United Nations

A/RES/41/128


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

4 December 1986

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



                                                   A/RES/41/128
                                                   4 December 1986
                                                   97th plenary meeting
 
         41/128.    Declaration on the Right to Development
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Having considered the question of the right to development,
 
     Decides to adopt the Declaration on the Right to Development, the text of
which is annexed to the present resolution.
 
 
                                    ANNEX
                   Declaration on the Right to Development
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Bearing in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United
Nations relating to the achievement of international co-operation in solving
international problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian
nature, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or
religion,
 
     Recognizing that development is a comprehensive economic, social,
cultural and political process, which aims at the constant improvement of the
well-being of the entire population and of all individuals on the basis of
their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in the fair
distribution of benefits resulting therefrom,
 
     Considering that under the provisions of the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which
the rights and freedoms set forth in that Declaration can be fully realized,
 
     Recalling the provisions of the International Covenant on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights and of the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights,
 
     Recalling further the relevant agreements, conventions, resolutions,
recommendations and other instruments of the United Nations and its
specialized agencies concerning the integral development of the human being,
economic and social progress and development of all peoples, including those
instruments concerning decolonization, the prevention of discrimination,
respect for and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms, the
maintenance of international peace and security and the further promotion of
friendly relations and co-operation among States in accordance with the
Charter, 
 
     Recalling the right of peoples to self-determination, by virtue of which
they have the right freely to determine their political status and to pursue
their economic, social and cultural development,
 
     Recalling also the right of peoples to exercise, subject to the relevant
provisions of both International Covenants on Human Rights, full and complete
sovereignty over all their natural wealth and resources,
 
     Mindful of the obligation of States under the Charter to promote
universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms
for all without distinction of any kind such as race, colour, sex, language,
religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property,
birth or other status,
 
     Considering that the elimination of the massive and flagrant violations
of the human rights of the peoples and individuals affected by situations such
as those resulting from colonialism, neo-colonialism, apartheid, all forms of
racism and racial discrimination, foreign domination and occupation,
aggression and threats against national sovereignty, national unity and
territorial integrity and threats of war would contribute to the establishment
of circumstances propitious to the development of a great part of mankind,
 
     Concerned at the existence of serious obstacles to development, as well
as to the complete fulfilment of human beings and of peoples, constituted,
inter alia, by the denial of civil, political, economic, social and cultural
rights, and considering that all human rights and fundamental freedoms are
indivisible and interdependent and that, in order to promote development,
equal attention and urgent consideration should be given to the
implementation, promotion and protection of civil, political, economic, social
and cultural rights and that, accordingly, the promotion of, respect for and
enjoyment of certain human rights and fundamental freedoms cannot justify the
denial of other human rights and fundamental freedoms,
 
     Considering that international peace and security are essential elements
for the realization of the right to development,
 
     Reaffirming that there is a close relationship between disarmament and
development and that progress in the field of disarmament would considerably
promote progress in the field of development and that resources released
through disarmament measures should be devoted to the economic and social
development and well-being of all peoples and, in particular, those of the
developing countries,
 
     Recognizing that the human person is the central subject of the
development process and that development policy should therefore make the
human being the main participant and beneficiary of development,
 
     Recognizing that the creation of conditions favourable to the development
of peoples and individuals is the primary responsibility of their States,
 
     Aware that efforts at the international level to promote and protect
human rights should be accompanied by efforts to establish a new international
economic order,
 
     Confirming that the right to development is an inalienable human right
and that equality of opportunity for development is a prerogative both of
nations and of individuals who make up nations,
 
     Proclaims the following Declaration on the Right to Development:
 
                                  Article 1
     1.   The right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of
which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in,
contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development,
in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized.
 
     2.   The human right to development also implies the full realization of
the right of peoples to self-determination, which includes, subject to the
relevant provisions of both International Covenants on Human Rights, the
exercise of their inalienable right to full sovereignty over all their natural
wealth and resources.
 
