United Nations

A/RES/42/186


General Assembly

  96th plenary meeting
                                                    11 December 1987


                                                    
          42/186. Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and Beyond

      The General Assembly,

      Recalling its resolution 38/161 of 19 December 1983 on the process
 of preparation of the Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and
 Beyond, in which it, inter alia, welcomed the desire of the Governing
 Council of the United Nations Environment Programme to develop the
 Environmental Perspective and transmit it to the General Assembly for
 adoption, benefiting in carrying out that function from its
 consideration of the relevant proposals made by a special commission,
 which adopted the name World Commission on Environment and Development,

      Welcoming the Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and
 Beyond, prepared by the Intergovernmental Inter-sessional Preparatory
 Committee on the Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and Beyond
 of the United Nations Environment Programme, referred to in General
 Assembly resolution 38/161, considered further by the Governing Council
 of the United Nations Environment Programme at its fourteenth session
 and adopted in its decision 14/13 of 19 June 1987, as a basis for the
 further elaboration of its programme and operations, while
 acknowledging that different views exist on some aspects,

      Appreciating that concepts, ideas and recommendations contained in
 the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development have
 been incorporated into the Environmental Perspective,

      1.   Expresses its appreciation for the efforts of the Governing
 Council of the United Nations Environment Programme and its
 Intergovernmental Inter-sessional Preparatory Committee on the
 Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and Beyond in the
 preparation of the Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and
 Beyond;

      2.   Adopts the Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and
 Beyond, contained in the annex to the present resolution, as a broad
 framework to guide national action and international co-operation on
 policies and programmes aimed at achieving environmentally sound
 development, and specifically as a guide to the preparation of further
 system-wide medium-term environment programmes and the medium-term
 programmes of the organizations and bodies of the United Nations
 system, in the light of Governing Council decision 14/13;

      3.   Notes that the perceptions generally shared by Governments of the
 nature of environmental problems, and their interrelations with other
 international problems, and of the efforts to deal with them include the
 following:

      (a)  An international atmosphere of peace, security and co-operation,
 free from the presence and the threat of wars of all types, especially nuclear
 war, in which intellectual and natural resources are not wasted on armaments
 by any nation, would greatly enhance environmentally sound development;

      (b)  The imbalance of present world economic conditions makes it
 extremely difficult to bring about sustained improvement in the world's
 environmental situation; accelerated and balanced world development and
 lasting improvements in the global environment require improved world economic
 conditions, especially for the developing countries;

      (c)  Since mass poverty is often at the root of environmental
 degradation, its elimination and ensuring equitable access of people to
 environmental resources are essential for sustained environmental improvements;

      (d)  The environment puts constraints on as well as provides
 opportunities for economic growth and social well-being; environmental
 degradation, in its various forms, has assumed such proportions as can cause
 irreversible changes in ecosystems, which threaten to undermine human
 well-being; environmental constraints, however, are generally relative to the
 state of technology and socio-economic conditions, which can and should be
 improved and managed to achieve sustained world economic growth;

      (e)  Environmental issues are closely intertwined with development
 policies and practices; consequently, environmental goals and actions need to
 be defined in relation to development objectives and policies;

      (f)  Although it is important to tackle immediate environmental problems,
 anticipatory and preventive policies are the most effective and economical in
 achieving environmentally sound development;

      (g)  The environmental impacts of actions in one sector are often felt in
 other sectors; thus internalization of environmental considerations in
 sectoral policies and programmes and their co-ordination are essential for the
 achievement of sustainable development;

      (h)  Since conflicts of interest among population groups, or among
 countries, are often inherent in the nature of environmental problems, the
 participation of the concerned parties is essential in determining effective
 environmental management practices;

      (i)  Environmental degradation can be controlled and reversed only by
 ensuring that the parties causing the damage will be accountable for their
 actions, and that they will participate, on the basis of full access to
 available knowledge, in improving environmental conditions;

      (j)  Renewable resources, as part of complex and interlinked ecosystems,
 can have sustainable yields only if used while taking into account system-wide
 effects of exploitation;

      (k)  The safeguarding of species is a moral obligation of humankind and
 should improve and sustain human well-being;

      (l)  Building awareness at various levels of environmental conditions and
 management, through the provision of information, education and training, is
 essential for environmental protection and improvement;

      (m)  Strategies to deal with environmental challenges have to be flexible
 and should allow for adjustments to emerging problems and evolving
 environmental management technology;

      (n)  International environmental disputes which are growing in number and
 variety, need to be resolved by peaceful means;

      4.   Welcomes as the overall aspirational goal for the world community
 the achievement of sustainable development on the basis of prudent management
 of available global resources and environmental capacities and the
 rehabilitation of the environment previously subjected to degradation and
 misuse, and the aspirational goals to the year 2000 and beyond as set out in
 the Environmental Perspective, namely:

      (a)  The achievement over time of such a balance between population and
 environmental capacities as would make possible sustainable development,
 keeping in view the links between population levels, consumption patterns,
 poverty and the natural resource base;

      (b)  The achievement of food security without resource depletion or
 environmental degradation and restoration of the resource base where
 environmental damage has been occurring;

      (c)  The provision of sufficient energy at reasonable cost, notably by
 increasing access to energy substantially in the developing countries, to meet
 current and expanding needs in ways which minimize environmental degradation
 and risks, conserve non-renewable sources of energy and realize the full
 potential of renewable sources of energy;

      (d)  The sustained improvements in levels of living in all countries,
 especially the developing countries, through industrial development that
 prevents or minimizes environmental damage and risks;

      (e)  The provision of improved shelter with access to essential amenities
 in a clean and secure setting conducive to health and to the prevention of
 environment-related diseases, which would, at the same time, alleviate serious
 environmental degradation;

      (f)  The establishment of an equitable system of international economic
 relations aimed at achieving continuing economic advancement for all States
 based on principles recognized by the international community, in order to
 stimulate and sustain environmentally sound development, especially in
 developing countries;

      5.   Agrees that the recommendations for action contained in the
 Environmental Perspective should be implemented, as appropriate, through
 national and international action by Governments, intergovernmental and
 non-governmental organizations and scientific bodies;

      6.   Requests the Governing Council to keep under review the extent to
 which the long-term environmental actions recommended in the Environmental
 Perspective have been implemented and to identify any new environmental
 concerns that may arise;

      7.   Calls special attention to section IV of the Environmental
 Perspective, which spells out instruments of environmental action, to be used
 as support in addressing, as appropriate, problems dealt with in previous
 sections of the Environmental Perspective;

      8.   Stresses the essential role of the United Nations Environment
 Programme within the United Nations system in catalyzing environmentally sound
 and sustainable development, and agrees with the Governing Council that this
 role should be strengthened and that the resources of the Environment Fund
 should be substantially increased with greater participation;

      9.   Endorses the priorities and functions for the United Nations
 Environment Programme set out in paragraph 117 of the Environmental
 Perspective;

      10.  Decides to transmit the text of the Environmental Perspective to all
 Governments and to the governing bodies of the organs and organizations of the
 United Nations system as a broad framework to guide national action and
 international co-operation on policies and programmes aimed at achieving
 environmentally sound and sustainable development;

      11.  Calls upon the governing bodies of the organs and organizations of
 the United Nations system to consider the Environmental Perspective and take
 it into account in the development of their own medium-term plans and
 programmes as relevant to their own mandates;

      12.  Requests the governing bodies of relevant United Nations
 organizations to report regularly to the General Assembly on the progress made
 in achieving the objectives of environmentally sound and sustainable
 development in line with paragraph 114 of the Environmental Perspective;

      13.  Invites the Governing Council to report to the General Assembly at
 its forty-fourth session on the implementation of the present resolution and
 the relevant provisions of the Environmental Perspective.

                                     ANNEX
             Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and Beyond
                                    CONTENTS
                                                        Paragraphs  Page
   I.  INTRODUCTION ...................................   1 - 4       7

  II.  SECTORAL ISSUES .................................  5 - 68      9
       A.  Population ..................................  5 - 9       9
       B.  Food and agriculture .........................10 - 25     11
       C.  Energy .......................................26 - 35     18
       D.  Industry .....................................36 - 47     21
       E.  Health and human settlements .................48 - 59     25
       F.  International economic relations .............60 - 68     29

 III.  OTHER ISSUES OF GLOBAL CONCERN ...................69 - 86     32
       A.  Oceans and seas ..............................70 - 73     32
       B.  Outer space ..................................74 - 75     33
       C.  Biological diversity .........................76 - 81     34
       D.  Security and environment .....................82 - 86     34

  IV.  INSTRUMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION ..............87 - 120    35
       A.  Assessment ...................................88 - 93     35
       B.  Planning .....................................94 - 99     36
       C.  Legislation and environmental law ...........100 - 104    38
       D.  Awareness building and training .............105 - 109    39
       E.  Institutions ................................110 - 120    40

                                I.  INTRODUCTION

 1.    Awareness of environmental issues has been growing during the past
 decade.  This awareness has emerged among and within the Governments as they
 have addressed environmental problems singly, bilaterally, regionally and
 globally.  The establishment of ministries for environmental conservation and
 enhancement is but one sign of this growth of common concern.  Much of this
 concern has crystallized in the decisions of the Governing Council of the
 United Nations Environment Programme.  Despite these noteworthy developments,
 and the emergence in the world community of many shared perceptions regarding
 environmental problems and actions, environmental degradation has continued
 unabated, threatening human well-being and, in some instances, the very
 survival of life on our planet.

 2.    To meet this challenge, the overall aspirational goal must be
 sustainable development on the basis of prudent management of available global
 resources and environmental capacities, and the rehabilitation of the
 environment previously subjected to degradation and misuse.  Development is
 sustainable when it meets the needs of the present without compromising the
 ability of future generations to meet theirs.

 3.    The following are some shared perceptions of Governments of the nature
 of environmental issues and their interrelations with other international
 problems and the efforts to deal with them:

       (a) An international atmosphere of peace, security and co-operation,
 free from the presence and the threat of wars of all types, especially nuclear
 war, in which intellectual and natural resources are not wasted on armaments
 by any nation, would greatly enhance environmentally sound development;

       (b) The imbalance of present world economic conditions makes it
 extremely difficult to bring about sustained improvement in the world's
 environmental situation.  Accelerated and balanced world development and
 lasting improvements in the global environment require improved world economic
 conditions, especially in the developing countries;

       (c) Since mass poverty is often at the root of environmental
 degradation, its elimination and ensuring equitable access of people to
 environmental resources are essential for sustained environmental improvements;

       (d) The environment puts constraints on as well as provides
 opportunities for economic growth and social well-being.  Environmental
 degradation, in its various forms, has assumed such proportions as can cause
 irreversible changes in ecosystems which threaten to undermine human
 well-being.  Environmental constraints, however, are generally relative to the
 state of technology and socio-economic conditions, which can and should be
 improved and managed to achieve sustained world economic growth;

       (e) Environmental issues are closely intertwined with development
 policies and practices; consequently, environmental goals and actions need to
 be defined in relation to development objectives and policies;

       (f) Although it is important to tackle immediate environmental problems,
 anticipatory and preventive policies are the most effective and economical in
 achieving environmentally sound development;

       (g) The environmental impacts of actions in one sector are often felt in
 other sectors; thus, internalization of environmental considerations in
 sectoral policies and programmes and their co-ordination are essential for the
 achievement of sustainable development;

       (h) Since conflicts of interest among population groups, or among
 countries, are often inherent in the nature of environmental problems,
 participation of the concerned parties is essential in determining effective
 environmental management practices;

       (i) Environmental degradation can be controlled and reversed only by
 ensuring that the parties causing the damage will be accountable for their
 actions, and that they will participate, on the basis of full access to
 available knowledge, in improving environmental conditions;

       (j) Renewable resources, as part of complex and interlinked ecosystems,
 can have sustainable yields only if used while taking into account system-wide
 effects of exploitation;

       (k) The safeguarding of species is a moral obligation of humankind, and
 should improve and sustain human well-being;

       (l) Building awareness at various levels of environmental conditions and
 management through the provision of information, education and training is
 essential for environmental protection and improvement;

       (m) Strategies to deal with environmental challenges have to be flexible
 and should allow for adjustments to emerging problems and evolving
 environmental management technology;

       (n) International environmental disputes, which are growing in number
 and variety, need to be resolved by peaceful means.

