United Nations

A/53/380


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

17 August 1998

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH




                                                      A/53/380
       
                                                      Original: English

       
General Assembly
Fifty-third session
Item 104 of the provisional agenda*
Crime prevention and criminal justice

     * A/53/150.


         Progress made in the implementation of General Assembly
                          resolution 52/90


                   Report of the Secretary-General


Contents

                                                    Paragraphs    Page

  I.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1          3

 II.  Seventh session of the Commission on Crime 
      Prevention and Criminal Justice. . . . . . . . .   2          3

III.  Programme activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3-35        3

      A.  Technical cooperation. . . . . . . . . . . .  3-9         3

      B.  Progress made in the preparations for the 
          Tenth United Nations Congress on the 
          Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of 
          Offenders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14        4

      C.  International cooperation in combating 
          organized transnational crime. . . . . . . . 15-19        5

      D.  Measures to regulate firearms. . . . . . . . 20-23        6

      E.  The development, analysis and policy use of 
          crime and criminal justice information and 
          the computerization of criminal justice 
          operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-31        6

      F.  Use and application of United Nations 
          standards and norms in crime prevention and 
          criminal justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-35        8


 IV.  Implementation of the recommendations of the 
      Office for Internal Oversight Services . . . . . 36-37        8

  V.  Strategic management and resource mobilization . 38-50        9

      A.  Strategic management of the Programme by 
          the Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-41        9

      B.  Internal strategic management. . . . . . . . 42-44        9

      C.  Resource mobilization. . . . . . . . . . . . 45-50       10


       I.     Introduction


1.   The present report is submitted pursuant to General
Assembly resolution 52/90 of 12 December 1997, entitled
"Strengthening the United Nations Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Programme, particularly its technical
cooperation capacity". The year 1998 marks the fiftieth
anniversary of United Nations involvement in crime
prevention and criminal justice. The report is written
following a period during which intergovernmental bodies
have taken a fresh look at the Programme. They reviewed
the report of the Office of Internal Oversight Services on
the review of programme management in the then Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice Division (A/52/777,
annex) and the in-depth evaluation of the United Nations
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme; 1/ the
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
received the first report of its working group on mandates
and resources as part of its strategic management of the
Programme; and the responsible Secretariat office began to
implement the Secretary-General's proposals for reform
under the leadership of a new Executive Director. Those
developments provided new impulses that have begun to
manifest themselves in the Programme's activities. 


        II.    Seventh session of the Commission
               on Crime Prevention and Criminal
               Justice


2.   The seventh session of the Commission on Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice was held in Vienna from
21 to 30 April 1998. Its prominent theme was transnational
organized crime, one of the priority areas of the
Programme's work. The report on the session 2/ contains
details on its deliberations, the action taken by the
Commission and the implications of the mandates con-
tained in the resolutions recommended for adoption by the
Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly,
respectively. 


       III.     Programme activities


         A.     Technical cooperation


3.   A detailed report on technical cooperation, including
resource mobilization and coordination of activities, 3/ was
presented to the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice at its seventh session. It reviewed the
operational activities carried out in 1997 and the first
quarter of 1998. According to the report, the Centre for
International Crime Prevention was associated with the
provision of technical cooperation to some 23 countries
worldwide.

4.   Recently, the Centre began to concentrate its tech-
nical cooperation activities in national and regional
programmes to combat organized crime, corruption and
bribery. There are three main anti-corruption projects
under implementation, financed by a contribution of the
United States of America through the Crime Prevention
and Criminal Justice Fund, namely, in Lebanon
($232,000), Romania ($312,000) and the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia ($30,000). The Fund is also
financing a project to control economic crime in the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, a police training
programme to combat organized crime in Croatia and
measures to counteract organized crime and commercial
crime in South Africa ($415,000). The Danish Inter-
national Development Agency and the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) are contributing to a
project to enhance the capacity of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of Kyrgyzstan to combat organized crime. A joint
project of the United Nations International Drug Control
Programme and the Centre for International Crime
Prevention is under way in the Russian Federation to
control drug trafficking and organized crime.

