United Nations

A/RES/39/46


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

10 December 1984

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



                                                   A/RES/39/46
                                                   10 December 1984
                                                   Meeting no. 93
 
                 Convention against Torture and Other Cruel,
                 Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
 
     The General Assembly,
 
     Recalling the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being
Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
Punishment, adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 3452 (XXX) of
9 December 1975,
 
     Recalling also its resolution 32/62 of 8 December 1977, in which it
requested the Commission on Human Rights to draw up a draft convention against
torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, in the
light of the principles embodied in the Declaration,
 
     Recalling further that, in its resolution 38/119 of 16 December 1983, it
requested the Commission on Human Rights to complete, at its fortieth session,
as a matter of highest priority, the drafting of such a convention, with a
view to submitting a draft, including provisions for the effective
implementation of the future convention, to the General Assembly at its
thirty-ninth session,
 
     Noting with satisfaction Commission on Human Rights resolution 1984/21 of
6 March 1984,by which the Commission decided to transmit the text of a draft
convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment, contained in the annex to the report of the Working Group, to the
General Assembly for its consideration,
 
     Desirous of achieving a more effective implementation of the existing
prohibition under international and national law of the practice of torture
and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,
 
     1.   Expresses its appreciation for the work achieved by the Commission
on Human Rights in preparing the text of a draft convention against torture
and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
 
     2.   Adopts and opens for signature, ratification and accession the
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
Punishment contained in the annex to the present resolution;
 
     3.   Calls upon all Governments to consider signing and ratifying the
Convention as a matter of priority.
 
                                    ANNEX
            Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or
                      Degrading Treatment or Punishment
 
     The States Parties to this Convention,
 
     Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the
Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the equal and inalienable rights
of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and
peace in the world,
 
     Recognizing that those rights derive from the inherent dignity of the
human person,
 
     Considering the obligation of States under the Charter, in particular
Article 55, to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights
and fundamental freedoms,
 
     Having regard to article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
and article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,
both of which provide that no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel,
inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,
 
     Having regard also to the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons
from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading
Treatment or Punishment, adopted by the General Assembly on 9 December 1975,
 
     Desiring to make more effective the struggle against torture and other
cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment throughout the world,
 
     Have agreed as follows:
                                    PART I
 
                                  Article 1
     1.   For the purposes of this Convention, the term "torture" means any
act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is
intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or
a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a
third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or
intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on
discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at
the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or
other person acting in an official capacity.  It does not include pain or
suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.
 
     2.   This article is without prejudice to any international instrument or
national legislation which does or may contain provisions of wider
application.
 
                                  Article 2
     1.   Each State Party shall take effective legislative, administrative,
judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under
its jurisdiction.
 
     2.   No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a
threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency,
may be invoked as a justification of torture.
 
     3.   An order from a superior officer or a public authority may not be
invoked as a justification of torture.
 
                                  Article 3
     1.   No State Party shall expel, return ("refouler") or extradite a
person to another State where there are substantial grounds for believing that
he would be in danger of being subjected to torture.
 
     2.   For the purpose of determining whether there are such grounds, the
competent authorities shall take into account all relevant considerations
including, where applicable, the existence in the State concerned of a
consistent pattern of gross, flagrant or mass violations of human rights.
 
                                  Article 4
     1.   Each State Party shall ensure that all acts of torture are offences
under its criminal law.  The same shall apply to an attempt to commit torture
and to an act by any person which constitutes complicity or participation in
torture. 
 
     2.   Each State Party shall make these offences punishable by appropriate
penalties which take into account their grave nature.
 
                                  Article 5
     1.   Each State Party shall take such measures as may be necessary to
establish its jurisdiction over the offences referred to in article 4 in the
following cases:
 
     (a)  When the offences are committed in any territory under its
jurisdiction or on board a ship or aircraft registered in that State;
 
     (b)  When the alleged offender is a national of that State;
 
     (c)  When the victim is a national of that State if that State considers
it appropriate.
 
     2.   Each State Party shall likewise take such measures as may be
necessary to establish its jurisdiction over such offences in cases where the
alleged offender is present in any territory under its jurisdiction and it
does not extradite him pursuant to article 8 to any of the States mentioned in
paragraph 1 of this article.
 
     3.   This Convention does not exclude any criminal jurisdiction exercised
in accordance with internal law.
 
                                  Article 6
 
     1.   Upon being satisfied, after an examination of information available
to it, that the circumstances so warrant, any State Party in whose territory a
person alleged to have committed any offence referred to in article 4 is
present shall take him into custody or take other legal measures to ensure his
presence.  The custody and other legal measures shall be as provided in the
law of that State but may be continued only for such time as is necessary to
enable any criminal or extradition proceedings to be instituted.
 