 4.    Environmental problems cut across a range of policy issues and are
 mostly rooted in inappropriate development patterns.  Consequently,
 environmental issues, goals and actions cannot be framed in isolation from the
 development and policy sectors from which they emanate.  Against this
 background, and in the light of General Assembly resolution 38/161 of 19
 December 1983, the present document reflects an intergovernmental consensus on
 growing environmental challenges to the year 2000 and beyond, in six main
 sectors.  In addition, the document discusses briefly other issues of global
 concern which do not fit easily under the sectoral headings and considers
 instruments for environmental action, including the role of institutions in
 dealing with environmental issues.  Throughout the Environmental Perspective,
 an attempt has been made to reflect consistently the interdependent and
 integrated nature of environmental issues.  Under each sectoral heading, this
 document covers:  the issue; the outlook; the goal to be aspired to in dealing
 with the issue; and recommended action.  While drawing upon the report of the
 World Commission on Environment and Development, the Environmental Perspective
 has sought to delineate, in an organized manner, the elements of shared
 perceptions, environmental issues, aspirational goals and the agenda for
 action envisaged for the Environmental Perspective by the Governing Council
 and the General Assembly.
                              II.  SECTORAL ISSUES
                                 A.  Population
                             1.  Issue and outlook

 5.    Issue:  The optimum contribution of human resources for the achievement
 of sustainable development has not been realized.  Yet population levels,
 growth and distribution will continue to overload the capacities of the
 environment in many countries.  Rapid population growth, among other factors,
 has exacerbated poverty.  The negative interaction between population and
 environment has tended to create social tensions.

 6.    Outlook:  People are the most valuable asset anywhere for the betterment
 of economic and social conditions and the quality of life.  Yet, in a number
 of countries, the momentum of population growth today, coupled with poverty,
 environmental degradation and an unfavourable economic situation, has tended
 to create serious disequilibria between population and environment and to
 aggravate the problem of "environmental refugees".  Traditions and social
 attitudes, especially in rural areas, have been a major impediment to
 population planning.

 7.    World population may exceed 6 billion by the year 2000.  Several
 countries have achieved population equilibrium as defined by low birth and
 death rates and high life expectancies.  But, for a large part of the
 developing world, this has not happened because of unfavourable economic
 conditions.  Over 90 per cent of the net addition to the world's population
 between now and the year 2025, when the world population may exceed 8 billion,
 will occur in the developing countries.  Many of them already suffer from
 desertification, fuelwood deficits, and loss of forests.  Population planning
 would help, but is not sufficient, to achieve equilibrium between population
 and environmental capacities.  Countries have not yet related population
 planning to development planning, nor have they linked population and
 environmental action for mutually reinforcing improvements.  Equally, there is
 the need for more concern for human progress and social justice as factors
 influencing human resources development and environmental improvement.

                        2.  Goal and recommended action

 8.    Goal:  The achievement over time of such a balance between population
 and environmental capacities as would make possible sustainable development,
 keeping in view the links between population levels, consumption patterns,
 poverty and the natural resource base.

 9.    Recommended action:

       (a) Development planning which takes into account environmental
 considerations should be an important instrument in achieving population
 goals.  Countries should identify the rural and urban areas with acute
 population pressures on the environment.  The environmental problems of large
 cities in developing countries should receive special attention.  As poverty
 increases, economic development decreases and population rates grow,
 development plans should give special attention to population-related
 programmes aimed at improving environmental conditions at local levels;

       (b) Significant changes in natural resources should be monitored and
 anticipated.  This information should be fed back into sub-national and
 national development plans and related to the planning of spatial distribution
 of populations;

       (c) Land and water use and spatial planning should bring about a
 balanced distribution of population through, for example, incentives for
 industrial location, and for resettlement and development of
 intermediate-sized towns, keeping in view the capacities of the environment;

       (d) Public works, including food-for-work programmes, should be designed
 and implemented in areas of environmental stress and population pressures,
 with a view to providing employment and simultaneously improving the
 environment;

       (e) Governments and voluntary organizations should increase public
 understanding, through formal and non-formal education, of the significance of
 population planning for environmental improvement and the important role of
 local action.  The role of women in improving the environment and in
 population planning should receive special attention, as social changes that
 raise the status of women can have a profound effect in bringing down
 population growth rates;

       (f) Private enterprise, and industry in particular, should participate
 actively in the work of governmental and non-governmental organizations aimed
 at relieving population and environmental stress;

       (g) Education should be geared towards making people more capable of
 dealing with problems of excessive population density.  Such education should
 help people acquire practical and vocational skills to enable them to become
 more self-reliant and enhance their participation in the improvement of the
 environment at the local level;

       (h) International agencies, notably, the United Nations Fund for
 Population Activities, the United Nations Children's Fund, the International
 Labour Organisation, the World Health Organization and the World Food
 Programme, should give priority attention to the geographical areas
 experiencing acute population pressures on the environment.  They should
 reflect sensitivity to environmental improvement in the design and
 implementation of their population-related programmes.  Multilateral and
 bilateral development assistance should be increased to finance innovative
 projects to make population programmes more effective by relating them to
 environmental improvement;

       (i) Population policies must have a broader focus than controlling
 numbers.  Governments should work on several fronts:  to achieve and maintain
 population equilibrium, to expand the carrying capacity of the environment and
 improve health and sanitation at local levels, to develop human resources
 through education and training, and to ensure equitable distribution of the
 benefits of economic growth.

                            B.  Food and agriculture
                             1.  Issue and outlook

 10.   Issue:  The shortage of food in many developing countries creates
 insecurity and environmental threats.  The quest to meet rapidly growing food
 needs, combined with insufficient attention to the environmental impact of
 agricultural policies and practices, has been causing great environmental
 damage.  This includes:  degradation and depletion in the form of loss of soil
 and forests; drought and desertification; loss and deterioration of the
 quality of surface and ground water; reduction in genetic diversity and of
 fish stocks; damage to the sea floor; waterlogging, salinization, and
 siltation; soil, water and air pollution; and eutrophication caused by
 improper use of fertilizers and pesticides and by industrial effluents.

 11.   Outlook:  While food production capabilities have increased greatly over
 the last three decades, self-reliance in food production has not been achieved
 in many countries.  In the absence of proper environmental management, the
 conversion of forests and grassland into cropland will increase land
 degradation.  For example, in sub-Saharan Africa desertification and frequent
 droughts are major concerns causing large-scale migration from rural areas.
 In most developing countries the pressure on the natural resources, including
 those in the public domain, is a serious concern.  In some developed countries
 loss of land productivity from excessive use of chemicals and loss of prime
 quality land to urbanization are major concerns.

 12.   Soil erosion has increased in all regions:  increased intensity of land
 use has resulted in the reduction of fallowing which, in turn, has undermined
 soil conservation, management of moisture and control of weeds and diseases in
 small holder agriculture.  The main causes of soil erosion have been
 deforestation, overgrazing and overworking of farmland.  Inappropriate
 patterns of land use and inadequate access to land are other factors which
 have been at work.  Some off-site impacts have been flooding, reduction in
 hydro-electric capacity, reduced life of irrigation systems and declines in
 fish catches.  The world's rivers may be carrying 24 billion tons of sediment
 to the seas annually.  Technologies which make optimal use of natural
 resources, minimum tillage, fallowing and drought-, pest- and
 disease-resistant varieties, combined with mixed cropping, crop rotation,
 terracing and agro-forestry, have kept erosion under control in some places.

 13.   Nearly one third of all land is at risk from desertification.  Over the
 last quarter century the population in arid lands has increased by more than
 80 per cent.  Since the adoption in 1977 of the Plan of Action to Combat
 Desertification awareness of the problem has grown and so have
 organizational efforts to deal with it.  But the basic elements of the action
 needed, namely, to stop the process, to rehabilitate degraded lands, and to
 ensure their effective management, do not yet receive the attention they
 urgently need.  Although long-term economic returns on investments in the
 control of dryland degradation are high, insufficient resources are being
 devoted to it.

 14.   Forests cover approximately one third of all land.  Tropical forests
 occupy over 1.9 billion hectares, of which 1.2 billion hectares are closed
 forests, and the remaining open tree formations.  Although the rate of tree
 plantations in the tropics has accelerated recently (about 1.1 million
 hectares annually), it amounts to only about one tenth of the rate of
 deforestation.  Use of forest land for agriculture through shifting or
 sedentary cultivation, increasing demand for fuelwood, unmanaged clearance and
 logging, burning and conversion for pastoral purposes are the main factors
 behind tropical deforestation.  In semi-humid and dry climates fire can be a
 significant cause as well.  Widespread deforestation has brought about
 far-reaching changes in tropical forest ecosystems, which no longer can
 perform well their essential functions of water retention, climate control,
 soil conservation and provision of livelihood.

 15.   Timber, an increasingly scarce commodity, has become the subject of
 extensive international negotiations.  The International Tropical Timber
 Agreement, ratified in 1985, aims at promoting international trade in
 industrial wood and environmental management of tropical forests.  The
 Tropical Forestry Action Plan, prepared under the auspices of the Food and
 Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, puts forward five priority
 areas aimed at:  forestry land use planning, forestry-based industrial
 development, fuelwood and energy planning, conservation of tropical forest
 ecosystems and institutional support for better forestry management.

 16.   There have been significant changes in weather patterns as a result in
 part of loss of forests and vegetation cover.  This has reduced river flows
 and lake levels and also lowered agricultural productivity.  Irrigation has
 greatly improved arability in many areas of uncertain, or inadequate,
 rainfall.  It has also been playing a vital role in the Green Revolution.
 Inappropriate irrigation, however, has wasted water, washed out nutrients and,
 through salinization and alkalinization, damaged the productivity of millions
 of hectares.  Globally, salinization alone may be removing as much land from
 production as the land being irrigated, and about half of the land under
 surface irrigation may be saline or waterlogged.  Excessive use of ground
 water for irrigation has resulted in lower water tables and semi-arid
 conditions.