5.   At the same time, the Centre formulates and imple-
ments projects to improve prison conditions, to develop
national juvenile justice systems, to counter domestic
violence and to strengthen the capacity of institutions of
criminal justice generally. By mid-1998, 24 new projects
had been formulated in response to governmental requests.
Funding is now being sought for those projects directly and
through an informal consultative group on resource
mobilization, established by the Commission in 1996,
which successfully mobilized some resources in 1997. The
Economic and Social Council has called upon potential
donors and relevant funding agencies to make significant
and regular financial and/or other contributions for the
formulation, coordination and implementation of technical
assistance projects.

6.   The year 1998 saw an intensification of cooperation
with the United Nations International Drug Control
Programme in the context of the new Office for Drug
Control and Crime Prevention, in particular with regard to
projects in Africa, central Asia, the Balkans and the
Caribbean region. Joint missions were undertaken to
Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan and in the
Caucasus region, which have resulted in specific project
proposals. The Centre has contributed to the background
analysis for a possible strategy for the reduction of illicit
drug crops cultivation, which was recently considered by
the General Assembly at its special session devoted to the
fight against the illicit production, sale, demand, traffic
and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic
substances and activities. In cooperation with the United
Nations International Drug Control Programme, the Centre
has worked on the elaboration of a model law against
corruption that contains provisions designed to assist
requesting States to prevent, detect and fight corruption in
a more effective way.

7.   The United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice
Research Institute and the Centre are launching a project to
counter trafficking in human beings, forced labour and
sexual exploitation. Following an initial research study, the
project will develop model legislation, training modules
for police and immigration officials, control and regulatory
mechanisms for trafficking and victim protection
programmes. Other bodies of the United Nations system,
such as the Office of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Human Rights and the Division for the
Advancement of Women of the Secretariat, the United
Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Office of the
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
(UNHCR), the International Labour Organization, the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization and the International Migration Organization
are expected to be involved in various stages of the project. 

8.   The Centre has also organized training programmes
to combat organized crime in Croatia, Kyrgyzstan and the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. A two-week
training seminar on mutual assistance and extradition was
organized for 33 judges, prosecutors and law enforcement
officials from all the countries of the Economic
Community of West African States at Grand Bassam, Co^te
d'Ivoire. An Asian Regional Ministerial Workshop on
Transnational Crime, whose central theme was the preven-
tion and control of corruption, was held in Manila in
March 1998. Juvenile justice training seminars have taken
place in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Lebanon, Rwanda and
South Africa. Training for prison staff took place in Bosnia
and Herzegovina and the Russian Federation. The Centre
participated in human rights training for police in Angola,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Guinea and the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia. Study tours for Bosnian judicial
personnel was organized to Austria and Italy, while study
tours for Kyrgyzstan police officials were organized to
Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The regular budget for
technical cooperation provided fellowships for two high-level 
criminal justice professionals, one from Mali and the
other from Uganda. Staff from the Centre also participated
as resource persons in courses organized by other
institutions on corruption, transnational organized crime,
money-laundering and bribery. The Centre is also in the
process of revising the manual on practical measures
against corruption and developing a training manual on
action against organized crime.

9.   In accordance with General Assembly resolu-
tion 52/90, the Centre continues to make contributions to
United Nations peacekeeping operations through training
programmes for civilian police in Angola, Bosnia and
Herzegovina and the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia. Together with the United Nations Preventive
Deployment Force, the Centre has produced a pocket book
on United Nations criminal justice standards for law
enforcement officials and it has published the United
Nations criminal justice standards and norms in the
Bosnian language in collaboration with the United Nations
Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute. With
the support of the Government of Austria, the Centre
organized a Conference on Establishing the Rule of Law in
Post-Conflict Situations in conjunction with the fiftieth
anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Austria will finance the publication of the documentation
and conclusions of the Conference. The Centre also
produced a booklet entitled "The Role, Preparation and
Performance of Civilian Police in United Nations Peace-
keeping Operations". At the request of the Department for
Peacekeeping Operations of the Secretariat and UNDP, the
Centre has become increasingly involved in rebuilding
criminal justice systems after conflicts, in particular in
Albania, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Haiti.


