United Nations

A/S-19/29


General Assembly

 Distr. GENERAL
27 June 1997
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH


        OVERALL REVIEW AND APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21
              Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Whole of the
                          Nineteenth Special Session
1.   At the 1st plenary meeting of its nineteenth special session, on
23 June 1997, the General Assembly established an Ad Hoc Committee of the
Whole of the Nineteenth Special Session and elected Mr. Mostafa Tolba (Egypt)
Chairman, by acclamation.
2.   The Ad Hoc Committee held three meetings, on 23, 24 and 27 June 1997, to
hear representatives of United Nations bodies, specialized agencies and
intergovernmental organizations and to consider the question of the overall
review and appraisal of the implementation of Agenda 21.  A number of informal
meetings were also held.
3.   At its 1st meeting, on 23 June, the Ad Hoc Committee elected, by
acclamation, Mr. Bagher Asadi (Islamic Republic of Iran), Mr. John Ashe
(Antigua and Barbuda), Ms. Idunn Eidheim (Norway) and Mr. Czeslaw Wieckowski
(Poland) Vice-Chairmen.  The Ad Hoc Committee decided that Mr. Wieckowski
would also serve as Rapporteur.  Subsequently, Ms. Eidheim was designated to
assume the functions of Rapporteur, replacing Mr. Wieckowski.
4.   In connection with its consideration of the question of the overall
review and appraisal of the implementation of Agenda 21, the Ad Hoc Committee
had before it the report of the Commission on Sustainable Development on the
preparations for the special session of the General Assembly (A/S-19/14-
E/1997/60).
5.   At its 1st meeting, the Ad Hoc Committee heard statements by the
Chairperson of the High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development; the
Minister of Environment and Tourism of Zimbabwe and Chairman of the Conference
of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change;
the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or
Desertification, particularly in Africa; the Executive Secretary of the
Economic Commission for Europe (on behalf of the regional commissions); the
Director of United Nations Affairs and External Relations of the United
Nations Children's Fund; the representative of the International Research and
Training Institute for the Advancement of Women; and the Deputy Director of
the United Nations Development Fund for Women.
6.   At the same meeting, statements were made by the Deputy Director-General
of the International Labour Organization and the Assistant Director of the
Fiscal Affairs Division of the International Monetary Fund.
7.   Also at the same meeting, statements were made by the Head of the
Environment and Sustainable Development Division of the African Development
Bank and the Assistant Secretary-General of the Organization of the Islamic
Conference.
8.   At its 2nd meeting, on 24 June, the Ad Hoc Committee heard a statement
by the Minister of the Environment of Argentina, in her capacity as
Chairperson of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological
Diversity.
9.   At the same meeting, the Rector of the United Nations University made a
statement.
10.  Also at the same meeting, statements were made by the Director-General
of the International Organization for Migration; the Secretary-General of the
Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation; the Secretary-General of the
Commonwealth Secretariat; the Secretary-General of the World Tourism
Organization; and the Secretary-General of the Organisation for Economic
Cooperation and Development.
11.  The Executive Director of the International Energy Agency also made a
statement.
12.  At the 3rd meeting, on 27 June, the Ad Hoc Committee considered its
draft report, (A/S-19/AC.1/L.1 and Add.1-33) and a draft resolution (A/S-
19/AC.1/L.2) entitled "Programme for the further implementation of Agenda 21",
submitted by the Chairman.
13.  Statements were made by the representatives of Lebanon, the Netherlands
(on behalf of the European Union), Samoa, the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Norway, the Russian Federation, the
United States of America, Australia, Canada, Antigua and Barbuda, Indonesia,
India and Colombia.
14.  The Director of the Division for Sustainable Development of the United
Nations Secretariat also made a statement.
15.  The representatives of Turkey and Ethiopia expressed reservations
regarding paragraphs 29 and 30 of document A/S-19/14-E/1997/60 as amended in
document A/S-19/AC.1/L.1/Add.15.
16.  The Ad Hoc Committee then adopted its report, as revised and amended
during the discussion, and recommended that the General Assembly adopt draft
resolution A/S-19/AC.1/L.2, to which was annexed the Programme for the Further
Implementation of Agenda 21, as orally revised (see para. 17 below).
          RECOMMENDATION OF THE AD HOC COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE OF THE
                          NINETEENTH SPECIAL SESSION
17.  The Ad Hoc Committee recommends to the General Assembly the adoption of
the following draft resolution:
             Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21
     The General Assembly
     Adopts the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 annexed
to the present resolution.
                                     Annex
             PROGRAMME FOR THE FURTHER IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21
       Adopted by the General Assembly at its nineteenth special session
                               (23-28 June 1997)
                                   CONTENTS
                                                            Paragraphs   Page
 I.   STATEMENT OF COMMITMENT ..............................    1 - 6       5
II.   ASSESSMENT OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE UNITED NATIONS
      CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ............    7 - 21      6
III.  IMPLEMENTATION IN AREAS REQUIRING URGENT ACTION ......   22 - 115    10
      A. Integration of economic, social and environmental
         objectives .......................................    23 - 32     10
      B. Sectors and issues ...............................    33 - 75     19
      C. Means of implementation ..........................    76 - 115    37
IV.   INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS .............  116 - 137    46
      A. Greater coherence in various intergovernmental
         organizations and processes ......................   117 - 121    47
      B. Role of relevant organizations and institutions
         of the United Nations system .....................   122 - 129    48
      C. Future role and programme of work of the
         Commission on Sustainable Development ............   130 - 132    49
      D. Methods of work of the Commission on Sustainable
         Development ......................................   133 - 137    50
Appendix.  Multi-year programme of work for the Commission
           on Sustainable Development, 1998-2002 .......................   55
                          I.  STATEMENT OF COMMITMENT
1. At the nineteenth special session of the United Nations General Assembly,
we - heads of State or Government and other heads of delegations, together
with our partners from international institutions and non-governmental
organizations - have gathered to review progress achieved over the five years
that have passed since the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development and to re-energize our commitment to further action on goals and
objectives set out by the Rio Earth Summit.
2. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development was a
landmark event.  At that Conference, we launched a new global partnership for
sustainable development - a partnership that respects the indivisibility of
environmental protection and the development process.  It is founded on a
global consensus and political commitment at the highest level.  Agenda 21, 1/
adopted at Rio, addresses the pressing environment and development problems of
today and also aims at preparing the world for the challenges of the next
century in order to attain the long-term goals of sustainable development.
3. Our focus at this special session has been to accelerate the
implementation of Agenda 21 in a comprehensive manner and not to renegotiate
its provisions or to be selective in its implementation.  We reaffirm that
Agenda 21 remains the fundamental programme of action for achieving
sustainable development.  We reaffirm all the principles contained in the Rio
Declaration on Environment and Development 2/ and the Forest Principles. 3/ 
We
are convinced that the achievement of sustainable development requires the
integration of its economic, environmental and social components.  We recommit
to working together - in the spirit of global partnership - to reinforce our
joint efforts to meet equitably the needs of present and future generations.
4. We acknowledge that a number of positive results have been achieved, but
we are deeply concerned that the overall trends with respect to sustainable
development are worse today than they were in 1992.  We emphasize that the
implementation of Agenda 21 in a comprehensive manner remains vitally
important and is more urgent now than ever.
5. Time is of the essence in meeting the challenges of sustainable
development as set out in the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21.  To this end, we
recommit ourselves to the global partnership established at the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development and to the continuous dialogue and
action inspired by the need to achieve a more efficient and equitable world
economy, as a means to provide a supportive international climate for
achieving environment and development goals.  We therefore, pledge to continue
to work together, in good faith and in the spirit of partnership, to
accelerate the implementation of Agenda 21.  We invite everyone throughout the
world to join us in our common cause.
6. We commit ourselves to ensuring that the next comprehensive review of
Agenda 21 in the year 2002 demonstrates greater measurable progress in
achieving sustainable development.  The present Programme for the Further
Implementation of Agenda 21 is our vehicle for achieving that goal.  We commit
ourselves to fully implementing this programme.
             II.  ASSESSMENT OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE UNITED NATIONS
                  CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
7. The five years that have elapsed since the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development 4/ have been characterized by the accelerated
globalization of interactions among countries in the areas of world trade,
foreign direct investment and capital markets.  Globalization presents new
opportunities and challenges.  It is important that national and international
environmental and social policies be implemented and strengthened in order to
ensure that globalization trends have a positive impact on sustainable
development, especially in developing countries.  The impact of recent trends
in globalization on developing countries has been uneven.  A limited number of
developing countries have been able to take advantage of those trends,
attracting large inflows of external private capital and experiencing
significant export-led growth and acceleration of growth in per capita gross
domestic product (GDP).  Many other countries, however, in particular African
countries and the least developed countries, have shown slow or negative
growth and continue to be marginalized.  As a result, they generally
experienced stagnating or falling per capita GDP through 1995.  In these and
in some other developing countries, the problems of poverty, low levels of
social development, inadequate infrastructure and lack of capital have
prevented them from benefiting from globalization.  While continuing their
efforts to achieve sustainable development and to attract new investments,
these countries still require international assistance in their efforts
directed towards sustainable development.  In particular the least developed
countries continue to be heavily dependent on a declining volume of official
development assistance (ODA) for the capacity-building and infrastructure
development required to provide for basic needs and more effective
participation in the globalizing world economy.  In an increasingly
interdependent world economy, the responsible conduct of monetary and other
macroeconomic policies requires that their potential impact on other countries
be taken into account.  Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, the countries with economies in transition have achieved
significant progress in implementing the principles of sustainable
development.  However, the need for full integration of these countries into
the world economy remains one of the crucial problems on their way towards
sustainable development.  The international community should continue to
support these countries in their efforts to accelerate the transition to a
market economy and to achieve sustainable development.
8. Although economic growth - reinforced by globalization - has allowed some
countries to reduce the proportion of people in poverty, for others
marginalization has increased.  Too many countries have seen economic
conditions worsen and public services deteriorate; the total number of people
in the world living in poverty has increased.  Income inequality has increased
among countries and also within them, unemployment has worsened in many
countries, and the gap between the least developed countries and other
countries has grown rapidly in recent years.  On a more positive note,
population growth rates have been declining globally, largely as a result of
expanded basic education and health care.  That trend is projected to lead to
a stable world population in the middle of the twenty-first century.  There
has also been progress in social services, with expanding access to education,
declining infant mortality and increasing life expectancy in most countries. 
However, many people, particularly in the least developed countries, still do
not have access to adequate food and basic social services or to clean water
and sanitation.  Reducing current inequities in the distribution of wealth and
access to resources, both within and among countries, is one of the most
serious challenges facing humankind.
9. Five years after the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, the state of the global environment has continued to deteriorate,
as noted in the Global Environment Outlook 5/ of the United Nations
Environment
Programme (UNEP), and significant environmental problems remain deeply
embedded in the socio-economic fabric of countries in all regions.  Some
progress has been made in terms of institutional development, international
consensus-building, public participation and private sector actions and, as a
result, a number of countries have succeeded in curbing pollution and slowing
the rate of resource degradation.  Overall, however, trends are worsening. 
Many polluting emissions, notably of toxic substances, greenhouse gases and
waste volumes are continuing to increase although in some industrialized
countries emissions are decreasing.  Marginal progress has been made in
addressing unsustainable production and consumption patterns.  Insufficient
progress has also been identified in the field of environmentally sound
management and adequate control of transboundary movements of hazardous and
radioactive wastes.  Many countries undergoing rapid economic growth and
urbanization are also experiencing increasing levels of air and water
pollution, with accumulating impacts on human health.  Acid rain and
transboundary air pollution, once considered a problem only in the
industrialized countries, are increasingly becoming a problem in many
developing regions.  In many poorer regions of the world, persistent poverty
is contributing to accelerated degradation of natural resources and
desertification has spread.  In countries seriously affected by drought and/or
desertification, especially those in Africa, their agricultural productivity,
among other things, is uncertain and continues to decline, thereby hampering
their efforts to achieve sustainable development.  Inadequate and unsafe water
supplies are affecting an increasing number of people worldwide, aggravating
problems of ill health and food insecurity among the poor.  Conditions in
natural habitats and fragile ecosystems, including mountain ecosystems, are
still deteriorating in all regions of the world, resulting in diminishing
biological diversity.  At the global level, renewable resources, in particular
fresh water, forests, topsoil and marine fish stocks, continue to be used at
rates beyond their viable rates of regeneration; without improved management,
this situation is clearly unsustainable.
10.   While there has been progress in material and energy efficiency,
particularly with reference to non-renewable resources, overall trends remain
unsustainable.  As a result, increasing levels of pollution threaten to exceed
the capacity of the global environment to absorb them, increasing the
potential obstacles to economic and social development in developing
countries.
11.   Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,
extensive efforts have been made by Governments and international
organizations to integrate environmental, economic and social objectives into
decision-making by elaborating new policies and strategies for sustainable
development or by adapting existing policies and plans.  As many as 150
countries have responded to the commitments established at the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development through national-level commissions
or coordinating mechanisms designed to develop an integrated approach to
sustainable development.
12.   The major groups have demonstrated what can be achieved by taking
committed action, sharing resources and building consensus, reflecting
grass-roots concern and involvement.  The efforts of local authorities are
making Agenda 21 and the pursuit of sustainable development a reality at the
local level through the implementation of "Local Agenda 21s" and other
sustainable development programmes.  Non-governmental organizations,
educational institutions, the scientific community and the media have
increased public awareness and discussion of the relations between environment
and development in all countries.  The involvement, role and responsibilities
of business and industry, including transnational corporations, are important.
Hundreds of small and large businesses have made "green business" a new
operating mode.  Workers and trade unions have established partnerships with
employers and communities to encourage sustainable development in the
workplace.  Farmer-led initiatives have resulted in improved agricultural
practices contributing to sound resource management.  Indigenous people have
played an increasing role in addressing issues affecting their interests and
particularly concerning their traditional knowledge and practices.  Young
people and women around the world have played a prominent role in galvanizing
communities into recognizing their responsibilities to future generations. 
Nevertheless, more opportunities should be created for women to participate
effectively in economic, social and political development as equal partners in
all sectors of the economy.
13.   Among the achievements since the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development have been the entry into force of the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (A/AC.237/18 (Part II)/Add.1
and Corr.1, annex I), the Convention on Biological Diversity 6/ and the United
Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing
Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa (A/49/84/Add.2,
annex, appendix II); the conclusion of an agreement on the conservation and
management of straddling and migratory fish stocks (A/50/550, annex I); the
adoption of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small
Island Developing States; 7/ the elaboration of the Global Programme of Action
for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities
(A/51/116, annex II); and the entry into force of the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea. 8/  Implementation of these important
commitments and of others adopted before the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development by all the parties to them, remains however, to be
carried out, and in many cases further strengthening of their provisions is
required as well as the mechanisms for putting them into effect.  The
establishment, restructuring, funding and replenishment of the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) were a major achievement.  However, its levels of
funding and replenishment have not been sufficient fully to meet its
objectives.