 17.   Fisheries potential has not yet been tapped sufficiently or in such ways
 as to ensure sustainable yields, particularly in the developing coastal
 States, which do not possess the necessary infrastructure, technology or
 trained manpower to develop and manage fisheries in their exclusive economic
 zones.  Excessive fishing activities have led to overexploitation of several
 important fish stocks and the exhaustion of some.  By the year 2000, annual
 fish supplies may fall short of demand by about 10 to 15 million tons.
 Regional agreements on co-ordination of national fishing policies for
 licensing procedures, catch reporting, monitoring and surveillance have begun
 to consider sustainability of yields and use of appropriate technology.  The
 World Conference on Fisheries Management and Development established a
 framework and programmes of action for fisheries management.

 18.   Freshwater fish farming and aquaculture now produce annually about
 8 million tons of fish.  In Europe and in South and South-East Asia,
 aquaculture has made important strides.  Whether as part of a traditional way
 of supplementing farm incomes and protein intake or as an industry, carefully
 practised aquaculture holds great promise for integrated environmental
 management and rural development in many countries.

 19.   The use of high-yielding seed varieties has multiplied agricultural
 output but has led to a reduction in the genetic diversity of crops and an
 increase in their vulnerability to diseases and pests.  The emerging
 technology of direct gene transfer, or transfer of the symbiotic
 nitrogen-fixing capacity of leguminous crops to cereals, can greatly increase
 production and reduce costs.  Also, the spread of gene banks, through the
 International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, and the work of the
 International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology should improve
 the prospects for genetic diversity, and thereby enhance agricultural
 productivity.

 20.   Overuse of pesticides has polluted water and soil, damaging the ecology
 of agriculture and creating hazards for human and animal health.  Pesticides
 have to be used to increase agricultural production, but their indiscriminate
 use has destroyed natural predators and other non-target species and increased
 resistance in target pests.  More than 400 insect species are believed to be
 resistant to pesticides and their number is increasing.

 21.   Use of chemical fertilizers per capita has increased fivefold between
 1950 and 1983.  In some countries excessive use of fertilizers, along with
 household and industrial effluents, has caused eutrophication of lakes,
 canals, irrigation reservoirs, and even coastal seas through runoffs of
 nitrogen compounds and phosphates.  Ground water has also been polluted by
 nitrates in many places, and nitrate levels in rivers have risen steadily over
 the last two decades.  Degradation of the quality of surface and ground water,
 caused by chemicals, including nitrates, has been a significant problem in
 developed and developing countries alike.

 22.   In North America, Western Europe and some other areas, food surpluses
 have accumulated as a result in part of farm price subsidization.  The push to
 produce more in response to incentives, coupled with excessive use of
 fertilizers and pesticides, has led to degradation and soil erosion in some
 countries.  Similarly, export subsidization of food grains by some countries
 has undermined agricultural exports of some others, and also led to
 environmental neglect of farmland.  In some countries, however, there is a
 trend towards reducing the scale of farming, encouraging organic farming,
 restoring the natural beauty of the countryside and diversifying the rural
 economy.

 23.   In the developing countries, farmers receive too little for their
 produce, and production is thereby discouraged.  City dwellers often buy food
 at subsidized prices, and peasants may receive only a fraction of the market
 price.  In countries where farmers have begun to receive better prices for
 their produce, agricultural production has increased and soil and water
 management has improved.  When equitable agricultural prices are accompanied
 by technical assistance for environmental management of farming, they can help
 improve the quality of life in the countryside as well as in cities, partly by
 stemming the flow of rural-urban migration.  Upward adjustment of food prices
 is, however, a politically sensitive issue, especially in situations of low
 resource productivity, low income, large-scale unemployment and slow economic
 growth.
                        2.  Goal and recommended action

 24.   Goal:  The achievement of food security without resource depletion or
 environmental degradation, and restoration of the resource base where
 environmental damage has been occurring.

 25.   Recommended action:

       (a) Policies of Governments for using agricultural land, forests and
 water resources should take into account degradation trends as well as
 evaluation of potentials.  Agricultural policies should vary from region to
 region to reflect different regional needs, encouraging farmers to adopt
 practices that are ecologically sustainable in their own areas and promote
 national food security.  Local communities should be involved in the design
 and implementation of such policies;

       (b) Policy distortions that have caused undue pressures on marginal
 lands, or taken away prime farmland for urbanization, or led to environmental
 neglect of natural resources, have to be identified and eliminated;

       (c) Governments should design and implement regulatory measures, as well
 as taxation and price policies and incentives, aimed at ensuring that the
 right of owning agricultural land carries an obligation to sustain its
 productivity.  Long-term agricultural credits should require farmers to
 undertake soil conservation practices, including keeping a portion of land
 fallow, where appropriate;

       (d) Governments should promote equity in means for food production and
 in distribution.  Governments should design and implement comprehensive
 agrarian reforms to improve the levels of living of farm workers who lack
 land.  Governments should take decisive action to turn the terms of trade in
 favour of farmers, through pricing policy and government expenditure
 reallocation;

       (e) Governments should ascertain direct and indirect environmental
 impacts of alternative crop, forestry and land use patterns.  Fiscal and trade
 policies should be based on such environmental assessments.  Governments
 should give priority to establishing a national policy and to creating or
 strengthening institutions to restore areas where natural factors and land use
 practices have reduced productivity;

       (f) In the national development plans and agricultural programmes of
 countries experiencing desertification, dryland rehabilitation and management
 have to figure prominently.  Better systems of early warning against drought
 and other dryland disasters have to be developed, with the World
 Meteorological Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
 United Nations, the United Nations Environment Programme and the relevant
 regional organizations playing appropriate roles;

       (g) Sound forest policies should be based on an analysis of the capacity
 of the forests and the land under them to perform various functions.
 Programmes to conserve forest resources should start with the local people.
 Contracts covering forest use will have to be negotiated or renegotiated to
 ensure sustainability.  Clear-cutting of large forest areas should be avoided
 and replanting of logged forestry areas should be required.  Portions of
 forests should be designated as protected areas to conserve soil, water,
 wildlife and genetic resources in their natural habitat;

       (h) Social and economic costs of deforestation, including clear-cutting,
 have to be estimated and reported on in relation to the periodic national
 reporting on the economic performance of forestry.  Similarly, the damage
 costs of waterlogging and salinization have to be reported in conjunction with
 the reporting on irrigation and agricultural production.  The loss of land to
 deserts and its consequences for food production, trade, employment and income
 have to be made part of the annual reporting on economic growth.  Economic
 policies and planning have to reflect such environmental accounting;

       (i) In areas experiencing deforestation and lack of forest resources,
 economic and other incentives should be introduced to manage forests and woody
 vegetation from an environmental standpoint and to promote tree nurseries,
 tree farming and fuelwood plantations.  Local communities should be encouraged
 to take major responsibility for such undertakings;

       (j) Projects should be designed and implemented to promote
 afforestation, agro-forestry systems, water management and soil conservation
 measures, such as land contour-levelling and terracing, in areas of
 environmental stress.  Such projects should respond to the needs of the local
 people for food, fodder and fuel, while increasing the long-term productivity
 of natural resources.  Environmental improvement schemes should become a
 regular part of national relief, rural employment and income-support schemes
 to sustain development in regions prone to drought or other environmental
 stress;

       (k) Within the framework of a national water policy, which should
 facilitate an intersectoral and integrated approach to water development and
 use, technical, economic and organizational means have to be geared to
 improving efficiency of water use in farming and animal husbandry.  Emphasis
 on ground-water storage in drylands should improve assurance of water
 availability.  Improvements in water application techniques to minimize
 wastage, co-ordination of farming patterns with water supply, and such pricing
 of water as would cover the cost of its collection, storage and supply, should
 be introduced to conserve water in scarcity areas;

       (l) In the choice of technology and the scale of irrigation
 environmental costs and benefits should be taken into account.  Decentralized
 and small-scale irrigation have to receive special attention.  Proper drainage
 to prevent salinization and waterlogging has to accompany irrigation.
 Development assistance has to play a vital role in improving productivity of
 existing irrigation, reducing its environmental damage and adapting it to the
 needs of small-scale, diversified agriculture;

       (m) The traditional rights of subsistence farmers, particularly shifting
 cultivators, pastoralists, and nomads, must be protected from encroachment.
 Provision of infrastructure, services and information should help modernize
 nomadic life-styles without damaging their traditionally harmonious
 relationships with ecosystems.  Programmes of land clearance and resettlement
 should be based on an assessment of their environmental, along with their
 social and economic, impacts.  Agro-industry, mining and schemes of
 geographical dispersal of settlements should also aim at improving
 environmental conditions in rural areas;

       (n) Public education, information campaigns, technical assistance,
 training, legislation, standard setting and incentives should be oriented
 toward encouraging the use of organic matter in agriculture.  The use of
 fertilizers and pesticides has to be guided, inter alia, through training,
 awareness building and appropriate price policies, so as to establish
 integrated nutrient supply systems responsive to environmental impacts.
 Similarly, subsidies, which have led to the overuse or abuse of chemical
 fertilizers and pesticides, have to be phased out;

       (o) Decentralized storage facilities, with the upgrading of traditional
 methods to ensure protection of stored grains, should receive attention in the
 planning of support services for rural and agricultural development;

       (p) Where the agricultural frontier has extended in an uncontrolled
 manner, Governments should make special efforts to expand the area under
 woodland and nature reserves;

       (q) Satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographical information
 systems of assessing and monitoring should be deployed to establish natural
 resource data bases.  Such data should be made available, freely or at a
 nominal charge, to the countries in need.  The United Nations Environment
 Programme should co-ordinate international programmes in this field.  Such
 data collection and their socio-economic analyses should facilitate the design
 and implementation of land use and natural resource development plans, and
 improve international co-operation in the environmental management of
 transboundary natural resources;

       (r) In international co-operation, priority should be given to schemes
 aimed at strengthening skills and institutional capabilities in the developing
 countries in fields such as applied genetics, agro-forestry, organic
 recycling, integrated pest management, crop rotation, drainage,
 soil-conserving ploughing, sand-dune stabilization, small-scale irrigation and
 environmentally sound management of fresh-water systems;

       (s) Biotechnology, including tissue culture, conversion of biomass into
 useful produce, micro-electronics and information technology, should be
 deployed, after assessing carefully their environmental impacts and cost
 effectiveness, with a view to promoting environmental management of
 agriculture.  Governments should enhance the access of farmers to such
 technologies through national policies and international co-operation.
 Research should be intensified on new technologies urgently needed in regions
 which have unreliable rainfall, uneven topography, and poor soils.
 Governments should also set up targets for the development of cadres of
 professionals specializing in environmental management of soil, water and
 forests and in biotechnology with a multi-disciplinary and integrated outlook;

       (t) Aquaculture should be developed to the fullest, where possible in
 conjunction with farming, using low-cost, simple, labour-intensive
 technology.  Co-operation for environmental management of marine living
 resources and fisheries should be intensified, through technical assistance as
 well as conventions and agreements;

       (u) Because of women's important role in agriculture in many developing
 countries, they should be provided with adequate education and training
 opportunities.  They should also have the necessary power to take decisions
 regarding agriculture and forestry programmes;

       (v) Distortions in the structure of the world food market should be
 minimized, and the focus of production should be shifted to food deficit
 countries.  In developed countries incentive systems should be changed to
 discourage overproduction and foster improved soil and water management.
 Governments must recognize that all parties lose through protectionist
 barriers, and redesign trade and tax policies using environmental and economic
 criteria;

       (w) International agreements should be concluded in respect of
 agricultural price policies, with a view to minimizing waste and mismanagement
 of food and natural resources in agriculture.  Such agreements should aim at
 bringing about an international division of labour in agriculture in
 conformity with the long-term capabilities of countries in agricultural
 production.  In this context, consideration should be given to strengthening
 the work of the World Food Programme through the establishment of a world food
 bank from which countries could draw food supplies in emergency situations;

       (x) Special attention should be given to protection and careful
 development of wetlands, particularly in view of their long-term economic
 value;

       (y) Sustainable exploitation of living wild resources should receive
 special consideration in the light of its contribution to achieving food
 security.
                                   C.  Energy
                             1.  Issue and outlook

 26.   Issue:  There are vast disparities in the patterns of energy
 consumption.  Accelerated economic growth and growing populations require a
 rapid expansion in energy production and consumption.  Major problems in this
 regard include:  depletion of the supplies of, and inadequate access to,
 fuelwood, and environmental impacts of fossil energy production, transmission
 and use, for example, acidification of the environment, accumulation of
 greenhouse gases and consequent climatic change.  Although energy is crucial
 to the development process, there has been little concerted action to balance
 environmental imperatives and energy demands.

