United Nations

A/RES/S-20/4


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

10 June 1998

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH



                                                 A/RES/S-20/4
                                           A-E:  9th plenary meeting
                                                 10 June 1998
 
 
    S-20/4.  Measures to enhance international cooperation to counter the
             world drug problem
 
 
    ACTION PLAN AGAINST ILLICIT MANUFACTURE, TRAFFICKING AND ABUSE OF
            AMPHETAMINE-TYPE STIMULANTS AND THEIR PRECURSORS
 
 The General Assembly
 
 Adopts the following Action Plan against Illicit Manufacture, Trafficking and
Abuse of Amphetamine- type Stimulants and Their Precursors:
 
 
    I.  Raising awareness of the problem of amphetamine-type stimulants
 
Problem
 
1.  The problem of amphetamine-type stimulants, though relatively new in many
countries, is growing quickly and is unlikely to go away on its own.  It is
rapidly changing in scope and geographical spread.  Yet global awareness of it
is limited and responses to it are heterogeneous and inconsistent.
 
 
Action
 
2.  The international community should give higher priority to combating the
problem of amphetamine- type stimulants in all its aspects.  The competent
entities of the United Nations system should give appropriate consideration to
that problem.  The subject of amphetamine-type stimulants should be given
higher priority and should become a regular item on the agenda of the
Commission on Narcotic Drugs.
 
3.  International and regional bodies should continue to advocate
implementation of the extensive framework of international treaties, as well
as resolutions or decisions addressing various aspects of the problem of
amphetamine-type stimulants, adopted by the Economic and Social Council, the
Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the International Narcotics Control Board.
 
4.  International bodies such as the United Nations International Drug Control
Programme, the International Narcotics Control Board and the World Health
Organization should strengthen their work on the technical and scientific
dimensions of the problem of amphetamine-type stimulants and disseminate the
results in regular publications for States and the general public.
 
5.  States should give the issue the priority and attention it deserves and
implement the global framework mentioned in paragraph 3 above.
 
6.  In addition to efforts by States, mobilization of the private sector and
non-governmental organizations should be sought in achieving awareness of the
problem of amphetamine-type stimulants.
 
7.  States should disseminate information on actions taken in fulfilment of
the present Action Plan and report on them to the Commission on Narcotic
Drugs, which, in turn, should review and appraise implementation of the Action
Plan at the national, regional and international levels.
 
 
       II.  Reducing demand for illicit amphetamine-type stimulants
 
Problem
 
8.  In many countries, abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants is increasingly
concentrated among younger segments of the population, who widely and
erroneously believe the substances to be safe and benign.  Such abuse of
amphetamine-type stimulants is threatening to become a part of mainstream
consumer culture.
 
Action
 
9.  International bodies such as the United Nations International Drug Control
Programme and the World Health Organization should, on a regular basis, (a)
collate current information on the health effects of amphetamine-type
stimulants and their by-products; (b) study the social, economic and cultural
driving forces of demand for amphetamine-type stimulants; (c) identify,
document and disseminate good practices in the prevention and treatment of
abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants, as well as in the prescription of licit
amphetamine-type stimulants; and (d) coordinate work with non-governmental
organizations in these areas.
 
10. States should (a) continuously monitor changing patterns of abuse of
amphetamine-type stimulants; (b) investigate social, economic, health and
cultural dimensions of abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants; (c) give priority
to research, where capacity is available, on the long-term health effects of
abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants; (d) use and disseminate the results of
these activities, including the information collated by the international
bodies, for targeted prevention and treatment efforts as well as, where
appropriate, public awareness campaigns; and (e) include in their education
campaigns, information on the harmful effects of abuse of amphetamine-type
stimulants.
 
 
    III.  Providing accurate information on amphetamine-type stimulants
 
Problem
 
11. Traditionally limited to the ambit of underground literature, information
on illicit amphetamine-type stimulants has now become accessible to a large
population through modern technology.  Recipes for clandestine manufacture of
amphetamine-type stimulants, techniques of abuse of amphetamine-type
stimulants, images of amphetamine-type stimulants as harmless drugs, and
methods of evading existing controls are all widely available.  This malign
influence should be countered by the positive use of information technology,
such as the Internet, for educational and training purposes.
 
Action
 
12. Consultations should be initiated at the national, regional and
international levels, as appropriate, with representatives of the traditional
media and the telecommunication and software industries to promote and
encourage self-restraint and to develop frameworks, based on existing law, for
the removal of illegal drug- related information.  Frameworks could be
developed from industry-managed open-complaint mechanisms such as reporting
hotlines, which allow Internet users to report instances of illegal
drug-related material found on the Internet.  Responsibility for enforcement
action should remain with the appropriate enforcement authorities.  States
should also encourage the development and use of rating and filtering
software, which enables users to protect themselves from material that, while
not illegal, may contain offensive or undesirable information.
 
13. States should ensure that their legal frameworks regarding illegal drugs
and drug-related information apply, as appropriate, to the Internet as they do
off-line.
 
14. International bodies such as the United Nations International Drug Control
Programme, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization, the World Health Organization, the International Criminal Police
Organization and the Customs Cooperation Council (also called the World
Customs Organization), as well as appropriate regional and national
organizations, should participate in a worldwide clearing-house system (that
is, the electronic linking, through the Internet, of national, regional and
international documentation centres on substance abuse) to disseminate
accurate and timely information on various aspects of the problem of
amphetamine-type stimulants, as well as use the Internet for distance-
learning purposes, with particular emphasis on assistance to developing
countries.
 
15. States should (a) use modern information technology to disseminate
information on adverse health, social and economic consequences of abuse of
amphetamine-type stimulants; and (b) encourage methodological development,
standardized terminology and coordinated data collection on amphetamine- type
stimulants through, inter alia, participation in the international
clearing-house system.
 
16. States should also take appropriate action to implement fully the
provisions of article 10, paragraph 2, of the Convention on Psychotropic
Substances of 1971 on prohibiting the advertisement of controlled substances
to the general public and article 3, paragraph 1 (c) (iii), of the United
Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances of 1988 on publicly inciting illicit activities related to drugs.
 
