United Nations

A/RES/43/75


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

7 December 1988

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



                                                       A/RES/43/75
                                                       73rd plenary meeting
                                                       7 December 1988
 
                      General and complete disarmament
                                      A
                     Bilateral nuclear-arms negotiations
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolutions 40/18 of 18 November 1985, 41/86 N of
4 December 1986 and 42/38 D of 30 November 1987,
 
   Recalling also the Harare Appeal on Disarmament, adopted by the Eighth
Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, held at
Harare from 1 to 6 September 1986, the Havana Appeal, adopted by the Ministers
for Foreign Affairs of Non-Aligned Countries at the special ministerial
meeting devoted to disarmament issues held at Havana from 26 to 30 May 1988,
and the final documents of the Conference of Ministers for Foreign Affairs of
Non-Aligned Countries held at Nicosia from 5 to 10 September 1988,
 
   Gravely concerned about the continuing escalation of the arms race,
especially in nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, despite
the fact that this increases the risk of nuclear war and endangers the
survival of humanity,
 
   Convinced that the alternative today in the nuclear age is not between war
or peace, but between life and death, which makes the prevention of nuclear
war the principal task of our times,
 
   Also convinced that international peace and security can be ensured only
through general and complete disarmament under effective international control
and that one of the most urgent tasks is to halt and reverse the arms race and
to undertake concrete measures of disarmament, particularly nuclear
disarmament,
 
   Further convinced that, in the interest of mankind as a whole, the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America, in their
bilateral nuclear-arms negotiations, should continue their endeavours with the
ultimate objective of achieving general and complete disarmament under
effective international control,
 
   Welcoming the ratification and commencement of implementation by the Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America of the Treaty
on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles,
 
   Affirming that bilateral and multilateral negotiations on disarmament
should facilitate and complement each other and that progress at the bilateral
level should not be used to postpone or prohibit action at the multilateral
level,
 
   1.     Calls upon the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United
States of America to exert every effort to achieve the goal they set
themselves of a treaty on a 50 per cent reduction in strategic offensive arms
as part of the process leading to the complete elimination of nuclear weapons;
 
   2.     Also calls upon the two Governments to intensify their efforts with
the objective of achieving agreements in other areas, in particular the issue
of a nuclear-test ban, as a matter of urgency;
 
   3.     Invites the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
and the United States of America to keep the General Assembly and the
Conference on Disarmament duly informed of progress made in their
negotiations.
 
                                      B
               Relationship between disarmament and development
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling the provisions of the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session
of the General Assembly related to the relationship between disarmament and
development,
 
   Recalling also the adoption on 11 September 1987 of the Final Document of
the International Conference on the Relationship between Disarmament and
Development,
 
   1.     Requests the Secretary-General to take action through the
appropriate organs, within available resources, for the implementation of the
action programme adopted at the International Conference on the Relationship
between Disarmament and Development, and to submit a report to the General
Assembly at its forty-fourth session;
 
   2.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session an item entitled "Relationship between disarmament and development".
                                      C
           Prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling
                       and use of radiological weapons
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolution 42/38 B of 30 November 1987,
 
   1.     Takes note of the part of the report of the Conference on
Disarmament on its 1988 session and that of the special report of the
Conference on Disarmament, that deal with the question of radiological
weapons, in particular the reports of the Ad Hoc Committee on Radiological
Weapons; 
 
   2.     Recognizes that the Ad Hoc Committee in 1988 made a further
contribution to the clarification and better understanding of different
approaches that continue to exist with regard to both of the important
subjects under consideration;
 
   3.     Takes note of the recommendation of the Conference on Disarmament
that the Ad Hoc Committee on Radiological Weapons should be re-established at
the beginning of its 1989 session;
 
   4.     Requests the Conference on Disarmament to continue its negotiations
on the subject with a view to a prompt conclusion of its work, taking into
account all proposals presented to the Conference to this end and drawing upon
the annexes to its report as a basis of its future work, the result of which
should be submitted to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session;
 
   5.     Also requests the Secretary-General to transmit to the Conference on
Disarmament all relevant documents relating to the discussion of all aspects
of the issue by the General Assembly at its forty-third session;
 
   6.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session the item entitled "Prohibition of the development, production,
stockpiling and use of radiological weapons".
 
                                      D
                           Conventional disarmament
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolution 42/38 E of 30 November 1987,
 
   Welcoming the wide support expressed by Member States for greater attention
to be given to conventional disarmament,
 
   Also welcoming the increased awareness of the implications of many aspects
of the conventional arms buildup, both in its qualitative and its quantitative
aspect,
 
   Taking into account that conventional disarmament is a necessary part of
the disarmament process,
 
   Recalling the central role of the United Nations in the field of
disarmament,
 
   Having examined the reports of the Disarmament Commission to the General
Assembly at its fifteenth special session and at its forty-third session,
 
   1.     Maintains that the United Nations should continue to encourage and
facilitate disarmament efforts in all fields;
 
   2.     Requests the Disarmament Commission to continue at its 1989 session
the substantive consideration of issues related to conventional disarmament
and to report to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session with a view
to facilitating possible measures in the fields of conventional arms reduction
and disarmament;
 