 27.   Outlook:  About three fourths of the world's energy consumption is in
 the form of fossil fuels:  oil, coal, and natural gas.  The remainder is
 supplied mainly by biomass, hydropower and nuclear power.  The main problems
 caused by fossil fuel use are:  air pollution, acidification of soil, fresh
 water and forests, and climatic change, especially warming of the atmosphere.
 The costs of controlling these problems and of dealing with their
 environmental and health impacts have been enormous.  New and renewable
 sources of energy, including solar, wind, ocean and geothermal, are being
 developed but are unlikely to make a significant contribution during the rest
 of this century.

 28.   International oil prices are fluctuating.  The immediate economic impact
 of lower prices has been significant, yet the momentum of efforts to improve
 energy efficiency and to develop alternatives for fossil fuels, which began in
 the wake of high oil prices, may decline.

 29.   Though developing countries account for about one third of the world's
 energy consumption, many of them do not have adequate access to energy.  Most
 of them depend on oil imports and on biomass and animal energy.  Wood, which
 provides energy to about half of the world's people, is becoming scarce, and
 overcutting has devastated the environment.  Some countries have made progress
 in developing biogas while improving the environment, but the potential of
 biogas remains largely untapped.  Given the needs of industrialization and the
 trends of population growth, energy needs will increase tremendously during
 the coming decades.  If energy efficiency measures are not put in place, it
 will not be possible to meet those needs.

 30.   Many countries have made efforts to control air pollution by setting
 standards and introducing appropriate equipment in factories as well as
 automobiles, and by developing clean technologies for cooking, space heating,
 industrial processes and power generation.  But attempts to deal with urban
 and industrial air pollution have often effectively transported the problem,
 for example, in the form of acid deposition, to other areas and countries.  At
 least 5 to 6 per cent of the European forests may have already died because of
 acidification.  As a first step, some European countries have agreed on a
 technical co-operation programme to monitor and control long-range
 transmission of some air pollutants.  Reducing emissions of sulphur dioxide
 and nitrogen oxides, however, is rather costly, although effective reduction
 technologies have been introduced in some countries.  On the other hand, no
 effective technologies exist to control carbon dioxide accumulation which can
 markedly change climate.  Moreover, available technology is not being fully
 utilized.  The difficulty is to determine up to what level the damage costs of
 polluting fossil fuels should be accepted and how much to invest in scientific
 research to develop clean technologies.

 31.   Energy is often used in wasteful ways.  The costs of this waste are
 being borne by all, but mostly by the poor.  Moreover, part of these costs are
 being transferred to children, future generations and other countries.
 Several countries have experimented successfully over the last decade with
 conservation of energy for domestic use, improved efficiency of energy in
 industry and agriculture and adoption of energy mixes to minimize
 environmental damage.  In some countries the nature of industrial growth has
 been changing in ways which economize on energy, for example, rapid growth of
 electronic, recreation and service industries.  Consequently, there has been a
 noticeable delinking of economic growth from increase in energy consumption.
 Energy savings, renewable sources and new technologies can reduce energy
 consumption while maintaining the momentum of economic growth.

 32.   While oil exploration and coal mining have received great attention, the
 potential of natural gas has not been realized.  Considerable quantities are
 being wasted in the absence of necessary infrastructure and investment.  The
 world also has a relatively untapped capacity to develop hydropower.  In the
 past, environmental planning has not received adequate attention in hydropower
 development.  Decentralized small-scale hydropower schemes are not yet used on
 a significant scale, although they may be capable of providing economical,
 efficient and environmentally sound sources of energy.

 33.   Nuclear energy is widely used as a source of electricity, and the
 International Atomic Energy Agency has formulated guidelines to ensure that it
 is developed and used safely.  The problems associated with it include the
 risk of accidental contamination, which can spread quickly over long
 distances, and the safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes, including
 decommissioned nuclear reactors.

                        2.  Goal and recommended action

 34.   Goal:  The provision of sufficient energy at reasonable cost, notably
 by  increasing access to energy substantially in the developing countries, to
 meet current and expanding needs in ways that minimize environmental
 degradation and risks, conserve non-renewable sources of energy and realize
 the full potential of renewable sources of energy.

 35.   Recommended action:

       (a) Governments' energy plans should systematically take into account
 environmental requirements.  Energy efficiency policies coupled with
 environmentally sound energy production and appropriate energy mixes should be
 pursued to achieve sustainable energy consumption patterns.  National efforts
 should be supported by international co-operation, especially scientific
 research, establishment of standards and transfer of technology and
 information;

       (b) Energy pricing, taxation, trade and other policies should take into
 account the environmental costs of all forms of energy.  Subsidies for fossil
 fuels should be progressively phased out.  Private enterprise, consumers and
 government institutions should be provided with economic incentives to make
 greater use of renewable sources of energy.  Where needed, international
 co-operation should facilitate the exploration for and environmentally sound
 production of energy;

       (c) Information should be made available on the harmful environmental
 impacts of intensive use of fossil fuels.  Urban and industrial air pollution,
 accumulation of greenhouse gases and the attendant climatic change, as well as
 transfrontier transport of air pollutants in all regions must receive urgent
 attention, including monitoring by appropriate methods.  Standards must be set
 and enforced within and among countries, and conventions and agreements should
 be concluded to deal with these problems.  In this context, the "polluter pays
 principle" should be accepted.  Governments should ensure that clean
 technologies are put into practice on a wider scale than in the past at the
 local level.  The United Nations system, in conjunction with other
 intergovernmental bodies, should improve access to information on renewable
 sources of energy and on efficient energy use;

       (d) In view of the significance of fuelwood, national programmes of
 afforestation and of environmental management of woodlands should receive
 increased resources.  Agro-forestry programmes, tree plantations and village
 woodlots should receive special encouragement in countries experiencing
 fuelwood deficit.  Commercial cutting of fuelwood should be subjected to
 rigorous scrutiny and control, in view of its environmental costs.
 Application of fuel-efficient stoves and charcoal should be encouraged.
 Pricing of fuelwood should be guided by the consideration of sustaining
 supplies consistent with needs;

       (e) As biogas can be an important source of energy, the existing
 technology for the use of agricultural, animal and human wastes should be
 applied more widely by means of incentives and guidance.  Technical
 co-operation among developing countries should play a vital part in this
 process, bearing in mind its sanitation and agricultural benefits;

       (f) Decisions on large-scale hydropower projects should be guided by
 analysis of social costs and benefits in the light of likely environmental
 impacts.  Small-scale hydropower schemes should receive particular attention
 since they could facilitate simultaneous attainment of environmental, economic
 and social objectives;

       (g) Renewable energy sources should receive high priority and should be
 applied on a wider scale than in the past, giving full consideration to their
 environmental impacts.  Technologies to develop renewable sources of energy,
 such as wind, geo-thermal and especially solar, should receive particular
 attention.  International co-operation should facilitate this process;

       (h) International co-operation should aim at the creation of a regime
 for the safe production and use of nuclear energy, as well as the safe
 handling of radioactive waste, taking into account, through appropriate
 mechanisms including prior consultations, the interests and concerns of
 countries that have decided not to produce nuclear energy, in particular
 concerns regarding the siting of nuclear plants close to their borders.  This
 regime should extend globally to encompass observance of comparable standards
 and procedures on management of reactors and the sharing of information and
 technology for nuclear safety.  The Convention on Early Notification of a
 Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear
 Accident or Radiological Emergency should be complemented by bilateral and
 subregional agreements and should also lead to technical co-operation among
 countries on environmental management of nuclear energy.

                                  D.  Industry
                             1.  Issue and outlook

 36.   Issue:  Industrial development brings obvious benefits, but it
 frequently entails damage to the environment and to human health.  The main
 negative impacts are:  wasteful use and depletion of scarce natural resources;
 air, water and soil pollution; congestion, noise and squalor; accumulation of
 hazardous wastes; and accidents with significant environmental consequences.
 Industrialization patterns and the consequent exploitation of natural
 resources and environmental degradation have been markedly unbalanced.  The
 prospect for accelerated, yet environmentally sound world industrial
 development, is slim in the absence of concerted international action.

 37.   Outlook:  Although some efforts to deal with environmental problems of
 industry have been made, negative impacts will grow in magnitude if not
 addressed methodically now.  A promising trend is the steadily growing
 awareness of industrial environmental risks throughout the world.  While this
 awareness increasingly informs and influences public policy, environmental
 knowledge remains as yet markedly uneven.  In the absence of mechanisms for
 the unhindered sharing of environmental knowledge, Governments and industry
 may import hazardous materials and allow establishment of processes discarded
 elsewhere.  Inadequate knowledge at the grassroots level of changes in the
 environment, and of their causes as well as economic implications, impedes
 participation of the concerned people in decision-making on siting of
 industrial plants and choice of industrial technology.

 38.   Natural resources have been used wastefully in industry.  Recently, a
 number of countries have made significant progress in developing and adopting
 low-waste and clean industrial technologies and in recovering as well as
 recycling scarce industrial raw materials.  New materials and processing
 technologies have made it possible to save raw materials and energy resources
 and to reduce environmental stress.  Nevertheless, in many countries
 resource-intensive processes persist in the absence of suitable policies and
 access to proper technology.

 39.   Uncontrolled industrial practices have led to unacceptably high levels
 of harmful or toxic substances in the air, the pollution of rivers, lakes,
 coastal waters and soil, the destruction of forests, and the accumulation of
 carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases which threaten to cause climatic
 changes, including a global warming of the atmosphere.  Sea levels may rise
 considerably as a result.  Industrial production and emission of
 chlorofluorocarbons threaten a significant depletion of the ozone layer,
 leading to increased ultraviolet radiation.

 40.   Recently, there has been an increase in the seriousness of industrial
 accidents, particularly in the chemicals industry.  Even in the developed
 countries, the state of preparedness to meet such contingencies has been
 inadequate.  Also, frameworks for international co-operation in such
 situations have been lacking.  A crucial problem has been the lack of timely
 warning and of full sharing of information on the nature and magnitude of the
 hazards at local and regional levels.

