United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

4 September 1998


                                                      Original: English

Fifty-third session
Item 96 (b) of the provisional agenda (A/53/150)
Sustainable development and international economic
cooperation: Integration of the economies in transition
into the world economy

         Integration of the economies in transition into the world economy

         Report of the Secretary-General

Contents                                                 Paragraphs   Page
             I.     Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .     1-3        3
            II.     Activities of the organizations of
                    the United Nations system   . . . . .    4-9       13
                    A.   United Nations Secretariat. . . . . 4-10       3
                    B.   Economic Commission for Europe. . .11-18       4
                    C.   Economic and Social Commission 
                         for Asia and the Pacific  . . . . .19-24       5
                    D.   United Nations Conference on 
                         Trade and Development . . . . . .  25-35       6
                    E.   United Nations Development 
                         Programme. . . . . . . . . . .  .  36-43       7
                    F.   United Nations Environment 
                         Programme. . . . . . . . . . . . .    44       8
                    G.   United Nations Population Fund. .  45-47       8
                    H.   Food and Agriculture Organization
                         of the United Nations . . . . . . .48-55       9
                    I.   United Nations Educational, 
                         Scientific and Cultural 
                         Organization  . . . . . . . . . . .56-60      10
                    J.   International Civil Aviation 
                         Organization . . . . . . . . . . .    61      11
                    K.     World Health Organization . . . . . 62      11
                    L.   World Bank. . . . . . . . . . . . .63-70      11
                    M.   International Monetary Fund . .. . 71-72      12
                    N.   Universal Postal Union. . . . . .  73-75      13
                    O.   World Meteorological Organization . . 76      13
                    P.   International Maritime Organization . 77      13
                    Q.   World Intellectual Property 
                         Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . 78      13
                    R.   International Fund for Agriculture
                         and Development . . . . . . . . . . 79-80      13
                    S.   United Nations Industrial 
                         Development Organization . . . . . .81-89      14
                    T.   International Atomic Energy Agency. 90-91      15

          Integration of the economies in transition into the world economy
          Report of the Secretary-General

        I.     Introduction

1.      In its resolution 51/175, the General Assembly called upon the
organizations of the United Nations system to continue to conduct analytical
activities and to provide policy advice and technical cooperation to the
economies in transition on the social and political framework for economic and
market reforms, in particular in regard to the development of the necessary
conditions for attracting foreign investments. The Assembly also requested the
Secretary-General to submit a report on the implementation of the resolution
to the General Assembly at its fifty-third session. The present report has
been prepared in response to that request, and is based on information
supplied to the Secretary-General as of 20 August 1998.

2.       With regard to analytical activities, most of the organizations of
the United Nations system prepare a variety of analytical reports, data and
other products, often including an annual "flagship" report, which either
address selected topics from a global and regional perspective or provide an
overview of developments and issues within the organization's area of
competence. Those reports encompass the economies in transition and form an
integral part of the analysis and policy advice available from the
organizations of the United Nations system to the economies in transition.
However, being universal in nature, they are not reviewed here.

3.       The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations
Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), as
the main technical cooperation funding agencies for the United Nations system,
have programmes in individual economies in transition, as well as regional
activities. Information on those programmes is contained in the documentation
provided to their respective Executive Boards, and is not repeated in the
present report, although specific activities of particular relevance are
identified in some cases.

       II.     Activities of the organizations of the United Nations system

        A.     United Nations Secretariat

4.      The Department of Economic and Social Affairs has continued to conduct
analytical activities and to provide policy advice and technical cooperation
to the economies in transition in each of its main programme areas.

5.      In the area of population, a number of papers were prepared for a
symposium on health and mortality 1/ held at Brussels from 19 to 22 November
1997 on issues concerning countries in transition. In March 1997, the
Department organized a subregional symposium on strengthening population
information systems in Central Asia and Azerbaijan, and it is executing a
UNFPA-funded project on strengthening population and housing census-taking
capabilities in four Central Asian countries, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan.

6.       In the area of statistics, the Department has published the Russian
version of the System of National Accounts, 1993, 2/ and provided a lecturer
for the seminar on methodology of international merchandise trade statistics,
organized by the customs authorities of the Russian Federation. In September
1997, a mission of the Department, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and
the World Bank visited the Russian Federation to assess the statistical
infrastructure and identify ways to enhance statistical information. In May
1997, a joint meeting was convened by the Ministry of Statistics of Ukraine
and the Steering Committee on the Coordination of Technical Cooperation to the
Countries of the Former Soviet Union, to identify priorities for Ukraine's
statistical agencies and adopt a more coordinated approach to its national
statistical programme. The Department has also provided the services of its
Interregional Adviser on Computers and Informatics to Armenia, Belarus,
Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania and Uzbekistan.

7.       In collaboration with the Government of Greece and UNDP, a regional
conference was organized on the theme "Public service in transition: enhancing
its role, professionalism, ethical standards and values" (Thessaloniki, 17 20
November 1997). The conference called for the reinforcement of the
institutional structures, legislative frameworks, information and skills that
are prerequisites for sustained development. Twenty-one Eastern and Central
European States participated in the conference. In cooperation with UNDP
Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), policy advisory
services on civil service reforms were provided to Governments in the region.
In addition, two projects, one on the establishment of an ombudsman
institution in Uzbekistan and one on non-governmental organization development
in Azerbaijan, became operational in 1997.

8.       The Department has also undertaken a range of activities relating to
the social, economic and political framework for market-based reforms,
including measures to promote foreign investment. Specific projects include
the preparation of a strategy for implementing market-based reforms,
attracting foreign investment and encouraging export-led growth in the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; the preparation of a strategy for
post-conflict reconstruction and the transition to a market economy in Bosnia
and Herzegovina; the convening of an international workshop on macroeconomic
forecasting in CIS countries at Moscow; the preparation of macroeconomic
forecasting models and related training of personnel in Belarus and Ukraine;
the provision of advice to the Income Tax Department of Turkmenistan,
covering, inter alia, taxation of foreign permanent establishments; and
assistance in the creation, organization and operations of the new Supreme
Audit Institution in Armenia.