   3.     Also requests the Disarmament Commission for this purpose to include
in the agenda for its 1989 session an item entitled "Substantive consideration
of issues related to conventional disarmament";
 
   4.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session the item entitled "Conventional disarmament".
                                      E
                             Nuclear disarmament
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolutions 41/59 F of 3 December 1986 and 42/38 H of
30 November 1987,
 
   Reaffirming the determination to save succeeding generations from the
scourge of war as expressed in the Preamble to the Charter of the United
Nations, 
 
   Convinced that the most acute and urgent task of the present day is to
remove the threat of a world war - a nuclear war,
 
   Recalling and reaffirming the statements and provisions on nuclear
disarmament set forth in the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of
the General Assembly, and, in particular, provisions that "effective measures
of nuclear disarmament and the prevention of nuclear war have the highest
priority", contained in paragraph 20, and that "in the task of achieving the
goals of nuclear disarmament, all the nuclear-weapon States, in particular
those among them which possess the most important nuclear arsenals, bear a
special responsibility", contained in paragraph 48,
 
   Bearing in mind that the ultimate goal of nuclear disarmament is the
complete elimination of nuclear weapons,
 
   Noting that the leaders of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the
United States of America agreed in their joint statement issued at Geneva on
21 November 1985 that "a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought"
and the common desire they expressed in the same statement calling for early
progress in areas where there is common ground, including the principle of a
50 per cent reduction in the nuclear arms of the Soviet Union and the United
States appropriately applied,
 
   Noting also that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United
States of America have conducted intensive negotiations on various issues of
disarmament,
 
   Noting further that the Conference on Disarmament has not played its due
role in the field of nuclear disarmament,
 
   Believing that the qualitative aspect of the arms race needs to be
addressed along with its quantitative aspect,
 
   Bearing in mind that the Governments and peoples of various countries
expect that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of
America will reach agreement on halting the nuclear-arms race and further
reducing nuclear weapons,
 
   1.     Welcomes the signing and ratification of the Treaty between the
United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the
Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, and calls
upon the two States strictly to observe and fully to implement the Treaty;
 
   2.     Urges the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States
of America, which possess the most important nuclear arsenals, further to
discharge their special responsibility for nuclear disarmament, to take the
lead in halting the nuclear-arms race and to negotiate in earnest with a view
to reaching early agreement on the drastic reduction of their nuclear
arsenals;
 
   3.     Reiterates its belief that bilateral and multilateral efforts for
nuclear disarmament should complement and facilitate each other;
 
   4.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session the item entitled "Nuclear disarmament".
 
                                      F
                           Conventional disarmament
   The General Assembly,
 
   Reaffirming the determination to save succeeding generations from the
scourge of war as expressed in the Preamble to the Charter of the United
Nations, 
 
   Recalling the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General
Assembly, and particularly its paragraph 81, which provides that together with
negotiations on nuclear disarmament measures, the limitation and gradual
reduction of armed forces and conventional weapons should be resolutely
pursued within the framework of progress towards general and complete
disarmament, and which stresses that States with the largest military arsenals
have a special responsibility in pursuing the process of conventional
armaments reductions,
 
   Also recalling that in the same document it is stated, inter alia, that
priorities in disarmament negotiations shall be:  nuclear weapons; other
weapons of mass destruction, including chemical weapons; conventional weapons,
including any which may be deemed to be excessively injurious or to have
indiscriminate effects; and reduction of armed forces, and that it stresses
that nothing should preclude States from conducting negotiations on all
priority items concurrently,
 
   Further recalling that in the same document it is stated that effective
measures of nuclear disarmament and the prevention of nuclear war have the
highest priority, and that real progress in the field of nuclear disarmament
could create an atmosphere conducive to progress in conventional disarmament
on a world-wide basis,
 
   Aware of the dangers to world peace and security originating from, and the
loss in human life and property caused by, wars and conflicts fought with
conventional weapons, as well as of their possible escalation into a nuclear
war in regions with a high concentration of conventional and nuclear weapons,
 
   Also aware that with the advance in science and technology, conventional
weapons tend to become increasingly lethal and destructive and that
conventional armaments consume large amounts of resources,
 
   Believing that resources released through disarmament, including
conventional disarmament, can be used for the social and economic development
of people of all countries, particularly the developing countries,
 
   Noting that the ongoing conventional disarmament negotiations in Europe
have gained increasing importance,
 
   Bearing in mind its resolution 36/97 A of 9 December 1981 and the Study on
Conventional Disarmament conducted in accordance with that resolution, as well
as its resolutions 41/59 C and 41/59 G of 3 December 1986, and 42/38 E and
42/38 G of 30 November 1987, and the consideration by the Disarmament
Commission at its 1988 session of the question of conventional disarmament,
 
   Bearing in mind also the efforts made to promote conventional disarmament
and the related proposals and suggestions, as well as the initiatives taken by
various countries in this regard,
 