14.   Progress has been made in incorporating the principles contained in the
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 2/ - including the principle of
common but differentiated responsibilities, which embodies the important
concept of and basis for international partnership; the precautionary
principle; the polluter pays principle; and the environmental impact
assessment principle - in a variety of international and national legal
instruments.  While some progress has been made in implementing United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development commitments through a variety of
international legal instruments, much remains to be done to embody the Rio
principles more firmly in law and practice.
15.   A number of major United Nations conferences have advanced international
commitment for the achievement of long-term goals and objectives directed
towards sustainable development.
16.   Organizations and programmes of the United Nations system have played an
important role in the progress made in the implementation of Agenda 21.  The
Commission on Sustainable Development was established to review progress
achieved in the implementation of Agenda 21, advance global dialogue and
foster partnerships for sustainable development.  The Commission has catalysed
new action and commitments and has contributed to the deliberations on
sustainable development among a wide variety of partners within and outside
the United Nations system.  Although much remains to be done, progress has
also been made at the national, regional and international levels in
implementing the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
Forest Principles, 3/ including through the Commission's Ad Hoc
Intergovernmental Panel on Forests.
17.   Provision of adequate and predictable financial resources and the
transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries are
critical elements for the implementation of Agenda 21.  However, while some
progress has been made, much remains to be done to activate the means of
implementation set out in Agenda 21, in particular in the areas of finance and
technology transfer, technical assistance and capacity-building.
18.   Most developed countries have still not reached the United Nations
target, reaffirmed by most countries at the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development, of committing 0.7 per cent of their gross
national product (GNP) to ODA or the United Nations target, as agreed, of
committing 0.15 per cent of GNP as ODA to the least developed countries. 
Regrettably, on average, ODA as a percentage of the GNP of developed countries
has drastically declined in the post-United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development period, from 0.34 per cent in 1992 to 0.27 per cent in 1995,
but ODA has taken more account of the need for an integrated approach to
sustainable development.
19.   In other areas, results have been encouraging since the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development.  There has been a sizeable
expansion of private flows of financial resources from developed to a limited
number of developing countries and, in a number of countries, efforts have
been made in support of domestic resource mobilization, including the
increasing use of economic instruments to promote sustainable development.
20.   In many developing countries, the debt situation remains a major
constraint on achieving sustainable development.  Although the debt situation
of some middle-income countries has improved, there is a need to continue to
address the debt problems of the heavily indebted poor countries, which
continue to face unsustainable external debt burdens.  The recent World
Bank/International Monetary Fund (IMF) Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
Initiative could help to address that issue with the cooperation of all
creditor countries.  Further efforts by the international community are still
required to remove debt as an impediment to sustainable development.
21.   Similarly, technology transfer and technology-related investment from
public and private sources, which are particularly important to developing
countries, have not been realized as outlined in Agenda 21.  Although
increased private flows have led to investments in industry and technology in
some developing countries and economies in transition, many other countries
have been left behind.  Conditions in some of these countries have been less
attractive to private sector investment and technological change has been
slower, thus limiting their ability to meet their commitments to Agenda 21 and
other international agreements.  The technology gap between developed
countries and, in particular, the least developed countries has widened.
             III.  IMPLEMENTATION IN AREAS REQUIRING URGENT ACTION
22.   Agenda 21 and the principles contained in the Rio Declaration on
Environment and Development established a comprehensive approach to the
achievement of sustainable development.  While it is the primary
responsibility of national Governments to achieve the economic, social and
environmental objectives of Agenda 21, it is essential that international
cooperation be reactivated and intensified, recognizing, inter alia, the
principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as set forth in
principle 7 of the Rio Declaration.  This requires the mobilization of
stronger political will and the invigoration of a genuine new global
partnership, taking into account the special needs and priorities of
developing countries.  Such an approach remains as relevant and as urgently
needed as ever.  It is clear from the assessment above that, although progress
has been made in some areas, a major new effort will be required to achieve
the goals established at the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, particularly in areas of cross-sectoral matters where
implementation has yet to be achieved.  The proposals set out in sections A to
C below outline strategies for accelerating progress towards sustainable
development.  The sections are equally important and must be considered and
implemented in a balanced and integrated way.
       A.  Integration of economic, social and environmental objectives
23.   Economic development, social development and environmental protection
are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable
development.  Sustained economic growth is essential to the economic and
social development of all countries, in particular developing countries. 
Through such growth, which should be broadly based so as to benefit all
people, countries will be able to improve the standards of living of their
people through the eradication of poverty, hunger, disease and illiteracy and
the provision of adequate shelter and secure employment for all, and the
preservation of the integrity of the environment.  Growth can foster
development only if its benefits are fully shared.  It must therefore also be
guided by equity, justice and social and environmental considerations. 
Development, in turn, must involve measures that improve the human condition
and the quality of life itself.  Democracy, respect for all human rights and
fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, transparent and
accountable governance in all sectors of society, as well as effective
participation by civil society, are also an essential part of the necessary
foundations for the realization of social and people-centred sustainable
development.
24.   Sustainable development strategies are important mechanisms for
enhancing and linking national capacity so as to bring together priorities in
social, economic and environmental policies.  Hence, special attention must be
given to the fulfilment of commitments in the areas set out below, in the
framework of an integrated approach towards development, consisting of
mutually reinforcing measures to sustain economic growth, as well as to
promote social development and environmental protection.  Achieving
sustainable development cannot be carried out without greater integration at
all policy-making levels and at operational levels, including the lowest
administrative levels possible. Economic sectors, such as industry,
agriculture, energy, transport and tourism, must take responsibility for the
impact of their activities on human well-being and the physical environment. 
In the context of good governance, properly constructed strategies can enhance
prospects for economic growth and employment and at the same time protect the
environment.  All sectors of society should be involved in their development
and implementation, as follows:
   (a)   By the year 2002, the formulation and elaboration of national
strategies for sustainable development that reflect the contributions and
responsibilities of all interested parties should be completed in all
countries, with assistance provided, as appropriate, through international
cooperation, taking into account the special needs of the least developed
countries.  The efforts of developing countries in effectively implementing
national strategies should be supported.  Countries that already have national
strategies should continue their efforts to enhance and effectively implement
them.  Assessment of progress achieved and exchange of experience among
Governments should be promoted.  Local Agenda 21 and other local sustainable
development programmes, including youth activities, should also be actively
encouraged;
   (b)   In integrating economic, social and environmental objectives, it is
important that a broad package of policy instruments, including regulation,
economic instruments, internalization of environmental costs in market prices,
environmental and social impact analysis, and information dissemination, be
worked out in the light of country-specific conditions to ensure that
integrated approaches are effective and cost-efficient.  To this end, a
transparent and participatory process should be promoted.  This will require
the involvement of national legislative assemblies, as well as all actors of
civil society, including youth and indigenous people and their communities, to
complement the efforts of Governments for sustainable development.  In
particular, the empowerment and the full and equal participation of women in
all spheres of society, including participation in the decision-making
process, are central to all efforts to achieve such development;
   (c)   The implementation of policies aiming at sustainable development,
including those contained in chapter 3 (Combating poverty) and in chapter 29
(Strengthening the role of workers and their trade unions) of Agenda 21, may
enhance the opportunities for job creation, thus helping to achieve the
fundamental goal of eradicating poverty.
An enabling international economic climate
25.   A mutually supportive balance between the international and the national
environment is needed in the pursuit of sustainable development.  As a result
of globalization, external factors have become critical in determining the
success or failure of developing countries in their national efforts.  The gap
between developed and developing countries points to the continued need for a
dynamic and enabling international economic environment supportive of
international cooperation, particularly in the fields of finance, technology
transfer, debt and trade, if the momentum for global progress towards
sustainable development is to be maintained and increased.
26.   To foster a dynamic and enabling international economic environment
favourable to all countries is in the interest of all countries.  Moreover,
issues, including environmental issues, that bear on the international
economic environment can be approached effectively only through a constructive
dialogue and genuine partnership on the basis of mutuality of interests and
benefits, taking into account that, in view of the different contributions to
global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated
responsibilities.
Eradicating poverty
27.   Given the severity of poverty, particularly in developing countries, the
eradication of poverty is one of the fundamental goals of the international
community and the entire United Nations system, as reflected in commitment 2
of the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development, 9/ and is essential for
sustainable development.  Poverty eradication is thus an overriding theme of
sustainable development for the coming years.  The enormity and complexity of
the poverty issue could very well endanger the social fabric, undermine
economic development and the environment, and threaten political stability in
many countries.  To achieve poverty eradication, efforts of individual
Governments and international cooperation and assistance should be brought
together in a complementary way.  Eradication of poverty depends on the full
integration of people living in poverty into economic, social and political
life.  The empowerment of women is a critical factor for the eradication of
poverty.  Policies that promote such integration to combat poverty, in
particular policies for providing basic social services and broader
socio-economic development, are effective as well since enhancing the
productive capacity of poor people increases both their well-being and that of
their communities and societies, and facilitates their participation in
resource conservation and environmental protection.  The provision of basic
social services and food security in an equitable way is a necessary condition
for such integration and empowerment.  The 20/20 initiative as referred to in
the Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development 10/ is,
among other things, a useful means for such integration.  However, the five
years since the Rio Conference have witnessed an increase in the number of
people living in absolute poverty, particularly in developing countries.  In
this context, there is an urgent need for the timely and full implementation
of all the relevant commitments, agreements and targets already agreed upon
since the Rio Conference by the international community, including the United
Nations system and international financial institutions.  Full implementation
of the Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development is
essential.  Priority actions include:
   (a)   Improving access to sustainable livelihoods, entrepreneurial
opportunities and productive resources, including land, water, credit,
technical and administrative training, and appropriate technology, with
particular efforts to broaden the human and social capital basis of societies
so as to reach the rural poor and the urban informal sector;
   (b)   Providing universal access to basic social services, including basic
education, health care, nutrition, clean water and sanitation;
   (c)   Progressively developing, in accordance with the financial and
administrative capacities of each society, social protection systems to
support those who cannot support themselves, either temporarily or
permanently; the aim of social integration is to create a "society for all";
   (d)   Empowering people living in poverty and their organizations by
involving them fully in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of
strategies and programmes for poverty eradication and community development
and by ensuring that these programmes reflect their priorities;
   (e)   Addressing the disproportionate impact of poverty on women, in
particular by removing legislative, policy, administrative and customary
barriers to women's equal access to productive resources and services,
including access to and control over land and other forms of property, credit,
including micro-credit, inheritance, education, information, health care and
technology.  In this regard, full implementation of the Beijing Platform for
Action 11/ is essential;
   (f)   Working together of interested donors and recipients to allocate
increased shares of ODA to poverty eradication.  The 20/20 initiative is an
important principle in this respect, as it is based on a mutual commitment
among donors and recipients to increasing resources allocated to basic social
services;
   (g)   Intensifying international cooperation to support measures being
taken in developing countries to eradicate poverty, to provide basic social
protection and services, and to approach poverty eradication efforts in an
integral and multidimensional manner.
Changing consumption and production patterns
28.   Unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, particularly in
the industrialized countries, are identified in Agenda 21 as the major cause
of continued deterioration of the global environment.  While unsustainable
patterns in the industrialized countries continue to aggravate the threats to
the environment, there remain huge difficulties for developing countries in
meeting basic needs such as food, health care, shelter and education for
people.  All countries should strive to promote sustainable consumption
patterns; developed countries should take the lead in achieving sustainable
consumption patterns; developing countries should seek to achieve sustainable
consumption patterns in their development process, guaranteeing the provision
of basic needs for the poor, while avoiding those unsustainable patterns,
particularly in industrialized countries, generally recognized as unduly
hazardous to the environment, inefficient and wasteful, in their development
processes.  This requires enhanced technological and other assistance from
industrialized countries.  In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda
21, the review of progress made in achieving sustainable consumption patterns
should be given high priority. 12/  Consistent with Agenda 21, the development
and further elaboration of national policies and strategies, particularly in
industrialized countries, are needed to encourage changes in unsustainable
consumption and production patterns, while strengthening, as appropriate,
international approaches and policies that promote sustainable consumption
patterns on the basis of the principle of common but differentiated
responsibilities, applying the polluter pays principle, and encouraging
producer responsibility and greater consumer awareness.  Eco-efficiency, cost
internalization and product policies are also important tools for making
consumption and production patterns more sustainable.  Actions in this area
should focus on:
   (a)   Promoting measures to internalize environmental costs and benefits
in the price of goods and services, while seeking to avoid potential negative
effects for market access by developing countries, particularly with a view to
encouraging the use of environmentally preferable products and commodities. 
Governments should consider shifting the burden of taxation onto unsustainable
patterns of production and consumption; it is of vital importance to achieve
such an internalization of environmental costs.  Such tax reforms should
include a socially responsible process of reduction and elimination of
subsidies to environmentally harmful activities;
   (b)   Promoting the role of business in shaping more sustainable patterns
of consumption by encouraging, as appropriate, the voluntary publication of
environmental and social assessments of its own activities, taking into
account specific country conditions, and actions as an agent of change in the
market, and actions in its role as a major consumer of goods and services;
   (c)   Developing core indicators to monitor critical trends in consumption
and production patterns, with industrialized countries taking the lead;
   (d)   Identifying best practices through evaluations of policy measures
with respect to their environmental effectiveness, efficiency and implications
for social equity, and disseminating such evaluations;
   (e)   Taking into account the linkages between urbanization and the
environmental and developmental effects of consumption and production patterns
in cities, thus promoting more sustainable patterns of urbanization;
   (f)   Promoting international and national programmes for energy and
material efficiency with timetables for their implementation, as appropriate. 
In this regard, attention should be given to studies that propose to improve
the efficiency of resource use, including consideration of a 10-fold
improvement in resource productivity in industrialized countries in the long
term and a possible factor-four increase in industrialized countries in the
next two or three decades.  Further research is required to study the
feasibility of these goals and the practical measures needed for their
implementation.  Industrialized countries will have a special responsibility
and must take the lead in this respect.  The Commission on Sustainable
Development should consider this initiative in the coming years in exploring
policies and measures necessary to implement eco-efficiency and, for this
purpose, encourage the relevant bodies to adopt measures aimed at assisting
developing countries in improving energy and material efficiency through the
promotion of their endogenous capacity-building and economic development with
enhanced and effective international support;
   (g)   Encouraging Governments to take the lead in changing consumption
patterns by improving their own environmental performance with action-oriented
policies and goals on procurement, the management of public facilities and the
further integration of environmental concerns into national policy-making. 