9.       A subregional conference of senior governmental experts on the
implementation of the Platform for Action adopted by the Fourth World
Conference on Women in Central and Eastern Europe, held at Bucharest from 12
to 14 September 1996, was attended by 36 experts from 21 countries. It focused
on the elaboration and implementation of national action plans, strengthening
national machineries for the advancement of women, and the role of
non-governmental organizations and other actors in civil society in
elaborating and implementing national action plans. The Department is also
undertaking a project to assist in developing gender-in-development units
and/or national machineries in Central and Eastern European and CIS countries.
An interregional workshop on the theme "Mechanisms of support to women's
participation in sustainable development", held in November 1997 at Lausanne,
Switzerland, provided an opportunity for participants from economies in
transition to experience dialogue and networking among women entrepreneurs and
with members of the business community, and to explore avenues for practical

10.      A regional conference on sustainable development in economies in
transition (Minsk, 1997) was organized in cooperation with UNDP and the
Economic Commission for Europe (ECE). The Department has also supported
various national activities pertaining to sustainable development, several of
which were financed by UNDP. These include projects relating to land
restitution and land registration in Bulgaria and Georgia; the establishment
of a unit to manage external assistance and promote private investment in
infrastructure in Croatia; the collection of data necessary to attract foreign
investment in the Tumen area of the Russian Federation; monitoring oil and
related pollution in the Black Sea; and the preparation of a strategy to
eliminate pollution and ensure environmentally sound water management in the
Maritza River Basin of Bulgaria.

        B.     Economic Commission for Europe

11.      With the exception of a few individual cases of success, often due to
the sale of domestic companies to foreign investors, the experience of Central
and Eastern Europe and the CIS as a whole in attracting foreign direct
investment (FDI), as measured by its share of total world flows, has been
disappointing. Member Governments continue to attach a high priority to ECE
work on attracting FDI in recognition of its economic benefits. ECE activities
in this area are focused on the following:

        1.     Investment promotion techniques

12.     In October 1997, ECE, in cooperation with the World Bank, held a forum
at which representatives of the investment promotion agencies of transition
economies discussed techniques for promoting FDI, as well as questions related
to the role of investment promotion agencies, their status within the public
administration and their financing.

        2.     Attracting private investment in infrastructure

13.     ECE has established the Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) Group of
experts to help Governments to apply concession-based financing techniques to
attract private capital and promote public-private partnerships for
infrastructure projects. The Group includes representatives of leading private
companies, legal experts and representatives of other international
organizations. It has published guidelines entitled "Public-private
partnerships: a new concept in infrastructure development", and has organized
advisory missions to Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia and Hungary.

        3.     Development of real estate markets

14.     To stimulate investment and create more active real estate markets,
ECE has established the Real Estate Advisory Group (REAG), consisting of
property lawyers, bankers, developers and real estate valuers. On 17 July
1998, the Terre Initiative was launched in London by the Executive Secretary
of ECE, in the company of the Secretary-General of the European Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), to raise funds for REAG missions to
transition economies. These missions will prepare reports that identify
strategic investment opportunities for financial institutions and papers that
present Governments with options for land policy.

        4.     Legal and regulatory frameworks

15.     The ECE Working Party on International Contract Practices in Industry
has prepared guides on privatization and foreign investment laws since the
beginning of the transition period, and these have assisted Governments in the
drafting of new legislation. However, the enforcement of new laws has been
problematic. Despite many new laws regarding intellectual property rights, for
example, the increased incidence of piracy and counterfeiting of goods has had
a negative impact on FDI. ECE, in cooperation with the World Intellectual
Property Organization (WIPO), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the
European Union (EU), will hold a forum on the protection and enforcement of
intellectual property rights in the transition economies at Geneva on 26
October 1998. It is expected that a special programme will be established to
help Governments deal with infringements of their laws and encourage domestic
companies to protect their intellectual property.

        5.     Analysis of FDI in transition economies

16.     An ECE study on trade and investment financing in transition economies
covers the financing of FDI and includes recommendations for improving access
of foreign affiliates to local and foreign financial sources.

        6.     Information services

17.     ECE collects data on FDI from the transition economies, and analyses
them in the ECE Bulletin and the Economic Survey of Europe on a regular basis.
As part of its industry and enterprise development programme, ECE disseminates
information on best practices for creating an environment conducive to foreign
investment, and assists transition economies in their implementation. In
particular, projects in the following areas aim to attract FDI: (a)
environmental clean-up of polluted industrial sites; (b) barriers to and best
practices for industrial restructuring in the steel sector; and (c) promotion
of regional enterprise development areas in transition economies. ECE is also
promoting higher standards in the treatment of FDI, and is encouraging its
members to participate in the relevant international standards-setting forums.
It is currently modernizing the 1961 European Convention on International
Commercial Arbitration, and is considering ways to broaden its scope to
include the resolution of investment disputes. With the support of the
Government of the Czech Republic, an expert meeting to consider proposals to
revise the Convention will be held at Prague on 28 and 29 September 1998.

18.     Further ECE technical cooperation with economies in transition covers
a wide range of activities in the areas of energy, environment, statistics,
trade facilitation and small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In addition,
countries in transition participated in a consultative inter-agency meeting
organized by ECE at Geneva in January 1996 on regional monitoring of
activities designed to improve the status of women. These activities are
carried out in close cooperation with other international, national and
regional organizations. 3/

        C.     Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

19.     The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
secretariat's activities to promote the integration of the economies in
transition into the world economy have focused on macroeconomic management and
economic reforms, including policies on restructuring, stabilization and
growth, the impact of the economic and financial crisis in Asia, and the
promotion of intra- and inter-subregional economic cooperation. Activities
have emphasized the need to develop the necessary conditions for promoting
foreign investment and trade in those countries. Another immediate objective
of technical cooperation has been to promote cooperation among those
countries, as well as between them and the rest of the region.

        1.     Analytical work

20.     The Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 1997 included
an analysis of the economic situation and short-term and medium-term prospects
of the economies in transition, focusing on the consequences of capital-flow
volatility and the lessons from the financial crisis.