   1.     Reaffirms the importance of the efforts aimed at resolutely pursuing
the limitation and gradual reduction of armed forces and conventional weapons
within the framework of progress towards general and complete disarmament;
 
   2.     Believes that the military forces of all countries should not be
used other than for the purpose of self-defence;
 
   3.     Urges the countries with the largest military arsenals, which bear a
special responsibility in pursuing the process of conventional armaments
reductions, and the member States of the two major military alliances to
conduct negotiations on conventional disarmament in earnest through
appropriate forums, with a view to reaching early agreement on the limitation
and gradual and balanced reduction of armed forces and conventional weapons
under effective international control in their respective regions,
particularly in Europe, which has the largest concentration of arms and forces
in the world;
 
   4.     Encourages all States, while taking into account the need to protect
security and maintain necessary defensive capabilities, to intensify their
efforts and take, either on their own or in a regional context, appropriate
steps to promote progress in conventional disarmament and enhance peace and
security;
 
   5.     Requests the Disarmament Commission to consider further, at its 1989
substantive session, issues related to conventional disarmament;
 
   6.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session the item entitled "Conventional disarmament".
 
                                      G
                  Objective information on military matters
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling paragraph 105 of the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session
of the General Assembly, in which the Assembly encouraged Member States to
ensure a better flow of information with regard to the various aspects of
disarmament to avoid dissemination of false and tendentious information
concerning armaments and to concentrate on the danger of escalation of the
arms race and on the need for general and complete disarmament under effective
international control,
 
   Taking into account the attention paid to the questions of openness and of
ensuring an exchange of objective information in the military field at its
fifteenth special session, the third special session devoted to disarmament,
 
   Noting with satisfaction that recent agreements in the field of arms
limitation and disarmament have provided for qualitatively new standards of
openness,
 
   Believing that the adoption of confidence-building measures to promote
openness and transparency would contribute to the prevention of misperceptions
of military capabilities and intentions which would induce States to undertake
armaments programmes leading to the acceleration of the arms race, in
particular the nuclear-arms race, and to heightened international tensions,
 
   Believing also that balanced and objective information on all military
matters, in particular of nuclear-weapon States and other militarily
significant States, would contribute to the building of confidence among
States and to the conclusion of concrete disarmament agreements, and thereby
help to halt and reverse the arms race,
 
   Recognizing that greater openness and transparency would contribute to
enhancing security,
 
   Convinced that greater openness on military activities, inter alia, through
transmittal of relevant information on these activities, including on the
levels of military budgets, would contribute to increased confidence among
States,
 
   Taking into account the work undertaken in the Disarmament Commission on
the reduction of military budgets,
 
   Noting with satisfaction that an increased number of States have provided
annual reports on military expenditures in conformity with the international
system for the standardized reporting of military expenditures under the
auspices of the United Nations,
 
   1.     Takes note of the report of the Secretary-General on this subject to
the third special session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament;
 
   2.     Reaffirms its firm conviction that a better flow of objective
information on military capabilities would help relieve international tension
and contribute to the building of confidence among States on a global,
regional or subregional level and to the conclusion of concrete disarmament
agreements;
 
   3.     Recommends that those States and global, regional and subregional
organizations which have already expressed support for the principle of
practical and concrete confidence-building measures of a military nature on a
global, regional or subregional level should intensify their efforts with a
view to adopting such measures;
 
   4.     Recommends also that all States, in particular nuclear-weapon States
and other militarily significant States, should implement the international
system for the standardized reporting of military expenditures, with the aim
of achieving a realistic comparison of military budgets, facilitating the
availability of objective information on, as well as objective assessment of,
military capabilities and contributing to the process of disarmament;
 
   5.     Invites all Member States to communicate to the Secretary-General
before 30 April 1989 measures they have adopted towards these ends, for
submission to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session;
 
   6.     Also invites all Member States also to communicate to the
Secretary-General their views on ways and means of further consolidating the
emerging trend towards greater openness in military matters, specifically with
regard to the provisions of objective information on military matters, for
consideration by the Disarmament Commission at its 1990 session;
 
   7.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session the item entitled "Objective information on military matters".
 
                                      H
            Implementation of General Assembly resolutions in the
                             field of disarmament
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolution 42/38 J of 30 November 1987,
 
   Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General,
 
   Recalling paragraph 115 of the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session
of the General Assembly, in which it is stated, inter alia, that the Assembly
has been and should remain the main deliberative organ of the United Nations
in the field of disarmament and should make every effort to facilitate the
implementation of disarmament measures,
 
   Mindful of the fact that the role of the United Nations in the field of
disarmament could be strengthened substantially through an increased effort by
Member States to implement faithfully General Assembly resolutions in the
field of disarmament,
 
   Convinced of the importance of treating recommendations of the General
Assembly in the field of disarmament with due respect in accordance with the
obligations assumed by Member States under the Charter of the United Nations,
 
   1.     Deems it important that all Member States make every effort to
facilitate the consistent implementation of General Assembly resolutions in
the field of disarmament, and thus show their resolve to arrive at mutually
acceptable, comprehensively verifiable and effective disarmament measures;
 