         B.    Progress made in the preparations for the
               Tenth United Nations Congress on the
               Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of
               Offenders


10.  The reports considered by the Commission on Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice at its seventh session dealt
with the procedural and substantive aspects of the Tenth
Congress. 4/ During the session, the Commission accepted
the invitation of the Government of Austria to host the
Congress in Vienna. Its duration was reduced from 10 to 8
days from l0 to l7 April 2000 followed immediately by
a 3-day session of the Commission to consider its
conclusions. The Commission approved a provisional
agenda for the Tenth Congress and decided that its theme
should be "Crime and justice: meeting the challenges of the
twenty-first century". The holding and duration of regional
preparatory meetings are to be limited to the extent
possible. The discussion on those and other Congress-related 
issues is reflected in the relevant part of the
Commission's report on its seventh session. 2/

11.  The discussion guide for the regional preparatory
meetings as well as that on the workshops, ancillary
meetings, symposia and exhibits were reviewed by the
Commission and have been finalized. The programme of
work, including four technical workshops and their topics,
were endorsed by the Commission, as requested by the
General Assembly in its resolution 52/91 of 12 December
1997.

12.  To streamline the costs of the preparatory process
and the Congress itself, the regional preparatory meetings
to be held in autumn 1998 and in early 1999 will be
devoted exclusively to the examination of substantive
agenda items and workshop topics and to action-oriented
recommendations that are to serve as the basis for a single
declaration to be drafted at the Congress.

13.  At the time of writing, the Secretariat had begun to
make preparations for the regional preparatory meetings,
the first of which is to be held in Africa in October 1998,
followed by those in Asia in November 1998, in western
Asia in December 1998 and in Latin America and the
Caribbean in February 1999. The countries of western
Europe and others have decided not to hold a preparatory
meeting. 

14.  By operative paragraph 13 (b) of the draft resolution
on the Tenth Congress that will be before the General
Assembly at its fifty-third session, 5/ the Assembly would
request the Secretary-General to ensure, in collaboration
with Member States, a wide and effective programme of
public information related to the preparations for the Tenth
Congress, to the Congress itself and to the implementation
of its conclusions. The participants of the seventh session
of the Commission were informed that  implementation of
that request would have financial implications that would
have to be met from extrabudgetary resources. 


         C.    International cooperation in combating
               organized transnational crime


15.  The report of the Commission on Crime Prevention
and Criminal Justice on its seventh session 2/ reflects the fact
that the Commission considered detailed reports 6/ on the
implementation of the Naples Political Declaration and
Global Action Plan against Organized Transnational
Crime, adopted by the World Ministerial Conference on
Organized Transnational Crime, held in Naples, Italy, from
21 to 23 November 1994 (A/49/748, annex, chap. I, sect.
A). Those reports described the activities that had taken
place during the past 12 months with regard to the drafting
of an international convention against organized
transnational crime and other possible instruments, as well
as activities in the area of mutual assistance and inter-
national cooperation in criminal matters. Some progress
has been made since then in the preparations leading to the
drafting of the convention and is brought to the attention of
the General Assembly by the Economic and Social Council
in its resolution 1998/14.

16.  Pursuant to that resolution, the General Assembly
would decide to establish an open-ended intergovernmental
ad hoc committee for the purpose of elaborating a
comprehensive international convention against
transnational organized crime and of discussing the
elaboration, as appropriate, of international instruments
addressing trafficking in women and children, combating
the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms,
their parts and components and ammunition, and illegal
trafficking in and transportation of migrants, including by
sea. The first meeting of the ad hoc committee will be held
in Vienna from 18 to 29 January 1999. The Assembly
would also elect the chairman of the ad hoc committee.

17.  The working group on the implementation of the
Naples Political Declaration and Global Action Plan,
which was convened at the seventh session of the
Commission, recommended that the Chairman of the ad
hoc committee should be assisted by an informal working
group of friends of the chair, which should meet as
resources permitted. The first meeting of that informal
group was held in Rome in July 1998 to discuss organi-
zational and procedural matters related to the work of the
ad hoc committee. The group reviewed and approved a
provisional timetable indicating the expected needs of the
ad hoc committee as regards meetings until the completion
of its task. States have undertaken to finalize the drafting
of the convention in time for its approval by the General
Assembly at its fifty-fifth session, in 2000. The timetable
enables the Secretariat to plan its substantive and technical
work in such a way as to seek to accommodate the needs of
the ad hoc committee within existing resources. The group
also recommended that the ad hoc committee hold its
second meeting in Vienna from 8 to 12 March 1999.