Governments in developed countries, in particular, should take the lead in
this regard;
   (h)   Encouraging the media, advertising and marketing sectors to help
shape sustainable consumption patterns;
   (i)   Improving the quality of information regarding the environmental
impact of products and services and, to that end, encouraging the voluntary
and transparent use of eco-labelling;
   (j)  Promoting measures favouring eco-efficiency; however, developed
countries should pay special attention to the needs of developing countries,
in particular by encouraging positive impacts, and to the need to avoid
negative impacts on export opportunities and on market access for developing
countries and, as appropriate, for countries with economies in transition;
   (k)   Encouraging the development and strengthening of educational
programmes to promote sustainable consumption and production patterns;
   (l)   Encouraging business and industry to develop and apply
environmentally sound technology that should aim not only at increasing
competitiveness but also at reducing negative environmental impacts;
   (m)   Giving balanced consideration to both the demand side and the supply
side of the economy in matching environmental concerns and economic factors,
which could encourage changes in the behaviour of consumers and producers.  A
number of policy options should be examined; they include regulatory
instruments, economic and social incentives and disincentives, facilities and
infrastructure, information, education, and technology development and
dissemination.
Making trade and environment mutually supportive
29.   In order to accelerate economic growth, poverty eradication and
environmental protection, particularly in developing countries, there is a
need to establish macroeconomic conditions in both developed and developing
countries that favour the development of instruments and structures enabling
all countries, in particular developing countries, to benefit from
globalization.  International cooperation and support for capacity-building in
trade, environment and development should be strengthened through renewed
system-wide efforts, and with greater responsiveness to sustainable
development objectives, by the United Nations, the World Trade Organization
and the Bretton Woods institutions, as well as by national Governments.  There
should be a balanced and integrated approach to trade and sustainable
development, based on a combination of trade liberalization, economic
development and environmental protection.  Trade obstacles should be removed
with a view to contributing to the achieving of more efficient use of the
earth's natural resources in both economic and environmental terms.  Trade
liberalization should be accompanied by environmental and resource management
policies in order to realize its full potential contribution to improved
environmental protection and the promotion of sustainable development through
the more efficient allocation and use of resources.  The multilateral trading
system should have the capacity to further integrate environmental
considerations and enhance its contribution to sustainable development,
without undermining its open, equitable and non-discriminatory character.  The
special and differential treatment for developing countries, especially the
least developed countries, and the other commitments of the Uruguay Round of
multilateral trade negotiations should be fully implemented in order to enable
those countries to benefit from the international trading system, while
conserving the environment.  There is a need for continuing the elimination of
discriminatory and protectionist practices in international trade relations,
which will have the effect of improving access for the exports of developing
countries.  This will also facilitate the full integration of economies in
transition into the world economy.  In order to make trade, environment and
development mutually supportive, measures need to be taken to ensure
transparency in the use of trade measures related to the environment, and
should address the root causes of environmental degradation so as not to
result in disguised barriers to trade.  Account should be taken of the fact
that environmental standards valid for developed countries may have
unwarranted social and economic costs in other countries, in particular
developing countries.  International cooperation is needed and unilateralism
should be avoided.  The following actions are required:
   (a)   There should be timely and full implementation of the results of the
Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations 13/ and full use of the
Comprehensive and Integrated World Trade Organization Plan of Action for the
Least Developed Countries; 14/ 
   (b)   An open, non-discriminatory, rule-based, equitable, secure,
transparent and predictable multilateral trading system should be promoted. 
In this context, effective measures are called for to achieve the complete
integration of developing countries and countries with economies in transition
into the world economy and the new international trading system.  In this
connection, there is a need to promote the universality of the World Trade
Organization and to facilitate the admission to membership in that
organization, in a mutually beneficial way, of developing countries and
countries with economies in transition applying for membership.  Actions
should be taken to maximize the opportunities and to minimize the difficulties
of developing countries, including the net food-importing ones, especially the
least developed countries, and of countries with economies in transition, in
adjusting to the changes introduced by the Uruguay Round.  Decisions on
further liberalization of trade should take into account effects on
sustainable development and should be consistent with an open, rule-based,
non-discriminatory, equitable, secure and transparent multilateral trading
system.  The relationship between multilateral environmental agreements and
the World Trade Organization rules should be clarified;
   (c)   Implementation of environmental measures should not result in
disguised barriers to trade; 
   (d)   Within the framework of Agenda 21, trade rules and environmental
principles should interact harmoniously;
   (e)   Further analysis of the environmental effects of the international
transport of goods is warranted; 
   (f)  Cooperation and coordination between the United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Industrial Development
Organization (UNIDO), the World Trade Organization, UNEP and other relevant
institutions should be strengthened on various issues, including (i) the role
of positive measures in multilateral environmental agreements as part of a
package of measures including, in certain cases, trade measures; (ii) the
special conditions and needs of small and medium-sized enterprises in the
trade and environment interface; (iii) trade and environment issues at the
regional and subregional levels, including within the context of regional
economic and trade as well as environmental agreements;
   (g)   Cooperation and coordination between UNCTAD and other relevant
bodies within their existing respective mandates should be enhanced, inter
alia, on environment and sustainable development issues.  Without prejudice to
the clear understanding in the World Trade Organization that future
negotiations, if any, regarding a multilateral agreement on investment will
take place only after an explicit consensus decision, future agreements on
investments should take into account the objectives of sustainable development
and, when developing countries are parties to these agreements, special
attention should be given to their needs for investment;
   (h)   National Governments should make every effort to ensure policy
coordination on trade, environment and development at the national level in
support of sustainable development;
   (i)  There is a need for the World Trade Organization, UNEP and UNCTAD to
consider ways to make trade and environment mutually supportive, including
through due respect for the objectives and principles of the multilateral
trading system and for the provisions of multilateral environmental
agreements.  Such considerations should be consistent with an open,
rule-based, non-discriminatory, equitable, secure and transparent multilateral
trading system.
Population
30.   The impact of the relationship among economic growth, poverty,
employment, environment and sustainable development has become a major
concern.  There is a need to recognize the critical linkages between
demographic trends and factors and sustainable development.  The current
decline in population growth rates must be further promoted through national
and international policies that promote economic development, social
development, environmental protection, and poverty eradication, particularly
the further expansion of basic education, with full and equal access for girls
and women, and health care, including reproductive health care, including both
family planning and sexual health, consistent with the report of the
International Conference on Population and Development. 15/
Health
31.   The goals of sustainable development cannot be achieved when a high
proportion of the population is afflicted with debilitating illnesses.  An
overriding goal for the future is to implement the Health for All strategy 16/
and to enable all people, particularly the world's poor, to achieve a higher
level of health and well-being, and to improve their economic productivity and
social potential.  Protecting children from environmental health threats and
infectious disease is particularly urgent since children are more susceptible
than adults to those threats.  Top priority should be attached to supporting
the efforts of countries, particularly developing countries, and international
organizations to eradicate the major infectious diseases, especially malaria,
which is on the increase, to improve and expand basic health and sanitation
services, and to provide safe drinking water.  It is also important to reduce
indigenous cases of vaccine-preventable diseases through the promotion of
widespread immunization programmes, promote accelerated research and vaccine
development and reduce the transmission of other major infectious diseases,
such as dengue fever, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS).  Given the severe and irreversible
health effects of lead poisoning, particularly on children, it is important to
accelerate the process of eliminating unsafe uses of lead, including the use
of lead in gasoline worldwide, in light of country-specific conditions and
with enhanced international support and assistance to developing countries,
particularly through the timely provision of technical and financial
assistance and the promotion of endogenous capacity-building.  Strategies at
the regional, national and local levels for reducing the potential risk due to
ambient and indoor air pollution should be developed, bearing in mind their
serious impacts on human health, including strategies to make parents,
families and communities aware of the adverse environmental health impacts of
tobacco.  The clear linkage between health and the environment needs to be
emphasized and the lack of information on the impact of environmental
pollution on health should be addressed.  Health issues should be fully
integrated into national and subnational sustainable development plans and
should be incorporated into project and programme development as a component
of environmental impact assessments.  Important to efforts at national levels
is international cooperation in disease prevention, early warning,
surveillance, reporting, training and research, and treatment.
Sustainable human settlements
32.   Sustainable human settlements development is essential to sustainable
development.  The need to intensify efforts and cooperation to improve living
conditions in the cities, towns, villages and rural areas throughout the world
is recognized.  Approximately half the world's population already lives in
urban settlements, and by early in the next century the majority - more than 5
billion people - will be urban residents.  Urban problems are concerns common
to both developed and developing countries, although urbanization is occurring
most rapidly in developing countries.  Urbanization creates both challenges
and opportunities.  Global urbanization is a cross-sectoral phenomenon that
has an impact on all aspects of sustainable development.  Urgent action is
needed to implement fully the commitments made at the United Nations
Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) consistent with its report, 17/
and in Agenda 21.  New and additional financial resources from various sources
are necessary to achieve the goals of adequate shelter for all and sustainable
human settlements development in an urbanizing world.  Transfer of expertise
and technology, capacity-building, decentralization of authority through,
inter alia, strengthening of local capacity and private-public partnerships to
improve the provision and environmentally sound management of infrastructure
and social services should be accelerated to achieve more sustainable human
settlements development.  Local Agenda 21 programmes should also be actively
encouraged.  Global targets could be established by the Commission on
Sustainable Development to promote Local Agenda 21 campaigns and to deal with
obstacles to Local Agenda 21 initiatives.
                            B.  Sectors and issues
33.   The present section identifies a number of specific areas that are of
widespread concern since failure to reverse current trends in these areas,
notably in resource degradation, will have potentially disastrous effects on
social and economic development, on human health and on environmental
protection for all countries, particularly developing countries.  All sectors
covered by Agenda 21 are equally important and thus deserve attention by the
international community on an equal footing.  The need for integration is
important in all sectors, including the areas of energy and transport because
of the adverse effects that developments in those areas can have on human
health and ecosystems; the areas of agriculture and water use, where
inadequate land-use planning, poor water management and inappropriate
technology can result in the degradation of natural resources and human
impoverishment and where drought and desertification can result in land
degradation and soil loss; and the area of management of marine resources,
where competitive overexploitation can damage the resource base, food supplies
and the livelihood of fishing communities, as well as the environment.  The
recommendations made in each of the sectors take into account the need for
international cooperation in support of national efforts, within the context
of the principles of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated
responsibilities.  It is likewise understood that these recommendations do not
in any way prejudice the work accomplished under legally binding conventions,
where they exist, concerning these sectors.
Fresh water
34.   Water resources are essential for satisfying basic human needs, health
and food production, and the preservation of ecosystems, as well as for
economic and social development in general.  It is a matter of urgent concern
that more than one fifth of all people still do not have access to safe
drinking water and more than one half of humanity lacks adequate sanitation. 
From the perspective of developing countries, fresh water is a priority and a
basic need, especially taking into account that in many developing countries
fresh water is not readily available for all segments of the population, inter
alia, owing to lack of adequate infrastructure and capacity, water scarcity,
and technical and financial constraints.  Moreover, fresh water is also
crucial for developing countries in order to satisfy the basic needs of their
population in the areas of agricultural irrigation, industrial development,
hydroelectric generation, and so forth.  In view of the growing demands on
water, which is a finite resource, it will become a major limiting factor in
socio-economic development unless early action is taken.  There is growing
concern regarding the increasing stress on water supplies caused by
unsustainable use patterns, affecting both water quality and quantity, and the
widespread lack of access to safe water supply and suitable sanitation in many
developing countries.  Because the commitments of the International Drinking
Water Supply and Sanitation Decade of the 1980s have not been fully met, there
is still a need to ensure the optimal use and protection of all fresh-water
resources, so that the needs of everyone on this planet, including access to
safe drinking water and sanitation, can be met.  This calls for the highest
priority to be given to the serious fresh-water problems facing many regions,
especially in the developing world.  There is an urgent need:
   (a)   To assign high priority, in accordance with specific national needs
and conditions, to the formulation and implementation of policies and
programmes for integrated watershed management, including issues related to
pollution and waste, the interrelationship between water and land, including
mountains, forests, upstream and downstream users, estuarine environments,
biodiversity and the preservation of aquatic ecosystems, wetlands, climate and
land degradation and desertification, recognizing that subnational, national
and regional approaches to fresh-water protection and consumption following a
watershed basin or river basin approach offer a useful model for the
protection of fresh-water supplies;
   (b)   To strengthen regional and international cooperation for
technological transfer and the financing of integrated water resources
programmes and projects, in particular those designed to increase access to
safe water supply and sanitation;
   (c)   To ensure the continued participation of local communities, and
women in particular, in the management of water resources development and use;
   (d)   To provide an enabling national and international environment that
encourages investments from public and private sources to improve water supply
and sanitation services, especially in fast growing urban and peri-urban
areas, as well as in poor rural communities in developing countries; and for
the international community to adopt and implement commitments to support the
efforts to assist developing countries in achieving access to safe drinking
water and sanitation for all;
   (e)   To recognize water as a social and economic good with a vital role
in the satisfaction of basic human needs, food security, poverty alleviation
and the protection of ecosystems.  Economic valuation of water should be seen
within the context of its social and economic implications, reflecting the
importance of meeting basic needs.  Consideration should be given to the
gradual implementation of pricing policies that are geared towards cost
recovery and the equitable and efficient allocation of water, including the
promotion of water conservation, in developed countries; such policies could
also be considered in developing countries when they reach an appropriate
stage in their development, so as to promote the harmonious management and
development of scarce water resources and generate financial resources for
investment in new water supply and treatment facilities.  Such strategies
should also include programmes assigned to minimize wasteful consumption of
water;
   (f)   To strengthen the capability of Governments and international
institutions to collect and manage information, including scientific, social
and environmental data, in order to facilitate the integrated assessment and
management of water resources, and foster regional and international
cooperation for information dissemination and exchange through cooperative
approaches among United Nations institutions, including UNEP, and centres for
environmental excellence.  In this regard, technical assistance to developing
countries will continue to be important;
   (g)   For the international community to give support to the efforts of
developing countries, with their limited resources, to shift to higher-value,
less water-intensive modes of agricultural and industrial production and to
develop the educational and informational infrastructure necessary to improve
the skills of the labour force required for the economic transformation that
needs to take place if use of fresh-water resources is to be sustainable. 
International support for the integrated development of water resources in
developing countries, and appropriate innovative initiatives and approaches at
the bilateral and regional levels are also required;
   (h)   To encourage watercourse States to develop international
watercourses with a view to attaining sustainable utilization and appropriate
protection thereof and benefits therefrom, taking into account the interests
of the watercourse States concerned.
35.   Considering the urgent need for action in the field of fresh water, and
building on existing principles and instruments, arrangements, programmes of
action and customary uses of water, Governments call for a dialogue under the
aegis of the Commission on Sustainable Development, beginning at its sixth
session, aimed at building a consensus on the necessary actions, and in
particular, on the means of implementation and on tangible results, in order
to consider initiating a strategic approach for the implementation of all
aspects of the sustainable use of fresh water for social and economic
purposes, including, inter alia, safe drinking water and sanitation, water for
irrigation,  recycling, and waste-water management, and the important role
fresh water plays in natural ecosystems.  This intergovernmental process will
be fully fruitful only if there is a proved commitment by the international
community to the provision of new and additional financial resources for the
goals of this initiative.