     2.   Such State shall immediately make a preliminary inquiry into the
facts.
 
     3.   Any person in custody pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article shall
be assisted in communicating immediately with the nearest appropriate
representative of the State of which he is a national, or, if he is a
stateless person, with the representative of the State where he usually
resides. 
 
     4.   When a State, pursuant to this article, has taken a person into
custody, it shall immediately notify the States referred to in article 5,
paragraph 1, of the fact that such person is in custody and of the
circumstances which warrant his detention.  The State which makes the
preliminary inquiry contemplated in paragraph 2 of this article shall promptly
report its findings to the said States and shall indicate whether it intends
to exercise jurisdiction.
                                  Article 7
     1.   The State Party in the territory under whose jurisdiction a person
alleged to have committed any offence referred to in article 4 is found shall
in the cases contemplated in article 5, if it does not extradite him, submit
the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution.
 
     2.   These authorities shall take their decision in the same manner as in
the case of any ordinary offence of a serious nature under the law of that
State.  In the cases referred to in article 5, paragraph 2, the standards of
evidence required for prosecution and conviction shall in no way be less
stringent than those which apply in the cases referred to in article 5,
paragraph 1.
 
     3.   Any person regarding whom proceedings are brought in connection with
any of the offences referred to in article 4 shall be guaranteed fair
treatment at all stages of the proceedings.
 
                                  Article 8
     1.   The offences referred to in article 4 shall be deemed to be included
as extraditable offences in any extradition treaty existing between States
Parties.  States Parties undertake to include such offences as extraditable
offences in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them.
 
     2.   If a State Party which makes extradition conditional on the
existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another State
Party with which it has no extradition treaty, it may consider this Convention
as the legal basis for extradition in respect of such offences.  Extradition
shall be subject to the other conditions provided by the law of the requested
State.
 
     3.   States Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the
existence of a treaty shall recognize such offences as extraditable offences
between themselves subject to the conditions provided by the law of the
requested State.
 
     4.   Such offences shall be treated, for the purpose of extradition
between States Parties, as if they had been committed not only in the place in
which they occurred but also in the territories of the States required to
establish their jurisdiction in accordance with article 5, paragraph 1.
 
                                  Article 9
     1.   States Parties shall afford one another the greatest measure of
assistance in connection with criminal proceedings brought in respect of any
of the offences referred to in article 4, including the supply of all evidence
at their disposal necessary for the proceedings.
 
     2.   States Parties shall carry out their obligations under paragraph 1
of this article in conformity with any treaties on mutual judicial assistance
that may exist between them.
 
                                  Article 10
     1.   Each State Party shall ensure that education and information
regarding the prohibition against torture are fully included in the training
of law enforcement personnel, civil or military, medical personnel, public
officials and other persons who may be involved in the custody, interrogation
or treatment of any individual subjected to any form of arrest, detention or
imprisonment.
 
     2.   Each State Party shall include this prohibition in the rules or
instructions issued in regard to the duties and functions of any such persons.
 
                                  Article 11
     Each State Party shall keep under systematic review interrogation rules,
instructions, methods and practices as well as arrangements for the custody
and treatment of persons subjected to any form of arrest, detention or
imprisonment in any territory under its jurisdiction, with a view to
preventing any cases of torture.
 
                                  Article 12
     Each State Party shall ensure that its competent authorities proceed to a
prompt and impartial investigation, wherever there is reasonable ground to
believe that an act of torture has been committed in any territory under its
jurisdiction.
                                  Article 13
     Each State Party shall ensure that any individual who alleges he has been
subjected to torture in any territory under its jurisdiction has the right to
complain to, and to have his case promptly and impartially examined by, its
competent authorities.  Steps shall be taken to ensure that the complainant
and witnesses are protected against all ill-treatment or intimidation as a
consequence of his complaint or any evidence given.
 
                                  Article 14
     1.   Each State Party shall ensure in its legal system that the victim of
an act of torture obtains redress and has an enforceable right to fair and
adequate compensation, including the means for as full rehabilitation as
possible.  In the event of the death of the victim as a result of an act of
torture, his dependants shall be entitled to compensation.
 
     2.   Nothing in this article shall affect any right of the victim or
other persons to compensation which may exist under national law.
 
                                  Article 15
     Each State Party shall ensure that any statement which is established to
have been made as a result of torture shall not be invoked as evidence in any
proceedings, except against a person accused of torture as evidence that the
statement was made.
 