 
          IV.  Limiting the supply of amphetamine-type stimulants
 
Problem
 
17. For amphetamine-type stimulants, the principal supply control strategies
are to target trafficking, stop illicit manufacture and prevent diversion of
laboratory equipment and the chemical starting materials (that is, the
precursors).  The latter is particularly important because it is the
precursors rather than the end products of amphetamine-type stimulants that
are trafficked interregionally.  The precursors, however, have a wide range of
licit industrial uses and form a part of licit international trade.  Effective
monitoring can be successful only with the close cooperation of industry.
Such cooperation also plays a crucial role in preventing the diversion of
amphetamine-type stimulants from licit sources.  Information furnished by
Governments to the International Narcotics Control Board shows diversion of
amphetamine-type stimulants from licit international trade into illicit
channels and high legal consumption of amphetamine-type stimulants in some
countries.
 
Action
 
18. On the basis of the existing framework for precursor control provided by
article 12 of the 1988 Convention, related Economic and Social Council
resolutions and recommendations of the International Narcotics Control Board,
the competent authorities at the international, regional and national levels
should take the following actions specific to precursors for amphetamine-type
stimulants:  (a) the promotion of close cooperation with industry to establish
measures and/or a code of conduct governing trade in precursors for
amphetamine-type stimulants; (b) enhanced implementation of the control
measures against the diversion of precursors for amphetamine-type stimulants
listed in the 1988 Convention, including greater use of pre-export
notifications and improved procedures for information exchange at the national
and international levels; (c) improved monitoring of non-scheduled substances
that have been identified as frequently used in the illicit manufacture of
amphetamine-type stimulants, including voluntary cooperation between
authorities and the relevant branches of industry in order to help to identify
suspicious transactions; (d) the establishment of an international special
surveillance list of the substances referred to in (b) above as part of a
general early warning system; (e) consideration of punishing, as a criminal
offence in the sense of article 3 of the 1988 Convention, the diversion of
non-scheduled chemical substances with the knowledge that they are intended
for use in the illicit manufacture of amphetamine- type stimulants; and (f)
exchanges of information between all the agencies concerned, including in
investigations concerning such non-scheduled substances, to detect and prevent
illicit trafficking.
 
19. In order to target the clandestine manufacture of amphetamine-type
stimulants, international, regional and national authorities should also (a)
monitor clandestine manufacture methods; (b) develop drug signature analysis
and profiling; (c) monitor, to the extent possible, sales of laboratory
equipment, in compliance with article 13 of the 1988 Convention; (d) train all
enforcement and control personnel involved in the technical complexities of
amphetamine-type stimulants; and (e) investigate the possibility of developing
procedures for differentiating between groups of substances with closely
related chemical structures and for detecting individual substances within
amphetamine-type stimulants, for use by enforcement authorities.
 
20. States should strengthen their enforcement efforts against the illicit
manufacture of and trafficking in amphetamine-type stimulants.
 
21. On the basis of the 1971 Convention and related Economic and Social
Council resolutions, competent authorities, in cooperation with industry,
should closely monitor developments in the licit manufacture of, trade in and
distribution of amphetamine-type stimulants in order to detect and prevent (a)
diversion into illicit channels from manufacture and international and retail
trade (pharmacies); and (b) irresponsible marketing and prescribing of such
substances.  They should also cooperate closely with the International
Narcotics Control Board by exchanging all relevant information in accordance
with the 1971 Convention and related Economic and Social Council resolutions.
 
 
V.   Strengthening the control system for amphetamine-type stimulants and
       their precursors
 
Problem
 
22. When applied to clandestinely manufactured amphetamine-type stimulants,
the international drug control system reveals several shortcomings, inter
alia, the complicated procedure for scheduling psychotropic substances, the
relative novelty of the precursor control regime and the different procedures
for changing the scope of control in the international drug control
conventions.  Effectively counteracting or preventing emergency situations,
which may differ from region to region, requires a control system that is
fast, flexible, easy to adapt to new situations and both technically and
conceptually commensurate with the ever-greater complexity of the evolving
problem of amphetamine-type stimulants.
 
Action
 
23. Concerning the wide area of regulatory control, international and regional
organizations as well as States should, as appropriate:
 
 (a)   Rapidly identify and assess new amphetamine-type stimulants found on
illicit markets; States may then wish to use such assessments to determine
whether they should bring such substances under control so that legal action
can be taken against illicit manufacture and trafficking;
 
 (b)   Improve the technical basis of control, particularly with regard to
increasing the flexibility of the process of scheduling.  This would involve
the application of one of the following models used in different countries:
(i) emergency or simplified scheduling processes; (ii) scheduling based on
structurally similar groups (analogues); and (iii) control for purposes of
criminal prosecution, based on similarities in chemical structure and known or
anticipated pharmacological effects;
 
 (c)   Implement the relevant Economic and Social Council resolutions and
consider the recommendations of the International Narcotics Control Board
aimed at strengthening the control of psychotropic substances under the 1971
Convention, which should be similar to that applied to narcotic drugs;
 
 (d)   Introduce appropriate sanctions and penalties for illicit manufacture
of and trafficking in amphetamine-type stimulants in compliance with article
22 of the 1971 Convention and article 3 of the 1988 Convention, strengthen law
enforcement efforts against offences related to amphetamine-type stimulants,
and consider appropriate penalties and/or alternative measures against the
abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants, consistent with national laws and
policies;
 
 (e)   Improve data collection and exchange of information on issues such as
size of clandestine laboratories detected, manufacturing methods, precursors
used, purities, prices, sources of amphetamine- type stimulants and their
precursors, and epidemiological information;
 
 (f)   Strengthen regional cooperation, inter alia, through the following:
multilateral exchanges between States of information about the adoption of
amendments of national laws relating to the control of amphetamine-type
stimulants, regional arrangements for monitoring new developments in the
clandestine manufacture of and trafficking in amphetamine-type stimulants, and
establishment of rapid channels of communication;
 
 (g)   Provide, at the request of States with limited expertise in dealing
with the complex technical problems posed by amphetamine-type stimulants, the
information and assistance needed to implement effective measures against the
manufacture of, trafficking in and abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants;
 
 (h)   Improve the exchange of information between States on transactions
involving amphetamine-type stimulants in order to strengthen the control
system for such substances and their precursors and to apply the
"know-your-customer" principle.
 