        2.     Policy advice and technical cooperation

21.     Technical cooperation with the economies in transition has taken the
form of training programmes and policy advice regarding macroeconomic reforms,
the management of free economic zones, industrial restructuring and
privatization. Activities have focused on the promotion of investment
opportunities, including training in techniques used in project appraisal and
evaluation; financial sector management; and institutional and human

22.      ESCAP has been assisting the region's economies in transition in
accession to WTO and in expanding their trade. A training course on export
promotion, held in cooperation with the International Trade Centre and WTO in
Uzbekistan in June 1997, aimed to enhance the capacity of countries to
formulate trade policies and strategies for the diversification of trade. The
seventh Asia-Pacific International Trade Fair, scheduled to be held in
Kazakhstan in October 1998, will be the first of its kind in Central Asia, and
is expected to promote economic cooperation, trade and investment between the
economies of Central Asia and other Asian and Pacific countries.

        3.     Cooperation with other organizations

23.     At the suggestion of the Secretary-General, ESCAP and ECE initiated
the Special Programme for the Economies of Central Asia (SPECA) in 1997 to
facilitate the economic integration of the Central Asian countries into both
Europe and Asia, and to strengthen economic cooperation among those countries.
SPECA was launched by the Presidents of four Central Asian countries and the
Executive Secretaries of ECE and ESCAP at Tashkent in March 1998. The Tashkent
Declaration identifies four priority programme areas: (a) development of
transport infrastructure and cross-border facilitation; (b) rational and
effective utilization of energy and water resources of Central Asia; (c) the
organization of an international economic conference on Tajikistan and a joint
strategy for regional development and the attraction of FDI; and (d) regional
cooperation on the development of routes for pipelines for hydrocarbons.
Working groups to translate the Programme into specific project activities
have been established by ESCAP and ECE.

24.     In cooperation with the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) and the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), ESCAP
has been implementing a project on international transport development in the
ECO region. The ECO secretariat is also involved in a project to strengthen
subregional economic cooperation in trade and investment among member
countries in the southwestern part of the ESCAP region. In addition, the
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the Asian and
Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology contributed to a regional meeting on
investment promotion for the Central Asian countries, held in October 1997 in

        D.     United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

25.     UNCTAD's analytical work and technical cooperation of benefit to
economies in transition cover the following fields: (a) globalization and
development strategies, including debt management and development of capital
markets; (b) trade and commodities, including assistance on issues relating to
the multilateral trading system and advice on accession to WTO, and assistance
in the formulation of competition policies, risk management and commodity
diversification; (c) investment, technology and enterprise development,
including support for national policies promoting and attracting foreign
investment and for promoting private-sector development, in particular
concerning SMEs and privatization issues; and (d) services infrastructure for
development and trade efficiency, customs modernization and reform, and
development of human resources in general in the field of trade and related

26.     UNCTAD is implementing projects to strengthen the capacity for the
management of external debt in Armenia, Belarus and Uzbekistan, and a project
in the Republic of Moldova on international financial markets and debt. It has
also provided assistance to Belarus, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and
Viet Nam in elaborating their approaches in the initial phase of accession to

27.     In its resolution 49/102, the General Assembly requested UNCTAD to
elaborate a programme for improving the efficiency of transit transport
operations in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
and their transit neighbours. UNCTAD has continued its work on this
UNDP-financed project, together with other United Nations bodies and other
international organizations. In 1997, a series of workshops was organized in
all five countries to consider a draft regional transit transport framework
agreement that would provide a regulatory foundation for transit operations in
Central Asia. A draft was subsequently presented to the negotiating conference
on the agreement.

28.     Assistance under UNCTAD's programme on strengthening/streamlining
agencies concerned with maximizing and promoting FDI was provided to the
Albanian Centre for Foreign Investment Promotion. In addition, components of
UNCTAD's Policy Framework for Attracting Foreign Investment have been
implemented in Albania. In Uzbekistan, with the financial support of the
Government of Switzerland and UNDP, UNCTAD is undertaking one of its series of
investment policy reviews to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the
national system of innovation and production, which affects the attractiveness
of a country to foreign investors.

29.     A UNDP-financed project in Belarus, completed in 1997, supported the
implementation of components of UNCTAD's programme on commercialization of
science and technology, the objective of which is to obtain the maximum
benefit from a country's scientific and technological capacity, particularly

30.    UNCTAD's computerized customs management system (ASYCUDA) has been
installed in over 95 locations in Romania, and covers 90 per cent of the
country's trade. Fiscal analysis has already greatly benefited from increased
availability of statistics. The system has also been integrated into the
national computer network in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and
control of moving cargoes has been introduced through the manifest module. New
ASYCUDA projects were signed with the three Baltic States in 1997.

31.     UNCTAD also promotes trade through its Global Trade Point Network,
which is a tool for the integration of SMEs into the global economy. A project
on increasing the participation of Romanian SMEs in international trade
through the establishment of a trade point in Bucharest was launched in 1997.
Economies in transition are also able to benefit from UNCTAD's programme on
electronic trading opportunities (ETOs), which distributes information on
products, services, investment, joint ventures etc. collected from trade
points and third-party information providers. 4/ Data for 1997 showed that 86
per cent of users receive responses to their ETOs and 27 per cent of those
conclude business deals on the basis of ETOs. In 50 per cent of the cases, the
value of these transactions is less than $10,000; however, in 10 per cent of
the cases, it is over $1,000,000.

32.     The Governing Council of UNDP, in its decisions 90/34, 92/8 and 92/29
relating to the preparations for the fifth programme cycle (1997 2000),
decided that the countries of the former USSR, Central and Eastern Europe and
the Baltic States should participate as recipients of the UNDP programme. The
Council further authorized the Administrator, in decision 92/43, to open a
limited number of offices in the countries concerned. Despite resource
constraints, UNDP has responded to the requests for assistance, and has opened
programmes and offices in most of those countries, as well as a programme
support unit at Bratislava. The core programme resources for the current
programme cycle amount to $94.5 million, with approved non-core resources
estimated as of mid-1998 at $149 million. For the previous cycle (1992 1996),
the core resources were $57 million and non-core $175 million. For all
countries in the region, a country cooperation framework has been prepared,
which sets out the main thrust of the programme that will be supported during
the remainder of the programming cycle, with 27 frameworks already approved.