                                  Article 16
     1.   Each State Party shall undertake to prevent in any territory under
its jurisdiction other acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment which do not amount to torture as defined in article 1, when such
acts are committed by or at the instigation of or with the consent or
acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official
capacity.  In particular, the obligations contained in articles 10, 11, 12 and
13 shall apply with the substitution for references to torture of references
to other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
 
     2.   The provisions of this Convention are without prejudice to the
provisions of any other international instrument or national law which
prohibits cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment or which relates
to extradition or expulsion.
                                   PART II
 
                                  Article 17
     1.   There shall be established a Committee against Torture (hereinafter
referred to as the Committee) which shall carry out the functions hereinafter
provided.  The Committee shall consist of ten experts of high moral standing
and recognized competence in the field of human rights, who shall serve in
their personal capacity.  The experts shall be elected by the States Parties,
consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution and to the
usefulness of the participation of some persons having legal experience.
 
     2.   The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from
a list of persons nominated by States Parties.  Each State Party may nominate
one person from among its own nationals.  States Parties shall bear in mind
the usefulness of nominating persons who are also members of the Human Rights
Committee established under the International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights and who are willing to serve on the Committee against Torture.
 
     3.   Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at biennial
meetings of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General of the United
Nations.  At those meetings, for which two thirds of the States Parties shall
constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who
obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of
the representatives of States Parties present and voting.
 
     4.   The initial election shall be held no later than six months after
the date of the entry into force of this Convention.  At least four months
before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations
shall address a letter to the States Parties inviting them to submit their
nominations within three months.  The Secretary-General shall prepare a list
in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating the States
Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties.
 
     5.   The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four
years.  They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated.  However, the
term of five of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the
end of two years; immediately after the first election the names of these five
members shall be chosen by lot by the chairman of the meeting referred to in
paragraph 3 of this article.
 
     6.   If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or for any other cause
can no longer perform his Committee duties, the State Party which nominated
him shall appoint another expert from among its nationals to serve for the
remainder of his term, subject to the approval of the majority of the States
Parties.  The approval shall be considered given unless half or more of the
States Parties respond negatively within six weeks after having been informed
by the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the proposed appointment.
 
     7.   States Parties shall be responsible for the expenses of the members
of the Committee while they are in performance of Committee duties.
 
                                  Article 18
     1.   The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years.
They may be re-elected.
 
     2.   The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure, but these
rules shall provide, inter alia, that:
 
     (a)  Six members shall constitute a quorum;
 
     (b)  Decisions of the Committee shall be made by a majority vote of the
members present.
 
     3.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the
necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions
of the Committee under this Convention.
 
     4.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the
initial meeting of the Committee.  After its initial meeting, the Committee
shall meet at such times as shall be provided in its rules of procedure.
 
     5.   The States Parties shall be responsible for expenses incurred in
connection with the holding of meetings of the States Parties and of the
Committee, including reimbursement to the United Nations for any expenses,
such as the cost of staff and facilities, incurred by the United Nations
pursuant to paragraph 3 of this article.
 
                                  Article 19
     1.   The States Parties shall submit to the Committee, through the
Secretary-General of the United Nations, reports on the measures they have
taken to give effect to their undertakings under this Convention, within one
year after the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party
concerned.  Thereafter the States Parties shall submit supplementary reports
every four years on any new measures taken and such other reports as the
Committee may request.
 
     2.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit the
reports to all States Parties.
 
     3.   Each report shall be considered by the Committee which may make such
general comments on the report as it may consider appropriate and shall
forward these to the State Party concerned.  That State Party may respond with
any observations it chooses to the Committee.
 
     4.   The Committee may, at its discretion, decide to include any comments
made by it in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article, together with the
observations thereon received from the State Party concerned, in its annual
report made in accordance with article 24.  If so requested by the State Party
concerned, the Committee may also include a copy of the report submitted under
paragraph 1 of this article.
                                  Article 20
     1.   If the Committee receives reliable information which appears to it
to contain well-founded indications that torture is being systematically
practised in the territory of a State Party, the Committee shall invite that
State Party to co-operate in the examination of the information and to this
end to submit observations with regard to the information concerned.
 
     2.   Taking into account any observations which may have been submitted
by the State Party concerned, as well as any other relevant information
available to it, the Committee may, if it decides that this is warranted,
designate one or more of its members to make a confidential inquiry and to
report to the Committee urgently.
 