 
                                     B
 
                           CONTROL OF PRECURSORS
 
 The General Assembly,
 
 Recognizing the fact that, in recent years, the diversion of precursors has
become one of the most serious phenomena in the field of illicit drug
manufacture,
 
 Noting that the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the
1972 Protocol, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 19711 and the
United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and
Psychotropic Substances of 19882 provide the international basis for drug and
precursor control,
 
 Reaffirming the importance of preventing the diversion of chemicals from
legitimate commerce to illicit drug manufacture as an essential component of a
comprehensive strategy against drug abuse and trafficking,
 
 Recognizing that combating this phenomenon calls for the adoption and
effective application of strict and modern laws that make it possible to
prevent and penalize such criminal conduct, as well as for the establishment
of efficient and fully trained investigatory bodies and organs of justice that
possess the human and material resources required to deal with the problem,
 
 Noting the special problem posed by synthetic drugs, which can be
manufactured illicitly in a variety of forms using chemicals, many of which
can be easily substituted,
 
 Noting also the progress made in developing practical guidelines for the
implementation of the international drug control conventions, in particular
the International Narcotics Control Board Guidelines for Use by National
Authorities in Preventing the Diversion of Precursors and Essential Chemicals,
and the annex entitled "Summary of the recommendations of the International
Narcotics Control Board relevant to implementation by Governments of article
12 of the 1988 Convention", which appears annually in the report of the Board
on the implementation of article 12 of the 1988 Convention,
 
 Conscious of the progress made in controlling shipments of precursors as a
result of cooperation between the competent national authorities in a number
of States, and of the important work conducted by the International Narcotics
Control Board in facilitating that cooperation and in assisting Governments in
verifying the legitimacy of individual transactions to prevent their diversion
to illicit traffic,
 
 Conscious also of the fact that many States lack sufficient resources to
conduct in-depth investigations that would enable them to determine the
legitimacy of transactions,
 
 Considering that experience in precursor control demonstrates that
multilateral exchange of information between competent national authorities of
all States concerned, as well as the international organizations concerned,
supplemented by bilateral and regional agreements for information-sharing
where necessary, is essential in preventing the diversion of precursors,
 
 Deeply concerned that drug traffickers continue to have access to the
precursors required for the illicit manufacture of drugs, including substances
listed in Tables I and II of the 1988 Convention, as well as other substances
that are used as substitutes,
 
 Considering that measures against the diversion of precursors can be
effective only through concerted worldwide action and international
cooperation guided by common principles and objectives,
 
 Decides to adopt the measures to prevent the illicit manufacture, import,
export, trafficking, distribution and diversion from licit channels to the
illicit traffic of precursors used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic
drugs and psychotropic substances, including substitute chemicals, as well as
additional measures to enhance international cooperation in precursor control,
which are presented below.
 
 
I.  Measures to prevent the illicit manufacture, import, export, trafficking,
     distribution and diversion of precursors used in the illicit manufacture
     of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances
 
               A.  Legislation and national control systems
 
Problem
 
1.  The necessary actions to be taken by States to prevent diversion, and the
success of those actions in identifying attempted diversions and stopping
shipments, are possible only if States have established an adequate
legislative basis or system of control that allows them to monitor effectively
the movement of precursors.  Furthermore, mechanisms and procedures must be
established for effective implementation of the legislation in place.
 
2.  In order to establish effective systems of control, States need to
identify competent national authorities and their specific roles and to share
that information with other States.  They also need to share details of the
actual control measures applied.
 
3.  Many States have not yet taken those necessary steps.
 
Action
 
4.  States, in cooperation with competent international and regional bodies
and, if necessary and to the extent possible, with the private sector in each
State, should:
 
 (a)   Adopt and implement, where they have not already done so, the national
laws and regulations required for strict compliance with the provisions and
proposals of article 12 of the United Nations Convention against Illicit
Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988,2 and related
resolutions of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the Economic and Social
Council, including, in particular, the establishment of a system of control
and licensing of the enterprises and persons engaged in the manufacture and
distribution of substances listed in Tables I and II of the 1988 Convention
and a system for monitoring the international trade in such substances for the
purpose of facilitating the detection of suspicious shipments, and designate
competent national authorities responsible for implementing such controls;
 
 (b)   Review regularly, and take appropriate steps to strengthen existing
precursor controls should any weaknesses be identified, giving full
consideration to the related recommendations of the International Narcotics
Control Board as contained in the annual reports of the Board on the
implementation of article 12 of the 1988 Convention;
 
 (c)   Adopt penal, civil or administrative measures for punishing, in
accordance with their legislative provisions, as a criminal offence in the
sense of article 3 of the 1988 Convention, the unlawful conduct of individuals
or companies in connection with the diversion of precursors from legitimate
commerce into the illicit manufacture of drugs;
 
 (d)   Exchange experience on procedures for the adoption of legislation and
on the application of measures for combating and punishing illicit traffic in
and diversion of precursors, including the use, where appropriate, of
controlled deliveries;
 
 (e)   Submit timely reports to the International Narcotics Control Board on
national regulations adopted to control the export, import and transit of
precursors, including details of the requirements that have to be met for the
authorization of imports and exports;
 
 (f)   Adopt the necessary measures to ensure that the disposal of seized
chemicals has no harmful effect on the environment.
 
 
                         B.  Information exchange
 
Problem
 
5.  Rapid and timely information exchange between importing and exporting
States is the key to effective precursor control, allowing States to verify
the legitimacy of individual transactions and identify suspicious shipments in
order to prevent the diversion of precursors.  Many States have not yet
established systematic mechanisms to ensure such rapid communication exchange,
including timely feedback, with other competent national authorities, and with
the International Narcotics Control Board, even on a confidential basis.
 
6.  Similarly, traffickers quickly turn to sources in other States when they
are denied the chemicals that they require.  Experience has confirmed the
importance of immediately sharing information on diversion attempts and
suspicious transactions or stopped shipments with other States, and with the
International Narcotics Control Board, in order to counter such attempts
elsewhere.
 