Oceans and seas
36.   Progress has been achieved since the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development in the negotiation of agreements and voluntary
instruments for improving the conservation and management of fishery resources
and for the protection of the marine environment.  Furthermore, progress has
been made in the conservation and management of specific fishery stocks for
the purpose of securing the sustainable utilization of these resources. 
Despite this, the decline of many fish stocks, high levels of discards, and
rising marine pollution continue.  Governments should take full advantage of
the challenge and opportunity presented by the International Year of the Ocean
in 1998.  There is a need to continue to improve decision-making at the
national, regional and global levels.  To address the need for improving
global decision-making on the marine environment, there is an urgent need for
Governments to implement decision 4/15 of the Commission on Sustainable
Development, 18/ in which the Commission, inter alia, called for a periodic
intergovernmental review by the Commission of all aspects of the marine
environment and its related issues, as described in chapter 17 of Agenda 21,
and for which the overall legal framework was provided by the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea.  There is a need for concerted action by all
countries and for improved cooperation to assist developing countries in
implementing the relevant agreements and instruments in order that they may
participate effectively in the sustainable use, conservation and management of
their fishery resources, as provided for in the United Nations Convention on
the Law of the Sea and other international legal instruments, and achieve
integrated coastal zone management.  In that context, there is an urgent need
for:
   (a)   All Governments to ratify or to accede to the relevant agreements as
soon as possible and to implement effectively such agreements as well as
relevant voluntary instruments;
   (b)   All Governments to implement General Assembly resolution 51/189 of
16 December 1996, including the strengthening of institutional links to be
established between the relevant intergovernmental mechanisms involved in the
development and implementation of integrated coastal zone management. 
Following progress on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and
bearing in mind principle 13 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and
Development, there is a need to strengthen the implementation of existing
international and regional agreements on marine pollution, with a view in
particular to ensuring better contingency planning, response, and liability
and compensation mechanisms;
   (c)   Better identification of priorities for action at the global level
to promote the conservation and sustainable use of the marine environment, as
well as better means for integrating such action;
   (d)   Further international cooperation to support the strengthening,
where needed, of regional and subregional agreements for the protection and
sustainable use of the oceans and seas;
   (e)   Governments to prevent or eliminate overfishing and excess fishing
capacity through the adoption of management measures and mechanisms to ensure
the sustainable management and utilization of fishery resources and to
undertake programmes of work to achieve the reduction and elimination of
wasteful fishing practices, wherever they may occur, especially in relation to
large-scale industrialized fishing.  The emphasis given by the Commission on
Sustainable Development at its fourth session to the importance of effective
conservation and management of fish stocks, and in particular to eliminating
overfishing, in order to identify specific steps at national or regional
levels to prevent or eliminate excess fishing capacity, will need to be
carried forward in all appropriate international forums including, in
particular, the Committee on Fisheries of the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO);
   (f)   Governments to consider the positive and negative impact of
subsidies on the conservation and management of fisheries through national,
regional and appropriate international organizations and, based on these
analyses, to consider appropriate action;
   (g)   Governments to take actions, individually and through their
participation in competent global and regional forums, to improve the quality
and quantity of scientific data as a basis for effective decisions related to
the protection of the marine environment and the conservation and management
of marine living resources; in this regard, greater international cooperation
is required to assist developing countries, in particular small island
developing States, to operationalize data networks and clearing houses for
information-sharing on oceans.  In this context, particular emphasis must be
placed on the collection of biological and other fisheries-related information
and the resources for its collation, analysis and dissemination.
Forests
37.   The management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of
forests are a crucial factor in economic and social development, in
environmental protection and in the planet's life-support system.  Forests are
one of the major reservoirs of biological diversity; they act as carbon sinks
and reservoirs; and they are a significant source of renewable energy,
particularly in the least developed countries.  Forests are an integral part
of sustainable development and are essential to many indigenous people and
other forest-dependent people practising traditional lifestyles, forest owners
and local communities, many of whom possess important traditional
forest-related knowledge.
38.   Since the adoption of the Forest Principles at the Rio Conference,
tangible progress has been made in sustainable forest management at the
national, subregional, regional and international levels and in the promotion
of international cooperation on forests.  The proposals for action contained
in the report of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests on its fourth
session (E/CN.17/1997/12), which were endorsed by the Commission on
Sustainable Development at its fifth session, 19/ represent significant
progress and consensus on a wide range of forest issues.
39.   To maintain the momentum generated by the Intergovernmental Panel on
Forests process and to facilitate and encourage the holistic, integrated and
balanced intergovernmental policy dialogue on all types of forests in the
future, which continues to be an open, transparent and participatory process,
requires a long-term political commitment to sustainable forest management
worldwide.  Against this background, there is an urgent need for:
   (a)   Countries and international organizations and institutions to
implement the proposals for action agreed by the Panel, in an expeditious and
effective manner, and in collaboration and through effective partnership with
all interested parties, including major groups, in particular indigenous
people and local communities;
   (b)   Countries to develop national forest programmes in accordance with
their respective national conditions, objectives and priorities;
   (c)   Enhanced international cooperation to implement the Panel's
proposals for action directed towards the management, conservation and
sustainable development of all types of forests, including provision for
financial resources, capacity-building, research and the transfer of
technology;
   (d)   Further clarification of all issues arising from the programme
elements of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests process;
   (e)   International institutions and organizations to continue their work
and to undertake further coordination and explore means for collaboration in
the informal, high-level Inter-agency Task Force on Forests, focusing on the
implementation of the Panel's proposals for action, in accordance with their
respective mandates and comparative advantage;
   (f)   Countries to provide consistent guidance to the governing bodies of
relevant international institutions and instruments with respect to taking
efficient and effective measures, as well as to coordinating their
forest-related work at all levels, in respect of incorporating the Panel's
proposals for action into their work programmes and under existing agreements
and arrangements.
40.   To help achieve this, it is decided to continue the intergovernmental
policy dialogue on forests through the establishment of an ad hoc open-ended
Intergovernmental Forum on Forests under the aegis of the Commission on
Sustainable Development to work in an open, transparent and participatory
manner, with a focused and time-limited mandate, and charged with, inter alia:
   (a)   Promoting and facilitating the implementation of the Panel's
proposals for action;
   (b)   Reviewing, monitoring and reporting on progress in the management,
conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests;
   (c)   Considering matters left pending as regards the programme elements
of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests, in particular trade and environment
in relation to forest products and services, transfer of technology and the
need for financial resources.
The Forum should also identify the possible elements of and work towards
consensus on international arrangements and mechanisms, for example, a legally
binding instrument.  The Forum will report on its work to the Commission on
Sustainable Development in 1999.  Based on that report, and depending on the
decision of the Commission at its eighth session, the Forum will engage in
further action on establishing an intergovernmental negotiation process on new
arrangements and mechanisms or a legally binding instrument on all types of
forests.
41.   The Forum should convene as soon as possible to further elaborate its
terms of reference and decide on organizational matters.  It should be
serviced by a small secretariat within the Department for Policy Coordination
and Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat supported by
voluntary extrabudgetary contributions from Governments and international
organizations.
Energy
42.   Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved
quality of life.  However, sustainable patterns of production, distribution
and use of energy are crucial.  Fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) will
continue to dominate the energy supply situation for many years to come in
most developed and developing countries.  What is required then is to reduce
the environmental impact of their continued development, and to reduce local
health hazards and environmental pollution through enhanced international
cooperation, notably in the provision of concessional finance for capacity
development and transfer of the relevant technology, and through appropriate
national action.
43.   In developing countries, sharp increases in energy services are required
to improve the standard of living of their growing populations.  The increase
in the level of energy services would have a beneficial impact on poverty
eradication by increasing employment opportunities and improving
transportation, health and education.  Many developing countries, in
particular the least developed, face the urgent need to provide adequate
modern energy services, especially to billions of people in rural areas.  This
requires significant financial, human and technical resources and a
broad-based mix of energy sources.
44.   The objectives envisaged in this section should reflect the need for
equity, adequate energy supplies and increasing energy consumption in
developing countries and should take into account the situation of countries
that are highly dependent on income generated from the production, processing
and export, and/or consumption, of fossil fuels and that have serious
difficulties in switching to alternative sources of energy, and the situation
of countries highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.  
45.   Advances towards sustainable energy use are taking place and all parties
can benefit from progress made in other countries.  It is also necessary to
ensure international cooperation for promoting energy conservation and
improvement of energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy and research,
and the development and dissemination of innovative energy-related technology.
46.   Therefore there is a need for: 
   (a)   A movement towards sustainable patterns of production, distribution
and use of energy.  To advance this work at the intergovernmental level, the
Commission on Sustainable Development will discuss energy issues at its ninth
session.  Noting the vital role of energy in the continuation of sustained
economic growth, especially for developing countries, be they importers or
suppliers of energy, and recognizing the complexities and interdependencies
inherent in addressing energy issues within the context of sustainable
development, preparations for this session should be initiated at the seventh
session and should utilize an open-ended intergovernmental group of experts on
energy and sustainable development to be held in conjunction with
inter-sessional meetings of the eighth and ninth sessions of the Commission. 
In line with the objectives of Agenda 21, the ninth session of the Commission
should contribute to a sustainable energy future for all;
   (b)   Evolving concrete measures to strengthen international cooperation
in order to assist developing countries in their domestic efforts to provide
adequate modern energy services, especially electricity, to all sections of
their population, particularly in rural areas, in an environmentally sound
manner;
   (c)   Countries, bearing in mind the specific needs and priorities of
developing countries, to promote policies and plans that take into account the
economic, social and environmental aspects of the production, distribution and
use of energy, including the use of lower-pollutant sources of energy such as
natural gas;
   (d)   Evolving commitments for the transfer of relevant technology,
including time-bound commitments, as appropriate, to developing countries and
economies in transition so as to enable them to increase the use of renewable
energy sources and cleaner fossil fuels and to improve efficiency in energy
production, distribution and use.  Countries need to systematically increase
the use of renewable energy sources according to their specific social,
economic, natural, geographical and climatic conditions and cleaner fuel
technologies, including fossil fuel technologies, and to improve efficiency in
energy production, distribution and use and in other industrial production
processes that are intensive users of energy;
   (e)   Promoting efforts in research on and development and use of
renewable energy technologies at the international and national levels;
   (f)   In the context of fossil fuels, encouraging further research,
development, and the application and transfer of technology of a cleaner and
more efficient nature, through effective international support;
   (g)   Encouraging Governments and the private sector to consider
appropriate ways to gradually promote environmental cost internalization so as
to achieve more sustainable use of energy, taking fully into account the
economic, social and environmental conditions of all countries, in particular
developing countries.  In this regard, the international community should
cooperate to minimize the possible adverse impacts on the development process
of developing countries resulting from the implementation of those policies
and measures.  There is also a need to encourage the reduction and the gradual
elimination of subsidies for energy production and consumption that inhibit
sustainable development.  Such policies should take fully into account the
specific needs and conditions of developing countries, particularly least
developed countries, as reflected in the special and differential treatment
accorded them in the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations
Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures; 20/ 
   (h)   Encouraging better coordination on the issue of energy within the
United Nations system, under the guidance of the General Assembly and taking
into account the coordinating role of the Economic and Social Council.
Transport
47.   The transport sector and mobility in general have an essential and
positive role to play in economic and social development, and transportation
needs will undoubtedly increase.  Over the next 20 years, transportation is
expected to be the major driving force behind a growing world demand for
energy.  The transport sector is the largest end-user of energy in developed
countries and the fastest growing one in most developing countries.  Current
patterns of transportation with their dominant patterns of energy use are not
sustainable and on the basis of present trends may compound the environmental
problems the world is facing and the health impacts referred to in paragraph
31 above.  There is a need for:
   (a)   The promotion of integrated transport policies that consider
alternative approaches to meeting commercial and private mobility needs and
improve performance in the transport sector at the national, regional and
global levels, and particularly a need to encourage international cooperation
in the transfer of environmentally sound technologies in the transport sector
and implementation of appropriate training programmes in accordance with
national programmes and priorities;
   (b)   The integration of land-use and urban, peri-urban and rural
transport planning, taking into account the need to protect ecosystems;
   (c)   The adoption and promotion, as appropriate, of measures to mitigate
the negative impact of transportation on the environment, including measures
to improve efficiency in the transportation sector; 
   (d)   The use of a broad spectrum of policy instruments to improve energy
efficiency and efficiency standards in transportation and related sectors;
   (e)   The continuation of studies in the appropriate forums, including the
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), on the use of economic
instruments for the mitigation of the negative environmental impact of
aviation in the context of sustainable development;
   (f)   Accelerating the phasing-out of the use of leaded gasoline as soon
as possible, in pursuit of the objectives of reducing the severe health
impacts of human exposure to lead.  In this regard, technological and economic
assistance should continue to be provided to developing countries in order to
enable them to make such a transition;
   (g)   The promotion of voluntary guidelines for environmentally friendly
transport, and actions for reducing vehicle emissions of carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and volatile organic
compounds, as soon as possible;
   (h)   Partnerships at the national level, involving Governments, local
authorities, non-governmental organizations and the private sector, for
strengthening transport infrastructures and developing innovative mass
transport schemes. 
Atmosphere
48.   Ensuring that the global climate and atmosphere are not further damaged,
with irreversible consequences for future generations, requires political will
and concerted efforts by the international community in accordance with the
principles enshrined in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change.  Under the Convention, some first steps have been taken to deal with
the global problem of climate change.  Despite the adoption of the Convention,
the emission and concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) continue to rise,
even as scientific evidence assembled by the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) and other relevant bodies continues to diminish the
uncertainties and points ever more strongly to the severe risk of global
climate change.  So far, insufficient progress has been made by many developed
countries in meeting their aim to return GHG emissions to 1990 levels by the
year 2000.  It is recognized as one critical element of the Berlin Mandate 21/
that the commitments set out under article 4, paragraph 2 (a) and (b), of the
Convention are inadequate and that there is therefore a need to strengthen
them.  It is most important that the Conference of the Parties to the
Convention, at its third session, to be held at Kyoto, Japan in December 1997,
adopt a protocol or other legal instrument that fully encompasses the Berlin
Mandate.  The Geneva Ministerial Declaration, 22/ which was noted without
formal adoption, but which received majority support among ministers and other
heads of delegation attending the second session of the Conference of the
Parties, also called for, inter alia, the acceleration of negotiations on the
text of a legally binding protocol or other legal instrument.
49.   At the nineteenth special session of the General Assembly, the
international community confirmed its recognition of the problem of climate
change as one of the biggest challenges facing the world in the next century. 
The leaders of many countries stressed the seriousness of this problem in
their statements to the Assembly, and outlined the actions they had in hand to
respond to the challenge, both in their own countries and internationally. 
50.   The ultimate goal that all countries share is to achieve stabilization
of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would
prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.  This
requires efficient and cost-effective policies and measures that will be
sufficient to result in a significant reduction in emissions.  At the present
session, countries reviewed the status of the preparations for the third
session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change.  All agreed that a satisfactory result was
vital.
51.   The position of many countries with respect to these negotiations is
still evolving, and it was agreed that it would not be appropriate to seek to
predetermine the results; however, useful discussions on evolving positions
took place.