     3.   If an inquiry is made in accordance with paragraph 2 of this
article, the Committee shall seek the co-operation of the State Party
concerned.  In agreement with that State Party, such an inquiry may include a
visit to its territory.
 
     4.   After examining the findings of its member or members submitted in
accordance with paragraph 2 of this article, the Committee shall transmit
these findings to the State Party concerned together with any comments or
suggestions which seem appropriate in view of the situation.
 
     5.   All the proceedings of the Committee referred to in paragraphs 1
to 4 of this article shall be confidential, and at all stages of the
proceedings the co-operation of the State Party shall be sought.  After such
proceedings have been completed with regard to an inquiry made in accordance
with paragraph 2, the Committee may, after consultations with the State Party
concerned, decide to include a summary account of the results of the
proceedings in its annual report made in accordance with article 24.
 
                                  Article 21
     1.   A State Party to this Convention may at any time declare under this
article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and
consider communications to the effect that a State Party claims that another
State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under this Convention.  Such
communications may be received and considered according to the procedures laid
down in this article only if submitted by a State Party which has made a
declaration recognizing in regard to itself the competence of the Committee.
No communication shall be dealt with by the Committee under this article if it
concerns a State Party which has not made such a declaration.  Communications
received under this article shall be dealt with in accordance with the
following procedure:
 
     (a)  If a State Party considers that another State Party is not giving
effect to the provisions of this Convention, it may, by written communication,
bring the matter to the attention of that State Party.  Within three months
after the receipt of the communication the receiving State shall afford the
State which sent the communication an explanation or any other statement in
writing clarifying the matter, which should include, to the extent possible
and pertinent, reference to domestic procedures and remedies taken, pending or
available in the matter;
 
     (b)  If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both States
Parties concerned within six months after the receipt by the receiving State
of the initial communication, either State shall have the right to refer the
matter to the Committee, by notice given to the Committee and to the other
State;
 
     (c)  The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it under this
article only after it has ascertained that all domestic remedies have been
invoked and exhausted in the matter, in conformity with the generally
recognized principles of international law.  This shall not be the rule where
the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged or is unlikely to
bring effective relief to the person who is the victim of the violation of
this Convention;
 
     (d)  The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining
communications under this article;
 
     (e)  Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (c), the Committee shall
make available its good offices to the States Parties concerned with a view to
a friendly solution of the matter on the basis of respect for the obligations
provided for in this Convention.  For this purpose, the Committee may, when
appropriate, set up an ad hoc conciliation commission;
 
     (f)  In any matter referred to it under this article, the Committee may
call upon the States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b), to
supply any relevant information;
 
     (g)  The States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b), shall
have the right to be represented when the matter is being considered by the
Committee and to make submissions orally and/or in writing;
 
     (h)  The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date of receipt
of notice under subparagraph (b), submit a report:
 
     (i)  If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is reached, the
          Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts
          and of the solution reached;
 
    (ii)  If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is not reached,
          the Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the
          facts; the written submissions and record of the oral submissions
          made by the States Parties concerned shall be attached to the
          report.
 
In every matter, the report shall be communicated to the States Parties
concerned.
 
     2.   The provisions of this article shall come into force when five
States Parties to this Convention have made declarations under paragraph 1 of
this article.  Such declarations shall be deposited by the States Parties with
the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof
to the other States Parties.  A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by
notification to the Secretary-General.  Such a withdrawal shall not prejudice
the consideration of any matter which is the subject of a communication
already transmitted under this article; no further communication by any State
Party shall be received under this article after the notification of
withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the Secretary-General,
unless the State Party concerned has made a new declaration.
 
                                  Article 22
     1.   A State Party to this Convention may at any time declare under this
article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and
consider communications from or on behalf of individuals subject to its
jurisdiction who claim to be victims of a violation by a State Party of the
provisions of the Convention.  No communication shall be received by the
Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made such a declaration.
 
     2.   The Committee shall consider inadmissible any communication under
this article which is anonymous or which it considers to be an abuse of the
right of submission of such communications or to be incompatible with the
provisions of this Convention.
 
     3.   Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, the Committee shall bring
any communications submitted to it under this article to the attention of the
State Party to this Convention which has made a declaration under paragraph 1
and is alleged to be violating any provisions of the Convention.  Within six
months, the receiving State shall submit to the Committee written explanations
or statements clarifying the matter and the remedy, if any, that may have been
taken by that State.
 
     4.   The Committee shall consider communications received under this
article in the light of all information made available to it by or on behalf
of the individual and by the State Party concerned.
 