   2.     Invites all Member States that have not yet done so to make
available to the Secretary-General their views and suggestions on ways and
means to improve the situation with regard to the implementation of General
Assembly resolutions in the field of disarmament;
 
   3.     Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at
its forty-fourth session, in accordance with resolution 42/38 J, a report that
includes information provided by Member States concerning the implementation
of General Assembly resolutions in the field of disarmament, as well as their
views on possible avenues to improve the situation in this respect;
 
   4.     Calls upon all Member States to render every assistance to the
Secretary-General so that he may fulfil the request contained in paragraph 3
above;
 
   5.     Decides to continue its consideration of the issue of the
implementation of General Assembly resolutions in the field of disarmament at
its forty-fourth session.
                                      I
                         International arms transfers
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Reaffirming the central role of the United Nations in strengthening
international peace and security and promoting disarmament,
 
   Bearing in mind that, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,
Member States have undertaken to promote the establishment and maintenance of
international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the
world's human and economic resources,
 
   Also bearing in mind the inherent right to self-defence embodied in
Article 51 of the Charter,
 
   Taking into account the general principles outlined in paragraph 22 of the
Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly,
 
   Also taking into account the conclusions and recommendations of the United
Nations studies entitled Study on Conventional Disarmament, Study on all the
Aspects of Regional Disarmament  "Study on the economic and social
consequences of the arms race and military expenditures",  The Relationship
between Disarmament and Development, Reduction of Military Budgets,
Relationship between Disarmament and International Security, and Comprehensive
Study on Confidence-building Measures,
 
   Further taking into account the action programme set forth in the Final
Document of the International Conference on the Relationship between
Disarmament and Development,
 
   1.     Expresses its conviction that arms transfers in all their aspects
deserve serious consideration by the international community, inter alia,
because of:
 
   (a)    Their potential effects in areas where tension and regional conflict
threaten international peace and security and national security;
 
   (b)    Their known and potential negative effects on the process of the
peaceful social and economic development of all peoples;
 
   (c)    Increasing illicit and covert arms trafficking;
 
   2.     Requests Member States to consider, inter alia, the following
measures relating to these concerns:
 
   (a)    Reinforcement of their national systems of control and vigilance
concerning production and transport of arms;
 
   (b)    Examination of ways and means of refraining from acquiring arms
additional to those needed for legitimate national security requirements,
taking into account the specific characteristics of each region;
 
   (c)    Examination of the ways and means of providing for more openness and
transparency with regard to world-wide arms transfers;
 
   3.     Requests the Disarmament Commission to take into account the
above-mentioned matters in its deliberations on the issue of conventional
disarmament;
 
   4.     Requests the Secretary-General to seek the views and proposals of
Member States on the matters contained in paragraphs 1 and 2 above and to
collect all other relevant information for submission to the General Assembly
at its forty-fourth session;
 
   5.     Also requests the Secretary-General to carry out thereafter, with
the assistance of governmental experts, a study on ways and means of promoting
transparency in international transfers of conventional arms on a universal
and non-discriminatory basis, also taking into consideration the views of
Member States as well as other relevant information, including that on the
problem of illicit arms trade, for submission to the General Assembly at its
forty-sixth session;
 
   6.     Further requests the Secretary-General to make available, within the
framework of the World Disarmament Campaign, information concerning the
question of arms transfers and their consequences for international peace and
security;
 
   7.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session an item entitled "International arms transfers".
 
                                      J
           Prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling
                       and use of radiological weapons
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolutions 37/99 C of 13 December 1982, 38/188 D of
20 December 1983, 39/151 J of 17 December 1984, 40/94 D of 12 December 1985,
41/59 A and I of 3 December 1986 and 42/38 F of 30 November 1987 on,
inter alia, the conclusion of an agreement prohibiting military attacks
against nuclear facilities,
 
   Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General on this subject
submitted pursuant to resolution 42/38 F,
 
   Gravely concerned that armed attacks against nuclear facilities, though
carried out with conventional weapons, could be tantamount to the use of
radiological weapons,
 
   Recalling also that Additional Protocol I of 1977 to the Geneva Conventions
of 12 August 1949 prohibits attacks on nuclear electricity-generating
stations,
 
   Deeply concerned that the destruction of nuclear facilities by conventional
weapons causes the release into the environment of huge amounts of dangerous
radioactive material, which results in serious radioactive contamination,
 
   Firmly convinced that the Israeli attack against the safeguarded nuclear
facilities in Iraq constitutes an unprecedented danger to international peace
and security,
 
   Recalling further resolutions GC(XXVII)/RES/407 and GC(XXVII)/RES/409,
adopted in 1983 by the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy
Agency, in which the Conference urged all member States to support actions in
international forums to reach an international agreement that prohibits armed
attacks against nuclear installations devoted to peaceful purposes,
 
   1.     Reaffirms that armed attacks of any kind against nuclear facilities
are tantamount to the use of radiological weapons, owing to the dangerous
radioactive forces that such attacks cause to be released;
 