33.     The main emphasis of UNDP support has been to assist those countries
in making the transition to a democratic free-market economy. To assess the
cost of transition, UNDP launched the preparation of national human
development reports in almost all countries of the region. The reports have
looked at the transition not only in terms of economic efficiency but also in
terms of its impact on human development. They are intended to provide
comprehensive information about the economic, social and human development
conditions in those countries, and have started a dialogue at the country and
regional levels concerning the social impact of the transition process.

34.     UNDP has also provided support for regional and country-specific
activities in the area of democracy, governance and participation, focusing on
democracy-building through human rights protection, establishment of ombudsmen
institutions, development of mass media and information systems, and
modernization of the judicial system. Aspects of management development, civil
service reform and decentralization are dealt with in some UNDP work on
governance. Other activities include training in the areas of foreign
investment promotion and negotiation, and financial auditing and control at
all levels.

35.     Unlike other transition economies, most of the countries in Central
and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States are suffering
serious increases in poverty. A comparative analysis has been undertaken by
UNDP to identify the nature of the most acute problems and what reforms have
worked to date. The most urgent challenge facing the region is how to reverse
the deterioration; a report has been prepared that acknowledges success
stories in the region and indicates that many Governments have done as well as
could be expected under the difficult prevailing circumstances.

        E.     United Nations Development Programme 5/

36.     UNDP has devoted special efforts to help countries in transition to
attract FDI. In addition to programmes designed to strengthen Government
institutions, the judiciary and the parliament, UNDP has supported activities
to improve policies, promote good governance and the rule of law, and
strengthen the human resource base, all critical to the creation of a
business-friendly environment. UNDP has also continued support for the
Empretec Programme, which promotes entrepreneurship and development of small
and medium-sized enterprises in economies in transition.

37.    A recent initiative at the global level is a proposal to have UNDP play
a more catalytic role in the establishment of business advisory councils
(BACs) in developing countries and in countries in transition. 6/ The core of
the concept is to build a three-way partnership between the corporate
community, the national Government and the United Nations for the promotion of
investments. Foreign and domestic investors, government representatives and
UNDP would engage in a dialogue on policies and barriers related to
private-sector development and investments in the country; national
representatives would make commitments and be held accountable for the
implementation of agreements.

38.    One function of a BAC would be to bring to the attention of senior
government officials the views of the business community on regulatory issues,
bottlenecks and other hindrances in public administration, weaknesses in
infrastructure and any other obstacles to new private foreign and domestic
investments. The BAC should also serve as a forum where parties make
commitments to address mutual challenges. For example, it could address issues
of taxation, customs, the legal system, crime, corruption, international
standards, privatization, shareholder rights, financial infrastructure,
security systems, competition law, deregulation and other relevant issues. It
could propose improvements in public administration procedures and comment on
draft legislation.

39.    To facilitate the work of the BAC and demonstrate its commitment to the
creation of an effective enabling environment for private-sector development,
the Government would enter into a compact with UNDP. This compact would
articulate specific actions to be undertaken in the area of governance, as
well as performance indicators to monitor progress. In return for the
Government's commitment, UNDP would support and promote a revitalized dialogue
between business and government. The exact content of the compact could vary
from country to country.

40.    If the business communities approve the proposal, pilot projects will
be developed shortly in five countries, including Georgia among the transition

41.    In the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, UNDP has designed a
project to strengthen the national capacity to attract foreign investment, by
assisting the setting up of a unit for investment promotion at the Ministry of
Development, to be linked with UNIDO's World Investment Network Services. The
project includes training staff of the unit, government officials and selected
industrialists in the preparation and appraisal of investment projects and in
promotion methods and strategies. In Croatia, UNDP has designed a preparatory
assistance project to increase international awareness of the country's
investment opportunities.

42.     In Asia, UNDP has organized round tables at the regional level to deal
with various issues cutting across countries and affecting FDI. Such meetings
raise the level of awareness among policy makers of the growing economic
interdependence within the region and its impact on individual countries. On
behalf of UNDP, the Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) of the World
Bank has organized for Asian countries (including transition economies) six
such round tables for senior government officials responsible for
private-sector investments and for prominent businessmen from within and
outside the region. In Mongolia, FIAS is implementing a UNDP-funded project,
consisting of three components: an investment promotion skills training
programme, the development of an investor servicing strategy and the
development of a comprehensive investment promotion strategy. The first two
components were concluded in 1998, the third is scheduled for 1999. In Viet
Nam, FIAS will undertake a project co-funded by UNDP in 1999 to improve the
implementation of approved foreign investment projects. 7/

43.     UNDP has also designed a programme to strengthen information exchange
and develop capacity to address emerging macroeconomic issues in Mongolia and
Viet Nam. Three workshops will bring together key economic officials from the
subregion and other experts to discuss economic issues common to the

        F.     United Nations Environment Programme

44.     In its decisions 17/27 and 18/24, the UNEP Governing Council requested
UNEP to provide environmental assistance to economies in transition. This
assistance involves the use of innovative economic instruments in the economic
sector, and more generally, ensuring that economic development and
environmental protection are mutually supportive and compatible.

        G.     United Nations Population Fund

45.     UNFPA has provided funding for analytical studies of the demographic
and reproductive health situation and trends in the economies in transition as
a whole and a number of individual countries. UNFPA has supported ECE research
in the fields of fertility and family formation, ageing and international
migration in order to study demographic trends. At the country level, it has
provided funds for national institutions to undertake fertility and family
surveys in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.

46.     UNFPA has also provided financial and technical support to the
development of reproductive health policies in economies in transition.
Through policy dialogue, UNFPA representatives play an active role in pointing
to the consequences of health reform processes and the need for integrating
reproductive health issues into these processes.

47.     The UNFPA programme of assistance for Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan for the period 1995 1997
is providing some $14.8 million to assist those Governments in (a) promoting
women's reproductive health (RH) and reducing the number of abortions; (b)
contributing to family planning (FP) by making available quality RH/FP
services, including counselling; (c) broadening contraceptive choice and
enhancing the ability of individuals and couples to make informed RH
decisions; and (d) increasing awareness at all levels of society of RH/FP and
related issues. Subregional interventions have also been used to complement
country-specific activities, when they concerned exchange of experiences among
different countries. 8/ UNFPA has also supported the preparatory activities
for the upcoming national population and housing censuses, and has provided
basic equipment, with a total value of about $660,000. In collaboration with
the statistics units of the Secretariat, UNFPA, through its country support
teams, organized a series of seminars and workshops, such as those held at
Almaty on national population policy formulation and at Bishkek on population
information systems.

