards compensation matters relating to the death of a migrant
worker or a member of his or her family, States Parties shall, as appropriate,
provide assistance to the persons concerned with a view to the prompt
settlement of such matters.  Settlement of these matters shall be carried out
on the basis of applicable national law in accordance with the provisions of
the present Convention and any relevant bilateral or multilateral agreements.
 
                                   PART VII
                        Application of the Convention
Article 72
     1.   (a)  For the purpose of reviewing the application of the present
Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the Protection of the
Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (hereinafter
referred to as "the Committee");
 
     (b)  The Committee shall consist, at the time of entry into force of the
present Convention, of ten and, after the entry into force of the Convention
for the forty-first State Party, of fourteen experts of high moral standing,
impartiality and recognized competence in the field covered by the Convention.
 
     2.   (a)  Members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot by
the States Parties from a list of persons nominated by the States Parties, due
consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution, including
both States of origin and States of employment, and to the representation of
the principal legal systems.  Each State Party may nominate one person from
among its own nationals;
 
     (b)  Members shall be elected and shall serve in their personal capacity.
 
     3.   The initial election shall be held no later than six months after
the date of the entry into force of the present Convention and subsequent
elections every second year.  At least four months before the date of each
election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter
to all States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within two
months.  The Secretary-General shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of
all persons thus nominated, indicating the States Parties that have nominated
them, and shall submit it to the States Parties not later than one month
before the date of the corresponding election, together with the curricula
vitae of the persons thus nominated.
 
     4.   Elections of members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of
States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations
Headquarters.  At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties
shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those
nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of
the votes of the States Parties present and voting.
 
     5.   (a)  The members of the Committee shall serve for a term of four
years.  However, the terms of five of the members elected in the first
election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first
election, the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the
Chairman of the meeting of States Parties;
 
     (b)  The election of the four additional members of the Committee shall
be held in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of the
present article, following the entry into force of the Convention for the
forty-first State Party.  The term of two of the additional members elected on
this occasion shall expire at the end of two years; the names of these members
shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting of States Parties;
 
     (c)  The members of the Committee shall be eligible for re-election if
renominated.
 
     6.   If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares that for
any other cause he or she can no longer perform the duties of the Committee,
the State Party that nominated the expert shall appoint another expert from
among its own nationals for the remaining part of the term.  The new
appointment is subject to the approval of the Committee.
 
     7.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the
necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions
of the Committee.
 
     8.   The members of the Committee shall receive emoluments from United
Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the General Assembly may
decide.
 
     9.   The members of the Committee shall be entitled to the facilities,
privileges and immunities of experts on mission for the United Nations as laid
down in the relevant sections of the Convention on the Privileges and
Immunities of the United Nations.
 
Article 73
     1.   States Parties undertake to submit to the Secretary-General of the
United Nations for consideration by the Committee a report on the legislative,
judicial, administrative and other measures they have taken to give effect to
the provisions of the present Convention:
 
     (a)  Within one year after the entry into force of the Convention for the
State Party concerned;
 
     (b)  Thereafter every five years and whenever the Committee so requests.
 
     2.   Reports prepared under the present article shall also indicate
factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the implementation of the
Convention and shall include information on the characteristics of migration
flows in which the State Party concerned is involved.
 
     3.   The Committee shall decide any further guidelines applicable to the
content of the reports.
 
     4.   States Parties shall make their reports widely available to the
public in their own countries.
 
Article 74
     1.   The Committee shall examine the reports submitted by each State
Party and shall transmit such comments as it may consider appropriate to the
State Party concerned.  This State Party may submit to the Committee
observations on any comment made by the Committee in accordance with the
present article.  The Committee may request supplementary information from
States Parties when considering these reports.
 
     2.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, in due time
before the opening of each regular session of the Committee, transmit to the
Director-General of the International Labour Office copies of the reports
submitted by States Parties concerned and information relevant to the
consideration of these reports, in order to enable the Office to assist the
Committee with the expertise the Office may provide regarding those matters
dealt with by the present Convention that fall within the sphere of competence
of the International Labour Organisation.  The Committee shall consider in its
deliberations such comments and materials as the Office may provide.
 