52.   There is already widespread but not universal agreement that it will be
necessary to consider legally binding, meaningful, realistic and equitable
targets for countries listed in annex I to the Convention that will result in
significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions within specified time
frames, such as 2005, 2010 and 2020.  In addition to establishing targets,
there is also widespread agreement that it will be necessary to consider ways
and means of achieving them and to take into account the economic, adverse
environmental and other effects of such response measures on all countries,
particularly developing countries.
53.   International cooperation in the implementation of chapter 9 of Agenda
21, in particular in the transfer of technology to and capacity-building in
developing countries, is also essential to promote the effective
implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
54.   There is also a need to strengthen systematic observational networks so
as to identify the possible onset and distribution of climate change and
assess potential impacts, particularly at the regional level.
55.   The ozone layer continues to be severely depleted and the Montreal
Protocol 23/ needs to be strengthened.  The Copenhagen Amendment to the
Protocol needs to be ratified.  The recent successful conclusion of the
replenishment negotiations with respect to the Montreal Protocol Multilateral
Fund is welcomed.  This has made available funds for, among other things,
earlier phase-out of ozone-depleting substances, including methyl bromide, in
developing countries.  Future replenishment should also be adequate to ensure
timely implementation of the Montreal Protocol.  An increased focus on
capacity-building programmes in developing countries within multilateral funds
is also needed, as well as the implementation of effective measures against
illegal trade in ozone-depleting substances. 
56.   Rising levels of transboundary air pollution should be countered,
including through appropriate regional cooperation to reduce pollution levels.
Toxic chemicals
57.   The sound management of chemicals is essential to sustainable
development and is fundamental to human health and environmental protection. 
All those responsible for chemicals throughout their life cycle bear the
responsibility for achieving this goal.  Substantial progress on the sound
management of chemicals has been made since UNCED, in particular through the
establishment of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) and the
Inter-Organizational Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC). 
In addition, domestic regulations have been complemented by the Code of Ethics
on the International Trade in Chemicals and by voluntary industry initiatives,
such as Responsible Care.  Despite substantial progress, a number of chemicals
continue to pose significant threats to local, regional and global ecosystems
and to human health.  Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, there has been an increased understanding of the serious damage
that certain toxic chemicals can cause to human health and the environment. 
Much remains to be done and the environmentally sound management of chemicals
should continue to be an important issue well beyond 2000.  Particular
attention should also be given to cooperation in the development and transfer
of technology of safe substitutes and in the development of capacity for the
production of such substitutes.  The decision concerning the sound management
of chemicals adopted by the Governing Council of UNEP at its nineteenth
session 24/ should be implemented in accordance with the agreed timetables for
negotiations on the conventions relating to prior informed consent (PIC) and
persistent organic pollutants (POPs).  It is noted that inorganic chemicals
possess roles and behaviour that are distinct from organic chemicals.
Hazardous wastes
58.   Substantial progress has been made in the implementation of the Basel
Convention, 25/ the Bamako Convention, 26/ the Fourth Lome' Convention 27/ and
other regional conventions, although more remains to be done.  Important
initiatives aimed at promoting the environmentally sound management of
hazardous wastes under the Basel Convention, include (a) activities undertaken
to prevent illegal traffic in hazardous wastes; (b) the establishment of
regional centres for training and technology transfer regarding hazardous
waste minimization and management; and (c) the treatment and disposal of
hazardous wastes as close as possible to their source of origin.  These
initiatives should be further developed.  It is also important and urgent that
work under the Basel Convention be completed to define which hazardous wastes
are controlled under the Convention and to negotiate, adopt and implement a
protocol on liability and compensation for damage resulting from the
transboundary movement and disposal of hazardous wastes.  Land contaminated by
the disposal of hazardous wastes needs to be identified and remedial actions
put in hand.  Integrated management solutions are also required to minimize
urban and industrial waste generation and to promote recycling and reuse. 
Radioactive wastes
59.   Radioactive wastes can have very serious environmental and human health
impacts over long periods of time.  It is therefore essential that they be
managed in a safe and responsible way.  The storage, transportation,
transboundary movement and disposal of radioactive wastes should be guided by
all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and
by Agenda 21.  States that generate radioactive wastes have a responsibility
to ensure their safe storage and disposal.  In general, radioactive wastes
should be disposed of in the territory of the State in which they are
generated as far as is compatible with the safety of the management of such
material.  Each country has the responsibility of ensuring that radioactive
wastes that fall within its jurisdiction are managed properly in accordance
with internationally accepted principles, taking fully into account any
transboundary effects.  The international community should make all efforts to
prohibit the export of radioactive wastes to those countries that do not have
appropriate waste treatment and storage facilities.  The international
community recognizes that regional arrangements or jointly used facilities
might be appropriate for the disposal of such wastes in certain circumstances.
The management 28/ of radioactive wastes should be undertaken in a manner
consistent with international law, including the provisions of relevant
international and regional conventions, and with internationally accepted
standards.  It is important to intensify safety measures with regard to
radioactive wastes.  States, in cooperation with relevant international
organizations, where appropriate, should not promote or allow the storage or
disposal of high-level, intermediate-level or low-level radioactive wastes
near the marine environment unless they determine that scientific evidence,
consistent with the applicable internationally agreed principles and
guidelines, shows that such storage or disposal poses no unacceptable risk to
people or the marine environment and does not interfere with other legitimate
uses of the sea.  In the process of the consideration of that evidence,
appropriate application of the precautionary approach principle should be
made.  Further action is needed by the international community to address the
need for enhancing awareness of the importance of the safe management of
radioactive wastes, and to ensure the prevention of incidents and accidents
involving the uncontrolled release of such wastes.
60.   One of the main recommendations of Agenda 21 and of the Commission on
Sustainable Development at its second session in this area was to support the
ongoing efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the
International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other relevant international
organizations.  The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management
and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management currently being negotiated
under the auspices of IAEA is now close to completion.  It will provide a
comprehensive codification of international law and a guide to best practices
in this area.  It will rightly be based on all the principles of best practice
for this subject that have evolved in the international community, including
the principle that, in general, radioactive wastes should be disposed of in
the State in which they were generated as far as is compatible with the safety
of the management of such material.  Governments should finalize this text and
are urged to ratify and implement it as soon as possible so as to further
improve practice and strengthen safety in this area.  Transportation of
irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) and high-level waste by sea should be guided by
the INF Code, which should be considered for development into a mandatory
instrument.  The issue of the potential transboundary environmental effects of
activities related to the management 28/ of radioactive wastes and the
question
of prior notification, relevant information and consultation with States that
could potentially be affected by such effects, should be further addressed
within the appropriate forums.
61.   Increased global and regional cooperation, including exchange of
information and experience and transfer of appropriate technologies, is needed
to improve the management of radioactive wastes.  There is a need to support
the clean-up of sites contaminated as a result of all types of nuclear
activity and to conduct health studies in the regions around those sites, as
appropriate, with a view to identifying where health treatment may be needed
and should be provided.  Technical assistance should be provided to developing
countries, recognizing the special needs of small island developing States in
particular, to enable them to develop or improve procedures for the management
and safe disposal of radioactive wastes deriving from the use of radionuclides
in medicine, research and industry.
Land and sustainable agriculture
62.   Land degradation and soil loss threaten the livelihood of millions of
people and future food security, with implications for water resources and the
conservation of biodiversity.  There is an urgent need to define ways to
combat or reverse the worldwide accelerating trend of soil degradation, using
an ecosystem approach, taking into account the needs of populations living in
mountain ecosystems and recognizing the multiple functions of agriculture. 
The greatest challenge for humanity is to protect and sustainably manage the
natural resource base on which food and fibre production depend, while feeding
and housing a population that is still growing.  The international community
has recognized the need for an integrated approach to the protection and
sustainable management of land and soil resources, as stated in decision
III/11 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological
Diversity, 29/ including identification of land degradation, which involves
all
interested parties at the local as well as the national level, including
farmers, small-scale food producers, indigenous people(s), non-governmental
organizations and, in particular, women, who have a  vital role in rural
communities.  This should include action to ensure secure land tenure and
access to land, credit and training, as well as the removal of obstacles that
inhibit farmers, especially small-scale farmers and peasants, from investing
in and improving their lands and farms. 
63.   It remains essential to continue efforts for the eradication of poverty
through, inter alia, capacity-building to reinforce local food systems,
improving food security and providing adequate nutrition for the more than
800 million undernourished people in the world, located mainly in developing
countries.  Governments should formulate policies that promote sustainable
agriculture as well as productivity and profitability.  Comprehensive rural
policies are required to improve access to land, combat poverty, create
employment and reduce rural emigration.  In accordance with the commitments
agreed to in the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food
Summit Plan of Action, adopted by the World Food Summit (Rome,
13-17 November 1996), 30/ sustainable food security for both the urban and the
rural poor should be a policy priority, and developed countries and the
international community should provide assistance to developing countries to
this end.  To meet these objectives, Governments should attach high priority
to implementing the commitments of the Rome Declaration and Plan of Action,
especially the call for a minimum target of halving the number of
undernourished people in the world by the year 2015.  Governments and
international organizations are encouraged to implement the Global Plan of
Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic
Resources for Food and Agriculture, adopted by the International Technical
Conference on Plant Genetic Resources (Leipzig, Germany, 17-23 June 1996).  At
the sixth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, in 1998, the
issues of sustainable agriculture and land use should be considered in
relation to freshwater.  The challenge for agricultural research is to
increase yields on all farmlands while protecting and conserving the natural
resource base.  The international community and Governments must continue or
increase investments in agricultural research because it can take years or
decades to develop new lines of research and put research findings into
sustainable practice on the land.  Developing countries, particularly those
with high population densities, will need international cooperation to gain
access to the results of such research and to technology aimed at improving
agricultural productivity in limited spaces.  More generally, international
cooperation continues to be needed to assist developing countries in many
other aspects of basic requirements of agriculture.  There is a need to
support the continuation of the reform process in conformity with the Uruguay
Round Agreements, particularly article 20 of the Agreement on Agriculture, 31/
and to fully implement the World Trade Organization Decision on Measures
Concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme on
Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Developing Countries. 31/ 
Desertification and drought
64.   Governments are urged to conclude (by signing and ratifying, accepting,
approving and/or acceding to) and to implement the United Nations Convention
to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought
and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa, which entered into force on
26 December 1996, as soon as possible, and to support and actively participate
in the first session of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention, which
is to be held in Rome in September 1997.  
65.   The international community is urged to recognize the vital importance
and necessity of international cooperation and partnership in combating
desertification and mitigating the effects of drought.  In order to increase
the effectiveness and efficiency of existing financial mechanisms, the
international community, in particular developed countries, should therefore
support the global mechanism that would have the capacity to promote actions
leading to the mobilization and channelling of substantial resources for
advancing the implementation of the Convention and its regional annexes, and
to contribute to the eradication of poverty, which is one of the principal
consequences of desertification and drought in the majority of affected
countries.  Another view was that the international community, in particular
developed countries, should provide new and additional resources towards the
same ends.  The transfer to developing countries of environmentally sound,
economically viable and socially acceptable technologies relevant to combating
desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought, with a view to
contributing to the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas,
should be undertaken without delay on mutually agreed terms.
Biodiversity
66.   There remains an urgent need for the conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising
from the utilization of components of genetic resources.  The threat to
biodiversity stems mainly from habitat destruction, over-harvesting, pollution
and the inappropriate introduction of foreign plants and animals.  There is an
urgent need for Governments and the international community, with the support
of relevant international institutions, as appropriate:
   (a)   To take decisive action to conserve and maintain genes, species and
ecosystems with a view to promoting the sustainable management of biological
diversity;
   (b)   To ratify the Convention on Biological Diversity and implement it
fully and effectively together with the decisions of the Conference of the
Parties, including recommendations on agricultural biological diversity and
the Jakarta Mandate on Marine and Coastal Biological Diversity, and pursue
urgently other tasks identified by the Conference of the Parties at its third
meeting under the work programme on terrestrial biological diversity, 32/
within the context of the ecosystems approach adopted in the Convention;
   (c)   To undertake concrete actions for the fair and equitable sharing of
the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources, consistent
with the provisions of the Convention and the decisions of the Conference of
the Parties on, inter alia, access to genetic resources and the handling of
biotechnology and its benefits;
   (d)   To pay further attention to the provision of new and additional
financial resources for the implementation of the Convention;
   (e)   To facilitate the transfer of technologies, including biotechnology,
to developing countries, consistent with the provisions of the Convention;
   (f)   To respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and
practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional
lifestyles, and encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from
traditional knowledge so that those communities are adequately protected and
rewarded, consistent with the provisions of the Convention on Biological
Diversity and in accordance with the decisions of the Conference of the
Parties;
   (g)   To complete rapidly the biosafety protocol under the Convention on
Biological Diversity, on the understanding that the UNEP International
Technical Guidelines for Safety in Biotechnology may be used as an interim
mechanism during its development, and to complement it after its conclusion,
including the recommendations on capacity-building related to biosafety;
   (h)   To stress the importance of the establishment of a clearing-house
mechanism by Parties to the Convention, consistent with the provisions of the
Convention;
   (i)   To recognize the role of women in the conservation of biological
diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources;
   (j)   To provide the necessary support to integrate the conservation of
biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources into
national development plans;
   (k)   To promote international cooperation to develop and strengthen
national capacity-building, including human resource development and
institution-building; 
   (l)   To provide incentive measures at the national, regional and
international levels to promote the conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity, and to consider means to enhance developing countries'
capabilities to compete in the emerging market for biological resources, while
improving the functioning of that market. 
Sustainable tourism
67.   Tourism is now one of the world's largest industries and one of its
fastest growing economic sectors.  The expected growth in the tourism sector
and the increasing reliance of many developing countries, including small
island developing States, on this sector as a major employer and contributor
to local, national, subregional and regional economies highlights the need to
pay special attention to the relationship between environmental conservation
and protection and sustainable tourism.  In this regard, the efforts of
developing countries to broaden the traditional concept of tourism to include
cultural and eco-tourism merit special consideration as well as the assistance
of the international community, including the international financial
institutions.
68.   There is a need to consider further the importance of tourism in the
context of Agenda 21.  Tourism, like other sectors, uses resources, generates
wastes and creates environmental, cultural and social costs and benefits in
the process.  For sustainable patterns of consumption and production in the
tourism sector, it is essential to strengthen national policy development and
enhance capacity in the areas of physical planning, impact assessment, and the
use of economic and regulatory instruments, as well as in the areas of
information, education and marketing.  A particular concern is the degradation
of biodiversity and fragile ecosystems, such as coral reefs, mountains,
coastal areas and wetlands.
69.   Policy development and implementation should take place in cooperation
with all interested parties, especially the private sector and local and
indigenous communities.  The Commission should develop an action-oriented
international programme of work on sustainable tourism, to be defined in
cooperation with the World Tourism Organization, UNCTAD, UNEP, the Conference
of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant
bodies.