                                  Article 2
     1.   The human person is the central subject of development and should be
the active participant and beneficiary of the right to development.
 
     2.   All human beings have a responsibility for development, individually
and collectively, taking into account the need for full respect for their
human rights and fundamental freedoms as well as their duties to the
community, which alone can ensure the free and complete fulfilment of the
human being, and they should therefore promote and protect an appropriate
political, social and economic order for development.
 
     3.   States have the right and the duty to formulate appropriate national
development policies that aim at the constant improvement of the well-being of
the entire population and of all individuals, on the basis of their active,
free and meaningful participation in development and in the fair distribution
of the benefits resulting therefrom.
 
                                  Article 3
     1.   States have the primary responsibility for the creation of national
and international conditions favourable to the realization of the right to
development.
 
     2.   The realization of the right to development requires full respect
for the principles of international law concerning friendly relations and
co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations. 
 
     3.   States have the duty to co-operate with each other in ensuring
development and eliminating obstacles to development.  States should realize
their rights and fulfil their duties in such a manner as to promote a new
international economic order based on sovereign equality, interdependence,
mutual interest and co-operation among all States, as well as to encourage the
observance and realization of human rights.
 
                                  Article 4
     1.   States have the duty to take steps, individually and collectively,
to formulate international development policies with a view to facilitating
the full realization of the right to development.
 
     2.   Sustained action is required to promote more rapid development of
developing countries.  As a complement to the efforts of developing countries,
effective international co-operation is essential in providing these countries
with appropriate means and facilities to foster their comprehensive
development.
                                  Article 5
     States shall take resolute steps to eliminate the massive and flagrant
violations of the human rights of peoples and human beings affected by
situations such as those resulting from apartheid, all forms of racism and
racial discrimination, colonialism, foreign domination and occupation,
aggression, foreign interference and threats against national sovereignty,
national unity and territorial integrity, threats of war and refusal to
recognize the fundamental right of peoples to self-determination.
 
                                  Article 6
     1.   All States should co-operate with a view to promoting, encouraging
and strengthening universal respect for and observance of all human rights and
fundamental freedoms for all without any distinction as to race, sex, language
or religion.
 
     2.   All human rights and fundamental freedoms are indivisible and
interdependent; equal attention and urgent consideration should be given to
the implementation, promotion and protection of civil, political, economic,
social and cultural rights.
 
     3.   States should take steps to eliminate obstacles to development
resulting from failure to observe civil and political rights, as well as
economic, social and cultural rights.
 
                                  Article 7
     All States should promote the establishment, maintenance and
strengthening of international peace and security and, to that end, should do
their utmost to achieve general and complete disarmament under effective
international control, as well as to ensure that the resources released by
effective disarmament measures are used for comprehensive development, in
particular that of the developing countries.
 
                                  Article 8
     1.   States should undertake, at the national level, all necessary
measures for the realization of the right to development and shall ensure,
inter alia, equality of opportunity for all in their access to basic
resources, education, health services, food, housing, employment and the fair
distribution of income.  Effective measures should be undertaken to ensure
that women have an active role in the development process.  Appropriate
economic and social reforms should be carried out with a view to eradicating
all social injustices.
 
     2.   States should encourage popular participation in all spheres as an
important factor in development and in the full realization of all human
rights.
                                  Article 9
     1.   All the aspects of the right to development set forth in the present
Declaration are indivisible and interdependent and each of them should be
considered in the context of the whole.
 
     2.   Nothing in the present Declaration shall be construed as being
contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations, or as implying
that any State, group or person has a right to engage in any activity or to
perform any act aimed at the violation of the rights set forth in the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on
Human Rights.
                                  Article 10
     Steps should be taken to ensure the full exercise and progressive
enhancement of the right to development, including the formulation, adoption
and implementation of policy, legislative and other measures at the national
and international levels.