 
Action
 
7.  States, in cooperation with competent international and regional bodies
and, if necessary and to the extent possible, with the private sector in each
State, should:
 
 (a)   Improve their mechanisms and procedures for monitoring trade in
precursors, including the following actions:
 
 (i)   Regular exchange of information between exporting, importing and
       transit States, and with the International Narcotics Control Board, on
       exports of precursors before they take place, including, in particular,
       in addition to the requirements of article 12, paragraph 10, of the
       1988 Convention, the provision by exporting States of pre-export
       notification to the competent authorities in importing countries for
       all transactions involving the substances in Table I, and acetic
       anhydride and potassium permanganate; as well as notification of the
       Secretary-General upon the request of the importing country.
       Recognizing the importance and usefulness of pre-export notifications
       for combating effectively the illicit production of narcotic drugs,
       psychotropic substances and, particularly, amphetamine-type stimulants,
       the same efforts should be made with regard to the remaining substances
       listed in Table II.  These measures should complement tight domestic
       controls in all countries, which are also necessary to ensure the
       prevention of diversion of precursor chemicals;
 
   (ii)  Promotion of the implementation, by competent national authorities,
         of mechanisms to verify the legitimacy of transactions before they
         take place, including the exchange of information on the legitimate
         domestic need for the chemical; timely feedback to exporting States
         by States that have received pre-export notifications; and allowance
         by exporting States, when requested by the importing State, of
         adequate time - to the extent possible, up to fifteen days - to
         verify the legitimate end-use;
 
   (iii) Exchange of information between exporting, importing and transit
         States, and with the International Narcotics Control Board, on
         suspicious transactions involving precursors and, where appropriate,
         on seizures effected and denials made;
 
   (b)   Keep confidential any industrial, business, commercial or
professional secrets or trade processes contained in the reports provided by
States on the export, import or transit and intended use of precursors, in
accordance with the provisions of article 12, paragraph 11, of the 1988
Convention.  Where necessary, an appropriate legal framework should be set up
to ensure the suitable protection of personal data;
 
   (c)   Notify, as rapidly as possible, the International Narcotics Control
Board, and the other States concerned as they consider necessary, of any
decisions to deny a permit for the shipment of a precursor if it has not been
possible to verify the legitimacy of a transaction, whether an import, an
export or a trans-shipment, providing all relevant information concerning the
reasons for the denial, so that other States may consider taking a similar
course of action.  Whenever an importing, an exporting or a transit State is
considering issuing a permit for shipment, it should make its decision with
due assessment of all the elements of the case, and in particular of any such
information provided to it by the State that has denied the issue of a permit
for that shipment.
 
 
                            C.  Data collection
 
Problem
 
8. Information on the normal patterns of legitimate trade and on the licit
uses of and requirements for precursors is necessary to verify the legitimacy
of individual transactions.  Without such information, it is difficult to
monitor the movement of precursors as required under article 12 of the 1988
Convention.  Many States are not yet able to collect data on the licit
movement of precursors.  The inability to do so may indicate that the
framework and systems for adequate control are not in place and that
competencies in the field of precursor control have not been clearly defined.
 
Action
 
9. States, in cooperation with competent international and regional bodies
and, if necessary and to the extent possible, with the private sector in each
State, should:
 
   (a)   Design and establish flexible and effective mechanisms, where they do
not already exist, subject to provisions for confidentiality and data
protection, for obtaining data on the licit manufacture, import or export of
precursors, and on any other activity related to the trade in precursors and
for monitoring the movement of such substances, including the establishment of
a register of public or private companies engaged in any activity relating
thereto, which are to report suspicious orders for, or cases of theft of,
precursors and to cooperate at all times with the competent national
authorities;
 
   (b)   Establish or strengthen cooperation with associations of the chemical
trade and industry, and with persons or companies engaged in any activity
related to precursors, for example, through the establishment of guidelines or
a code of conduct, to intensify efforts aimed at controlling such substances;
 
   (c)   Establish the principle of "know your customer" for those who
manufacture or market chemicals in order to improve the exchange of
information.
 
 
II.  Towards more universal international cooperation in precursor control
 
Problem
 
10.   Achievements in preventing the diversion of precursors have been due to
the activities of a growing, but still relatively small, number of Governments
of exporting, importing and transit States and territories worldwide.
 
11.   Those States have taken specific steps to monitor the movement of
precursors through their territories, even when they do not have comprehensive
legislation for precursor control in place.  However, many States have not yet
developed adequate systems for precursor control, in spite of the fact that
traffickers have exploited as points of diversion those countries and
territories where controls are inadequate.  Controls do not serve their
purpose if all States facing similar situations with regard to the trafficking
of precursors do not take similar practical steps to ensure that diversion
attempts are identified or do not share their experiences in implementing
controls.  More uniform action is required by all States to limit the
availability to traffickers of the precursors required for illicit drug
manufacture.
 
Action
 
12.   States, in cooperation with competent international and regional bodies
and, if necessary and to the extent possible, with the private sector in each
State, should:
 
   (a)   Institutionalize uniform procedures to facilitate the widespread,
multilateral exchange of information on suspicious transactions and stopped
shipments in the course of implementing national precursor control laws and
regulations based on the international drug control conventions and related
resolutions, guidelines and recommendations, in such a way as to complement
bilateral or regional agreements;
 
   (b)   Promote multilateral arrangements that encourage the exchange of
essential information for effective monitoring of the international trade in
precursors, to complement similar bilateral or regional agreements, with
special emphasis on devising practical systems for sharing information on
individual transactions;
 
   (c)   Disseminate more systematic information on the ways and means used by
criminal organizations for illicit trafficking in and diversion of precursors,
with a view to adopting measures to prevent such illicit activities, in
accordance with article 12, paragraph 12 (c), of the 1988 Convention;
 
   (d)   Promote technical assistance programmes for States upon request,
according the highest priority to those with the least resources, for the
purpose of strengthening control of precursors and avoiding their diversion
for illicit purposes;
 
   (e)   Promote the exchange of experience relating to police, customs and
other administrative investigation, interception, detection and control of
diversion of precursors;
 
   (f)   Organize expert meetings, where necessary, on combating the illicit
traffic in and diversion of precursors in order to promote professional skills
and raise levels of expertise.
 
 
                        III.  Substitute chemicals
 
Problem
 
13.   Some of the substances required for illicit drug manufacture that are
listed in Tables I and II of the 1988 Convention have become especially
difficult to obtain as a result of the implementation of the provisions of
that Convention.  Traffickers have successfully sought to obtain chemicals
that may be used as substitutes for those that are more closely monitored.  In
addition, they have identified and used new methods for processing or
manufacture, requiring substances currently not listed in Tables I and II of
the 1988 Convention.  They have also manufactured so-called controlled-drug
analogues, many of which again require as starting material substances
currently not listed in Tables I and II.
 