 41.   With industrial growth and spread, the transport, storage and disposal
 of chemical, toxic and radioactive wastes will pose an increasingly serious
 challenge.  The "polluter pays principle" has been applied with good results
 in some countries, but in many others it is still not applied at all, so that
 the source of environmental damage often is not held accountable for the harm
 caused.  In the pursuit of rapid industrialization, some polluting industries
 may be relocated from other countries.  As many developing countries do not
 possess the technical or institutional capability to analyse or monitor
 environmental implications of industrial processes, products or wastes, they
 are vulnerable to industrial environmental damage.

 42.   Many developed countries have successfully applied technology, policies
 and institutional and legislative frameworks to deal with industrial
 pollution.  Several have succeeded in innovating or applying low-waste or
 clean technologies.  The Industry and Environment Office of the United Nations
 Environment Programme has produced publications with extensive and detailed
 information on environmentally sound technologies in specific industries.
 Thus, although environmental hazards of industrial processes, products and
 wastes persist, there is available considerable experience, expertise and
 technology to prevent industrial accidents and implement environmentally
 responsible practices.

 43.   Technical innovation has opened up promising opportunities for achieving
 mutually supportive economic and environmental objectives.  Properly guided
 technology can transform patterns of industrialization and improve the
 international division of labour.  Innovation in micro-electronics and
 opto-electronics has revolutionized information and communications industries
 and could lead to geographical dispersal of industry.  These innovations hold
 promise for developing countries suffering from the twin problems of excessive
 industrial concentration in urban areas and relative neglect of rural areas.

 44.   In the decades ahead, the developing countries will depend more and more
 on industry, including processing of their own raw materials, for incomes and
 employment.  In contrast, in some developed countries, the pattern of industry
 is changing in the direction of knowledge-intensive, energy-saving, and
 materials-saving activities.  Moreover, leisure and service industries have
 begun to play a significant part in this change.

 45.   Countries have been coming together to forge agreements on preventive
 measures to contain global, regional and transfrontier environmental impacts
 of industrial products and processes.  Examples of this encouraging trend
 include:  conventions and protocols for the control of land-based sources of
 marine pollution within the frameworks of various regional seas programmes;
 the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the evolving
 international consensus on the control of emission of chlorofluorocarbons; the
 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and its Co-operative
 Programme for the Monitoring and Evaluation of Long-range Transmission of Air
 Pollutants in Europe; and the Cairo Guidelines and Principles for the
 Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes, sponsored by the
 United Nations Environment Programme.  Such international co-operation can
 extend into many areas of industrial environmental management and many
 geographical regions.  Moreover, industry itself, following the World Industry
 Conference on Environmental Management convened in 1984 by the United Nations
 Environment Programme, is increasingly ready to undertake environmental
 responsibilities.

                        2.  Goal and recommended action

 46.   Goal:  Sustained improvements in levels of living in all countries,
 especially the developing countries, through industrial development that
 prevents or minimizes environmental damage and risks.

 47.   Recommended action:

       (a) Governments should implement policies to assist in the transition of
 economies characterized by the wasteful use of natural resources and raw
 materials and dependence on their export, to environmentally sound industrial
 development.  National efforts to plan and implement environmentally sound
 industrial policies should be intensified.  Governments should introduce
 incentive schemes to help establish facilities for recovery and recycling of
 scarce raw materials.  The transfer of industrial technology and skills from
 developed to developing countries to arrest environmental degradation
 associated with industry should be internationally supported.  The United
 Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the
 Economic Commission for Europe, and the United Nations Industrial Development
 Organization should intensify efforts in this direction;

       (b) Governments should introduce programmes to monitor air, soil, fresh
 water and coastal pollution from industrial emissions and effluents, and
 hazardous industrial activities, where such programmes do not already exist;

       (c) Governments should establish and enforce environmental standards,
 and should provide fiscal and other incentives to industry for the
 retro-fitting of equipment for pollution control.  They should also ensure
 penalties for non-compliance, in conformity with the "polluter pays
 principle".  International organizations should co-operate with Governments in
 establishing global or regional standards;

       (d) Governments should require periodic reports by industries on
 measures implemented to protect and improve the environment, especially those
 industries involving high environmental and health risks;

       (e) Industrial enterprises should carry out environmental impact and
 social cost-benefit analyses prior to the siting and design of industrial
 plants.  Governments should ensure that such analyses are carried out and made
 public.  Governmental policies should facilitate the location of industries in
 areas which would relieve urban congestion and encourage rural development.
 Industries which use each others' products and wastes should be located near
 each other;

       (f) Governments and industrial enterprises should be receptive to the
 views of citizen groups, community associations, labour organizations and
 professional and scientific bodies in arriving at and implementing decisions
 on industrial siting, design and technologies to meet the environmental,
 economic and social needs of the people;

       (g) Chambers of commerce and federations of industry should collaborate
 actively in implementing emissions standards and pollution control measures.
 They should establish mechanisms to bridge the gap in environmental management
 knowledge and capabilities among their members.  Such co-operation should also
 be encouraged among small-scale producers;

       (h) Transnational corporations should comply with the environmental
 legislation of the host country, while respecting similar legislation of the
 home country.  Legislation could include requirements for public environmental
 audits of the activities of transnational corporations and local enterprises.
 In accordance with proposed international codes of conduct, transnational
 corporations should establish progressively in the host countries the skills
 and technological capabilities needed for environmentally sound management of
 industry, even in the absence of legislation on desirable environmental
 standards;

       (i) International industrial collaboration, like national industry,
 should be subjected to environmental impact assessments;

       (j) Countries, especially developing countries, should, as a matter of
 urgency, design and implement research, training and manpower-planning
 programmes to strengthen the management of hazardous industrial processes and
 wastes;

       (k) International organizations, including the United Nations
 Development Programme, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization,
 the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
 United Nations, the World Meteorological Organization and the International
 Labour Organisation, and intergovernmental organizations, such as the
 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the Council for
 Mutual Economic Assistance, should ensure that their programmes will
 progressively strengthen the capacities of the developing countries for
 designing and implementing industrial operations along environmentally sound
 lines.  They should also assist in establishing or strengthening information
 services on environmental and health implications of industrial processes,
 products and wastes.  In addition, access of the developing countries to
 information and data on environmentally benign technologies should be
 promoted, including risk management techniques;

       (l) International co-operation for the monitoring of the accumulation of
 carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and of their impacts on climate and
 sea levels must be strengthened to encompass both the conclusion of
 international agreements and the formulation of industrial strategies to
 mitigate the environmental, economic, and social impacts of potential
 changes.  Intergovernmental negotiations, based on the Vienna Convention for
 the Protection of the Ozone Layer, should lead to agreements on the reduction
 of ozone-depleting substances;

       (m) Within the framework of their existing legal and technical
 activities, United Nations organizations, especially the United Nations
 Environment Programme, in closer co-operation with regional organizations,
 should progressively establish international agreements and monitoring
 mechanisms to deal with spills and other industrial accidents, particularly
 chemical; to control the transportation, storage, management and disposal of
 hazardous industrial wastes; and to settle disputes involving damages and
 claims for compensation.  United Nations and regional organizations should
 encourage Governments to extend the "polluter pays principle" to transboundary
 problems;

       (n) The International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals programme
 of the United Nations Environment Programme should maintain and improve its
 assistance to Governments in assessing whether producing, marketing,
 distributing or disposing of any industrial substances, including chemicals
 and wastes, are potentially damaging to health and environment.

                        E.  Health and human settlements
                             1.  Issue and outlook

 48.   Issue:  Despite considerable advances in dealing with problems of health
 and human settlements, the environmental basis for further improving the
 situation is deteriorating.  Inadequate shelter and basic amenities, rural
 underdevelopment, overcrowded cities and urban decay, lack of access to clean
 water, poor sanitation and other environmental deficiencies continue to cause
 widespread disease and death, ill-health and intolerable living conditions in
 many parts of the world.  Poverty, malnutrition and ignorance compound these
 problems.

 49.   Outlook:  Human ability to prevent disease has grown greatly over the
 last few decades, mainly owing to scientific achievements and better access to
 sanitation, clean water and safe waste disposal.  In many developed countries
 better living conditions have helped prevent disease and have enhanced average
 life expectations.  In the developing countries, however, achievements have
 lagged behind what is technically feasible.

 50.   More than 4 million children under the age of five die of diarrhoea in
 the developing countries annually.  Even when it does not cause death,
 diarrhoea saps vitality and stops physical and mental growth.  Malaria is
 another water-borne disease which infects about 100 million annually.  Typhoid
 and cholera are similarly endemic in the developing countries.  Bilharzia and
 river blindness are other common diseases caused by mismanagement of water.
 Sleeping sickness, caused by the tsetse fly, effectively denies the use of
 vast tracts of land in Africa for pastoral or settlements development.  The
 burning of coal, oil, wood, dung and agricultural wastes build up dangerous
 concentrations of toxic gases in houses and factories, and chronic heart and
 lung diseases, bronchitis, emphysema and asthma are the result.

 51.   In warm, humid countries where storage is inadequate, aflatoxins in food
 cause liver cancer.  On the other hand, over-use of fertilizer has caused
 excessive nitrate levels in ground water, endangering children's health, and
 nitrate run-offs have led to eutrophication of surface waters and
 contamination of shellfish.  Phosphates in fertilizer have caused high
 concentrations of cadmium in food.  Further, pesticides, herbicides and
 fungicides pose a direct threat to health in the rural areas when their use is
 not properly guided.  Over-use of pesticides has also led to high levels of
 pesticide residue in food.

 52.   About a billion people do not have adequate shelter, and millions
 practically live on the streets.  By the year 2000, about 2 billion people, or
 40 per cent of the developing countries' population, will live in cities and
 towns, thereby putting pressure on city planners and Governments.  Most
 developing countries already do not have the resources required to provide
 housing and services to the people who need them.  The influx of refugees in
 some developing countries has exacerbated health, shelter and environmental
 conditions.  Also, where rural settlements are widely dispersed, health,
 housing and infrastructural services become practically unattainable.

 53.   About one third of all city and town dwellers in the developing
 countries live in slums and shanties, with no help or infrastructural support
 whatever, and often under adverse conditions.  The inexorable trend towards
 urbanization will ensure that by the year 2000, 15 of the world's 20 largest
 urban metropolitan areas will be in the developing countries.  Simultaneously,
 rural environmental degradation reinforces migration to urban areas even when
 people are unable to earn incomes high enough to ensure decent housing and
 there is no prospect of meeting their infrastructural needs.

 54.   There are three main environmental aspects of urbanization:
 characteristics of the dwelling - living space, ventilation, sanitation, water
 supply, waste disposal, recreation space, domestic energy; ambient
 environmental situation - air pollution, water pollution, environmental risks
 and hazards, noise, stress and crime; and environment of the area surrounding
 the urban centres - deforestation, soil erosion, changes in micro-climate.
 Between a quarter and a half of all urban residents in the developing
 countries live in unhealthy and degraded dwellings.  Consequently, diarrhoea,
 dysentery and typhoid are common, and there are periodic outbreaks of cholera
 and hepatitis.  Tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases spread easily in
 ill-ventilated, damp and crowded surroundings.