70.   The sustainable development of tourism is of importance for all
countries, in particular for small island developing States.  International
cooperation is needed to facilitate tourism development in developing
countries - including the development and marketing of eco-tourism, bearing in
mind the importance of the conservation policies required to secure long-term
benefits from development in this sector - in particular in small island
developing States, in the context of the Programme of Action for the
Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.
Small island developing States
71.   The international community reaffirms its commitment to the
implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States.  The Commission on Sustainable Development
carried out a mid-term review of selected programme areas of the Programme of
Action at its fourth session, in 1996.  At its sixth session, in 1998, the
Commission will undertake a review of all the outstanding chapters and issues
of the Programme of Action.  A full and comprehensive review of the Programme
of Action, consistent with the review of other United Nations global
conferences, is scheduled for 1999.  The Commission, at its fifth session,
adopted a resolution on modalities for the full and comprehensive review of
the Programme of Action, in which it recommended that the General Assembly
hold a two-day special session immediately preceding its fifty-fourth session
for an in-depth assessment and appraisal of the implementation of the
Programme of Action. 33/  The full implementation of the decision would
represent a significant contribution to achieving the objectives of the Global
Conference for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. 
72.   Considerable efforts are being made at the national and regional levels
to implement the Programme of Action.  These efforts need to be supplemented
by effective financial support from the international community.  External
assistance for building the requisite infrastructure and for national
capacity-building, including human and institutional capacity, and for
facilitating access to information on sustainable development practices and
the transfer of environmentally sound technologies, in accordance with
paragraph 34.14 (b) of Agenda 21, is crucial for small island developing
States to effectively attain the goals of the Programme of Action.  To assist
national capacity-building, the small island developing States information
network and small island developing States technical assistance programme
should be made operational as soon as possible, with support for existing
regional and subregional institutions.
Natural disasters
73.   Natural disasters have disproportionate consequences for developing
countries, in particular small island developing States and countries with
extremely fragile ecosystems.  Programmes for sustainable development should
give higher priority to the implementation of the commitments made at the
World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction (Yokohama, Japan, 23-27 May
1994) (see A/CONF.172/9 and Add.1).  There is a particular need for
capacity-building for disaster planning and management and for the promotion
and facilitation of the transfer of early-warning technologies to countries
prone to disasters, in particular developing countries and countries with
economies in transition. 
74.   Given that further work is needed throughout the world, there is a
special need to provide developing countries with further assistance in:
   (a)   Strengthening mechanisms and policies designed to reduce the effects
of natural disasters, improve preparedness and integrate natural disaster
considerations in development planning, through, inter alia, access to
resources for disaster mitigation and preparedness, response and recovery;
   (b)   Improving access to relevant technology and training in hazard and
risk assessment and early warning systems, and in protection from
environmental disasters, consistent with national, subregional and regional
strategies;
   (c)   Providing and facilitating technical, scientific and financial
support for disaster preparedness and response in the context of the
International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.
Major technological and other disasters with an adverse impact on the
environment
75.   Major technological and other disasters with an adverse impact on the
environment can be a substantial obstacle in the way of achieving the goals of
sustainable development in many countries.  The international community should
intensify cooperation in the prevention and reduction of such disasters and in
disaster relief and post-disaster rehabilitation in order to enhance the
capabilities of affected countries to cope with such situations.
                          C.  Means of implementation
Financial resources and mechanisms
76.   Financial resources and mechanisms play a key role in the implementation
of Agenda 21.  In general, the financing for the implementation of Agenda 21
will come from a country's own public and private sectors.  For developing
countries, ODA is a main source of external funding, and substantial new and
additional funding for sustainable development and the implementation of
Agenda 21 will be required.  Hence, all financial commitments of Agenda 21,
particularly those contained in chapter 33, and the provisions with regard to
new and additional resources that are both adequate and predictable need to be
urgently fulfilled.  Renewed efforts are essential to ensure that all sources
of funding contribute to economic growth, social development and environmental
protection in the context of sustainable development and the implementation of
Agenda 21.
77.   For developing countries, particularly those in Africa and the least
developed countries, ODA remains a main source of external funding; it is
essential for the prompt and effective implementation of Agenda 21 and cannot
generally be replaced by private capital flows.  Developed countries should
therefore fulfil the commitments undertaken to reach the accepted United
Nations target of 0.7 per cent of GNP as soon as possible.  In this context
the present downward trend in the ratio of ODA to GNP causes concern. 
Intensified efforts should be made to reverse this trend, taking into account
the need for improving the quality and effectiveness of ODA.  In the spirit of
global partnership, the underlying factors that have led to this decrease
should be addressed by all countries.  Strategies should be worked out for
increasing donor support for aid programmes and revitalizing the commitments
that donors made at the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development.  Some countries already meet or exceed the 0.7 per cent agreed
target.  Official financial flows to developing countries, particularly the
least developed countries, remain an essential element of the partnership
embodied in Agenda 21.  ODA plays a significant role, inter alia, in
capacity-building, infrastructure, combating poverty and environmental
protection in developing countries, and a crucial role in the least developed
countries.  ODA can play an important complementary and catalytic role in
promoting economic growth and may, in some cases, play a catalytic role in
encouraging private investment and, where appropriate, all aspects of
country-driven capacity-building and strengthening.
78.   Funding by multilateral financial institutions through their
concessional mechanisms is also essential to developing countries in their
efforts to fully implement the sustainable development objectives contained in
Agenda 21.  Such institutions should continue to respond to the development
needs and priorities of developing countries.  Developed countries should
urgently meet their commitments under the eleventh replenishment of the
International Development Association (IDA).
79.   Continued and full donor commitment to adequate, sustained and
predictable funding for GEF operations is important for developing countries
so that global environmental benefits can be further achieved.  Donor
countries are urged to engage in providing new and additional resources, with
a view to equitable burden-sharing, through the satisfactory replenishment of
GEF, which makes available grant and concessional funding designed to achieve
global environmental benefits, thereby promoting sustainable development. 
Consideration should be given to further exploring the flexibility of the
existing mandate of GEF in supporting activities to achieve global
environmental benefits.  With regard to the project cycle, further efforts
should be made to continue streamlining the decision-making process in order
to maintain an effective and efficient, as well as transparent, participatory
and democratic framework.  GEF, when acting as the operating entity of the
financial mechanism of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity, should continue to operate
in conformity with those Conventions and promote their implementation.  The
GEF implementing agencies, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),
UNEP and the World Bank, should strengthen, as appropriate and in accordance
with their respective mandates, their cooperation at all levels, including the
field level.
80.   The efficiency, effectiveness and impact of the operational activities
of the United Nations system must be enhanced by, inter alia, a substantial
increase in their funding on a predictable, continuous and assured basis,
commensurate with the increasing needs of developing countries, as well as
through the full implementation of General Assembly resolutions 47/199 and
48/162.  There is a need for a substantial increase in resources for
operational activities for development on a predictable, continuous and
assured basis, commensurate with the increasing needs of developing countries.
81.   Private capital is a major tool for achieving economic growth in a
growing number of developing countries.  Higher levels of foreign private
investment should be mobilized given its mounting importance.  To stimulate
higher levels of private investment, Governments should aim at ensuring
macroeconomic stability, open trade and investment policies, and
well-functioning legal and financial systems.  Further studies should be
undertaken, including studies on the design of an appropriate environment, at
both the national and international levels, for facilitating foreign private
investment, in particular foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to developing
countries, and enhancing its contribution to sustainable development.  To
ensure that such investments are supportive of sustainable development
objectives, it is essential that the national Governments of both investor and
recipient countries provide appropriate regulatory frameworks and incentives
for private investment.  Therefore further work should be undertaken on the
design of appropriate policies and measures aimed at promoting long-term
investment flows to developing countries for activities that increase their
productive capability, and at reducing the volatility of these flows.  ODA
donors and multilateral development banks are encouraged to strengthen their
commitment to supporting investment in developing countries in a manner that
jointly promotes economic growth, social development and environmental
protection.
82.   The external debt problem continues to hamper the efforts of developing
countries to achieve sustainable development.  To resolve the remaining debt
problems of the heavily indebted poor countries, creditor and debtor countries
and international financial institutions should continue their efforts to find
effective, equitable, development-oriented and durable solutions to the debt
problem, including debt relief in the form of debt rescheduling, debt
reduction, debt swaps and, as appropriate, debt cancellation, as well as
grants and concessional flows that will help restore creditworthiness.  The
joint World Bank/International Monetary Fund (IMF) Heavily Indebted Poor
Countries (HIPC) Debt Initiative supported by the Paris Club creditor
countries is an important development to reduce the multilateral debt problem.
Implementation of the HIPC Debt Initiative requires additional financial
resources from both bilateral and multilateral creditors without affecting the
support required for the development activities of developing countries.
83.   A fuller understanding of the impact of indebtedness on the pursuit of
sustainable development by developing countries is needed.  To this end, the
United Nations Secretariat, the World Bank and IMF are invited to collaborate
with UNCTAD in further considering the interrelationship between indebtedness
and sustainable development for developing countries.
84.   While international cooperation is very important in assisting
developing countries in their development efforts, in general financing for
the implementation of Agenda 21 will come from countries' own public and
private sectors.  Policies for promoting domestic resource mobilization,
including credit, could encompass sound macroeconomic reforms, including
fiscal and monetary policy reforms, review and reform of existing subsidies,
and the promotion of personal savings and access to credit, especially
micro-credit, in particular for women.  Such policies should be decided by
each country, taking into account its own characteristics and capabilities and
different levels of development, especially as reflected in national
sustainable development strategies, where they exist.
85.   There is a need for making existing subsidies more transparent in order
to increase public awareness of their actual economic, social and
environmental impact, and for reforming or, where appropriate, removing them. 
Further national and international research in that area should be promoted in
order to assist Governments in identifying and considering phasing-out
subsidies that have market distorting, and socially and environmentally
damaging impacts.  Subsidy reductions should take full account of the specific
conditions and the different levels of development of individual countries and
should consider potentially regressive impacts, particularly on developing
countries.  In addition, it would be desirable to use international
cooperation and coordination to promote the reduction of subsidies where these
have important implications for competitiveness.
86.   In order to reduce the barriers to the expanded use of economic
instruments, Governments and international organizations should collect and
share information on their use and introduce pilot schemes that would,
inter alia, demonstrate how to make the best use of them while avoiding
adverse effects on competitiveness and the terms of trade of all countries,
particularly developing countries, and on marginalized and vulnerable sectors
of society.  When introducing economic instruments that raise the cost of
economic activities for households and small and medium-sized enterprises
(SMEs), Governments should consider gradual phase-ins, public education
programmes and targeted technical assistance as strategies for reducing
distributional impacts.  Various studies and practical experience in a number
of countries, in particular developed countries, indicate that the appropriate
use of relevant economic instruments may help generate positive possibilities
for shifting consumer and producer behaviour to more sustainable directions in
those countries.  There is, however, a need to conduct further studies and
test practical experience in more countries, taking into account
country-specific conditions and the acceptability, legitimacy, equity,
efficiency and effectiveness of such economic instruments.
87.   Innovative financial mechanisms are currently under discussion in
international and national forums but have not yet fully evolved conceptually.
The Secretary-General is to submit a report concerning innovative financing
mechanisms to the Economic and Social Council at its substantive session of
1997.  In view of the widespread interest in those mechanisms, appropriate
organizations, including UNCTAD, the World Bank and IMF, are invited to
consider conducting forward-looking studies of concerted action on such
mechanisms and to share them with the Commission on Sustainable Development,
other relevant intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental
organizations.  In this regard, innovative funding should complement ODA, not
replace it.  New initiatives for cooperative implementation of environment and
development objectives under mutually beneficial incentive structures should
be further explored.
Transfer of environmentally sound technologies
88.   The availability of scientific and technological information and access
to and transfer of environmentally sound technologies are essential
requirements for sustainable development.  There is an urgent need for
developing countries to acquire greater access to environmentally sound
technologies if they are to meet the obligations agreed at the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development and in the relevant international
conventions.  The ability of developing countries to participate in, benefit
from and contribute to rapid advances in science and technology can
significantly influence their development.  This calls for the urgent
fulfilment of all the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
commitments concerning concrete measures for the transfer of environmentally
sound technologies to developing countries.  The international community
should promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, access to and transfer
of environmentally sound technologies and the corresponding know-how, in
particular to developing countries, on favourable terms, including
concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, taking into account
the need to protect intellectual property rights as well as the special needs
of developing countries for the implementation of Agenda 21.  Current forms of
cooperation involving the public and private sectors of developing and
developed countries should be built upon and expanded.  In this context, it is
important to identify barriers and restrictions to the transfer of publicly
and privately owned environmentally sound technologies, with a view to
reducing such constraints while creating specific incentives, fiscal and
otherwise, for the transfer of such technologies.  Progress in the fulfilment
of all the provisions contained in chapter 34 of Agenda 21 should be reviewed
regularly as part of the multi-year work programme of the Commission on
Sustainable Development.
89.   Technology transfer and the development of the human and institutional
capacity to adapt, absorb and disseminate technologies, as well as to generate
technical knowledge and innovations, are part of the same process and must be
given equal importance.  Governments have an important role to play in
providing, inter alia, research and development institutions with incentives
to promote and contribute to the development of institutional and human
capacities.
90.   Much of the most advanced environmentally sound technology is developed
and held by the private sector.  The creation of an enabling environment, on
the part of both developed and developing countries, including supportive
economic and fiscal measures, as well as a practical system of environmental
regulations and compliance mechanisms, can help to stimulate private sector
investment in and transfer of environmentally sound technology to developing
countries.  New ways of financial intermediation for the financing of
environmentally sound technologies, such as "green credit lines", should be
examined.  Further efforts should be made by Governments and international
development institutions to facilitate the transfer of privately owned
technology on concessional terms, as mutually agreed, to developing countries,
especially the least developed countries.
91.   A proportion of technology is held or owned by Governments and public
institutions or results from publicly funded research and development
activities.  The Government's control and influence over the technological
knowledge produced in publicly funded research and development institutions
open up the potential for the generation of publicly owned technologies that
could be made accessible to developing countries, and could be an important
means for Governments to catalyse private sector technology transfer. 
Proposals for the further study of the options with respect to those
technologies and publicly funded research and development activities are to be
welcomed.
92.   Governments should create a legal and policy framework that is conducive
to technology-related private sector investments and long-term sustainable
development objectives.  Governments and international development
institutions should continue to play a key role in establishing public-private
partnerships, within and between developed and developing countries and
countries with economies in transition.  Such partnerships are essential for
linking the advantages of the private sector - access to finance and
technology, managerial efficiency, entrepreneurial experience and engineering
expertise - with the capacity of Governments to create a policy environment
that is conducive to technology-related private sector investments and
long-term sustainable development objectives.