Action
 
14.   States, in cooperation with competent international and regional bodies
and, if necessary and to the extent possible, with the private sector in each
State, should:
 
   (a)   Cooperate with the International Narcotics Control Board in the
preparation of a limited international special surveillance list of substances
currently not in Tables I and II of the 1988 Convention and for which
substantial information exists of their use in illicit drug trafficking, as
requested by the Economic and Social Council in section I, paragraph 2, of its
resolution 1996/29 of 24 July 1996, contributing to the maintenance of that
list by informing the Board on a regular basis, in accordance with article 12,
paragraph 12, of the Convention, about non-scheduled substances that have been
diverted from licit channels to illicit traffic and promoting studies of the
potential use of non-scheduled substances with a view to the timely
identification of any that could be used in the illicit manufacture of drugs;
 
   (b)   Apply monitoring measures, whether voluntary, administrative or
legislative, in cooperation with the chemical industry, so as to prevent the
diversion from licit channels to illicit traffic of substances included on the
special surveillance list, including specific monitoring measures for those
substances that are relevant at the national or regional levels.  In addition,
States shall consider punishing, as a criminal offence in the sense of article
3 of the 1988 Convention, the diversion of non-scheduled chemical substances
with the knowledge that they are intended for use in the illicit manufacture
of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, and introducing related penal,
civil and administrative sanctions.
 
 
                                     C
 
                 MEASURES TO PROMOTE JUDICIAL COOPERATION
 
   The General Assembly
 
   Adopts the following measures to promote judicial cooperation:
 
 
                              I.  Extradition
 
1. It is recommended that States:
 
   (a)   If needed, and as far as possible, on a periodic basis, review their
domestic legislation to simplify procedures for extradition, consistent with
their constitutional principles and the basic concepts of their legal systems;
 
   (b)   Inform other States of the competent authority or authorities
designated to receive, respond to and process extradition requests; in that
regard, communicating the name, address and telephone number of the authority
or authorities to the United Nations International Drug Control Programme
would be useful;
 
   (c)   Prepare summaries of their domestic laws and extradition practices,
to be made available to other States;
 
   (d)   Subject to constitutional provisions, international drug control
treaties and national legislation, consider extraditing their nationals for
serious drug offences on agreement that they will be surrendered for
prosecution but that they could be returned to serve any sentences imposed in
their State of nationality; and reconsider the other traditional exceptions to
extradition, particularly in cases involving serious crimes;
 
   (e)   Utilize, where appropriate, the Model Treaty on Extradition as a
resource when negotiating such treaties;
 
   (f)   Maximize the use of modern technologies for facilitating
communications, as long as they are secure and consistent with domestic legal
systems. 
 
 
                       II.  Mutual legal assistance
 
2. It is recommended that States:
 
   (a)   Ensure that their domestic legislation enables them to implement
article 7 of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic
Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988;2
 
   (b)   Designate an authority or authorities with the power both to make and
to execute, or to transmit for execution, requests for mutual legal
assistance; and, pursuant to the provisions of article 7, paragraphs 8 and 9
of the 1988 Convention, notify the Secretary-General of the name, address,
facsimile number, telephone number and e-mail address (if any) of the
authority or authorities designated to receive such requests, as well as the
acceptable language or languages;
 
   (c)   Provide other States with guides or manuals on how to make requests
   for mutual legal assistance;
 
   (d)   Develop model forms for requests for mutual legal assistance;
 
   (e)   Utilize, where appropriate, the Model Treaty on Mutual Assistance in
Criminal Matters as a resource when negotiating such treaties;
 
   (f)   Maximize the use of modern communication technologies, such as the
Internet and facsimile machines, as long as they are secure and consistent
with the domestic legal system and available resources, to expedite and render
more efficient requests for mutual legal assistance and the execution of such
requests;
 
   (g)   Consider the use of telephone and video-link technology for obtaining
witness statements and testimony, as long as they are secure and consistent
with domestic legal systems and available resources.
 
 
 
                       III.  Transfer of proceedings
 
3. It is recommended that States:
 
   (a)   Make available information on their experiences in the transfer of
proceedings, if they possess such experiences, to other interested States;
 
   (b)   Consider enacting the legislation necessary to transfer or receive
   proceedings in criminal matters;
 
   (c)   Consider whether it would be useful to enter into agreements with
other States that have similar legal systems to transfer or receive
proceedings in criminal matters, particularly with those States that do not
extradite their own nationals; and, in that connection, refer to the Model
Treaty on the Transfer of Proceedings in Criminal Matters as a basis for
negotiations.
 
 
               IV.  Other forms of cooperation and training
 
4. It is recommended that States:
 
   (a)   Consider developing or expanding programmes for the exchange of law
enforcement personnel, giving special consideration to exchanging experts who
can assist in such areas as forensic evidence or financial investigations or
who can exchange knowledge, experience and techniques concerning drug
trafficking and related offences;
 
   (b)   Where appropriate, consider methods of enhancing cooperation between
law enforcement agencies; improve the sharing of intelligence and the
development of shared investigative strategies to combat drug-trafficking
organizations operating in several States; ensure that investigative
activities in one State complement those undertaken in other States; and be
ready to work together on specific projects, without prejudice to the
jurisdictions of the States concerned;
 
   (c)   Exchange information developed through forensic analysis,
particularly on the basis of scientific profiles of seized narcotic drugs,
psychotropic substances and precursors and the examination of packaging
materials;
 
   (d)   Consider developing secure means of using modern communication
capabilities to facilitate the fast exchange of information consistent with
domestic legal systems;
 
   (e)   Consider establishing specialized units within or linked to law
enforcement agencies, for investigating drug-trafficking cases, encouraging
close coordination among all relevant agencies, such as customs, coastguard
and police departments, and ensuring that training is provided;
 
   (f)   Consider measures to reinforce cooperation between the criminal
justice, health and social systems in order to reduce drug abuse and related
health problems;
 
   (g)   Strengthen cooperation not only among enforcement agencies, but also
among judicial authorities;
 
   (h)   Cooperate, as appropriate, with neighbouring States through
agreements or arrangements to ensure that their inland waters are not used for
illicit traffic.
 
 
                          V.  Controlled delivery
 
5. It is recommended that States:
 
   (a)   If permitted by the basic principles of their respective domestic
legal systems, ensure that their legislation, procedures and practices allow
for the use of the technique of controlled delivery at both the domestic and
the international levels, subject to agreements, arrangements and
understandings mutually consented to between States;
 
   (b)   Consider entering into agreements and arrangements with other States,
particularly neighbouring States, to facilitate the use of controlled
deliveries; or consider that possibility on a case-by-case basis;
 
   (c)   Assist one another through the exchange of experience and equipment;
and, if they have developed technical equipment for tracking consignments of
illicit drugs or have developed innocuous substances that can be substituted
for illicit drugs, consider supplying the equipment or substances to other
States to ensure successful controlled deliveries.
 