18.  In order to allow for the work on the drafting of
the convention to proceed without interruption, the
Government of Argentina offered to host an informal
preparatory meeting of the ad hoc committee in Buenos
Aires from 31 August to 4 September 1998. At the time of
writing the present report, preparations for that meeting
were well under way. The informal group of Friends of the
Chair recommended that the meeting in Buenos Aires
complete the first reading of the draft convention, which
had been started during the seventh session of the
Commission, and begin negotiations on the consolidated
text. In addition, the meeting should discuss the relation-
ship of the above-mentioned three international instru-
ments or protocols to the convention against transnational
organized crime (see para. 16). The Governments of
Finland, France, Tunisia and the United Kingdom sub-
mitted additional working papers containing specific
proposals on the text of the convention or additional
international instruments before the ad hoc committee.

19.  The drafting of the convention and additional inter-
national instruments is considered one of the top priorities
of the Centre for International Crime Prevention. Through
advance planning, assisted by clear indications of the needs
of the ad hoc committee, the Centre will make every
possible effort to carry out the work within existing
resources. However, in view of the vigorous pace, the short
time available and, consequently, the growing needs of the
ad hoc committee, the support of States to obtain
additional resources may become essential. The same holds
true for the resources that will be necessary for the Centre
to promote and ensure the implementation of the new
convention.


         D.     Measures to regulate firearms


20.  As reported to the Commission on Crime Prevention
and Criminal Justice at its seventh session, the Centre for
International Crime Prevention published the report of the
United Nations international study on firearm regulation, 7/
which includes information provided by 69 Governments
on firearm-related crimes and accidents, national legis-
lation, trafficking in firearms and national, regional and
international initiatives. Using the outcome of the study as
the basis for discussion, the Centre organized four regional
workshops on firearm regulation for the purposes of crime
prevention and public safety between September 1997 and
January 1998, in Brazil, India, Slovenia and the United
Republic of Tanzania.

21.  The results of the United Nations international study
on firearm regulation were welcomed by the Economic and
Social Council in its resolution 1998/18, and the drafting
of an international instrument was recommended to combat
the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms,
their parts and components and ammunition within the
context of a United Nations convention against
transnational organized crime. The Centre will convene,
support and follow up the meetings of an open-ended
intergovernmental ad hoc committee on the drafting of the
above-mentioned instrument and convention.

22.  In accordance with Economic and Social Council
resolution 1998/18, the Centre is also preparing an action
plan for collecting, reviewing and exchanging statistics,
information and policy proposals on criminal use of
explosives. The possibility of convening a meeting of a
group of experts to consider the action plan is being
examined by the Centre. Those activities will depend on
the availability of extrabudgetary resources.

23.  A coordinated United Nations approach is parti-
cularly useful and urgent on all aspects of the question of
firearms. The related but different features of military
defence and criminal justice have to be addressed in a
balanced context. The Centre is participating with other
United Nations offices and programmes in an effort to
coordinate work on small arms. Within that context, the
Centre could assist in (a) establishing a database on
existing laws and regulations on firearms; (b) law reform
and drafting of new legislation on firearms; (c) training
courses for law enforcement officials involved in control-
ling illegal trafficking of arms, including detection;
(d) tracing and investigation of illicit trafficking of
firearms; and (e) development of public awareness pro-
grammes. The United Nations is increasingly concerned
about the need for firearm regulation. Effective co-
ordination of related initiatives undertaken by different
offices and programmes within the system is paramount. A
meeting devoted to that purpose was held in New York in
early August. 


         E.    The development, analysis and policy use
               of crime and criminal justice information
               and the computerization of criminal
               justice operations


24.  Pursuant response to Economic and Social Council
resolutions 1996/11 and 1997/27, the Centre for Inter-
national Crime Prevention has established an Advisory
Steering Group on Data Collection and Computerization.
With the support of the Governments of Argentina and the
Netherlands, two meetings of the Group were held, in
Buenos Aires, from 10 to 13 March 1997, and in
Veldhoven, from 18 to 21 March 1998. 

