United Nations

A/RES/45/55


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

4 December 1990

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



                                                        A/RES/45/55
                                                        54th plenary meeting
                                                        4 December 1990
 
                 Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 
                                       A
                 Prevention of an arms race in outer space
 
      The General Assembly,
 
      Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in the exploration and use
 of outer space for peaceful purposes,
 
      Reaffirming the will of all States that the exploration and use of outer
 space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be for peaceful
 purposes, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interest of all
 countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development,
 and shall be the province of all mankind,
 
      Reaffirming also provisions of articles III and IV of the Treaty on
 Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of
 Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,
 
      Recalling the obligation of all States to observe the provisions of the
 Charter of the United Nations regarding the use or threat of use of force in
 their international relations, including in their space activities,
 
      Reaffirming further paragraph 80 of the Final Document of the Tenth
 Special Session of the General Assembly, in which it is stated that in
 order to prevent an arms race in outer space further measures should be taken
 and appropriate international negotiations held in accordance with the spirit
 of the Treaty,
 
      Taking note of its previous resolutions on this issue and of the
 Declaration adopted by the Ninth Conference of Heads of State or Government of
 Non-Aligned Countries, held at Belgrade from 4 to 7 September 1989, and
 taking note also of the proposals submitted to the General Assembly at its
 tenth special session and at its regular sessions, and of the recommendations
 made to the competent organs of the United Nations and to the Conference on
 Disarmament,
 
      Recognizing the grave danger for international peace and security of an
 arms race in outer space and of developments contributing to it,
 
      Emphasizing the paramount importance of strict compliance with existing
 arms limitation and disarmament agreements relevant to outer space, including
 bilateral agreements, and with the existing legal regime concerning the use of
 outer space,
 
      Noting that bilateral negotiations between the Union of Soviet Socialist
 Republics and the United States of America have continued since 1985 with the
 declared objective of working out effective agreements aimed, inter alia, at
 preventing an arms race in outer space,
 
      Welcoming the re-establishment of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Prevention
 of an Arms Race in Outer Space at the 1990 session of the Conference on
 Disarmament, in the exercise of the negotiating responsibilities of this sole
 multilateral negotiating body on disarmament, to continue to examine and
 identify, through substantive and general consideration, issues relevant to
 the prevention of an arms race in outer space,
 
      Noting also that the Ad Hoc Committee on the Prevention of an Arms Race
 in Outer Space, taking into account its previous efforts since its
 establishment in 1985, continued the examination and identification of various
 issues, existing agreements and existing proposals, as well as future
 initiatives relevant to the prevention of an arms race in outer space, and
 that this contributed to a better understanding of a number of problems and to
 a clearer perception of the various positions,
 
      Emphasizing the mutually complementary nature of bilateral and
 multilateral efforts in the field of preventing an arms race in outer space,
 and hoping that concrete results will emerge from these efforts as soon as
 possible,
 
      Convinced that further measures should be examined in the search for
 effective and verifiable bilateral and multilateral agreements in order to
 prevent an arms race in outer space,
 
      1.   Reaffirms the importance and urgency of preventing an arms race in
 outer space and the readiness of all States to contribute to that common
 objective, in conformity with the provisions of the Treaty on Principles
 Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space,
 including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies;
 
      2.   Recognizes, as stated in the report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the
 Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space, that the legal regime applicable to
 outer space by itself does not guarantee the prevention of an arms race in
 outer space, that this legal regime plays a significant role in the prevention
 of an arms race in that environment, the need to consolidate and reinforce
 that regime and enhance its effectiveness, and the importance of the strict
 compliance with existing agreements, both bilateral and multilateral;
 
      3.   Emphasizes the necessity of further measures with appropriate and
 effective provisions for verification to prevent an arms race in outer space;
 
      4.   Calls upon all States, in particular those with major space
 capabilities, to contribute actively to the objective of the peaceful use of
 outer space and of the prevention of an arms race in outer space and to
 refrain from actions contrary to that objective and to the relevant existing
 treaties in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and
 promoting international co-operation;
 
      5.   Reiterates that the Conference on Disarmament, as the single
 multilateral disarmament negotiating forum, has the primary role in the
 negotiation of a multilateral agreement or agreements, as appropriate, on the
 prevention of an arms race in outer space in all its aspects;
 
      6.   Requests the Conference on Disarmament to consider as a matter of
 priority the question of preventing an arms race in outer space;
 
      7.   Also requests the Conference on Disarmament to intensify its
 consideration of the question of the prevention of an arms race in outer space
 in all its aspects, building upon areas of convergence and taking into account
 relevant proposals and initiatives, including those presented in the Ad Hoc
 Committee at the 1990 session of the Conference and at the forty-fifth session
 of the General Assembly;
 
      8.   Recognizes, in this regard, the relevance of considering measures on
 confidence-building and greater transparency and openness in space as stated
 in the report of the Ad Hoc Committee;
 
      9.   Further requests the Conference on Disarmament to re-establish an
 ad hoc committee with an adequate mandate at the beginning of its 1991 session
 and to continue building upon areas of convergence with a view to undertaking
 negotiations for the conclusion of an agreement or agreements, as appropriate,
 to prevent an arms race in outer space in all its aspects;
 
      10.  Urges the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States
 of America to pursue intensively their bilateral negotiations in a
 constructive spirit with a view to reaching early agreement for preventing an
 arms race in outer space, and to advise the Conference on Disarmament
 periodically of the progress of their bilateral sessions so as to facilitate
 its work;
 
      11.  Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-sixth
 session the item entitled "Prevention of an arms race in outer space".
 
                                       B
                  Confidence-building measures in outer space
 
      The General Assembly,
 
      Conscious of the importance and urgency of preventing an arms race in
 outer space,
 
      Recalling that, in accordance with the Treaty on Principles Governing the
 Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the
 Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,  the exploration and use of outer space,
 including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the
 benefit and in the interest of all countries, irrespective of their degree of
 economic or scientific development, and shall be the province of all mankind,
 
      Aware of the fact that more and more States are taking an active interest
 in outer space or participating in important space programmes for the
 exploration and exploitation of that environment,
 
      Recognizing, in this context, the relevancy space has gained as an
 important factor for the socio-economic development of many States, in
 addition to its undeniable role in security issues,
 
      Emphasizing that the growing use of outer space has increased the need
 for more transparency as well as confidence-building measures,
 
      Recalling that the international community has unanimously recognized the
 importance and usefulness of confidence-building measures, which can
 significantly contribute to the promotion of peace and security and
 disarmament, in particular through General Assembly resolutions 43/78 H of
 7 December 1988 and 44/116 U of 15 December 1989,
 
      Noting the important work being carried out by the Ad Hoc Committee on
 the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space of the Conference on
 Disarmament, which contributes to identifying potential areas of
 confidence-building measures,
 
      Aware of the existence of a number of different proposals and initiatives
 addressing this subject, which attests to a growing convergence of views,
 
      1.   Reaffirms the importance of confidence-building measures as means
 conducive to ensuring the attainment of the objective of the prevention of an
 arms race in outer space;
 
      2.   Recognizes their applicability in the space environment under
 specific criteria yet to be defined;
 
      3.   Requests the Secretary-General to carry out, with the assistance of
 government experts, a study on the specific aspects related to the application
 of different confidence-building measures in outer space, including the
 different technologies available, possibilities for defining appropriate
 mechanisms of international co-operation in specific areas of interest and so
 on, and to report thereon to the General Assembly at its forty-eighth session.