93.   The creation of centres for the transfer of technology at various
levels, including the regional level, could greatly contribute to achieving
the objective of transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing
countries.  For this purpose, existing United Nations bodies, including, as
appropriate, the Commission on Science and Technology for Development, UNCTAD,
the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), UNEP and the
regional commissions, should cooperate and mechanisms be used, such as
technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC) and economic
cooperation among developing countries (ECDC).
94.   Governments and international development institutions can also play an
important role in bringing together companies from developed and developing
countries and countries with economies in transition so that they can create
sustainable and mutually beneficial business linkages.  Incentives should be
provided to stimulate the building of joint ventures between small and
medium-sized enterprises of developed and developing countries and countries
with economies in transition, and cleaner production programmes in public and
private companies should be supported.
95.   Governments of developing countries should take appropriate measures to
strengthen South-South cooperation for technology transfer and
capacity-building.  Such measures could include the networking of existing
national information systems and sources on environmentally sound
technologies, and the networking of national cleaner production centres, as
well as the establishment of sector-specific regional centres for technology
transfer and capacity-building.  Interested donor countries and international
organizations should further assist developing countries in those efforts
through, inter alia, supporting trilateral arrangements and contributing to
the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for South-South Cooperation.
96.   Attention must also be given to technology needs assessment as a tool
for Governments in identifying a portfolio for technology transfer projects
and capacity-building activities to be undertaken to facilitate and accelerate
the development, adoption and dissemination of environmentally sound
technologies in particular sectors of the national economy.  It is also
important for Governments to promote the integration of environmental
technology assessment with technology needs assessment as an important tool
for evaluating environmentally sound technologies and the organizational,
managerial and human resource systems related to the proper use of those
technologies.
97.   There is a need to further explore and enhance the potential of global
electronic information and telecommunication networks.  This would enable
countries to choose among the available technological options that are most
appropriate to their needs.  In this respect, the international community
should assist developing countries in enhancing their capacities.
Capacity-building
98.   Renewed commitment and support from the international community is
essential to support national efforts for capacity-building in developing
countries and countries with economies in transition.
99.   The United Nations Development Programme, inter alia, through its
Capacity 21 programme, should give priority attention to building capacity for
the elaboration of sustainable development strategies based on participatory
approaches.  In this context, developing countries should be assisted,
particularly in the areas of the design, implementation and evaluation of
programmes and projects.
100.  Capacity-building efforts should pay particular attention to the needs
of women in order to ensure that their skills and experience are fully used in
decision-making at all levels.  The special needs, culture, traditions and
expertise of indigenous people must be recognized.  International financial
institutions should continue to give high priority to funding
capacity-building for sustainable development in developing countries and
countries with economies in transition.  Special attention should also be
given to strengthening the ability of developing countries to absorb and
generate technologies.  International cooperation needs to be strengthened to
promote the endogenous capacity of developing countries to utilize scientific
and technological developments from abroad and to adapt them to local
conditions.  The role of the private sector in capacity-building should be
further promoted and enhanced.  South-South cooperation in capacity-building
should be further supported through "triangular" cooperative arrangements. 
Both developed and developing countries, in cooperation with relevant
international institutions, need to strengthen their efforts to develop and
implement strategies for more effective sharing of environmental expertise and
data.
Science
101.  Public and private investment in science, education and training, and
research and development should be increased significantly, with emphasis on
the need to ensure equal access to opportunities for girls and women.
102.  International consensus-building is facilitated by the availability of
authoritative scientific evidence.  There is a need for further scientific
cooperation, especially across disciplines, in order to verify and strengthen
scientific evidence and make it accessible to developing countries.  This
evidence is important for assessing environmental conditions and changes. 
Steps should also be taken by Governments, academia, and scientific
institutions to improve access to scientific information related to the
environment and sustainable development.  The promotion of existing regional
and global networks may be useful for this purpose.
103.  Increasing efforts to build and strengthen scientific and technological
capacity in developing countries is an extremely important objective. 
Multilateral and bilateral donor agencies and Governments, as well as specific
funding mechanisms, should continue to enhance their support for developing
countries.  Attention should also be given to countries with economies in
transition.
104.  The international community should also actively collaborate in
promoting innovations in information and communication technologies for the
purpose of reducing environmental impacts, inter alia, by taking approaches to
technology transfer and cooperation that are based on user needs.
Education and awareness
105.  Education increases human welfare, and is a decisive factor in enabling
people to become productive and responsible members of society.  A fundamental
prerequisite for sustainable development is an adequately financed and
effective educational system at all levels, particularly the primary and
secondary levels, that is accessible to all and that augments both human
capacity and well-being.  The core themes of education for sustainability
include lifelong learning, interdisciplinary education, partnerships,
multicultural education and empowerment.  Priority should be given to ensuring
women's and girls' full and equal access to all levels of education and
training.  Special attention should also be paid to the training of teachers,
youth leaders and other educators.  Education should also be seen as a means
of empowering youth and vulnerable and marginalized groups, including those in
rural areas, through intergenerational partnerships and peer education.  Even
in countries with strong education systems, there is a need to reorient
education, awareness and training so as to promote widespread public
understanding, critical analysis and support for sustainable development. 
Education for a sustainable future should engage a wide spectrum of
institutions and sectors, including but not limited to business/industry,
international organizations, youth, professional organizations,
non-governmental organizations, higher education, government, educators and
foundations, to address the concepts and issues of sustainable development, as
embodied throughout Agenda 21, and should include the preparation of
sustainable development education plans and programmes, as emphasized in the
Commission's work programme on the subject adopted in 1996. 34/  The concept
of
education for a sustainable future will be further developed by the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, in cooperation with
others.
106.  It is necessary to support and strengthen universities and other
academic centres in promoting cooperation among them, particularly cooperation
between those of developing countries and those of developed countries.
International legal instruments and the Rio Declaration on Environment and
Development
107.  The implementation and application of the principles contained in the
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development should be the subject of
regular assessment and reporting to the Commission on Sustainable Development
by the Secretariat in collaboration with UNEP, in particular.
108.  Access to information and broad public participation in decision-making
are fundamental to sustainable development.  Further efforts are required to
promote, in the light of country-specific conditions, the integration of
environment and development policies, through appropriate legal and regulatory
policies, instruments and enforcement mechanisms at the national, state,
provincial and local levels.  At the national level, each individual should
have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held
by public authorities, including information on hazardous materials and
activities in the communities, and the opportunity to participate in
decision-making processes.  Governments and legislators, with the support,
where appropriate, of competent international organizations, should establish
judicial and administrative procedures for legal redress and remedy of actions
affecting environment and development that may be unlawful or infringe on
rights under the law, and should provide access to individuals, groups and
organizations with a recognized legal interest.  Access should be provided to
effective judicial and administrative channels for affected individuals and
groups to ensure that all authorities, both national and local, and other
civil organizations remain accountable for their actions in accordance with
their obligations, at the appropriate levels for the country concerned, taking
into account the judicial and administrative systems of the country concerned.
109.  Taking into account the provisions of chapter 39, particularly
paragraph 39.1, of Agenda 21, it is necessary to continue the progressive
development and, as and when appropriate, codification of international law
related to sustainable development.  Relevant bodies in which such tasks are
being undertaken should cooperate and coordinate in this regard.
110.  Implementation of and compliance with commitments made under
international treaties and other instruments in the field of the environment
remain a priority.  Implementation can be promoted by secure, sustained and
predictable financial support, sufficient institutional capacity, human
resources and adequate access to technology.  Cooperation on implementation
between States on mutually agreed terms may help reduce potential sources of
conflict between States.  In this context, States should further study and
consider methods to broaden and make more effective the range of techniques
available at present, taking into account relevant experience under existing
agreements and, where appropriate, modalities for dispute avoidance and
settlement, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.  It is also
important to further improve reporting and data-collection systems and to
further develop appropriate compliance mechanisms and procedures, on a
mutually agreed basis, to help and encourage States to fulfil all their
obligations, including means of implementation, under multilateral
environmental agreements.  Developing countries should be assisted to develop
these tools according to country-specific conditions.
Information and tools for measuring progress
111.  The further development of cost-effective tools for collecting and
disseminating information for decision makers at all levels through
strengthened data collection, including, as appropriate, gender disaggregated
data and information that makes visible the unremunerated work of women for
use in programme planning and implementation, compilation and analysis is
urgently needed.  In this context, emphasis will be placed on support for
national and international scientific and technological data centres with
appropriate electronic communication links between them.
112.  A supportive environment needs to be established to enhance national
capacities and capabilities for information collection, processing and
dissemination, especially in developing countries, to facilitate public access
to information on global environmental issues through appropriate means,
including high-tech information and communication infrastructure related to
the global environment, in the light of country-specific conditions, using,
where available, such tools as geographic information systems and video
transmission technology, including global mapping.  In this regard,
international cooperation is essential.
113.  Environmental impact assessments (EIAs) are an important national tool
for sustainable development.  In accordance with principle 17 of the Rio
Declaration on Environment and Development, EIAs should be undertaken for
proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on
the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national
authority; where appropriate, they should be made available early in the
project cycle.
114.  The Commission's work programme on indicators of sustainable development
should result in a practicable and agreed set of indicators, suited to
country-specific conditions, including a limited number of aggregated
indicators, to be used at the national level, on a voluntary basis, by the
year 2000.  Such indicators of sustainable development, including, where
appropriate, and subject to nationally specific conditions, sector-specific
ones, should play an important role in monitoring progress towards sustainable
development at the national level and in facilitating national reporting, as
appropriate. 
115.  National reports on the implementation of Agenda 21 have proved to be a
valuable means of sharing information at the international and regional levels
and, even more important, of providing a focus for the coordination of issues
related to sustainable development at the national level within individual
countries.  National reporting should continue (see also para. 133 (b) and
(c) below).
                 IV.  INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
116.  The achievement of sustainable development requires continued support
from international institutions.  The institutional framework outlined in
chapter 38 of Agenda 21 and determined by the General Assembly in its
resolution 47/191 and other relevant resolutions, including the specific
functions and roles of various organs, organizations and programmes within and
outside the United Nations system, will continue to be fully relevant in the
period after the special session of the General Assembly.  In the light of the
ongoing discussions on reform within the United Nations, international
institutional arrangements in the area of sustainable development are intended
to contribute to the goal of strengthening the entire United Nations system. 
In this context, the strengthening of the institutions for sustainable
development, as well as the achievement of the goals and objectives set out
below are particularly important.
              A.  Greater coherence in various intergovernmental
                  organizations and processes
117.  Given the increasing number of decision-making bodies concerned with
various aspects of sustainable development, including international
conventions, there is an ever greater need for better policy coordination at
the intergovernmental level, as well as for continued and more concerted
efforts to enhance collaboration among the secretariats of those
decision-making bodies.  Under the guidance of the General Assembly, the
Economic and Social Council should play a strengthened role in coordinating
the activities of the United Nations system in the economic, social and
related fields.
118.  The conferences of the parties to conventions signed at the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development or as a result of it, as
well as other conventions related to sustainable development, should cooperate
in exploring ways and means of collaborating in their work to advance the
effective implementation of the conventions.  There is also a need for
environmental conventions to continue to pursue sustainable development
objectives consistent with their provisions and be fully responsive to Agenda
21.  To this end, inter alia, the conferences of the parties to or governing
bodies of the conventions signed at the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development, or as a result of it, and of other relevant
conventions and agreements should, if appropriate, give consideration to the
co-location of secretariats, to improving the scheduling of meetings, to
integrating national reporting requirements, to improving the balance between
sessions of the conferences of the parties and sessions of their subsidiary
bodies, and to encouraging and facilitating the participation of Governments
in those sessions, at an appropriate level.
119.  Institutional arrangements for the convention secretariats should
provide effective support and efficient services, while ensuring the
appropriate autonomy necessary for them to be efficient at their respective
locations.  At the international and national levels there is a need for,
inter alia, better scientific assessment of ecological linkages between the
conventions; identification of programmes that have multiple benefits; and
enhanced public awareness-raising with respect to the conventions.  Such tasks
should be undertaken by UNEP in accordance with the relevant decisions of its
Governing Council and in full cooperation with the conferences of the parties
to and governing bodies of relevant conventions.  Efforts of convention
secretariats, in response to requests from the respective conferences of the
parties, to explore, where appropriate, modalities for suitable liaison
arrangements in Geneva and/or New York for the purpose of enhancing linkages
with delegations and organizations at those United Nations centres are
welcomed and fully supported.
120.  It is necessary to strengthen the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable
Development of the Administrative Committee on Coordination and its system of
task managers, with a view to further enhancing system-wide intersectoral
cooperation and coordination for the implementation of Agenda 21 and for the
promotion of coordinated follow-up to the major United Nations conferences in
the area of sustainable development.
121.  The Commission on Sustainable Development should promote increased
regional implementation of Agenda 21 in cooperation with relevant regional and
subregional organizations and the United Nations regional commissions, in
accordance with the results of their priority-setting efforts, with a view to
enhancing the role such bodies play in the achievement of sustainable
development objectives agreed at the international level.  The regional
commissions could provide appropriate support, consistent with their work
programmes, to regional meetings of experts related to the implementation of
Agenda 21.
              B.  Role of relevant organizations and institutions
                  of the United Nations system                   
122.  In order to facilitate the national implementation of Agenda 21, all
organizations and programmes of the United Nations system, within their
respective areas of expertise and mandates, should strengthen, individually
and jointly, the support for national efforts to implement Agenda 21 and make
their efforts and actions consistent with national plans, policies and
priorities of member States.  Coordination of United Nations activities at the
field level should be further enhanced through the resident coordinator system
in full consultation with national Governments.
123.  The role of UNEP, as the principal United Nations body in the field of
the environment, should be further enhanced.  Taking into account its
catalytic role, and in conformity with Agenda 21 and the Nairobi Declaration
on the Role and Mandate of the United Nations Environment Programme, adopted
on 7 February 1997, 35/ UNEP is to be the leading global environmental
authority that sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the coherent
implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development
within the United Nations system, and serves as an authoritative advocate for
the global environment.  In this context, UNEP Governing Council decision
19/32 of 4 April 1997 on governance of the United Nations Environment
Programme 36/ and other related Governing Council decisions are relevant. 36/ 
The role of UNEP in the further development of international environmental law
should be strengthened, including the development of coherent interlinkages
among relevant environmental conventions in cooperation with their respective
conferences of the parties or governing bodies.  In performing its functions
related to the conventions signed at the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development or as a result of it, and other relevant
conventions, UNEP should strive to promote the effective implementation of
those conventions in a manner consistent with the provisions of the
conventions and the decisions of the conferences of the parties.
124.  UNEP, in the performance of its role, should focus on environmental
issues, taking into account the development perspective.  A revitalized UNEP
should be supported by adequate, stable and predictable funding.  UNEP should
continue providing effective support to the Commission on Sustainable
Development, inter alia, in the form of scientific, technical and policy
information and analysis of and advice on global environmental issues.
125.  UNDP should continue to strengthen its contribution to and programmes in
sustainable development and the implementation of Agenda 21 at all levels,
particularly in the area of promoting capacity-building (including through its
Capacity 21 programme) in cooperation with other organizations, as well as in
the field of poverty eradication.