25.  The objectives of those meetings were fourfold and
have formed the strategy through which the Centre is
addressing those fields: (a) to streamline the sixth United
Nations surveys on crime trends and operations of criminal
justice systems; (b) to offer comments and input to the
draft guide on the development and analysis of criminal
justice statistics; (c) to develop a strategy and a survey
instrument for the collection of data and information on
organized transnational crime; and (d) to establish a pool
of experts to assist requesting Governments in the
computerization of the criminal justice system. Activities
related to the four areas are outlined below.

26.  The quinquennial surveys on crime trends and
operations of criminal justice systems are the Centre's
primary vehicle for the collection of statistics on crime
trends and criminal justice. To date, over 100 countries
have provided official data on police, prosecution, courts,
prisons and resource allocation. Those data have been
organized into an electronic database and are available via
the United Nations Crime and Justice Information
Network, an Internet-based World Wide Web site. 8/ The
sixth wave of the survey will be administered to
Governments in the last quarter of 1998 and, as indicated
above, has been sufficiently streamlined and simplified. 

27.  Data collected via the crime surveys are useful to
Member States for planning and policy-making related to
their criminal justice systems. Such data are now available
in several publications, most notably in the Global Report
on Crime and Justice, 9/ which offers a comprehensive
review of the state of crime in the world, addressing topics
as diverse as punishment, policing strategies, crime
prevention, firearm regulation, drug control and organized
crime. In addition, with the support of the Statistics
Division of the Secretariat and the Canadian Centre for
Justice Statistics, the Centre is finalizing a guide on the
development and analysis of criminal justice statistics. The
goal of the publication is to assist developing countries in
the collection, maintenance and analysis of crime and
criminal justice data and information. Finally, the
European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control,
affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI), is publishing
the European and North American Analysis of the Results
of the Fifth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and
Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (1990-1994).

28.  Owing to the refocusing of the Programme, and as
requested by the Economic and Social Council in its
resolutions 1996/27 and 1997/22, the Centre is expanding
its central repository on organized transnational crime.
Specifically, the expert participants at the above-mentioned 
meeting in Veldhoven (see para. 24) drafted an
organized crime survey that has been distributed to
government representatives of the Advisory Steering
Group on a pilot basis. Based on feedback received, the
survey will be distributed to all Member States in due
course. As with other data and information gathered by the
Centre, the results of the survey will be entered into an
electronic database and made available to requesting
parties. In addition, legislative material obtained from
Governments as a result of the note verbale process and
other relevant information is being included in the central
repository.

29. Limited resources have affected the Centre's ability
to establish a pool of experts to assist Governments with
computerization projects. However, it has developed and
expanded a roster of experts that includes individuals
knowledgeable in the field. Earmarked contributions and
in-kind assistance are required to meet the needs of
requesting States. In spite of limitations, there has been an
expansion of the database and information dissemination
activities of the Centre. 

30. A Resource Book was published in the spring of 1998
focusing on criminal justice information in the information
age; key issues in introducing information technology in
criminal justice; United Nations assistance to Member
States in needs assessment and strategic planning; an
introduction to the United Nations Crime and Justice
Information Network and the United Nations Online Crime
and Justice Clearinghouse (UNOJUST); 10/ strategies for
information management; legal and security issues;
strategies for information dissemination; a glossary of
technical terminology; and a listing of Internet resources in
crime prevention and criminal justice. It was published
with in-kind assistance from the School of Informatics of
the University of Vienna, Austria, the Ministry of Justice
of the Netherlands and the Republic of Korea. The
publication was the result of a training course entitled "The
United Nations Crime and Justice Information Network:
Providing Information to and from Developing Countries"
hosted by the Government of the Republic of Korea in
l996.

31.  The amount of data and information contained in the
United Nations Crime and Justice Information Network has
expanded and now includes the reports of the Secretary-General 
submitted to the Commission on Crime Prevention
and Criminal Justice at its seventh session, in full and in
English, French and Spanish. As noted above, the data
gathered through the United Nations crime surveys are
available in various formats on the United Nations Crime
and Justice Information Network Web site. In addition, the
data and information gathered by the United Nations
international survey on firearm regulation is presented. As
a result of a sabbatical project of a visiting professor to the
Centre, the Information Network now contains a global
bibliography of prison systems, a collection of over 600
citations from more than 30 countries. 11/ Lastly, links have
been established with the International Money Laundering
Information Network.