     3.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations may also, after
consultation with the Committee, transmit to other specialized agencies as
well as to intergovernmental organizations, copies of such parts of these
reports as may fall within their competence.
 
     4.   The Committee may invite the specialized agencies and organs of the
United Nations, as well as intergovernmental organizations and other concerned
bodies to submit, for consideration by the Committee, written information on
such matters dealt with in the present Convention as fall within the scope of
their activities.
 
     5.   The International Labour Office shall be invited by the Committee to
appoint representatives to participate, in a consultative capacity, in the
meetings of the Committee.
 
     6.   The Committee may invite representatives of other specialized
agencies and organs of the United Nations, as well as of intergovernmental
organizations, to be present and to be heard in its meetings whenever matters
falling within their field of competence are considered.
 
     7.   The Committee shall present an annual report to the General Assembly
of the United Nations on the implementation of the present Convention,
containing its own considerations and recommendations, based, in particular,
on the examination of the reports and any observations presented by States
Parties. 
 
     8.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit the
annual reports of the Committee to the States Parties to the present
Convention, the Economic and Social Council, the Commission on Human Rights of
the United Nations, the Director-General of the International Labour Office
and other relevant organizations.
 
Article 75
     1.   The Committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure.
 
     2.   The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years.
 
     3.   The Committee shall normally meet annually.
 
     4.   The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United
Nations Headquarters.
 
Article 76
     1.   A State Party to the present Convention may at any time declare
under this article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to
receive and consider communications to the effect that a State Party claims
that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the present
Convention.  Communications under this article may be received and considered
only if submitted by a State Party that has made a declaration recognizing in
regard to itself the competence of the Committee.  No communication shall be
received by the Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made such
a declaration.  Communications received under this article shall be dealt with
in accordance with the following procedure:
 
     (a)  If a State Party to the present Convention considers that another
State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the present Convention, it
may, by written communication, bring the matter to the attention of that State
Party.  The State Party may also inform the Committee of the matter.  Within
three months after the receipt of the communication the receiving State shall
afford the State that sent the communication an explanation, or any other
statement in writing clarifying the matter which should include, to the extent
possible and pertinent, reference to domestic procedures and remedies taken,
pending or available in the matter;
 
     (b)  If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both States
Parties concerned within six months after the receipt by the receiving State
of the initial communication, either State shall have the right to refer the
matter to the Committee, by notice given to the Committee and to the other
State;
 
     (c)  The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it only after it
has ascertained that all available domestic remedies have been invoked and
exhausted in the matter, in conformity with the generally recognized
principles of international law.  This shall not be the rule where, in the
view of the Committee, the application of the remedies is unreasonably
prolonged;
 
     (d)  Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (c) of the present
paragraph, the Committee shall make available its good offices to the States
Parties concerned with a view to a friendly solution of the matter on the
basis of the respect for the obligations set forth in the present Convention;
 
     (e)  The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining
communications under the present article;
 
     (f)  In any matter referred to it in accordance with subparagraph (b) of
the present paragraph, the Committee may call upon the States Parties
concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b), to supply any relevant
information;
 
     (g)  The States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b) of the
present paragraph, shall have the right to be represented when the matter is
being considered by the Committee and to make submissions orally and/or in
writing; 
 
     (h)  The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date of receipt
of notice under subparagraph (b) of the present paragraph, submit a report, as
follows: 
 
     (i)  If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (d) of the present
          paragraph is reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a
          brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;
 
    (ii)  If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (d) is not reached,
          the Committee shall, in its report, set forth the relevant facts
          concerning the issue between the States Parties concerned.  The
          written submissions and record of the oral submissions made by the
          States Parties concerned shall be attached to the report.  The
          Committee may also communicate only to the States Parties concerned
          any views that it may consider relevant to the issue between them.
 
In every matter, the report shall be communicated to the States Parties
concerned.
 