126.  UNCTAD, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 51/167 and
relevant decisions of the Trade and Development Board on the work programme,
should continue to play a key role in the implementation of Agenda 21 through
the integrated examination of linkages among trade, investment, technology,
finance and sustainable development.
127.  The Committee on Trade and Environment of the World Trade Organization,
UNCTAD and UNEP should advance their coordinated work on trade and
environment, involving other appropriate international and regional
organizations in their cooperation and coordination.  In coordination with the
World Trade Organization, UNCTAD and UNEP should continue to support efforts
to promote the integration of trade, environment and development.  The
Commission on Sustainable Development should continue to play its important
role in the deliberations on trade and environment so as to facilitate the
integrated consideration of all factors relevant for achieving sustainable
development.
128.  Implementation of the commitment of the international financial
institutions to sustainable development should continue to be strengthened. 
The World Bank has a significant role to play, bearing in mind its expertise
and the overall volume of resources that it commands.
129.  Operationalization of the global mechanism of the United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious
Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa is also essential.
            C.  Future role and programme of work of the Commission
                on Sustainable Development                         
130.  The Commission on Sustainable Development, within its mandate as
specified in General Assembly resolution 47/191, will continue to provide a
central forum for reviewing progress and for urging further implementation of
Agenda 21 and other commitments made at the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development or as a result of it; for conducting a high-level
policy debate aimed at consensus-building on sustainable development; and for
catalysing action and long-term commitment to sustainable development at all
levels.  It should continue to undertake these tasks in complementing and
providing interlinkages to the work of other United Nations organs,
organizations and bodies acting in the field of sustainable development.  The
Commission has a role to play in assessing the challenges of globalization as
they relate to sustainable development.  The Commission should perform its
functions in coordination with other subsidiary bodies of the Economic and
Social Council and with related organizations and institutions, including
making recommendations, within its mandate, to the Economic and Social
Council, bearing in mind the interrelated outcomes of recent United Nations
conferences.
131.  The Commission should focus on issues that are crucial to achieving the
goals of sustainable development.  It should promote policies that integrate
economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability and should
provide for integrated consideration of linkages, both among sectors and
between sectoral and cross-sectoral aspects of Agenda 21.  In this connection,
the Commission should carry out its work in such a manner as to avoid
unnecessary duplication and repetition of work undertaken by other relevant
forums.
132.  In the light of the above, it is recommended that the Commission on
Sustainable Development adopt the multi-year programme of work for the period
1998-2002 contained in the appendix below.
       D.  Methods of work of the Commission on Sustainable Development
133.  Based on the experience gained during the period 1993-1997, the
Commission, under the guidance of the Economic and Social Council, should:
   (a)   Make concerted efforts to attract the greater involvement in its
work of ministers and high-level national policy makers responsible for
specific economic and social sectors, who, in particular, are encouraged to
participate in the annual high-level segment of the Commission, together with
the ministers and policy makers responsible for environment and development. 
The high-level segments of the Commission should become more interactive, and
should focus on the priority issues being considered at a particular session. 
The Bureau of the Commission should conduct timely and open-ended
consultations with the view to improving the organization of the work of the
high-level segment;
   (b)   Continue to provide a forum for the exchange of national experience
and best practices in the area of sustainable development, including through
voluntary national communications or reports.  Consideration should be given
to the results of ongoing work aimed at streamlining requests for national
information and reporting and to the results of the "pilot phase" relating to
indicators of sustainable development.  In this context, the Commission should
consider more effective modalities for the further implementation of the
commitments made in Agenda 21, with appropriate emphasis on the means of
implementation.  Countries may wish to submit to the Commission, on a
voluntary basis, information regarding their efforts to incorporate the
relevant recommendations of other United Nations conferences in national
sustainable development strategies;
   (c)   The Commission should take into account regional developments
related to the implementation of the outcomes of the United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development.  It should provide a forum for the exchange of
experience on regional and subregional initiatives and regional collaboration
for sustainable development.  This could include the promotion of the
voluntary regional exchange of national experience in the implementation of
Agenda 21 and, inter alia, the possible development of modalities for reviews
within regions by and among those countries that voluntarily agree to do so. 
In this context, the Commission should encourage the availability of funding
for the implementation of initiatives related to such reviews;
   (d)   Establish closer interaction with international financial,
development and trade institutions, as well as with other relevant bodies
within and outside the United Nations system, including the World Bank, GEF,
UNDP, the World Trade Organization, UNCTAD and UNEP, which, in turn, are
invited to take full account of the results of policy deliberations in the
Commission and to integrate them in their own work programmes and activities;
   (e)   Strengthen its interaction with representatives of major groups,
including through greater and better use of focused dialogue sessions and
round tables.  These groups are important resources in operationalizing,
managing and promoting sustainable development and contribute to the
implementation of Agenda 21.  The major groups are encouraged to adopt
arrangements for coordination and interaction in providing inputs to the
Commission.  Taking into account the Commission's programme of work, this
could include inputs from:
     (i) The scientific community and research institutions, relating to the
         greater understanding of the interactions between human activity and
         natural ecosystems and on how to manage global systems sustainably;
    (ii) Women, children and youth, indigenous people and their communities,
         non-governmental organizations, local authorities, workers and their
         trade unions and farmers on the elaboration, promotion and sharing
         of effective strategies, policies, practices and processes to
         promote sustainable development;
   (iii) Business and industry groups on the elaboration, promotion and
         sharing of sustainable development practices and the promotion of
         corporate responsibility and accountability;
     (f)  Organize the implementation of its next multi-year programme of work
in the most effective and productive way, including through shortening its
annual meeting to two weeks.  The inter-sessional ad hoc working groups should
help to focus the Commission's sessions by identifying key elements to be
discussed and important problems to be addressed within specific items of the
Commission's programme of work.  Government hosted and funded expert meetings
will continue to provide inputs to the work of the Commission.
134. The Secretary-General is invited to review the functioning of the
High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development and present proposals on
ways to promote more direct interaction between the Board and the Commission,
with a view to ensuring that the Board contributes to the deliberations on
specific themes considered by the Commission in accordance with its programme
of work.
135. The work of the Committee on New and Renewable Sources of Energy and on
Energy for Development and the Committee on Natural Resources should be more
compatible with and supportive of the programme of work of the Commission. 
The Economic and Social Council, in carrying out its functions related to the
implementation of General Assembly resolution 50/227, should consider, at its
substantive session of 1997, the most effective means of bringing this about.
136. The arrangements for the election of the Bureau should be changed in
order to allow the same Bureau to provide guidance in the preparations for and
to lead the work during the annual sessions of the Commission.  The Commission
would benefit from such a change.  The Economic and Social Council should take
the necessary action at its substantive session of 1997 to ensure that these
new arrangements take effect.
137. The next comprehensive review of progress achieved in the implementation
of Agenda 21 by the General Assembly will take place in the year 2002.  The
modalities of this review should be determined at a later stage.
                                     Notes
     1/ Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted by
the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and
corrigendum), resolution 1, annex II.
     2/ Ibid., annex I.
     3/ Ibid., annex III (Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of
Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and
Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests).
     4/ As provided in Agenda 21, the term "Governments", when used herein,
will be deemed to include as well the European Community within its area of
competence.
     5/ Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 1997.
     6/ United Nations Environment Programme, Convention on Biological
Diversity (Environmental Law and Institution Programme Activity Centre), June
1992.
     7/ Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States, Bridgetown, Barbados, 25 April-6 June 1994
(United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.I.18 and Corr.1 and 2), chap. I,
resolution 1, annex II.
     8/ Official Records of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of
the Sea, vol. XVII (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.84.V.3), document
A/CONF.62/122.
     9/ Report of the World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen,
6-12 March 1995 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.96.IV.8), chap. I,
resolution 1, annex I.
     10/ Ibid., resolution 1, annex II.
     11/ Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing,
4-15 September 1995 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.96.IV.13),
chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.  (Note:  All references in the present report
to the platforms for or programmes of action of major conferences should be
considered in a manner consistent with the reports of those conferences.)
     12/ See, inter alia, "A shared vision - conclusions from the Chairperson
of the Brasilia Workshop on Sustainable Production and Consumption Patterns
and Policies, held from 25 to 28 November 1996" (document E/CN.17/1997/19,
annex, appendix).
     13/ See Legal Instruments Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of
Multilateral Trade Negotiations, done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994, GATT
secretariat publication, Sales No. GATT/1994-7, vol. I.
     14/ Adopted by the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization
held at Singapore in December 1996.  WT/MIN (96)/14.
     15/ Report of the International Conference on Population and Development,
Cairo, 5-13 September 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No.
E.95.XIII.18).  (Note:  All references in the present report to the platforms
for or programmes of action of major conferences should be considered in a
manner consistent with the reports of those conferences.)
     16/ See World Health Organization, Primary Health Care:  Report of the
International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics, 6-12 September 1978 (Geneva, 1978).
     17/ Report of the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements
(Habitat II), Istanbul, 3-14 June 1996 (A/CONF.165/14), chap. I, resolution 1,
annexes I and II.
     18/ See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1996,
Supplement No. 8 (E/1996/28), chap. I, sect. C, decision 4/15, para. 45 (a).
     19/ Ibid., 1997, Supplement No. 9 (E/1997/29).
     20/ See Legal Instruments Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of
Multilateral Trade Negotiations, done at Marrakesh on 14 April 1994 (GATT
secretariat publication, Sales No. GATT/1994-7), vol. I.
     21/ Berlin Mandate:  review of the adequacy of article 4, paragraph 2 (a)
and (b) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
including proposals related to a protocol and decisions on follow-up
(FCCC/CP/1995/7/Add.1, sect. I, decision 1/CP.1).
     22/ Report of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change on its second session, Geneva, 8-
19 July 1996 (FCCC/CP/1996/15/Add.1), annex.
     23/ Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer,
International Legal Materials, vol. 26, No. 6 (November 1987), p. 1550.
     24/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-second Session,
Supplement No. 25 (A/52/25), annex, decision 19/13.
     25/ Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (UNEP/WG/190/4) (United Nations, Treaty
Series, vol. 1673, No. 28911, forthcoming).
     26/ Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the
Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within
Africa, International Legal Materials, vol. 30, No. 3 (May 1991), p. 775, and
vol. 31, No. 1 (January 1992), p. 164.
     27/ See The Courier Africa-Caribbean-Pacific-European Community, No. 120
(March April 1990).
     28/  Where "management" appears in the section on radioactive wastes, it
is defined as handling, treatment, storage, transportation, including
transboundary movement, and final disposal of such wastes.
     29/ Report of the third meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the
Convention on Biological Diversity (UNEP/CBD/COP/3/38), annex II.
     30/  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Report of
the World Food Summit, Rome, 13-17 November 1996, Part One (WFS 96/REP) (Rome,
1997), appendix.
     31/ See Legal Instruments Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of
Multilateral Trade Negotiations, done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994 (GATT
secretariat publication, Sales No. GATT/1994-7), vol. I.
     32/ Report of the third meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the
Convention on Biological Diversity (UNEP/CBD/COP/3/38), annex II,
decision III/12. 
     33/ Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1997, Supplement
No. 9 (E/1997/29), chap. I, resolution 5/1, para. 6.
     34/ Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1996, Supplement
No. 8 (E/1996/28), chap. I, sect. C, decision 4/11.
     35/ Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-second Session,
Supplement No. 25 (A/52/25), annex, decision 19/1, annex.
     36/ Ibid., annex.
                                    Appendix
               MULTI-YEAR PROGRAMME OF WORK FOR THE COMMISSION ON
                       SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, 1998-2002

1998 session:  Overriding issues:  poverty/consumption and production patterns
Sectoral theme:                Cross-sectoral theme:    Economic sector/major
                                                        group:
STRATEGIC APPROACHES           TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY/  INDUSTRY
TO FRESHWATER MANAGEMENT       CAPACITY-BUILDING/
                               EDUCATION/SCIENCE/
Review of oustanding           AWARENESS-RAISING
chapters of the Programme
of Action for the
Sustainable Development
of Small Island Developing
States a/
Main issues for an             Main issues for an       Main issues for an
integrated discussion          integrated discussion    integrated discussion
under the above them:          under the above theme:   under the above theme:
Agenda 21, chapters 2-8,       Agenda 21, chapters      Agenda 21, chapters 4,
10-15, 18-21, 23-34, 36,       2-4, 6, 16, 23-37, 40.   6, 9, 16, 17, 19-21,
37, 40.                                                 23-35, 40.
1999 session:  Overriding issues:  poverty/consumption and production patterns
Comprehensive review of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States
Sectoral theme:                Cross-sectoral theme:    Economic sector/major
                                                        group:
OCEANS AND SEAS                CONSUMPTION AND          TOURISM
                               PRODUCTION PATTERNS
Main issues for an             Main issues for an       Main issues for an
integrated discussion          integrated discussion    integrated discussion
under the above theme:         under the above theme:   under the above theme:
Agenda 21, chapters 5-7,       Agenda 21, chapters      Agenda 21, chapters
9, 15, 17, 19-32, 34-36,       2-10, 14, 18-32, 34-36,  2-7, 13, 15, 17,
39-40.                         40.                      23-33, 36.
2000 session:  Overriding issues:  poverty/consumption and production patterns
Sectoral theme:                Cross-sectoral theme:    Economic sector/major
                                                        group:
INTEGRATED PLANNING AND        FINANCIAL RESOURCES/     AGRICULTURE b/
MANAGEMENT OF LAND             TRADE AND INVESTMENT/
RESOURCES                      ECONOMIC GROWTH
                                                        Day of Indigenous
                                                        People
Main issues for an             Main issues for an       Main issues for an
integrated discussion          integrated discussion    integrated discussion
under the above theme:         under the above theme:   under the above theme:
Agenda 21, chapters 2-8,       Agenda 21, chapters      Agenda 21, chapters
10-37, 40.                     2-4, 23-33, 36-38, 40.   2-7, 10-16, 18-21,
                                                        23-34, 37, 40.
2001 session:  Overriding issues:  poverty/consumption and production patterns
Sectoral theme:                Cross-sectoral theme:    Economic sector/major
                                                        group:
ATMOSPHERE/ENERGY              INFORMATION FOR          ENERGY/TRANSPORT
                               DECISION-MAKING AND
                               PARTICIPATION
                               INTERNATIONAL
                               COOPERATION FOR AN
                               ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
Main issues for an             Main issues for an       Main issues for an
integrated discussion          integrated discussion    integrated discussion
under the above theme:         under the above theme:   under the above theme:
Agenda 21, chapters 4,         Agenda 21, chapters      Agenda 21, chapters
6-9, 11-14, 17, 23-37,         2, 4, 6, 8, 23-36,       2-5, 8, 9, 20, 23-37,
39-40.                         38-40.                   40.
2002 session
Comprehensive review
     a/ Review to include those chapters of the Programme of Action for the
Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States not covered in the
in-depth review carried out by the Commission on Sustainable Development at
its fourth session.
     b/ Including forestry.
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