         F.    Use and application of United Nations
               standards and norms in crime prevention
               and criminal justice


32.  The Centre for International Crime Prevention
reported to the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice in detail on recent activities related to
standards and norms 12/ and on the use and application of
United Nations standards and norms in juvenile justice. 13/
In addition, the Centre presented to the Commission a
guide for policy makers on the implementation of the
Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of
Crime and Abuse of Power (resolution 40/34, annex) and
a handbook on justice for victims concerning the use and
application of the Declaration. The following activities
have been carried out since then or are mandated for the
near future.

33.  At the request of the Economic and Social Council,
the Centre will continue the information-gathering on the
use and application of standards and norms in crime
prevention and criminal justice. The Centre will submit to
the Commission at its ninth session a report on the use and
application of  the United Nations Standard Minimum
Rules for Non-Custodial Measures (The Tokyo Rules)
(resolution 45/110, annex); the Guidelines on the Role of
Prosecutors 14/ and the Basic Principles on the Role of
Lawyers. 15/ The Centre will also prepare updated reports
where at least 30 States have replied in respect of a stan-
dard and norm on which a report has already been sub-
mitted. At the same time, the Centre will prepare survey
instruments on the United Nations Declaration against
Corruption and Bribery in International Commercial
Transactions (resolution 51/191, annex), the United
Nations Declaration on Crime and Public Security
(resolution 51/60, annex) and the International Code of
Conduct for Public Officials (resolution 51/59, annex).

34.  As recommended by the Committee on the Rights of
the Child, States parties to the Convention on the Rights of
the Child (resolution 44/25, annex) frequently seek
assistance from the United Nations in juvenile justice. In
order to meet such requests and pursuant to Economic and
Social Council resolution 1997/30, the Secretary-General
has established a coordination panel on technical advice
and assistance in juvenile justice. The panel will ensure a
coordinated response by the United Nations, including
the Centre for International Crime Prevention, UNICEF,
the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner
for Human Rights, UNDP and the network of non-governmental 
organizations working in the field of juvenile
justice. Work will initially focus on Bangladesh,
Guatemala, Lebanon, the Philippines and Uganda.

35.  At the request of the Economic and Social Council,
the Centre will develop a database on practical national
experiences regarding victim assistance, in particular as
regards case law and legislation on the use and application
of the Declaration, taking into account different systems
and traditions. The Government of the Netherlands has
offered to help establish such a database and to maintain it
for an initial duration of three years. The Centre will also
convene a working group, hosted by the Government of the
Netherlands, on the feasibility of establishing an
international fund for victims of crime and abuse of power,
consisting of Member States that express an interest in
such a fund. The fund would support technical assistance
to develop and/or strengthen victim support services and
organizations, awareness campaigns on victim rights and
crime prevention and eligible victim claims resulting from
international and transnational crime, where national
avenues of recourse and/or redress are unavailable or
insufficient.


        IV.    Implementation of the recommen-
               dations of the Office for Internal
               Oversight Services


36.  The Secretariat has begun to implement the
recommendations contained in the two reports of the
Office for Internal Oversight Services (see para. 1). As
regards the recommendations made in connection with the
in-depth evaluation of the Programme, a public infor-
mation strategy is being developed. An Office for Drug
Control and Crime Prevention Web page has been created
providing information on activities of the Centre for
International Crime Prevention and a newsletter is being
published by the Office four times a year. A mechanism for
the registration of Web site users will be in place by early
October 1998. External relations capabilities have been
increased, capitalizing on synergies of the Office. Officials
with policy-making responsibilities were trained and
training was also provided to technical cooperation staff in
project development and management. Procedures for the
granting of executing agency status by UNDP were well
advanced at the time the present report was written. As
mentioned elsewhere, besides the United Nations
International Drug Control Programme, closer linkages for
technical cooperation activities have been established with
various intergovernmental organizations such as UNICEF,
UNHCR, the World Bank and the South-East European
Cooperative Initiative.