 55.   Excessive concentrations of industry and commerce in a few urban centres
 often reflect a dualistic development pattern, implying a relative neglect of
 rural and agricultural development.  Concentrations of people, settlements and
 income and employment opportunities often become mutually reinforcing in such
 a situation.  People continue to migrate to the urban areas even if their
 expected incomes are not high enough to ensure decent housing, or there is no
 prospect of their infrastructural needs being met.  Thus, the problems of safe
 disposal of toxic and hazardous wastes, control of air and water pollution,
 collection and disposal of domestic wastes and provision of clean drinking
 water assume gigantic proportions, requiring enormous finance and great
 organizational and technical capabilities.  Photochemical smog, oxides of
 nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons, lead, mercury, cadmium poisoning, carbon
 monoxide, polychlorinated biphenyls, asbestos and other particulate matter
 along with the respiratory and gastroenteritic diseases and malnutrition,
 cause serious damage to public health.  The consequent stress of living in
 such conditions contributes to social tensions and outbreaks of violence and
 unrest.  When industrial accidents or natural disasters occur, loss of life
 and human suffering follow on a large scale because of the congestion, lack of
 organizational and technical capacities and vulnerability.

 56.   Heavy urban concentrations have also placed excessive demands on natural
 resources and polluted and degraded surrounding areas.  High land prices have
 caused good agricultural land to be used for construction and speculation.
 Urban firewood demand has led to widespread deforestation, soil erosion and
 even changes in micro-climate.

 57.   The congestion of settlements near factories multiplies the health risks
 of chemicals production in the developing countries.  The accumulation of
 toxic wastes and their inappropriate disposal similarly endanger the health of
 millions.  Awareness of the risks to human health posed by environmental
 contamination has increased greatly.  Such risks arise partly through an
 absence of environmental regulation and management capability.  Most developed
 countries have succeeded in reducing environmental pollution and its risks and
 impacts.  International co-operation has also progressed on several fronts:
 national programmes launched under the International Drinking Water Supply and
 Sanitation Decade, the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's
 Fund Programme on Primary Health Care, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in
 Africa in the Volta River basin, the United Nations Environment
 Programme/World Health Organization/International Labour Organisation
 International Programme on Chemical Safety, the dissemination of information
 on chemicals of environmental concern through the International Register of
 Potentially Toxic Chemicals of the United Nations Environment Programme, the
 International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the
 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and its accompanying
 technical guidelines, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
 Nations/United Nations Environment Programme Panel of Experts on Integrated
 Pest Control, the United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health
 Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases,
 the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
 Nations/United Nations Environment Programme Panel of Experts on Environmental
 Management of Disease Vector Control, the specification of radiation dose
 limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the two
 recent international Conventions adopted under the auspices of the
 International Atomic Energy Agency on exchange of information and assistance
 in the event of a nuclear accident, are some examples.

                        2.  Goal and recommended action

 58.   Goal:  The provision of improved shelter with access to essential
 amenities in a clean and secure setting conducive to health and to the
 prevention of environment-related diseases, which would, at the same time,
 alleviate serious environmental degradation.

 59.   Recommended action:

       (a) Governments should make health and settlements development an
 integral part of environmental management of natural resources and
 geographically-balanced development.  They should address systematically the
 issue of equity in development to ensure provision of basic health, housing
 and amenities for their people;

       (b) International co-operation should be intensified in the field of
 scientific research to deal with the environmental conditions underlying
 tropical diseases;

       (c) Rural development, including natural resources management and
 provision of drinking water and sanitation, should receive systematic
 attention in public policies.  Governments should design and implement, with
 the participation of the communities concerned, integrated programmes to
 improve water supply and management, sanitation and waste disposal;

       (d) Governments should set targets at national, provincial and district
 levels for such priority areas as housing, access to clean water and
 sanitation, and control of air pollution in urban areas;

       (e) To reduce adverse environmental impacts of transportation,
 especially in highly populated areas, Governments should give priority to
 facilitating commuting between residential and working areas, enforcing
 emission standards for vehicles, encouraging fuel efficiency and improving
 traffic management policies and urban planning;

       (f) Intermediate-sized towns should receive particular attention in
 programmes of industrial and settlement development;

       (g) Governments should create an "enabling environment", in which the
 creativity and resources of people are mobilized to improve the health
 conditions, shelter and environmental information at local levels.  This
 should include collection and disposal of domestic, agricultural and human
 wastes, land use planning, area development and self-help construction.
 Efforts should be made to encourage the participation of the private sector
 and non-governmental organizations;

       (h) Industrial, agricultural, energy, irrigation and land development
 and resettlement projects should include a component which addresses
 environmental and health impacts, including risk assessment, which, in turn,
 should be influential in guiding the location, scale and choice of technology
 for the projects.  Regulations should be established to prevent settlements
 development in high environmental-risk areas, such as those proximate to
 chemical or nuclear plants.  Responsibility for enforcing such regulations
 should be shared with the private sector;

       (i) Primary and occupational education should include information on the
 environment.  The mass media should regularly make available information and
 know-how to enable people to improve sanitation, waste disposal and drinking
 water quality.  Deterrents and incentives should be introduced at local levels
 to encourage people to keep their immediate environment healthy;

       (j) Scientific research should be geared to the immediate improvement of
 the health and environmental situation of degraded settlements.  Technologies
 for the safe disposal of wastes with minimum use of water in arid and
 semi-arid areas, improvement of water quality, reuse of waste water, and
 harvesting of rain should be developed.  The United Nations Centre for Human
 Settlements (Habitat), the World Health Organization and the United Nations
 Children's Fund should intensify efforts to promote the application of such
 technologies in the developing countries;

       (k) Urban planning should receive priority attention, together with the
 rational management of natural resources.  Staffing, finance and
 organizational efforts should reflect the high priority given to this issue.
 Urban centres should systematically provide areas to meet the needs of various
 income categories, for industry, business, recreation and open spaces.
 Technical co-operation in this field has to expand greatly under the
 leadership of the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat);

       (1) Countries hosting a large number of refugees should receive more
 international assistance through the Office of the United Nations High
 Commissioner for Refugees and other bodies to improve environmental conditions
 of refugee settlements.

                      F.  International economic relations
                             1.  Issue and outlook

 60.   Issue:  Inequalities in international economic relations, coupled with
 inappropriate economic policies in many developed and developing countries
 alike, continue to affect adversely sustainable development and cause
 environmental degradation.  Deteriorating terms of trade, chronic trade
 deficits, which are partly caused by growing protectionism, heavy debt-service
 payments, and inadequate financial flows have made it very difficult to
 allocate resources to environmental protection and improvement, particularly
 in developing countries.  Specific problems include:  insufficient
 consideration of environmental impacts in development co-operation;
 insufficient control of trade in scarce natural resources and hazardous
 substances; and transnational investment and transfer of technology without
 adequate observance of environmental standards or information on environmental
 management.

 61.   Outlook:  Awareness of the environmental aspects of international
 economic relations has increased, but it has not yet found adequate expression
 in institutional practices and national policies.

 62.   Development co-operation projects have not helped build significantly
 national capabilities to avert environmental disasters.  The environmental
 damage resulting from the execution of some large-scale projects is now better
 understood than in the past.  There is also a growing awareness of the need
 for additional resources to rehabilitate degraded environments.

 63.   Long-term declines in commodity prices, coupled with their inequity and
 instability, have adversely affected environmental management of natural
 resources.  Furthermore, these prices do not fully reflect the environmental
 costs of depletion of the resource base.  Good quality land, fishing areas and
 other natural resources are being overworked, and tropical forests are being
 encroached upon in order to achieve additional income.  The substitution of
 export crops in place of subsistence crops has displaced small farmers and
 pastoralists from good quality land and has led to excessive pressures on
 marginal land and natural resources.

 64.   There is a growing awareness of the hazards associated with trade in
 chemicals, pesticides and some other products, but international practices for
 controlling the transport of hazardous chemical goods do not yet provide for a
 systematic consideration of the environment.

 65.   Mounting debt burdens, repayment obligations, austerity measures and
 reductions in financial flows to developing countries have endangered and, in
 some cases, blocked sustainable development, and this had had negative
 economic, environmental and social impacts.

 66.   Recent years have seen a sharp worsening of the international economic
 situation.  Its impact has been particularly severe on developing countries.
 Lack of economic growth in developing countries could have devastating
 consequences.

                        2.  Goal and recommended action
 67.   Goal:  The establishment of an equitable system of international
 economic relations aimed at achieving continuing economic advancement for all
 States, based on principles recognized by the international community, in
 order to stimulate and sustain environmentally sound development, especially
 in developing countries.

 68.   Recommended action:

       (a) In the ongoing search for concerted action to deal with
 international economic problems, the urgent need to improve the world
 environmental situation and to ensure a solid environmental foundation for
 sustainable development has to be recognized.  Correcting the deteriorating
 terms of trade and stabilizing international commodity prices at equitable
 levels, through international commodity agreements such as the Integrated
 Programme on Commodities, in conjunction with appropriate environmental
 management practices in the producing countries, should play an important role
 in this regard;

       (b) Especially in situations of environmental stress, development
 co-operation should aim at long-term improvement of natural resource
 productivity and environmental health.  Projects that focus on the alleviation
 of poverty and improve the environment should receive greater attention in
 development co-operation.  Such co-operation has to increase substantially,
 keeping in view the growing need for environmental rehabilitation;

       (c) Development co-operation institutions should increase significantly
 their assistance to the developing countries for environmental restoration,
 protection and improvement;

       (d) Country programmes and policy papers prepared by multilateral and
 bilateral development co-operation institutions for allocation of aid
 resources should provide for analyses of the environmental needs of recipient
 countries, with particular focus on major problems, such as
 desertification, deforestation and pollution.  Developing countries
 should be assisted where necessary in preparing environmental
 accounting and relating it to the reporting on national economic
 well-being;

       (e) The system of appraising development co-operation projects should
 provide for assessments of environmental and socio-economic impacts of
 alternative designs and locations.  Area development programmes, in
 particular, should seek to establish mutual support between environmental and
 socio-economic objectives.  Development co-operation institutions should train
 their staff according to these objectives;

       (f) Trade in hazardous industrial products, such as toxic chemicals and
 pesticides, and in some other products, such as pharmaceuticals, should be
 subjected to regulations to ensure sharing by the contracting parties,
 Governments and consumers of information on their environmental and health
 implications and on methods for their safe use and disposal.  Labelling of
 products should be in local languages.  Governments of the exporting as well
 as the importing countries should collaborate in this regard.  They should
 also agree on the selection of chemicals for priority testing;

       (g) International trade and commodity agreements should provide
 environmental safeguards, where applicable.  They should also encourage
 producers to take a long-term view and provide for assistance for
 diversification programmes, where appropriate.  Governments should study the
 environmental impacts of their trade practices and make the findings available
 to their agencies responsible for trade negotiations, which should take them
 into account.  The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the
 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade should develop and apply effective
 policies and instruments to integrate environment and development
 considerations in international trade;

       (h) Environmentally related regulations and standards should not be used
 for protectionist purposes.  The International Trade Centre should assist
 countries to meet such requirements.  The United Nations Conference on Trade
 and Development should make available information on such regulations and
 standards as they apply to commodities and manufactured products;

       (i) Host Governments should institute policies and regulations to ensure
 sound environmental management of transnational investments.  In agreements on
 transnational, including corporate, investments, Governments, through
 appropriate controls, should ensure that information and technology on
 environmental management will be provided specifying the responsibilities of
 the parties concerned.  In accordance with proposed code of conduct on
 transnational corporations of the Commission on Transnational Corporations,
 transnational corporations should implement programmes in the host countries
 to minimize the environmental hazards of their activities.  These programmes
 should include training of personnel.  The United Nations Centre on
 Transnational Corporations should play a role in facilitating this process;

       (j) The transfer of clean, low-waste and pollution control technologies
 should be promoted through international co-operation.  The possibility of
 making such technologies available at concessional prices to the countries in
 need should be explored.  Governments of recipient countries should establish
 procedures for  ascertaining the environmental implications of imported
 technologies;

       (k) International financial institutions, while dealing with questions
 of structural adjustment in developing countries and world economic reform,
 should link short-term financial stabilization to sustainable development.