     2.   The provisions of the present article shall come into force when ten
States Parties to the present Convention have made a declaration under
paragraph 1 of the present article.  Such declarations shall be deposited by
the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall
transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties.  A declaration may be
withdrawn at any time by notification to the Secretary-General.  Such a
withdrawal shall not prejudice the consideration of any matter that is the
subject of a communication already transmitted under the present article; no
further communication by any State Party shall be received under the present
article after the notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been
received by the Secretary-General, unless the State Party concerned has made a
new declaration.
 
Article 77
     1.   A State Party to the present Convention may at any time declare
under the present article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee
to receive and consider communications from or on behalf of individuals
subject to its jurisdiction who claim that their individual rights as
established by the present Convention have been violated by that State Party.
No communication shall be received by the Committee if it concerns a State
Party that has not made such a declaration.
 
     2.   The Committee shall consider inadmissible any communication under
the present article which is anonymous or which it considers to be an abuse of
the right of submission of such communications or to be incompatible with the
provisions of the present Convention.
 
     3.   The Committee shall not consider any communications from an
individual under the present article unless it has ascertained that:
 
     (a)  The same matter has not been, and is not being, examined under
another procedure of international investigation or settlement;
 
     (b)  The individual has exhausted all available domestic remedies; this
shall not be the rule where, in the view of the Committee, the application of
the remedies is unreasonably prolonged or is unlikely to bring effective
relief to that individual.
 
     4.   Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of the present article, the
Committee shall bring any communications submitted to it under this article to
the attention of the State Party to the present Convention that has made a
declaration under paragraph 1 and is alleged to be violating any provisions of
the Convention.  Within six months, the receiving State shall submit to the
Committee written explanations or statements clarifying the matter and the
remedy, if any, that may have been taken by that State.
 
     5.   The Committee shall consider communications received under the
present article in the light of all information made available to it by or on
behalf of the individual and by the State Party concerned.
 
     6.   The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining
communications under the present article.
 
     7.   The Committee shall forward its views to the State Party concerned
and to the individual.
 
     8.   The provisions of the present article shall come into force when ten
States Parties to the present Convention have made declarations under
paragraph 1 of the present article.  Such declarations shall be deposited by
the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall
transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties.  A declaration may be
withdrawn at any time by notification to the Secretary-General.  Such a
withdrawal shall not prejudice the consideration of any matter that is the
subject of a communication already transmitted under the present article; no
further communication by or on behalf of an individual shall be received under
the present article after the notification of withdrawal of the declaration
has been received by the Secretary-General, unless the State Party has made a
new declaration.
 
Article 78
     The provisions of article 76 of the present Convention shall be applied
without prejudice to any procedures for settling disputes or complaints in the
field covered by the present Convention laid down in the constituent
instruments of, or in conventions adopted by, the United Nations and the
specialized agencies and shall not prevent the States Parties from having
recourse to any procedures for settling a dispute in accordance with
international agreements in force between them.
 
                                  PART VIII
                              General provisions
Article 79
     Nothing in the present Convention shall affect the right of each State
Party to establish the criteria governing admission of migrant workers and
members of their families.  Concerning other matters related to their legal
situation and treatment as migrant workers and members of their families,
States Parties shall be subject to the limitations set forth in the present
Convention.
 
Article 80
     Nothing in the present Convention shall be interpreted as impairing the
provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and of the constitutions of
the
specialized agencies which define the respective responsibilities of the
various organs of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies in regard
to the matters dealt with in the present Convention.
 
Article 81
     1.   Nothing in the present Convention shall affect more favourable
rights or freedoms granted to migrant workers and members of their families by
virtue of:
 
     (a)  The law or practice of a State Party; or
 
     (b)  Any bilateral or multilateral treaty in force for the State Party
concerned.
 
     2.   Nothing in the present Convention may be interpreted as implying for
any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any
act that would impair any of the rights and freedoms as set forth in the
present Convention.
 