37.  Progress has also been made on the implementation
of recommendations related to the review of programme
management of the Centre. Regular senior staff meetings
have been held with the Director-General, as well as with
the Officer-in-Charge and selected staff members of
the Centre, to provide strategic direction and guidance.
Restructuring of the Centre has created an institutional
environment that provides for a greater focus on organized
crime and corruption and increased emphasis on technical
cooperation. Mandatory reporting to the Commission on
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice will be substantially
reduced as of its eighth session, only one report on the
work of the Centre will be submitted by the Executive
Director of the Office for Drug Control and Crime
Prevention for the consideration of the Commission.
Further, the Director-General has, in consultation with the
Informal Consultative Group on Resource Mobilization,
established by the Commission in 1996, undertaken
preliminary discussions with some delegations about the
establishment of a donor group for crime prevention
activities and the functions of the Programme Support
Service of the United Nations International Drug Control
Programme have been extended to the Centre. 


    V.  Strategic management and resource mobilization


         A.    Strategic management of the Programme
               by the Commission


38.  The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice discussed the Executive Director's proposals
addressing the continuing gap between the Programme's
mandates and its resources, and considered the Secretary-General's 
report on strategic management. 16/ It also considered 
the first report of the informal working group to
review the mandates and resources of the Programme, 17/ as
well as the recommendations contained in the report of the
Office of Internal Oversight Services on its review of
programme management in the then Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Division (A/52/777, annex).

39.  The Commission agreed on the usefulness of con-
centrating work on specific issues for defined periods. At
the same time, there was a need to maintain a balance
between the current emphasis on combating organized
crime, corruption and trafficking in human beings and the
other priority issues of the Programme, also in relation to
technical cooperation. Work should also continue on
United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention
and criminal justice, information-sharing about their use
and application and the strengthening of criminal justice
systems.

40.  In pursuit of those goals, the Commission reiterated
its resolve to exercise self-discipline in the formulation of
new mandates, including requests for extensive documen-
tation and reporting. Compared with previous years, there
was already a reduction in both documents submitted to the
Commission at its seventh session and in additional
mandates emanating from it.

41.  In general, the Centre's duties associated with
servicing intergovernmental bodies should be reduced. The
Commission's Bureau was encouraged to play an active
role in that respect. As an immediate measure, the
Commission reduced the duration of the Tenth Congress
from 10 to 8 days and the subsequent ninth session of the
Commission from 8 to 3 days. The sole purpose of that
session will be consideration of the declaration that is
expected to be adopted by the Congress.


         B.    Internal strategic management


42.  The Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention
was established in November 1997 as part of the reform
measures of the Secretary-General. It consists of the
United Nations International Drug Control Programme and
the Centre for International Crime Prevention. In March
1998, a new organizational structure for the Centre was
established and staff were reassigned in accordance with
the organizational changes and with a view to achieving a
more focused approach to its activities, as recommended
by the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice in the context of its strategic management and by
the Office of Internal Oversight Services in connection
with its recent reviews of the Programme and its manage-
ment (see para. 1).

43.  The Centre pays special attention to combating
transnational organized crime, corruption and trafficking
in human beings. At the same time, the Secretariat is fully
aware of the Commission's reaffirmation, in its resolu-
tion 7/l on strategic management, of the need to maintain
a balance between the current main priority issue of
combating transnational organized crime and the other
priority issues of the United Nations Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Programme and has taken steps to ensure
a balanced work programme within the constraints of its
limited resources. That balance is achieved primarily
through ongoing work related to promoting and monitoring
the use and application of existing standards and norms
and the selection of appropriate technical cooperation
projects. 

44.  Following the establishment of the Office for Drug
Control and Crime Prevention, the restructuring of the
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division as the
Centre for International Crime Prevention and the setting
up of an in-house Strategy Committee on Drug Control and
Crime Prevention, the Office for Drug Control and Crime
Prevention identified synergies and coordinated more
closely the interlinked undertakings of the United Nations
International Drug Control Programme and the Centre for
International Crime Prevention. Some of the solutions
found thus far have had a positive impact on the utilization
of the Centre's resources for substantive work rather than
for servicing and administrative tasks. 


         C.    Resource mobilization


45.  The Commission determined that all activities
envisaged in the resolutions adopted by it must be
implemented within existing resources or through extra-
budgetary resources. Consequently, unless extrabudge-
tary resources -- including voluntary contributions -- are
received, newly mandated activities not foreseen in the
current programme budget cannot be implemented.