   2.     Requests once again the Conference on Disarmament to intensify
further its efforts to reach, as early as possible, an agreement prohibiting
armed attacks against nuclear facilities;
 
   3.     Requests again the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide the
Conference on Disarmament with the technical studies that could facilitate the
conclusion of such an agreement;
 
   4.     Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly at
its forty-fourth session on the progress made in the implementation of the
present resolution.
                                      K
            Prohibition of the production of fissionable material
                             for weapons purposes
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolutions 33/91 H of 16 December 1978, 34/87 D of
11 December 1979, 35/156 H of 12 December 1980, 36/97 G of 9 December 1981,
37/99 E of 13 December 1982, 38/188 E of 20 December 1983, 39/151 H of
17 December 1984, 40/94 G of 12 December 1985, 41/59 L of 3 December 1986 and
42/38 L of 30 November 1987, in which it requested the Conference on
Disarmament, at an appropriate stage of the implementation of the Programme of
Action set forth in section III of the Final Document of the Tenth Special
Session of the General Assembly, and of its work on the item entitled "Nuclear
weapons in all aspects", to consider urgently the question of adequately
verified cessation and prohibition of the production of fissionable material
for nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices and to keep the
Assembly informed of the progress of that consideration,
 
   Noting that the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament for 1988 included
the item entitled "Nuclear weapons in all aspects" and that the programme of
work of the Conference for both parts of its 1988 session contained the item
entitled "Cessation of the nuclear-arms race and nuclear disarmament",
 
   Recalling the proposals and statements made in the Conference on
Disarmament on those items,
 
   Considering that the cessation of production of fissionable material for
weapons purposes and the progressive conversion and transfer of stocks to
peaceful uses would be a significant step towards halting and reversing the
nuclear-arms race,
 
   Considering also that the prohibition of the production of fissionable
material for nuclear weapons and other explosive devices would be an important
measure in facilitating the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons
and explosive devices,
 
   Requests the Conference on Disarmament, at an appropriate stage of its work
on the item entitled "Nuclear weapons in all aspects", to pursue its
consideration of the question of adequately verified cessation and prohibition
of the production of fissionable material for nuclear weapons and other
nuclear explosive devices and to keep the General Assembly informed of the
progress of that consideration.
                                      L
                       Naval armaments and disarmament
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolution 38/188 G of 20 December 1983, by which it
requested the Secretary-General, with the assistance of qualified governmental
experts, to carry out a comprehensive study on the naval arms race,
 
   Recalling also its resolution 40/94 F of 12 December 1985, by which it
requested the Disarmament Commission to consider the issues contained in the
study entitled The Naval Arms Race, both its substantive content and its
conclusions, taking into account all other relevant present and future
proposals, with a view to facilitating the identification of possible measures
in the field of naval arms reductions and disarmament, pursued within the
framework of progress towards general and complete disarmament, as well as
confidence-building measures in this field,
 
   Recalling further its resolution 42/38 K of 30 November 1987, by which it
requested the Disarmament Commission to continue, at its 1988 session, the
substantive consideration of the question and to report on its deliberations
and recommendations to the General Assembly not later than at its forty-third
session, 
 
   Having examined the report of the Chairman of the Disarmament Commission on
the substantive consideration of the question of the naval arms race and
disarmament during the 1988 session of the Commission, which met with the
approval of all delegations participating in the substantive consultations and
which, in their view, should be discussed at the forty-third session of the
General Assembly,
 
   1.     Notes with satisfaction the report on the substantive consideration
of the question of the naval arms race and disarmament by the Chairman of the
Disarmament Commission;
 
   2.     Requests the Disarmament Commission to continue, at its forthcoming
session in 1989, the substantive consideration of the question and to report
on its deliberations and recommendations to the General Assembly at its
forty-fourth session;
 
   3.     Also requests the Disarmament Commission to inscribe on the agenda
for its 1989 session the item entitled "Naval armaments and disarmament";
 
   4.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session the item entitled "Naval armaments and disarmament".
 
                                      M
   Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Prohibition of the
   Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the
   Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolution 2660 (XXV) of 7 December 1970, in which it
commended the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons
and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and
in the Subsoil Thereof,
 
   Noting the provisions of article VII of that Treaty concerning the holding
of review conferences,
 
   Bearing in mind that, in its Final Declaration,the Second Review Conference
of the Parties to the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear
Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean
Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, held at Geneva from 12 to 23 September 1983,
decided that a third review conference should be held at Geneva at the request
of a majority of States parties not earlier than 1988 and not later than 1990,
 
   Recalling also its resolution 38/188 B of 20 December 1983, in which it
made an assessment of the outcome of the Second Review Conference,
 
   Bearing in mind also all the relevant paragraphs of the Final Document of
the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly,
 
   1.     Notes that, following appropriate consultations, a preparatory
committee for the Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the
Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass
Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof is
to be established prior to holding a further review conference in 1989;
 
   2.     Requests the Secretary-General to render the necessary assistance
and to provide such services, including summary records, as may be required
for the Review Conference and its preparation;
 