 
                        VI.  Illicit traffic by sea
 
6. It is recommended that States:
 
   (a)   Review national legislation to ensure that the legal requirements of
the 1988 Convention are met, for example, the identification of competent
national authorities, the maintenance of ship registries and the establishment
of adequate law enforcement powers;
 
   (b)   Review communication channels and procedures between competent
authorities to facilitate coordination and cooperation with the objective of
ensuring rapid responses and decisions;
 
   (c)   Promote regional cooperation in maritime drug law enforcement by
means of bilateral and regional meetings, including meetings of heads of
national drug law enforcement agencies;
 
   (d)   Negotiate and implement bilateral and multilateral agreements to
enhance cooperation in combating the illicit drug traffic by sea in accordance
with article 17 of the 1988 Convention;
 
   (e)   Provide training to law enforcement personnel in maritime drug law
enforcement, including the identification and surveillance of suspicious
vessels, procedures for boarding, searching techniques and drug
identification;
 
   (f)   Cooperate with other States through multilateral training seminars;
 
   (g)   Consistent with their legal systems, promote common maritime law
enforcement procedures through the use of the forthcoming Maritime Drug Law
Enforcement Training Guide of the United Nations International Drug Control
Programme.
 
 
                       VII.  Complementary measures
 
7. It is recommended that States consider designing complementary measures to
enhance further the implementation of the 1988 Convention in the following
areas, reconciling respect for individual human rights with the basic
principles of justice and security:
 
   (a)   The protection of judges, prosecutors and other members of
surveillance and law enforcement agencies, as well as witnesses, whenever the
circumstances so warrant, in cases that involve illicit drug trafficking;
 
   (b)   New investigative techniques;
 
   (c)   The harmonization and simplification of procedures to increase
   international cooperation;
 
   (d)   The development or strengthening of legal institutions and their
capacity for judicial cooperation, especially in respect of drug-related
offences;
 
   (e)   The improvement of the professionalism of criminal justice personnel
through enhanced technical cooperation, training and human resource
development.
 
                                     D
 
                        COUNTERING MONEY-LAUNDERING
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Recognizing that the problem of laundering of money derived from illicit
trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, as well as from
other serious crimes, has expanded internationally to become such a global
threat to the integrity, reliability and stability of financial and trade
systems and even government structures as to require countermeasures by the
international community as a whole in order to deny safe havens to criminals
and their illicit proceeds,
 
   Recalling the provisions of the United Nations Convention against Illicit
Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988,2 according to
which all parties to the Convention are required to establish money-laundering
as a punishable offence and to adopt the measures necessary to enable the
authorities to identify, trace and freeze or seize the proceeds of illicit
drug trafficking,
 
   Recalling also Commission on Narcotic Drugs resolution 5 (XXXIX) of 24
April 1996, in which the Commission noted that the forty recommendations of
the Financial Action Task Force established by the heads of State or
Government of the seven major industrialized countries and the President of
the European Commission remained the standard by which the measures against
money-laundering adopted by concerned States should be judged, as well as
Economic and Social Council resolution 1997/40 of 21 July 1997, in which the
Council took note with satisfaction of the document entitled "Anti-drug
strategy in the hemisphere", approved by the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control
Commission of the Organization of American States at its twentieth regular
session, held at Buenos Aires in October 1996, and signed at Montevideo in
December 1996, and urged the international community to take due account of
the anti-drug strategy in the hemisphere as a significant contribution to the
strengthening of the Global Programme of Action adopted by the General
Assembly at its seventeenth special session,
 
   Recognizing the political will expressed by the international community,
especially as reflected in such initiatives as the Convention on Laundering,
Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime, adopted in 1990
by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe and the Ministerial
Communiqu@e1 of the Summit of the Americas Ministerial Conference Concerning
the Laundering of Proceeds and Instrumentalities of Crime, held at Buenos
Aires in December 1995, and by such bodies as the Inter-American Drug Abuse
Control Commission of the Organization of American States, the Asia/Pacific
Group on Money Laundering, the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force, the
Offshore Group of Banking Supervisors and the Commonwealth, all of which are
well-recognized multilateral initiatives aimed at combating money-laundering
and constitute legal or policy frameworks within which concerned States are
defining and adopting measures against money-laundering,
 
   Aware that the proceeds of illicit drug trafficking and other illicit
activities, which are laundered through banks and other financial
institutions, constitute an obstacle to the implementation of policies
designed to liberalize financial markets in order to attract legitimate
investment, in that they distort those markets,
 
   Emphasizing that there is a need to harmonize national legislation with a
view to ensuring appropriate coordination of policies for combating
money-laundering, without prejudice to the action each State is undertaking
within its own jurisdiction to combat this form of criminality,
 
   Recognizing the need to promote and develop effective mechanisms for the
pursuit, freezing, seizure and confiscation of property obtained through or
derived from illicit activities, so as to avoid its use by criminals,
 
   Recognizing that only through international cooperation and the
establishment of bilateral and multilateral information networks such as the
Egmont Group, which will enable States to exchange information between
competent authorities, will it be possible to combat effectively the problem
of money- laundering,
 
   Emphasizing the enormous efforts of a number of States to draw up and apply
domestic legislation that identifies the activity of money-laundering as a
criminal offence,
 
   Realizing the importance of progress being made by all States in conforming
to the relevant recommendations and the need for States to participate
actively in international and regional initiatives designed to promote and
strengthen the implementation of effective measures against money-laundering,
 
   1. Strongly condemns the laundering of money derived from illicit drug
trafficking and other serious crimes, as well as the use of the financial
systems of States for that purpose;
 
   2. Urges all States to implement the provisions against money-laundering
that are contained in the United Nations Convention against Illicit
Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 19882 and the
other relevant international instruments on money-laundering, in accordance
with fundamental constitutional principles, by applying the following
principles:
 
   (a)   Establishment of a legislative framework to criminalize the
laundering of money derived from serious crimes in order to provide for the
prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of the crime of
money-laundering through, inter alia:
 
   (i)   Identification, freezing, seizure and confiscation of the proceeds of
   crime;
 
   (ii)  International cooperation; and mutual legal assistance in cases
   involving money-laundering;
 