                      III.  OTHER ISSUES OF GLOBAL CONCERN

 69.   This section discusses briefly the major environmental issues of global
 concern that have not been adequately dealt with in previous sections.

                              A.  Oceans and seas

 70.   Oceans and seas are being polluted extensively.  The rising pollution
 levels and degradation of coastal ecosystems threaten the life-support
 capacities of oceans and seas and undermine their role in the food chain.
 Efforts to monitor the state of oceans and seas, including those of the United
 Nations Environment Programme and other international organizations, confirm
 that there is cause for concern.  This problem is particularly serious for
 coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas that border highly populated and
 industrialized zones.  The situation will get much worse unless concerted
 action is undertaken now.  The ongoing monitoring effort is far from
 comprehensive and, where it has advanced, it has not yet led to adequate
 change in the practices causing environmental damage.

 71.   The challenge is to control and decrease marine pollution, and establish
 or strengthen regimes of environmental management of oceans and seas through
 international co-operation and national action.

 72.   A comprehensive data base should be established over time on which
 action programmes to restore and preserve the environmental balance in the
 world's oceans and seas can be based.  Among others, the Global Environmental
 Monitoring System, Global Resource Information Data Base and the oceans and
 coastal areas programmes of the United Nations Environment Programme should
 intensify efforts towards this end.

 73.   Conventions and agreements to monitor and manage human activities with a
 view to ensuring environmental protection of the seas and oceans should be
 ratified and implemented by all concerned countries.  Where such legal
 instruments do not exist, they should be negotiated.  Governments should
 strengthen or introduce policies and measures aimed at preventing practices
 harmful to marine ecosystems and ensuring environmentally sound development of
 inland areas.  Such policies and measures should include control of the
 discharge of industrial effluents and sewage, dumping of wastes, including
 hazardous and radioactive materials, disposal of hazardous residues and
 operational wastes from ships, incineration at sea, and oil spills from
 tankers and off-shore platforms.  Environmentally sound land-based technology
 for the disposal of hazardous wastes should be developed and promoted.  The
 United Nations Environment Programme should continue to collaborate in this
 work with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the International
 Maritime Organization, and other appropriate international organizations.

                                B.  Outer space

 74.   Outer space has now become a recognized area of human activity.  As
 activity in this area develops over the coming decades, sound management of
 outer space will become increasingly important.  To this end, international
 co-operation exclusively for the peaceful use of outer space is essential,
 especially on the part of those countries that now have the capacity to
 undertake outer space activities.

 75.   All countries, in particular those with a major capacity to exploit the
 benefits of outer space, should create conditions, including specifically the
 maintenance of its non-militarization, for broad international co-operation in
 the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes.  This should
 include the use of space technology to monitor the Earth's environment.  The
 benefits of the peaceful use of outer space, including weather forecasting,
 remote sensing and medical benefits, should be made readily available to the
 world community, particularly through assistance to the developing countries.

                            C.  Biological diversity

 76.   Traditional crop and livestock species are giving way to high-yielding
 varieties and breeds.  As the genetic base of plants, animals and
 micro-organisms becomes narrower, some genetic material is being irretrievably
 lost at such a rate that the world could lose one tenth to one fifth of its 5
 to 10 million species by the year 2000.

 77.   Over 100 countries are collaborating in the global programme
 co-ordinated by the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources for
 conserving crop genetic resources, and the global gene banks network contains
 over 1 million samples of crop germ plasm.  Yet, in many countries, national
 efforts for conservation are still ill-organized and under-financed, and often
 do not attend systematically to the components of planning, training,
 education and research.  International co-operation and technical assistance
 in this field should be further developed.

 78.   An international network of protected areas for conserving animal and
 plant genetic resources, encompassing about 10 per cent of the world's land
 area, should be established to reverse the trend towards depletion of
 species.  Management plans for conserving ecosystems as reservoirs of species
 diversity have to be prepared.

 79.   Efforts to conserve crop genetic resources and the global data banks
 network have to be extended to cover adequately germ plasm with economic
 potential for providing food, fodder, fibres, waxes, oils, gums, medicines,
 energy and insecticides.  In situ and ex situ components of conservation have
 to develop in a complementary manner in the light of the interdependence of
 nature conservation and genetic diversity.

 80.   Mechanisms should be established to provide information on rates of
 exploitation of genetic resources to facilitate selection of those to be
 conserved.

 81.   The gap between conservation of species and economic access to them
 should be bridged through maximum international co-operation.  Agreements
 involving rights of possession of and access to genetic material, including
 research results, should facilitate such co-operation.  Conserved genetic
 resources should be regarded as a common interest of mankind.

                          D.  Security and environment

 82.   The accumulation and deployment of weapons of war and destruction
 present very grave risks to the environment.  The use of weapons of mass
 destruction, including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, could bring
 about far-reaching, even irreversible, changes in the global environment.

 83.   The development and stockpiling of nuclear arms and delivery systems at
 current levels have made the human race technically capable of putting an end
 to its own existence.  In addition, the growing capacity of some States to
 undertake deliberate manipulation of the environment represents an immense
 potential danger.  If the material, financial and intellectual resources
 devoted to armaments were to be used to solve problems such as those of the
 human environment, food security and shelter, prospects for sustainable
 development would be considerably enhanced.

 84.   The World Charter for Nature proclaims that "Nature shall be secured
 against degradation caused by warfare or other hostile activities".  A
 comprehensive system of international security is essential in order to ensure
 that this declaration is implemented.

 85.   Progressive disarmament through detente, negotiation, and avoidance of
 the use of force as a means of resolving conflicts should be pursued to
 minimize the environmental risks associated with armed conflicts.  Governments
 should continue to pursue, in relevant negotiating forums, efforts to ban
 weapons that have the effect of modifying the environment.

 86.   One of the roles of the United Nations Environment Programme is to
 promote environmentally sound development in harmony with peace and security,
 and towards this end, issues of disarmament and security, in so far as they
 relate to the environment, should continue to receive appropriate attention.

                    IV.  INSTRUMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION

 87.   Sections I, II and III above largely sought to indicate how to deal
 effectively with environmental problems by addressing their policy sources.
 However, such actions need to be reinforced by the performance of certain
 overarching functions.  This section deals with those functions.

                                 A.  Assessment

 88.   Environmental rehabilitation and management depend upon the availability
 of organized information on the state of the environment, its trends, and
 their relationship to social and economic factors.  Decisions, however,
 continue to be made in ignorance of the changing state of the environment and
 its implications for human well-being.  It is essential, therefore, that
 reliable environmental information, obtained and analysed using modern
 technology, is made available to planners and managers in a usable form.  Most
 developing countries face the constraint of lack of access to modern
 technology and to the necessary expertise to collect and interpret
 environmental data.

 89.   Environmental and resource data are being collected at global and
 regional levels by the United Nations and international organizations working
 with Governments.  Additional data also exist at the national level, although
 often in a fragmented form.  The institutional mechanisms needed to relate
 such data sets to each other and to analyse them in the context of existing
 practices and policies are often lacking.  Governments and intergovernmental
 organizations at the regional level should intensify efforts to collect and
 analyse data, especially data relating to common environmental problems.

 90.   The United Nations Environment Programme, working through the United
 Nations system, co-ordinates the collection, monitoring and assessment of
 selected environmental variables and distributes this information worldwide
 through:  the Global Environmental Monitoring System, encompassing the
 monitoring and assessment systems relating to climate, health and natural
 resources and the Global Resource Information Data Base; data bases and
 systems for the conservation and management of genetic resources; the
 International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals, which operates a global
 information exchange network to provide information and data on chemicals and
 their effects on health and environment through a query-response service and
 evaluations of the effects of chemicals on the environment; INFOTERRA, the
 International Referral System for sources of environmental information; and
 the state of the environment reports of the United Nations Environment
 Programme, which address major issues of topical environmental concern.

 91.   Through improved collection and analysis of data and its wide
 distribution to potential users, which should be a service to countries as
 well as international organizations, the United Nations Environment Programme
 should become, and come to be accepted as, a leading authority in
 environmental assessment.

 92.   Countries, particularly developing countries, should be assisted,
 through international co-operation on environmental assessment, with the
 participation of the United Nations system and with the United Nations
 Environment Programme playing a leading role, in establishing effective
 national monitoring systems, geographic information systems and assessment
 capabilities, and improving data compatibility.  In order for this to take
 place, technical co-operation among countries regionally and globally has to
 increase significantly.

 93.   Notable environmental assessments have been carried out recently and
 related to socio-economic factors by non-governmental organizations in some
 countries.  These have helped expand awareness and stimulate action to protect
 and improve the environment.  Governments should encourage such efforts.

                                  B.  Planning

 94.   Environmental planning should provide a conceptual, methodological and
 institutional framework within which to internalize progressively the
 consideration of the environment in development decision-making.  Every
 country should define its national environmental objectives and make them part
 of its plans for socio-economic development.  Just as each country sets
 targets for sectoral growth, it should set time-bound targets in respect of
 environmental resources and indicators of major concern.  Plans and policies
 at sub-national levels should also provide for the simultaneous pursuit of the
 specified environmental and development objectives.

 95.   Governments should establish mechanisms and procedures to facilitate
 interdepartmental co-ordination of policies and unified direction for
 integrating environmental concerns in development planning.  Use of analytical
 methods to ascertain the environmental and socio-economic implications of
 alternative courses of action should inform decisions on projects and
 programmes.  It should also help resolve conflicts of interest among
 departments, among population groups and among regions.

 96.   The allocation of investment resources of a national plan among regions
 and sectors has to reflect a sensitivity to environmental constraints and
 objectives.  This should be facilitated by periodic analyses of the
 socio-economic significance of the changing state of natural resources and the
 environment at national and provincial levels.  Efforts should also be made to
 prepare an accounting of the use of scarce natural resources, focusing
 particularly on the country's major environmental problems, for example
 desertification, and to relate it to the periodic reporting on national income
 and well-being.