   3.     Recalls its expressed hope for the widest possible adherence to the
Treaty.
                                      N
            Comprehensive United Nations study on nuclear weapons
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Conscious of the central role and primary responsibility of the United
Nations in the sphere of disarmament, in accordance with the Charter,
 
   Recognizing that nuclear disarmament and arms limitation remain a priority
objective and represent a central task of the international community,
 
   Recalling the report of the Secretary-General entitled Comprehensive Study
on Nuclear Weapons, which was submitted to the General Assembly in 1980,
 
   Recognizing also that since then many important developments have taken
place in the area of nuclear arms, including the continued qualitative
improvement and development of nuclear-weapon systems,
 
   Noting the importance attached by the international community to the
complete cessation of nuclear testing within the framework of an effective
disarmament process,
 
   Noting also the full-scale stage-by-stage talks on nuclear testing between
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America,
 
   Bearing in mind the critical importance of an early and significant
reduction of nuclear arms and recent progress in this field,
 
   Noting further the reports of the Secretary-General entitled "Study on the
climatic and other global effects of nuclear war", Concepts of security and
Study on Deterrence,
 
   Convinced that a comprehensive United Nations study on new developments
concerning different aspects of nuclear weapons would make a valuable
contribution to the dissemination of factual information and to international
understanding of the issues involved,
 
   1.     Requests the Secretary-General to carry out, with the assistance of
qualified governmental experts and taking into account recent relevant
studies, a comprehensive update of the Comprehensive Study on Nuclear Weapons
that provides factual and up-to-date information on and pays regard to the
political, legal and security aspects of:
 
   (a)    Nuclear arsenals and pertinent technological developments;
 
   (b)    Doctrines concerning nuclear weapons;
 
   (c)    Efforts to reduce nuclear weapons;
 
   (d)    Physical, environmental, medical and other effects of use of nuclear
weapons and of nuclear testing;
 
   (e)    Efforts to achieve a comprehensive nuclear-test ban;
 
   (f)    Efforts to prevent the use of nuclear weapons and their horizontal
and vertical proliferation;
 
   (g)    The question of verification of compliance with nuclear-arms
limitation agreements;
 
   2.     Recommends that the study, while aiming at being as comprehensive as
possible, should be based on open material and such further information as
Member States may wish to make available for the purpose of the study;
 
   3.     Invites all Governments to co-operate with the Secretary-General so
that the objectives of the study may be achieved;
 
   4.     Requests the Secretary-General to submit the final report to the
General Assembly well in advance of its forty-fifth session.
 
                                      O
                     Bilateral nuclear-arms negotiations
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling that at their meeting at Geneva in November 1985 the leaders of
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America
committed themselves to the objective of working out effective agreements
aimed at preventing an arms race in space and terminating it on Earth,
 
   Noting the joint statement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
and the United States of America issued following meetings held in Moscow from
29 May to 1 June 1988,
 
   Noting with satisfaction the report in the joint statement that a joint
draft text of a treaty on reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms
had been elaborated, through which process the two sides had recorded
extensive and significant areas of agreement and detailed positions on
remaining areas of disagreement,
 
   Noting also the importance of the verification procedures contained in the
Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range
Missiles as an example of the high standards of verification that are now
achievable in arms control agreements, both bilateral and multilateral,
 
   Believing that, through negotiations pursued in a spirit of flexibility and
with full account taken of the security interests of all States, it is
possible to achieve far-reaching and effectively verifiable agreements,
 
   Firmly convinced that an early agreement in these negotiations, in
accordance with the principle of undiminished security at the lowest possible
level of armaments, would be of crucial importance for the strengthening of
international peace and security,
 
   Further convinced that the international community should encourage the
Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Government of
the United States of America in their endeavours, taking into account both the
importance and complexity of their negotiations,
 
   1.     Welcomes the ratification by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
and the United States of America of the Treaty on the Elimination of Their
Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles;
 
   2.     Also welcomes the successful commencement of the implementation of
the provisions of that Treaty;
 
   3.     Calls upon the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
and the Government of the United States of America to spare no effort in
seeking, in accordance with the security interests of all States and the
universal desire for progress towards disarmament, the attainment of all the
agreed objectives in the negotiations, that is, the resolution of a complex of
questions concerning space and strategic nuclear arms with all these questions
considered and resolved in their interrelationship;
 
   4.     Invites the two Governments concerned to keep other States Members
of the United Nations duly informed of progress in their negotiations, in
accordance with paragraph 114 of the Final Document of the Tenth Special
Session of the General Assembly;
 
   5.     Expresses its firmest possible encouragement and support for the
bilateral negotiations and their successful conclusion.
 