     5.   The Committee shall not consider any communications from an
individual under this article unless it has ascertained that:
 
     (a)  The same matter has not been, and is not being, examined under
another procedure of international investigation or settlement;
 
     (b)  The individual has exhausted all available domestic remedies; this
shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably
prolonged or is unlikely to bring effective relief to the person who is the
victim of the violation of this Convention.
 
     6.   The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining
communications under this article.
 
     7.   The Committee shall forward its views to the State Party concerned
and to the individual.
 
     8.   The provisions of this article shall come into force when five
States Parties to this Convention have made declarations under paragraph 1 of
this article.  Such declarations shall be deposited by the States Parties with
the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof
to the other States Parties.  A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by
notification to the Secretary-General.  Such a withdrawal shall not prejudice
the consideration of any matter which is the subject of a communication
already transmitted under this article; no further communication by or on
behalf of an individual shall be received under this article after the
notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the
Secretary-General, unless the State Party has made a new declaration.
 
                                  Article 23
     The members of the Committee and of the ad hoc conciliation commissions
which may be appointed under article 21, paragraph 1 (e), shall be entitled to
the facilities, privileges and immunities of experts on mission for the United
Nations as laid down in the relevant sections of the Convention on the
Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.
 
                                  Article 24
     The Committee shall submit an annual report on its activities under this
Convention to the States Parties and to the General Assembly of the United
Nations. 
                                   PART III
 
                                  Article 25
     1.   This Convention is open for signature by all States.
 
     2.   This Convention is subject to ratification.  Instruments of
ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United
Nations. 
                                  Article 26
     This Convention is open to accession by all States.  Accession shall be
effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
                                  Article 27
     1.   This Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after
the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of
the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.
 
     2.   For each State ratifying this Convention or acceding to it after the
deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the
Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of the
deposit of its own instrument of ratification or accession.
 
                                  Article 28
     1.   Each State may, at the time of signature or ratification of this
Convention or accession thereto, declare that it does not recognize the
competence of the Committee provided for in article 20.
 
     2.   Any State Party having made a reservation in accordance with
paragraph 1 of this article may, at any time, withdraw this reservation by
notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
                                  Article 29
     1.   Any State Party to this Convention may propose an amendment and file
it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.  The Secretary-General
shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to the States Parties with
a request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of States
Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposal.  In the
event that within four months from the date of such communication at least one
third of the States Parties favours such a conference, the Secretary-General
shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations.  Any
amendment adopted by a majority of the States Parties present and voting at
the conference shall be submitted by the Secretary-General to all the States
Parties for acceptance.
 
     2.   An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article
shall enter into force when two thirds of the States Parties to this
Convention have notified the Secretary-General of the United Nations that they
have accepted it in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
 
     3.   When amendments enter into force, they shall be binding on those
States Parties which have accepted them, other States Parties still being
bound by the provisions of this Convention and any earlier amendments which
they have accepted.
 
                                  Article 30
     1.   Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the
interpretation or application of this Convention which cannot be settled
through negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to
arbitration.  If within six months from the date of the request for
arbitration the Parties are unable to agree on the organization of the
arbitration, any one of those Parties may refer the dispute to the
International Court of Justice by request in conformity with the Statute of
the Court.
 
     2.   Each State may, at the time of signature or ratification of this
Convention or accession thereto, declare that it does not consider itself
bound by paragraph 1 of this article.  The other States Parties shall not be
bound by paragraph 1 of this article with respect to any State Party having
made such a reservation.
 
     3.   Any State Party having made a reservation in accordance with
paragraph 2 of this article may at any time withdraw this reservation by
notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
                                  Article 31
     1.   A State Party may denounce this Convention by written notification
to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.  Denunciation becomes
effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the
Secretary-General.
 
     2.   Such a denunciation shall not have the effect of releasing the State
Party from its obligations under this Convention in regard to any act or
omission which occurs prior to the date at which the denunciation becomes
effective, nor shall denunciation prejudice in any way the continued
consideration of any matter which is already under consideration by the
Committee prior to the date at which the denunciation becomes effective.
 
     3.   Following the date at which the denunciation of a State Party
becomes effective, the Committee shall not commence consideration of any new
matter regarding that State.
 
                                  Article 32
     The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States
Members of the United Nations and all States which have signed this Convention
or acceded to it of the following:
 
     (a)  Signatures, ratifications and accessions under articles 25 and 26;
 
     (b)  The date of entry into force of this Convention under article 27 and
the date of the entry into force of any amendments under article 29;
 
     (c)  Denunciations under article 31.
 
                                  Article 33
     1.   This Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French,
Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the
Secretary- General of the United Nations.
 
     2.   The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified
copies of this Convention to all States.