   (iii) Inclusion of the crime of money-laundering in mutual legal assistance
         agreements for the purpose of ensuring judicial assistance in
         investigations, court cases or judicial proceedings relating to that
         crime;
 
   (b)   Establishment of an effective financial and regulatory regime to deny
criminals and their illicit funds access to national and international
financial systems, thus preserving the integrity of financial systems
worldwide and ensuring compliance with laws and other regulations against
money-laundering through:
 
   (i)   Customer identification and verification requirements applying the
         principle of "know your customer", in order to have available for
         competent authorities the necessary information on the identity of
         clients and the financial movements that they carry out;
 
   (ii)  Financial record-keeping;
 
   (iii) Mandatory reporting of suspicious activity;
 
   (iv)  Removal of bank-secrecy impediments to efforts directed at
         preventing, investigating and punishing money-laundering;
 
   (v)   Other relevant measures;
 
   (c)   Implementation of law enforcement measures to provide tools for,
   inter alia:
 
   (i)   Effective detection, investigation, prosecution and conviction of
         criminals engaging in money- laundering activity;
 
   (ii)  Extradition procedures;
 
   (iii) Information-sharing mechanisms;
 
   3. Calls upon the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention to continue
to work, within the framework of its global programme against
money-laundering, with relevant multilateral and regional institutions,
organizations or bodies engaged in activities against money-laundering and
drug trafficking and with international financial institutions to give effect
to the above principles by providing training, advice and technical assistance
to States upon request and where appropriate.
 
 
                                     E
 
 ACTION PLAN ON INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ON THE ERADICATION OF ILLICIT
                DRUG CROPS AND ON ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT
 
   The General Assembly,
 
   Reaffirming that the fight against illicit drugs must be pursued in
accordance with the provisions of the international drug control treaties, on
the basis of the principle of shared responsibility, and requires an
integrated and balanced approach in full conformity with the purposes and
principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international law, and
particularly with full respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity
of States, the principle of non-intervention in the internal affairs of States
and all human rights and fundamental freedoms,
 
   Recognizing that effective crop control strategies can encompass a variety
of approaches, including alternative development, law enforcement and
eradication,
 
   Defining alternative development as a process to prevent and eliminate the
illicit cultivation of plants containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic
substances through specifically designed rural development measures in the
context of sustained national economic growth and sustainable development
efforts in countries taking action against drugs, recognizing the particular
sociocultural characteristics of the target communities and groups, within the
framework of a comprehensive and permanent solution to the problem of illicit
drugs,
 
   Recognizing that the problem of the illicit production of narcotic drugs
and psychotropic substances is often related to development problems and that
those links require, within the context of shared responsibility, close
cooperation among States, the competent organs of the United Nations system,
in particular the United Nations International Drug Control Programme,
regional bodies and international financial institutions,
 
   Aware that, in order to achieve maximum effectiveness in the fight against
drug abuse, it is necessary to maintain a balanced approach by allocating
appropriate resources to initiatives that include the reduction of both
illicit demand and illicit supply,
 
   Advocates the following objectives for strategies, programmes and
international cooperation to ensure the effectiveness of the common endeavour
to reduce the illicit production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances
and to contribute to sustainable human development:
 
 
I.  The need for a balanced approach to confront high levels of illicit
cultivation
 
Challenge
 
1. Despite the adoption of international conventions promoting the prohibition
of illicit drug crops, the problem of the illicit cultivation of the opium
poppy, the coca bush and the cannabis plant continues at alarming levels.
History has shown that there is no single response to reducing and eliminating
the cultivation and production of illicit drugs.  Balanced approaches are
likely to result in more efficient strategies and successful outcomes.
 
Action
 
2. States should strongly condemn, and urge community leaders to condemn, the
illicit cultivation of the opium poppy, the coca bush and the cannabis plant,
as well as other illicit drug crops.
 
3. States should ensure that the specific commitments in the Single Convention
on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol4 and in the United
Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances of 19882 regarding illicit drug crop cultivation are implemented
and enforced.  In particular, this includes paragraphs 2 and 3 of article 14
of the 1988 Convention, which require parties to take appropriate measures to
prevent the illicit cultivation of plants containing narcotic and psychotropic
substances and to cooperate to improve the effectiveness of eradication
efforts, inter alia, giving support to alternative development.
 
4. States in which illicit cultivation of drug crops exists should develop
national strategies for the reduction and elimination of illicit crops,
including concrete measurable goals and objectives, taking into account
existing drug control master plans.  National drug crop reduction and
elimination strategies should include comprehensive measures such as
programmes in alternative development, law enforcement and eradication.
 
5. States should take appropriate measures to develop and implement national
plans for alternative development, creating appropriate institutions, as well
as a suitable legal, economic and social framework.
 
6. Alternative development programmes and projects should be consistent with
national drug control policies and national sustainable development policies
and strategies in the affected rural communities.
 
7. In cases of low-income production structures among peasants, alternative
development is more sustainable and socially and economically more appropriate
than forced eradication.
 
 
II.  Strengthening of international cooperation for alternative development
 
Challenge
 
8. Alternative development is an important component for generating and
promoting lawful, viable and sustainable economic options to illicit drug crop
cultivation and is one of the key components of the policy and programmes for
reducing illicit drug production that have been adopted within the
comprehensive framework of the global strategy of the United Nations.  The
development and implementation of alternative development is primarily the
responsibility of the State in which illicit drug cultivation takes place.
However, States with illicit drug crops will need continued funding, on the
basis of shared responsibility, to support national efforts to eliminate drug
crops.  Currently, there is insufficient funding for alternative development
at the national and international levels.
 
Action
 
9. The success of alternative development programmes depends on the long-term
political and financial commitment of both the Governments of the affected
countries and the international community to supporting integrated rural
development involving local communities, effective enforcement of drug control
measures and promotion of awareness among the local population of the negative
consequences of drug abuse.
 
10.   The international community and the relevant United Nations
organizations, in particular the United Nations International Drug Control
Programme, should assist States in countering illicit drug production by
providing adequate financial and technical assistance for alternative
development, with the objective of reducing and eliminating illicit drug
crops.  Such assistance should be provided within the context of the national
control strategies of the recipient States.  It should be linked to national
commitment and the strong political will of States with illicit cultivation to
implement the provisions contained in article 14 of the 1988 Convention.
 
11.   Agencies of the United Nations system and relevant financial
institutions should cooperate, within their spheres of competence, in
supporting rural development for regions and populations affected by illicit
crop cultivation.
 