        H.     Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

48.     Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
activities in Central and Eastern Europe have focused on supporting these
countries' efforts to restructure their national agriculture and to formulate
agriculture and food strategies and policies. The FAO annual publication State
of Food and Agriculture includes analysis of agricultural development policies
in the economies in transition, with special reviews of Belarus, the Republic
of Moldova and the Russian Federation in recent issues. Support is provided by
the newly established policy assistance units in the regional and subregional
offices for Europe, and FAO also provided substantive assistance for a meeting
of ministers of agriculture from Central and Eastern European countries at
Bucharest in 1996.

49.     During 1996 1998, work was initiated to enhance understanding of the
role of the agricultural sector during the transition, with comparative
research conducted in Bulgaria, Poland and Slovakia; this is expected to be
concluded in 1998. Data on off-farm income and linkages in agricultural
development have also been collected and analysed for several economies. The
European System of Cooperative Research Networks in Agriculture, which is
supported by the FAO Regional Office for Europe, has contributed to
decision-making regarding sustainable development in Central and Eastern
European countries.

50.     Technical cooperation projects on agricultural policies and strategies
were carried out in Croatia, Estonia and Slovakia and are currently being
carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina; in the Republic of Moldova, a strategy
for the grain sector is currently being elaborated. FAO also assisted the
Albanian Ministry of Agriculture and Food in strengthening its agricultural
policy analysis unit and in its reorganization.

51.     Reorientation of policies and systemic changes to adjust to prevailing
conditions in the EU and facilitating access to the EU, as well as follow-up
to the Uruguay Round agreements, are other areas where member countries have
requested technical support. Projects addressing access to the EU are being
implemented in the Czech Republic and Slovenia. In March 1997, an FAO workshop
on the theme "Experience in reforms and integration of European agriculture"
was attended by 16 Central and Eastern European and CIS countries. FAO has
also provided backstopping on trade policy issues to several countries,
including the Czech Republic, the Republic of Moldova, Slovakia and Slovenia,
and has provided assistance on commodity projections. A series of training
seminars on the global grain economy was held in the Czech Republic and

52.     FAO's Global Information and Early Warning System monitors and reports
on the supply situation in Central and Eastern European countries. Three major
assessment missions were carried out in the subregion, with the participation
of the World Food Programme (WFP), UNDP and the European Community (EC). As an
initial step towards systematic follow-up at the country level to the World
Food Summit, FAO has prepared draft strategies for national agricultural
development for each country of the subregion. These strategies provide, inter
alia, estimates of the net investment required to meet development objectives
for the agricultural sector.

53.     In the framework of the Special Programme for Food Security,
assistance and policy advice were provided to Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia and Turkmenistan, regarding constraints to technological innovation
and investment requirements to meet food needs.

54.     Projects on nutrition in CIS and Central and Eastern European
countries involve the strengthening of national food control systems,
reformulating national food regulations to bring them into line with
international standards, and establishing import/export certification
programmes. Several regional training courses have also been carried out to
support these countries in ensuring safe national food supplies and in
engaging effectively in international trade. In recognition of the heightened
importance of the Codex Standards and Guidelines in the context of the Uruguay
Round agreements, FAO has organized several workshops in the region to
organize and strengthen national Codex committees.

55.     During the 1996 1997 biennium, FAO prepared a number of investment
projects and programmes for financing by the multilateral financing
institutions; total investments mobilized for those projects amounted to some
$411 million. FAO also assisted in the formulation of 12 investment projects
in the agricultural sectors of Albania, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Croatia, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, the Republic of Moldova and the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; preparations have been completed for
nine of those projects.

        I.     United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural             

56.     The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) has aimed to facilitate the reforms being carried out in the
economies in transition with a view to consolidating democracy, guaranteeing
human rights and ensuring sustainable development in the economic, social,
scientific, information and cultural fields. It supported a conference on the
development of cultural life in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe
(Budapest, January 1997) and a European seminar on promoting independent and
pluralistic media, with a special focus on Central and Eastern European
countries (Sofia, September 1997).

57.     UNESCO is assisting Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina to strengthen
their capacities to analyse their education systems, draw up policies and
elaborate national programmes. UNESCO's European Centre for Higher Education
at Bucharest is a direct participant in the process of transition, through its
work on such issues as quality assurance and accreditation, and the
recognition of higher education qualifications. The International Institute
for Educational Planning at Paris and the UNESCO Institute for Education at
Hamburg are working on reinforcing national capacities in policy planning and
management and evaluation of education.

58.     In 1997, UNESCO helped to design a project for a regional translation
network, using new communication technologies that would offer a practical and
cost-effective way towards meeting the need for access to knowledge and skills
in a variety of domains, such as banking and commerce, law, science and
technology. Assistance was provided through the establishment of a UNESCO
Chair in Translation Studies (Multilingual communication in specialized
environments) at Comenius University, Slovak Republic.

59.     UNESCO's Programme for Management of Social Transformations has
developed a research project to provide policy analysis on the management of
long-term unemployment. A research network focusing on long-term unemployment,
impoverishment and crime waves has been established. Two international
seminars have been organised at Sofia in close cooperation with UNDP national
offices, and a policy paper is being published.

60.     Two projects in the Russian Federation   the Hermitage/UNESCO project
and the Bolshoi/UNESCO project   are particularly concerned with new patterns
of management, marketing, public relations and fund-raising. A project for the
State Hermitage Museum at St. Petersburg, financed by a contribution from the
Netherlands, was concluded at the end of 1997. In view of its success, the
Government of the Netherlands has made an additional contribution for a new
phase of the project. The Bolshoi/UNESCO project is a partnership of public
and private contributors to help revitalize the Bolshoi theatre. During 1996
1997, UNESCO continued to provide technical advice throughout the conceptual
and design stages, and helped in the decision-making process by organizing
study tours of selected European opera houses and theatres and of producers of
theatrical equipment.