 97.   Sectoral ministries should be encouraged to apply environmental impact
 assessments and social cost-benefit analyses in decision-making regarding
 development projects and programmes.  Taxation and economic policies should
 encourage sectoral decisions that favour environmentally benign technologies
 and locations, recycling and safe disposal of wastes and conservation of
 natural resources, and should establish mutual support between environmental
 and economic objectives.  Land and water use plans should be prepared and
 their implementation monitored.  Already some countries have made progress in
 planning at the district level to reflect environmental needs.

 98.   There have been advances in the analytical methods of environmental
 impact and risk assessment, social benefit-cost analyses of environmental
 measures, physical planning and environmental accounting.  Theoretical work on
 decision models with multiple objectives and constraints has also progressed.
 The United Nations Environment Programme, the Scientific Committee on Problems
 of the Environment and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
 Development have played a useful role.  This work should be strengthened so
 that it will have a greater impact on decision-making.

 99.   Environmental action and economic planning remain insufficiently related
 to each other in most countries.  Efforts must be intensified at national and
 international levels to promote the application of suitable methods,
 procedures and institutional arrangements to make economic planning fully
 responsive to environmental constraints and opportunities.  The guiding role
 of the United Nations Environment Programme in this field should include
 technical assistance to the developing countries.  Collaborative arrangements
 should be made at the working level between the United Nations Environment
 Programme, the United Nations Development Programme, the Department of
 Technical Co-operation for Development of the United Nations Secretariat and
 the World Bank.  They should set up, or strengthen, units to conduct
 environmental analyses of their projects and programmes and, in collaboration
 with the United Nations Environment Programme, assist Governments in
 systematically considering the environment in development planning.

                     C.  Legislation and environmental law

 100.  Increasingly, environmental legislation has been providing practical
 frameworks at the national level for implementing environmental standards and
 regulating the activities of enterprises and people in the light of
 environmental objectives.  At the international level, conventions, protocols
 and agreements have been providing a basis for co-operation among countries at
 bilateral, regional and global levels for the management of environmental
 risks, control of pollution and conservation of natural resources.

 101.  There is a need to expand the number of accessions to and ratifications
 of these conventions and to institute mechanisms at the national level to
 ensure their application.  The present momentum should be maintained of
 concluding conventions in fields such as hazards relating to chemicals,
 treatment and international transport of hazardous wastes, industrial
 accidents, climate change, protection of the ozone layer, protection of the
 marine environment from pollution from land-based sources and protection of
 biological diversity, in which the United Nations Environment Programme has
 been playing an active part.

 102.  Groundwork has been prepared over the last 15 years under the aegis of
 the United Nations Environment Programme to establish legal frameworks to
 manage regional seas.  Governments should intensify their efforts to implement
 legislative measures and other policies at national levels so that the policy
 sources of the environmental problems of the regional seas are effectively
 tackled.  Increasingly, environmental management of rivers, lakes and forests
 has been posing a challenge to international co-operation.  Governments, with
 the collaboration of the Programme and concerned international organizations,
 should accelerate action to establish legal regimes at international and
 national levels to improve significantly the environmental management of
 rivers, lakes and forests.  The new programme for environmental management of
 freshwater systems, sponsored by the United Nations Environment Programme, is
 a promising start.

 103.  The Montevideo Programme for the Development and Periodic Review of
 Environmental Law, prepared under the auspices of the United Nations
 Environment Programme, should be implemented fully.  Development of
 international environmental law should continue, with a view to providing a
 strong basis for fostering co-operation among countries.  The progressive
 emergence of general environmental norms and principles and the codification
 of existing agreements could lead to a global convention on protection and
 enhancement of the environment.

 104.  Governments should settle their environmental disputes by peaceful
 means, making use of existing and emerging agreements and conventions.  The
 International Court of Justice, the International Court of Arbitration and
 regional mechanisms should facilitate peaceful settlement of environmental
 disputes.

                      D.  Awareness building and training

 105.  The participation of people in environmental protection and improvement
 depends upon their being aware of the environmental problems and
 possibilities, of how the changing state of the environment affects their
 well-being, and how their lifestyles affect the environment.  People's
 effectiveness in dealing with environmental problems depends upon their
 technical and organizational capabilities to design and implement the needed
 measures.

 106.  Since the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held at
 Stockholm in 1972, awareness of the interrelationship between human activities
 and the environment has steadily grown.  Voluntary action groups at the
 community level, national and global non-governmental organizations,
 scientific bodies, schools and universities, mass media and Governments all
 have played a part in this process.  Also the United Nations Environment
 Programme, through its programme and through its information activities, has
 helped build environmental awareness.

 107.  In a large number of developing countries, knowledge of proper
 environmental management practices still does not reach millions who suffer as
 a result of environmental degradation.  People are the most valuable resource
 in development, but in order for them to participate constructively in
 accelerating and sustaining development, environmental information must be
 made available in languages they understand and in a form that can help them
 relate it easily to their own situation.  Governments should intensify efforts
 to make this possible.  Non-governmental organizations, with appropriate
 support from the United Nations Environment Programme, should play an
 increasingly active role in this field, especially by way of provision of
 requisite materials.

 108.  The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, in
 collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme should ensure
 systematic coverage of environmental education needs at all levels of
 schooling, especially in the developing countries.  They should also prepare
 and promote course materials which would include environmental components in
 professional training given to selected occupational groups, for example,
 engineers, builders, foresters, farm extension workers and managers.  Training
 in analysing environmental considerations in relation to economic and other
 goals also has to receive growing attention.  Governments should make
 environmental education and training an integral part of their education and
 communication policies and programmes.

 109.  International support for the training of personnel in environmental
 assessment and management, especially in the developing countries, has grown
 steadily.  It is essential, however, to ensure that the content and modality
 of such instruction is relevant to the needs of the countries where it is
 intended that the skills be applied.  International co-operation and
 governmental efforts should also help ensure a progressive strengthening of
 institutional capabilities within the developing countries themselves to make
 available such training.

                                E.  Institutions

 110.  Consideration of the environment must be internalized in sectoral
 policies and practices to ensure that environmental objectives are met and
 sustainable development is achieved.  Sectoral bodies should be made
 accountable for such internalization.  Existing environmental problems also
 have to be dealt with through concerted action and allocation of resources.
 This is true at both national and international levels.

 111.  At the national level, the mandates of sectoral ministries and other
 governmental institutions should explicitly state their responsibility and
 accountability for sustainable development and environmental protection within
 their sectors.  Their policies, functions, structures and budgetary
 allocations should be consistent with this.  As appropriate, the same should
 apply at provincial and local levels.  Authoritative mechanisms and procedures
 are needed to oversee and ensure that national environmental objectives are
 met throughout the Government.  Governments should establish or strengthen
 environmental ministries to stimulate, guide, support and monitor actions to
 achieve these objectives.  To this end, essential functions should include:
 environmental assessment, planning and incentives, legislative and regulatory
 advice, awareness-building and training, stimulation of research and
 application of its results.  Environmental ministries should also provide
 leadership and co-ordination for direct action to deal with environmental
 problems, including rehabilitation.  Bilateral and multilateral institutions
 and international organizations should assist developing countries in this
 regard.

 112.  International institutions, both inside and outside of the United
 Nations system, dealing with such areas as food and agriculture, health,
 industry, energy, science, trade, finance and development assistance, should
 reorient their policies and programmes to make steady progress towards
 environmentally sound development.

 113.  These institutions should be accountable for integrating the objectives
 of sustainable development into their policies, budgets and staffing
 strategies.  Governments should ensure, through consistent policy guidance to
 these institutions, that their mandates and programmes meet this objective.

 114.  The governing bodies of all United Nations organizations should report
 regularly to the General Assembly on the progress made in achieving the
 objectives of sustainable development.  Such reports should also be submitted
 to the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme for that
 body to provide comments on matters within its mandate to the General
 Assembly.  The Administrative Committee on Co-ordination, under the
 chairmanship of the Secretary-General, should oversee effectively the
 inclusion of the concept of sustainable development in all programmes of the
 United Nations system, by reviewing and co-ordinating the efforts of all
 organs, organizations and bodies of the United Nations system in this field,
 and by including this in its reports to the General Assembly and the Governing
 Council of the Programme.

 115.  The inter-agency mechanism of Designated Officials for Environmental
 Matters should guide, support and monitor more effectively activities within
 the United Nations system to ensure consistent policy.

 116.  In parallel with the institutional arrangements at the national level,
 the United Nations Environment Programme should promote, guide, support and
 monitor actions to achieve environmentally sound development and stimulate and
 co-ordinate action to deal with environmental problems.

 117.  The major priorities and functions of the United Nations Environment
 Programme should be:

       (a) To provide leadership, advice and guidance in the United Nations
 system on restoring, protecting, and improving the environmental basis for,
 and in general act as a catalyst in the promotion of, sustainable development;

       (b) To monitor, assess and report regularly on the state of the
 environment and natural resources and emerging environmental issues;

       (c) To support priority scientific and technological research on major
 environmental and natural resource protection issues;

       (d) To make available, in co-operation with other agencies where
 appropriate, guidance for environmental management, including the development
 of management techniques, criteria and indicators for environmental quality
 standards and guidelines for the sustainable use and management of natural
 resources;

       (e) To initiate and support the programmes and activities worked out by
 the developing countries for dealing with their serious environmental problems;

       (f) To initiate and facilitate the development and, upon request, the
 co-ordination of the implementation of action plans in the developing
 countries for the management of ecosystems and critical environmental
 problems.  Such plans should be implemented and financed by the Governments
 concerned with appropriate external assistance;

       (g) To encourage and promote international agreements on critical
 environmental issues and to support and facilitate the development of
 international laws, conventions and co-operative arrangements for
 environmental and natural resource conservation and protection;

       (h) In co-operation with other concerned institutions, to establish and
 strengthen the institutional and professional capacity of developing
 countries, with a view to integrating environmental considerations into their
 development policy and planning;

       (i) To promote awareness of environmental matters through education and
 the mass media;

       (j) To co-operate with the United Nations Development Programme and
 other United Nations agencies, the World Bank and regional development banks,
 to strengthen the environmental dimensions of their programmes and technical
 assistance projects, inter alia, through training and personnel secondments.

 118.  Specialized agencies, organizations and bodies of the United Nations
 system should more speedily assume full operational and financial
 responsibility for environmental programmes supported by the United Nations
 Environment Programme in their sectors included in the system-wide medium-term
 environment programme and the Environment Fund.  The human and financial
 resources which will become available to the United Nations Environment
 Programme as a result should be concentrated on the priority areas listed
 above.

 119.  Environmentally sound development cannot be assured solely by actions of
 governmental, intergovernmental or international organizations.  It requires
 the participation of other entities, particularly industry, non-governmental
 environmental and development organizations and the scientific community.
 Non-governmental organizations have important contributions to make in various
 areas, including environmental education and awareness, as well as design and
 implementation of programmes at the grass-roots levels.  The scientific
 community should continue to play an important role in environmental research
 and risk assessment and international scientific co-operation.

 120.  Regional and continental co-operative arrangements are being established
 to deal with common environmental problems.  For example, the first session of
 the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment, held at Cairo in 1985,
 adopted the Cairo Programme for African Co-operation and modalities to
 implement it.  Governments and development co-operation agencies should
 support such institutional arrangements and programmes.
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Date last posted: 16 December 1999 13:50:10
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