46.  In paragraph 5 of its resolution 52/90, the General
Assembly called upon States and United Nations funding
agencies to make significant financial contributions for the
operational activities of the Programme. Operational acti-
vities by definition require extrabudgetary funding for their
implementation. As reported to the Commission, funds
received for technical cooperation activities amounted to
$3.1 million in the biennium 1996-1997. So far,
projections for the current biennium are not promising.
Most of the funds received were earmarked for specific
projects, leaving the Centre critically short of resources to
create the necessary infrastructure for the identification,
formulation and backstopping of technical cooperation
projects and thus seriously hampered in its efforts to
become more operational.

47.  The Informal Consultative Group on Resource
Mobilization continues to encourage Member States to
examine the list of unfunded project proposals compiled by
the Centre and to review their funding policies for
development assistance with a view to including crime
prevention and criminal justice in such assistance. In con-
junction with the Group the Secretariat has undertaken
consultations with some previous donors to explore the
possibility of setting up a donors' group for crime preven-
tion and criminal justice activities that would request its
members to contribute a defined amount on an annual
basis.

48.  In paragraph 6 of resolution 52/90, the General
Assembly called upon all relevant programmes, funds and
organizations of the United Nations system, in particular
UNDP, the World Bank and other international, regional
and national funding agencies, to support technical opera-
tional activities in the field of crime prevention and
criminal justice.

49.  Cooperation with UNDP in that regard is good and
increasing steadily. Indeed, most of the projects of the
Centre are funded in whole or part by UNDP. Pursuant to
Economic and Social Council resolution 1998/24, the
Centre has entered into discussions with UNDP to be
recognized by it as an "executing agency". UNDP has
disseminated the text of resolution 52/90 to its offices
involved in programme development. With particular
reference to paragraph 6 of the resolution, UNDP has
noted that it was already cooperating with the Centre and
that such cooperation could be expected to increase, con-
sidering the importance that many countries attached to
good governance. As regards programme development
and support in the field of crime prevention, UNDP has
indicated that it needs the expertise of the Centre.
Financial support from UNDP can be provided mainly
within the context of country cooperation frameworks, but
UNDP is also ready to help interested Governments to
raise additional funds for activities developed in co-
operation, as well as to explore the possibility for co-
operation with the Centre in regional and global activities.

50.  UNDP has also disseminated to all its units involved
in programme development the text of General Assembly
resolution 52/85 of 12 December 1997 on the follow-up to
the Naples Political Declaration and Global Action Plan
against Organized Transnational Crime. With particular
reference to paragraph 8 of that resolution, UNDP will be
ready to consider requests from Governments for support
of technical cooperation projects within the framework of
the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Programme.


                             Notes


1/  E/AC.51/1998/3.

2/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
Supplement No. 10.

3/  E/AC.15/1998/9

4/  E/AC.15/1998/2 and Add.1/Rev.1 and Add.2.

5/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
Supplement No. 10, chap. I, sect. A, para. 1, draft resolution I.

6/  E/CN.15/1998/5, E/CN.15/1998/6 and Add.1 and 2 and E/CN.15/1998/7.

7/  United Nations publication, Sales No. E.1998.IV.2.

8/  The United Nations Crime and Justice Information Network is
accessible at http://www.ifs.univie.ac.at/~uncjin/uncjin.html

9/  Forthcoming, Oxford University Press (1998).

10/ UNOJUST was developed by the National Institute of Justice, United
States Department of Justice, for the United Nations. It builds on the
United Nations Crime and Justice Information Network by clearly
establishing links between and among the institutes of the United
Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme network.
UNOJUST is available at http://www.unojust.org/

11/ The global bibliography of prison systems is accessible at
http://www.ifs.univie.ac.at/~uncjin/gbops

12/ E/CN.15/1998/8.

13/ E/CN.15/1998/8/Add.1.

14/ See Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and
the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, 27 August-7 September 1990; report
prepared by the Secretariat (United Nations publication,
Sales No. E.91.IV.2), chap. I, sect. C, resolution 26.

15/ Ibid., sect. B.

16/ E/CN.15/1998/10.

17/ E/CN.15/1998/CRP.2.

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