        J.     International Civil Aviation Organization

61.     The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), in formulating
and implementing its technical cooperation activities for economies in
transition, has concentrated on the development of civil aviation master plans
and the transformation of civil aviation departments into civil aviation
authorities with full financial autonomy. The objective is to ensure that
these authorities are able to operate in market environments in which capital
expenditures are usually covered by income derived from operations; such
arrangements should be conducive to foreign investment.

        K.     World Health Organization

62.     In order to respond to the needs of the economies in transition, the
World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has strengthened
its analytical capacity and policy guidance. The EUROHEALTH programme
(launched in 1990) provides assistance to Central and Eastern European
countries and the CIS. The aim is to ensure improvements in the health
situation in those countries, and to provide a basis on which the donor
community can make decisions regarding their assistance to the health sector.
A task force on country health development is looking at ways of strengthening
WHO support to these countries and strengthening the analytical capabilities
of the programme. The programme is managed from the Regional Office but
executed through a network of 24 WHO liaison offices and four advisers at the
country level. The Office has produced a number of products and programmes,
including "Country highlights" and "The patient in focus", a strategy for
pharmaceutical sector reform. In addition, it has produced various data and
documents that are accessible on the Internet.

        L.     World Bank

63.     In partnership with others, the World Bank is coordinating strategies
and sectoral approaches to help Central European and Baltic countries meet the
challenges of joining the EU. The Bank is working closely with countries to
identify policy reforms that will enhance economic growth and facilitate EU
accession, as well as to help devise strategies for minimizing the costs of

64.     In the face of diverse country situations, the Bank's assistance
strategy has reflected countries' unique needs and their progress in meeting
the challenges of transition. Several economies in transition that experienced
crises in early 1997 are showing strong signs of recovery. In Albania, the
Government moved quickly to restore stability, with support from the Bank and
other international donors, after major civil disturbances in early 1997
followed the collapse of the pyramid schemes. Romania's reform programme also
made a good start in 1997, as prices were liberalized and directed credit was
ended; although progress faltered by early 1998, the Bank continued to support
investments in key areas to underpin long-term development.

65.     In the Russian Federation and Ukraine, the World Bank has supported
structural reforms aimed at sustained and predictable reductions in fiscal
deficits. With Bank support, both Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation are
improving tax administration and budget management. The Russian Federation has
taken several major steps to improve tax collection, including the termination
of non-cash arrangements for clearing arrears and actions against large,
high-profile tax debtors. Bank-financed adjustment operations in Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Georgia, and the Russian Federation are increasing payment rates
in power-sector and energy-sector public utilities.

66.     World Bank adjustment loans are supporting small-scale privatization
in Bosnia and Herzegovina and accelerating privatization of medium-scale and
large-scale enterprises in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and the Russian
Federation. A structural adjustment loan in the Russian Federation is
facilitating more transparent, open, and competitive case-by-case
privatization transactions. It is complemented by analytical work examining
ways to improve corporate governance, enhance enterprise restructuring and
increase competition in the industrial sector. With World Bank support,
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, the Republic of Moldova
and the Russian Federation are privatizing or liquidating troubled banks and
improving accounting practices, prudential regulation and supervision of the
banking sector. A lesson from the East Asian crisis is that under these
circumstances, countries must establish good prudential and supervisory
frameworks to avoid the risk of collapse of their financial systems: the Bank
is supporting these efforts.

67.     Supporting reconstruction after conflict has remained a major Bank
activity. With internationally supported reconstruction efforts under way, the
Bank's support in Bosnia and Herzegovina has increasingly focused on
macroeconomic institution-building and the reforms needed in transition to a
market economy. Two adjustment loans that focused on fiscal management and
private-sector development were complemented by reconstruction support for
agriculture, education, electric power, gas, housing, transport and water

68.     To combat corruption and improve public-sector performance, the Bank
is helping Governments in Albania, Georgia, Latvia, and Ukraine to formulate
anti-corruption strategies. The strategies typically include accelerating such
measures as deregulation and tax simplification, civil service reform, reform
of public procurement and auditing policies, legal and judicial reform, and
strengthening public oversight mechanisms.

69.     The Municipal Finance Initiative, an undertaking that includes the
Economic Development Institute and the International Finance Corporation, is
helping municipalities and other subnational entities in the region to tap
financial markets. The programme aims at developing stable, fiscally
sustainable decentralized frameworks, as well as the laws and regulations
necessary both for private-sector participation in local infrastructure and
services and for open, diversified and competitive subnational credit markets.
Under the Initiative, new non-sovereign financial products are being tailored
to meet the needs of a wide spectrum of municipal conditions. Country
programmes have been identified, and implementation has begun in Hungary and

70.     World Bank support for education reform in the economies in transition
expanded significantly in fiscal 1998, with projects in Armenia, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Hungary, the former Republic of Macedonia and Romania. These
activities are aimed at ensuring that education systems respond to the needs
of labour markets, and that resources for education are adequate and used
effectively. Two projects in Hungary are helping to reform higher and
vocational education, and Bank sector work is analysing policy options for
reforming the Russian Federation's vocational educational system. Adjustment
loans in Armenia and Georgia have protected expenditure in the social sectors
while increasing cost-effectiveness.

        M.     International Monetary Fund

71.     The Fund has continued to provide financial support for economic
stabilization and reform programmes in most of the transition economies over
the past few years. Since 1990, this assistance has been provided through
several different facilities, including special drawing rights (SDR) 24.6
billion under regular Stand-By Arrangements (SBAs) and the Extended Fund
Facility (EFF); SDR 4.0 billion under the special, now expired, Systemic
Transformation Facility (STF); SDR 0.5 billion under the Enhanced Structural
Adjustment Facility (ESAF); and SDR 0.1 billion under the Compensatory and
Contingency Financing Facility (CCFF) and the post-conflict emergency
facility. The size of the Fund's financial support and the conditionality
attached to it vary according to the nature of the macroeconomic and
structural problems that the member seeks to address and the Fund facility
designed to meet this need. SBAs typically cover periods of one or two years,
and focus on macroeconomic policies aimed at overcoming short-term balance of
payments difficulties, while EFF arrangements generally cover three-year
periods and are designed to address both macroeconomic as well as structural
problems. Under ESAF arrangements, the Fund provides resources on concessional
terms (0.5 per cent interest with repayments in 5.5 to 10 years) to support
medium-term macroeconomic adjustment and structural reforms in low-income
countries facing protracted balance of payments problems. All Fund programmes
are closely monitored, and disbursements are made in several tranches,
depending upon a country's performance in implementing agreed policies,
reaching agreed macroeconomic benchmarks or undertaking agreed structural
reforms. All decisions on such Fund programmes are taken by its 24-member
Executive Board, which meets at least three times per week in formal session
throughout the year, and which represents the views of the Fund's 182 members.