Article 82
     The rights of migrant workers and members of their families provided for
in the present Convention may not be renounced.  It shall not be permissible
to exert any form of pressure upon migrant workers and members of their
families with a view to their relinquishing or foregoing any of the said
rights.  It shall not be possible to derogate by contract from rights
recognized in the present Convention.  States Parties shall take appropriate
measures to ensure that these principles are respected.
 
Article 83
     Each State Party to the present Convention undertakes:
 
     (a)  To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein
recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that
the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity;
 
     (b)  To ensure that any persons seeking such a remedy shall have his or
her claim reviewed and decided by competent judicial, administrative or
legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by
the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial
remedy;
 
     (c)  To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies
when granted.
 
Article 84
     Each State Party undertakes to adopt the legislative and other measures
that are necessary to implement the provisions of the present Convention.
 
                                   PART IX
                               Final provisions
Article 85
     The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the
depositary of the present Convention.
 
Article 86
     1.   The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.
It is subject to ratification.
 
     2.   The present Convention shall be open to accession by any State.
 
     3.   Instruments of ratification or accession shall be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
Article 87
     1.   The present Convention shall enter into force on the first day of
the month following a period of three months after the date of the deposit of
the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.
 
     2.   For each State ratifying or acceding to the present Convention after
its entry into force, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day
of the month following a period of three months after the date of the deposit
of its own instrument of ratification or accession.
 
Article 88
     A State ratifying or acceding to the present Convention may not exclude
the application of any Part of it, or, without prejudice to article 3, exclude
any particular category of migrant workers from its application.
 
Article 89
     1.   Any State Party may denounce the present Convention, not earlier
than five years after the Convention has entered into force for the State
concerned, by means of a notification in writing addressed to the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
     2.   Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the
month following the expiration of a period of twelve months after the date of
the receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General of the United
Nations. 
 
     3.   Such a denunciation shall not have the effect of releasing the State
Party from its obligations under the present Convention in regard to any act
or omission which occurs prior to the date at which the denunciation becomes
effective, nor shall denunciation prejudice in any way the continued
consideration of any matter which is already under consideration by the
Committee prior to the date at which the denunciation becomes effective.
 
     4.   Following the date at which the denunciation of a State Party
becomes effective, the Committee shall not commence consideration of any new
matter regarding that State.
 
Article 90
     1.   After five years from the entry into force of the Convention a
request for the revision of the Convention may be made at any time by any
State Party by means of a notification in writing addressed to the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.  The Secretary-General shall
thereupon communicate any proposed amendments to the States Parties with a
request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of States
Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals.  In the
event that within four months from the date of such communication at least one
third of the States Parties favours such a conference, the Secretary-General
shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations.  Any
amendment adopted by a majority of the States Parties present and voting shall
be submitted to the General Assembly for approval.
 
     2.   Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved by the
General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority
of the States Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional
processes.
 
     3.   When amendments come into force, they shall be binding on those
States Parties that have accepted them, other States Parties still being bound
by the provisions of the present Convention and any earlier amendment that
they have accepted.
 
Article 91
     1.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and
circulate to all States the text of reservations made by States at the time of
signature, ratification or accession.
 
     2.   A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the
present Convention shall not be permitted.
 
     3.   Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to this
effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall
then inform all States thereof.  Such notification shall take effect on the
date on which it is received.
 
Article 92
     1.   Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the
interpretation or application of the present Convention that is not settled by
negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to
arbitration.  If within six months from the date of the request for
arbitration the Parties are unable to agree on the organization of the
arbitration, any one of those Parties may refer the dispute to the
International Court of Justice by request in conformity with the Statute of
the Court.
 
     2.   Each State Party may at the time of signature or ratification of the
present Convention or accession thereto declare that it does not consider
itself bound by paragraph 1 of the present article.  The other States Parties
shall not be bound by that paragraph with respect to any State Party that has
made such a declaration.
 
     3.   Any State Party that has made a declaration in accordance with
paragraph 2 of the present article may at any time withdraw that declaration
by notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
Article 93
     1.   The present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English,
French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited
with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
     2.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified
copies of the present Convention to all States.
 
     IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly
authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed the present
Convention.