12.   International financial institutions and regional development banks
should be encouraged to provide financial assistance for alternative
development programmes.
 
13.   The United Nations International Drug Control Programme should continue
its catalytic role in regard to international financial institutions,
non-governmental organizations, relevant United Nations organizations and the
private sector, and assist interested Governments in approaching such
institutions for the purpose of financing and supporting their alternative
development programmes and projects.
 
14.   States are exhorted to agree on bilateral mechanisms for cooperation in
order to establish and implement eradication and alternative development
projects in their frontier areas.
 
15.   The international community should attempt to provide greater access to
domestic and international markets for alternative development products, with
a view to overcoming problems relating to prices and marketing resulting from
the substitution of crops cultivated for illicit purposes by production for
licit commercial purposes.
 
16.   Alternative development programmes should be designed for areas that
have a potential for adequate drug control and development.
 
 
III.  Improved and innovative approaches to alternative development
 
Challenge
 
17.   Alternative development is an important component of a balanced and
comprehensive drug control strategy and is intended to create a supportive
environment for the implementation of that strategy.  It is intended to
promote lawful and sustainable socio-economic options for those communities
and population groups that have resorted to illicit cultivation as their only
viable means of obtaining a livelihood, contributing in an integrated way to
the eradication of poverty.  However, cumulative efforts and methods of
planning and implementation need further improvement to strengthen the
existing processes and to implement new and innovative alternative development
programmes.
 
Action
 
18.   Alternative development programmes and international cooperation for
that purpose should:
 
   (a)   Be adapted to the specific legal, social, economic, ecological and
cultural conditions prevailing in a given project region;
 
   (b)   Contribute to the creation of sustainable social and economic
opportunities through integrated rural development, including infrastructure
development, that will help to improve the living conditions of the
communities and population groups affected by the existence of illicit
cultivation;
 
   (c)   Contribute to the promotion of democratic values to encourage
community participation, and promote social responsibility to develop a civic
culture that rejects the illicit cultivation of crops;
 
   (d)   Include appropriate demand reduction measures where there is drug
abuse in the targeted communities;
 
   (e)   Incorporate the gender dimension by ensuring equal conditions for
women and men to participate in the development process, including design and
implementation;
 
   (f)   Observe environmental sustainability criteria, taking into account
the objectives of Agenda 21.  Programmes and projects of alternative
development are efficient instruments used to avoid any expansion or
displacement of illicit cultivation to ecologically fragile areas.
 
19.   In order to ensure that alternative development is sustainable,
participatory approaches that are based on dialogue and persuasion and that
include the community as a whole, as well as relevant non-governmental
organizations, should be applied in the identification, preparation,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of alternative development.  Local
communities and public authorities should develop commonly agreed goals and
objectives and commit themselves by community-based agreements to reducing
illicit crops until they are eliminated.
 
20.   Institution-building at the regional and local levels should be regarded
as a factor that will contribute to improving the level of participation in
activities fostered by alternative development.
 
21.   States should design alternative development programmes, taking into
account the regional context.  States should cooperate through bilateral,
regional and multilateral means to avoid displacement of illicit cultivation
from one area, region or country to another.
 
 
       IV.  Enhancing monitoring, evaluation and information-sharing
 
Challenge
 
22.   States have often undertaken valiant efforts to eliminate the illicit
cultivation of the opium poppy, the coca bush and the cannabis plant.
Nevertheless, the potential of such efforts has not been fully exploited
because of insufficient information and cooperation at policy and operational
levels.  Moreover, in recent years, the cultivation and production of illicit
drug crops has appeared in other countries, reaching all geographical regions.
That trend includes cultivation and production in enclosed premises using new
methods and technologies.
 
Action
 
23.   Governments in the producing areas should design efficient and accurate
monitoring and verification mechanisms using the most efficient,
cost-effective and accessible data collection methods available.
 
24.   Governments should implement follow-up and evaluation systems that will
enable them to monitor the qualitative and quantitative impact of alternative
development programmes.  The sustainability of illicit crop reduction is a
most important assessment criterion of alternative development.
 
25.   Governments should share information on illicit drug crop assessment
with the United Nations International Drug Control Programme and reciprocally
with other Governments in order to increase cooperation to eliminate such
cultivation.  Assessments should also include information about the causes and
effects of narcotics production, including linkages to other development
problems.
 
26.   States in which the cultivation and production of illicit drug crops has
developed in recent years should prepare estimates of the extent of the
problem and exchange this  information similarly.  Those States should
consider these factors when formulating and implementing their national plans
to tackle the problem of illicit drug crop cultivation and production.
 
 
       V.  The need for law enforcement in controlling illicit crops
 
Challenge
 
27.   Even when alternative development projects are successful, some growers
and processors are not likely to abandon production voluntarily simply because
other opportunities already exist; they must see that there is a risk
associated with staying in the illicit cultivation of drug crops.
 
Action
 
28.   States with problems of illicit drug crop cultivation should ensure that
alternative development programmes are complemented, when necessary, by law
enforcement measures:
 
   (a)   Law enforcement measures are required as a complement to alternative
development programmes in order to tackle other illicit activities such as the
operation of illicit drug laboratories, the diversion of precursors,
trafficking, money-laundering and related forms of organized crime, both in
areas where alternative development programmes are implemented and elsewhere
along the trafficking chain;
 
   (b)   Comprehensive law enforcement programmes can affect the profitability
of illicitly cultivated drug crops and, in so doing, make alternative sources
of legal income more competitive and attractive.
 
29.   When there is organized criminal involvement in illicit drug crop
cultivation and drug production, the measures, such as eradication,
destruction of illicit drug crops and arrests, called for in the 1961
Convention as amended and the 1988 Convention are particularly appropriate.
 
30.   In areas where viable alternative sources of income already exist, law
enforcement measures are required against persistent illicit cultivation of
narcotic crops.
 
31.   In areas where alternative development programmes have not yet created
viable alternative income opportunities, the application of forced eradication
might endanger the success of alternative development programmes.
 
32.   Eradication efforts should utilize available research and ensure that
environmentally safe methods are employed.
 
 
                              VI.  Follow-up
 
33.   We request the Executive Director of the United Nations International
Drug Control Programme to report to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, as
appropriate, taking into account the overall outcome of the twentieth special
session of the General Assembly, on the follow-up to the present Action Plan.