72.     In addition to financial support, the Fund has undertaken technical
cooperation activities in economies in transition in three broad areas: (a)
design and implementation of fiscal and monetary policies; (b)
institution-building, such as the development of central banks, treasuries,
tax and customs departments and statistical services; and (c) drafting and
review of economic and financial legislation. This collaboration has included
joint financing with the EU, UNDP, the World Bank, central banks and bilateral
partners. The Fund has also attached importance to helping with the training
of officials responsible for the management and implementation of economic
policy, especially through the Joint Vienna Institute (JVI) established in
1992. JVI has provided training to over 10,000 officials from 30 transition
countries, both in Vienna as well as at its regional centres at Prague, Kiev,
Moscow and Tashkent. The courses are specially tailored to the needs of
transition countries, and focus on "best practices" in macroeconomic and
financial management drawing on a wide variety of country experiences.
Co-sponsored by the Bank for International Settlements, EBRD, the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the Organisation for
Economic Cooperation and Development, JVI has received financial support from
Belgium, Canada, France, Finland, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden.

        N.     Universal Postal Union

73.     The position of Universal Postal Union (UPU) Regional Adviser for the
countries of Europe and the CIS was established in January 1996, with an
office at Bratislava. The priority tasks for the Regional Adviser are to
formulate assistance projects, raise awareness and seek supplementary

74.     UPU sponsored the preparation of the publication Guidelines for Postal
Legislation and Restructuring, which was distributed to postal
administrations. UPU and the World Bank undertook a collaborative study in
1996 entitled "Redirecting mail: postal reform". The purpose of the study,
which was distributed to all postal administrations, was to create awareness
in the financial community and among policy makers of the rationale for postal

75.     UPU has increased the resources allocated to economies in transition
in its technical cooperation programme for 1996 2000. Activities financed by
UPU's own resources are being carried out in Albania, Azerbaijan, the Baltic
countries (a subregional project), Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia,
Kazakhstan, the Republic of Moldova, Slovakia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Yugoslavia. Several specialized training
activities and workshops have been organized for the postal services of these
countries. Their representatives also took part in high-level forums organized
by UPU; these focused on different aspects of postal-sector reform and future
development strategies, foreign investment possibilities and other strategic
topics. UNDP-financed projects to improve postal services are ongoing in
Armenia and Turkmenistan; several preparatory assistance projects are also
being carried out by UPU with UNDP funds.

        O.     World Meteorological Organization

76.     The WMO Technical Cooperation Programme is dedicated to the
improvement of the national meteorological and hydrological services (NMHSs)
of all member countries. UNDP funding has had an important role in enabling
WMO to achieve this objective, although the reordering of priorities in recent
years has reduced drastically the funds available to WMO to support NMHSs of
countries where assistance is still urgently needed. WMO has taken several
steps to reverse this situation, and has changed its approach to technical
cooperation, mainly through the mobilization of new resources, at the national
and international levels. In the CIS, WMO cooperates closely with the
Intergovernmental Council of Hydrometeorology in its activities.

        P.     International Maritime Organization

77.     A review of the maritime needs of the economies in transition in
December 1995 and January 1996 identified priority areas as being the
strengthening of national and regional maritime institutions, the ratification
of International Maritime Organization (IMO) conventions, the updating of
national maritime codes and the improvement of training facilities for
seafarers. In order to provide a foundation for subregional cooperation
regarding the protection of the marine environment, the two areas highlighted
were improved reception facilities for the collection of ships' waste and
regularizing national procedures for responding to oil spills. IMO has also
drawn up a major programme for the provision and improvement of reception
facilities in ports located in the Baltic Sea. Other programmes focus on
development of the subregional contingency plan for oil spills.

        Q.     World Intellectual Property Organization

78.     WIPO is expanding its programme of technical cooperation on legal
matters with economies in transition that are undertaking reform of their
intellectual property systems and legislation. These countries face problems
in the protection and use of intellectual property rights; this is
particularly manifested in the insufficient use of modern technical means of
industrial property information and the lack, in several countries, of
institutions for the administration and management of copyright and related

        R.     International Fund for Agriculture and Development

79.     IFAD has nine projects in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Georgia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Total IFAD
funds approved for the region, since the first IFAD loan to Albania was
approved in 1993, stand at $86 million for projects with a total cost of $235
million. For the remainder of 1998 and the 1999 2000 period, IFAD is
considering additional investments of about $73.5 million in Albania,
Azerbaijan, Bosnia, Georgia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the
Republic of Moldova and Romania.

80.     IFAD is currently developing Country Strategy and Operations Policy
Papers for each member country, drawing on the lessons of experience. These
overviews of macroeconomic trends, constraints and opportunities in
agriculture and rural development and trends in rural poverty, together with a
review of the experiences of other institutions and with the identification of
opportunities for linkages with multilateral, bilateral and non-governmental
agencies, will be considered as a basis for future IFAD lending.

        S.     United Nations Industrial Development Organization

81.     UNIDO has given particular attention to providing policy advice and
technical cooperation to the economies in transition since its General
Conference at Yaounde' in 1993, and has oriented this work to respond to
General Assembly resolutions 49/106 and 51/175. In so doing, UNIDO has
undertaken efforts to customize its services to the specific conditions of
individual economies in transition. Policy advice and technical cooperation
are focusing on industrial governance, industrial export capacity-building,
quality and certification for industrial competitiveness, international
industrial partnership and local industrial development.

82.     Activities are being directed primarily to support institutions rather
than individual enterprises, thus emphasizing upstream activities, such as
policy advisory services and institutional capacity-building. Support is being
provided for the development of SMEs as the principal means for achieving
equitable and sustainable industrial development.