                                      P
         Confidence- and security-building measures and conventional
                            disarmament in Europe
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Determined to achieve progress in disarmament,
 
   Reaffirming the need for continued efforts to build confidence, to lessen
the risk of military confrontation and to enhance mutual security,
 
   Reaffirming also the great importance of increasing security and stability
in Europe through the establishment of a stable, secure and verifiable balance
of conventional armed forces at lower levels, as well as through increased
openness and predictability of military activities,
 
   Considering that further negotiations in the field of confidence- and
security-building measures, as well as a new negotiation on conventional
armaments and forces, both within the framework of the process of the
Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, should promote the process
of strengthening confidence, improving security and developing co-operation in
Europe, thereby contributing to international peace and security,
 
   1.     Welcomes the progress achieved so far in the deliberations at Vienna
on issues concerning the above-mentioned negotiations;
 
   2.     Urges Member States that will participate in the above-mentioned
negotiations to contribute actively to the attainment of their objectives as
agreed;
 
   3.     Invites all States to consider the possibility of taking appropriate
measures with a view to reducing the risk of confrontation and strengthening
security, taking due account of their specific regional conditions.
 
                                      Q
             Prohibition of the dumping of radioactive wastes for
                               hostile purposes
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Bearing in mind resolution CM/RES.1153(XLVIII) concerning the dumping of
nuclear and industrial wastes in Africa, adopted on 25 May 1988 by the Council
of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity at its forty-eighth ordinary
session, held at Addis Ababa from 19 to 23 May 1988,
 
   Recalling resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 on the dumping of nuclear wastes,
adopted on 23 September 1988 by the General Conference of the International
Atomic Energy Agency at its thirty-second regular session,
 
   Considering its resolution 2602 C (XXIV) of 16 December 1969, in which it
requested the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, inter alia, to
consider effective methods of control against the use of radiological methods
of warfare,
 
   Determined to prevent all nuclear-waste dumping practices that would
infringe upon the sovereignty of States,
 
   Desirous of promoting the implementation of paragraph 76 of the Final
Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly,
 
   Aware of the in-depth consideration of the question of the dumping of
radioactive wastes for hostile purposes in the Conference on Disarmament
during its 1988 session,
 
   1.     Calls upon all States to ensure that no nuclear-waste dumping
practices occur that would infringe upon the sovereignty of States;
 
   2.     Welcomes the decision of the International Atomic Energy Agency to
establish a representative technical working group of experts with the
objective of establishing an internationally agreed code of practice for
international transactions involving nuclear wastes;
 
   3.     Requests the Conference on Disarmament to take into account, in the
ongoing negotiation for a convention on the prohibition of radiological
weapons, the deliberate employment of nuclear wastes to cause destruction,
damage or injury by means of radiation produced by the decay of such material;
 
   4.     Also requests the Secretary-General to transmit to the Conference on
Disarmament all documents relating to the consideration of this item by the
General Assembly at its forty-third session;
 
   5.     Further requests the Conference on Disarmament to include in its
report to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session the developments on
the ongoing negotiations on this subject.
 
                                      R
            Review of the role of the United Nations in the field
                                of disarmament
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolutions 39/151 G of 17 December 1984, 40/94 O of
12 December 1985, 41/59 O of 3 December 1986 and 42/38 O of 30 November 1987,
 
   Bearing in mind that the primary purpose of the United Nations is to
maintain international peace and security,
 
   Reaffirming its conviction that genuine and lasting peace can be created
only through the effective implementation of the security system provided for
in the Charter of the United Nations and the speedy and substantial reduction
of arms and armed forces, by international agreement and mutual example,
leading ultimately to general and complete disarmament under effective
international control,
 
   Reaffirming also that the United Nations, in accordance with its Charter,
has a central role and primary responsibility in the sphere of disarmament,
 
   Recognizing the need for the United Nations, in discharging its central
role and primary responsibility in the sphere of disarmament, to play a more
active role in the field of disarmament in accordance with its primary purpose
under the Charter to maintain international peace and security,
 
   Taking into account the part of the report of the Disarmament Commission
relating to this question, and noting the progress made in the consideration
of the question at the fifteenth special session of the General Assembly, the
third special session devoted to disarmament,
 
   Bearing in mind the common desire expressed at its third special session
devoted to disarmament on the necessity to strengthen the role of the United
Nations in the field of disarmament and the increased reaffirmation of faith
in the United Nations as an indispensable instrument for international peace
and security,
 
   1.     Requests the Disarmament Commission to continue its consideration of
the role of the United Nations in the field of disarmament as a matter of
priority at its next substantive session, in 1989, with a view to the
elaboration of concrete recommendations and proposals, as appropriate, taking
into account, inter alia, the views and suggestions of Member States as well
as the aforementioned documents on the subject;
 
   2.     Also requests the Disarmament Commission to submit its report on the
subject, including findings, recommendations and proposals, as appropriate, to
the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session;
 
   3.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session the item entitled "Review of the role of the United Nations in the
field of disarmament:  report of the Disarmament Commission".
 