83.     In 1997, UNIDO's technical cooperation delivery to the region reached
$8.5 million (10.4 per cent of the UNIDO total). Despite difficulties in
financing programmes, new approvals ($9.9 million) were higher than in any
previous year except 1996.

84.     In its work on industrial strategy and policy advice, UNIDO aims to
achieve synergy among all parties involved in industrial policy and
decision-making. For example, UNIDO commenced assistance to Bulgaria to adapt
its business education curricula to the requirements of a market economy, as
well as to produce positive attitudes towards private enterprise on the part
of employers and employees. Recognizing the important role of local and
regional development initiatives in transition, a workshop was held on
strategies and policies for regional development.

85.     With regard to environmental concerns, a project in Croatia was
initiated to develop cleaner production by using capacities and expertise from
the Czech Republic, themselves created in part through previous UNIDO
activities. Georgia was assisted in preparing a project to reduce pollution
from the Tbilisi thermal power plant and to increase fuel efficiency. This
project can serve as a model for others in Georgia or other CIS countries. A
regional project has enabled authorities and managers from Belarus, the
Russian Federation and Ukraine to get acquainted with modern planning methods
for water management in large industrial plants. In support of the Montreal
Protocol, projects in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Romania and the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia have targeted ozone-depleting substances.

86.     To enhance the competitiveness of small and medium industries (SMIs),
a project financed by the European Union initiated an industrial
subcontracting and partnership exchange in Prague to provide information and
advisory services to SMIs in the Czech Republic and to promote agreements with
foreign partners. UNIDO also provided support to Kyrgyzstan by assisting the
start-up and initial operation of a small-business development centre in
Bishkek. A new project in the Russian Federation will strengthen the capacity
and capabilities of women managers and entrepreneurs to participate in market
economy-oriented activities. Work also continued under a UNDP-financed
programme for the establishment and support of national SMI projects in
several countries in the Balkans, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

87.     In industrial information, investment and technology promotion, a
project was initiated to set up three business development centres in Bosnia
and Herzegovina. In the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, UNIDO-supported
activities to attract FDI include the establishment of an investment promotion
unit at the Ministry of Development, to be linked with the UNIDO World
Investment Network Service; staff training; and dissemination of the UNIDO
Investor's Guide. Advisory services were also provided to the Republic of
Moldova for the establishment of an investment promotion agency. A programme
of assistance to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and
Uzbekistan is designed to strengthen information, technology and
investment-promotion capacities. A project on business partnerships and
investment opportunities in food-processing and agro-industries in the Russian
Federation is under implementation. Activities in Ukraine have supported
entrepreneurs in acquiring technologies from Austria, Belgium, Greece, the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Central and Eastern
European countries.

88.     As part of its overall investment promotion network, UNIDO has
investment promotion offices at Warsaw and Moscow. 9/ The Warsaw Office has
been actively involved in distributing information on credit lines available
from international and national sources for Polish firms, in the organization
of three domestic economic conferences for more than 6,000 participants, and
in a series of five regional credit and investment meetings, each for 200 to
400 Polish firms. Recent examples are an economic forum Poland/South-East
Asia, held in September 1996, and an economic forum Poland/Latin America, held
in November 1997. In addition, the Office has organized training courses on
financial restructuring and on techniques for preparing business plans, and
has established a computerized data bank of Polish companies and potential
foreign investors. There has been some $200 million of foreign investment in
Poland over the past six years, and projects of cooperation with developing
countries valued at some $22 million.

89.     The assistance provided by the Moscow Centre includes the
identification, formulation, screening and appraisal of investment and
technology transfer projects, the financial analysis of projects, project
promotion, and match-making between the Russian Federation and foreign
partners. The Centre manages several data banks on investment projects and
foreign partners.

        T.     International Atomic Energy Agency

90.     IAEA has expanded its assistance to the economies in transition in
developing national legislation in the nuclear field. In 1997, a technical
cooperation project entitled "Legislative assistance for the utilization of
nuclear energy" was established; its main purpose is to support member States
in their efforts to establish, develop or review their national law and
regulations governing the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

91.     The Agency has also been active in urging adherence by member States
to international agreements in the nuclear field, and has assisted member
States in adopting legislation for implementing such instruments. Special
attention has been given to liability for nuclear damage; this has facilitated
international cooperation in upgrading nuclear safety in the economies in
transition, including the participation of both the public and private


    1    Organized by the United Nations, in collaboration with the            
         Population and Family Study Centre and the Flemish Scientific         

    2    United Nations publication, Sales No. E/R.94.XVII.4.

    3    A detailed list of the activities of ECE regional advisers, as        
         well as a list of workshops, seminars, study tours and training       
         courses which have taken place since April 1997, including            
         activities to which ECE has contributed or given support, are         
         available by E-mail from the ECE secretariat at Geneva.

    4    It is estimated that ETOs reach over 7 million companies around       
         the world every day; in December 1997, the ETO listserver ranked      
         among the top 20 Internet sites by number of messages delivered       
         daily (see http://www.1soft.com/1top/LTOP-199712.html#TOPBYDELIV).

    5    In addition to the activities noted in this section, UNDP has funded
         many large projects executed by other organizations of the United     
         Nations system, some of which are discussed in the sections on those

    6    Such a proposal was made by Mr. Percy Barnevik, Chairman of the Board
         of ABB ASEA Brown Boveri Ltd., in a letter to the Secretary-General   
         of the United Nations in November 1997.

    7    The Vietnamese Government has made particular efforts to improve the
         processing of applications; as a result, many projects have been      
         approved over the eight years since the first major reform in this    
         area was introduced. However, the delivery of these projects is only
         about 30 per cent. The Government has requested FIAS assistance in    
         identifying the major problems affecting implementation and           
         formulation, which should lead to a significantly faster rate of      

    8    UNFPA assistance complements the assistance provided by major donors
         active in the region, particularly the World Bank, Gemeinschaft fur   
         Technische Zusammenarbeitung and the United States Agency for         
         International Development.

    9    The UNIDO offices at Warsaw and Moscow were established in 1983 and   
         1989 respectively; they promote the mobilization of foreign           
         investment resources, such as finance, technology, know-how, market   
         access and management, to the home country, and from the home country
         to developing countries and countries in transition. 

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Date last posted: 10 January 2000 10:05:30
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