                                      S
                 Conventional disarmament on a regional scale
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recalling its resolutions 40/94 A of 12 December 1985, 41/59 M of
3 December 1986 and 42/38 N of 30 November 1987,
 
   Taking note of the final documents of the Conference of Ministers for
Foreign Affairs of Non-Aligned Countries held at Nicosia from 5 to
10 September 1988,
 
   Reiterating the primary responsibility of the militarily significant
States, especially nuclear-weapon States, for halting and reversing the arms
race, and the priority assigned to nuclear disarmament in the context of the
advances towards general and complete disarmament,
 
   Drawing attention to the fact that together with negotiations on nuclear
disarmament measures, conventional disarmament measures should be resolutely
pursued, in the context of which conventional disarmament on a regional scale
acquires urgency and renewed importance,
 
   Affirming that regional or subregional arms limitation and disarmament
processes complement and enhance global disarmament efforts,
 
   Expressing its firm support for all regional and subregional peace and
disarmament endeavours that take into account the characteristics of each
region, as well as for unilateral measures to strengthen mutual confidence and
assure the security of all States involved, making possible regional
agreements on arms limitation in the future,
 
   Emphasizing that the adoption of such disarmament measures should take
place in an equitable and balanced manner in order to ensure the right of each
State to security and that no individual State or group of States may obtain
advantages over others at any stage of this process,
 
   Noting with satisfaction the positive trend towards the peaceful settlement
of various regional and subregional conflicts and the important role played in
that regard by the United Nations,
 
   1.     Expresses its satisfaction at the initiatives towards arms
limitation and disarmament adopted jointly or unilaterally by some countries
at the regional and subregional levels, as well as at the systematic
implementation of confidence-building measures, limitation of the acquisition
of conventional weapons and the reduction of military spending, with a view to
allocating the resources thus released to the socio-economic development of
their peoples;
 
   2.     Expresses its keen satisfaction at efforts to bring about the
peaceful solution of conflict situations and regional and subregional crises,
which would facilitate setting in motion specific measures for conventional
disarmament on a regional scale through negotiated agreements under strict and
effective international control;
 
   3.     Again expresses firm support for the United Nations system, and for
the Secretary-General in particular, in the efforts to find solutions to
conflict situations, thereby reaffirming the primary role of the United
Nations in promoting peace and disarmament, and for the strict observance of
the principles and norms embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;
 
   4.     Encourages the Secretary-General to persevere in his current peace
efforts in various areas of tension in the world;
 
   5.     Requests the United Nations to provide assistance to States and
regional institutions that might request it with a view to establishing
disarmament measures on a regional scale;
 
   6.     Appeals to all States to facilitate the progress of regional
disarmament, refraining from any action, including the threat or use of force,
that might impede the achievement of this objective;
 
   7.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session the item entitled "Conventional disarmament on a regional scale".
 
                                      T
                        Dumping of radioactive wastes
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Bearing in mind resolution CM/RES.1153(XLVIII), concerning the dumping of
nuclear and industrial wastes in Africa, adopted on 25 May 1988 by the Council
of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity at its forty-eighth ordinary
session, held at Addis Ababa from 19 to 23 May 1988,
 
   Mindful of the serious concerns raised by the Council of Ministers of the
Organization of African Unity at its forty-eighth session concerning the grave
implications that the dumping of nuclear and industrial wastes could have on
the national security of African countries,
 
   Recalling resolution GC(XXXII)/RES/490 on the dumping of nuclear wastes,
adopted on 23 September 1988 by the General Conference of the International
Atomic Energy Agency at its thirty-second regular session,
 
   Considering its resolution 2602 C (XXIV) of 16 December 1969, in which it
requested the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, inter alia, to
consider effective methods of control against the use of radiological methods
of warfare,
 
   Aware of the potential hazards underlying the dumping of nuclear wastes and
also the transboundary radiological consequences, which could have adverse
implications on regional and international security, and in particular on the
security of the developing countries,
 
   Desirous of promoting the implementation of paragraph 76 of the Final
Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly,
 
   Aware also of the consideration by the Conference on Disarmament during its
1988 session of the question of the dumping of radioactive wastes, which cause
destruction, damage or injury by means of radiation produced by decay of such
material,
 
   1.     Condemns all nuclear-waste dumping practices that would infringe
upon the sovereignty of States;
 
   2.     Expresses profound concern regarding practices of dumping nuclear
and industrial wastes in Africa, which have grave implications on the national
security of African countries;
 
   3.     Calls upon all States to ensure that no radioactive waste is dumped
in the territory of other States in infringement of their sovereignty;
 
   4.     Requests the Conference on Disarmament to take into account, in the
ongoing negotiations for a convention on the prohibition of radiological
weapons, the dumping of radioactive wastes in the territory of other States;
 
   5.     Requests the Secretary-General to transmit to the Conference on
Disarmament all documents relating to the consideration of the present item by
the General Assembly at its forty-third session;
 
   6.     Also requests the Conference on Disarmament to include in its report
to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session the developments on the
ongoing negotiations on this subject;
 
   7.     Further requests the Secretary-General to prepare a report, in
consultation with relevant international organizations, on the dumping of
radioactive wastes in all its aspects in Africa, including all steps taken or
envisaged to monitor, control and put a halt to such activities, and to submit
his report to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session;
 
   8.     Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth
session an item entitled "Dumping of radioactive wastes".