United Nations

A/53/3


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

note verbale dated 14 October 1997 from the Permanent Mission of Mozambique to

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


                                                               A/53/3


       
       
        Report of the Economic and Social Council for the year 1998
       
       
                             Official Records
                            Fifty-third session
                          Supplement No. 3 (A/53/3)
       
       


       combined with figures.

                               ISSN 0082-8203


Contents

Chapter                                                           Page

       brought to its attention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       1

  II.  Special high-level meeting of the Council with the 
       Bretton Woods institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       6

       Summary conclusions by the Acting President of the Council   7

 III.  Session of the Council on integrated and coordinated
       conferences and summits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       9

       Summary by the President of the Council  . . . . . . .      12

  IV.  High-level segment

       Market access: developments since the Uruguay Round,
       implications, opportunities and challenges, in particular 
       for the developing countries and the least developed 
       among them, in the context of globalization and
       liberalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      19

       Ministerial communique' of the high-level segment 
       submitted by the President of the Council. . . . . . .      20

       Annex.  Summary of the high-level segment by the 
       President of the Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      23


   V.  Operational activities segment

       international development cooperation. . . . . . . . .      32

       A.  Advancement of women: implementation of the Beijing
           Platform for Action and the role of operational 
           activities in promoting, in particular, 
           capacity-building and resource mobilization for 
           enhancing the participation of women in development     32

       B.  Follow-up to policy recommendations of the 

           Programme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      34


  VI.  Coordination segment

       Coordination of the policies and activities of the
       to and implementation of the Vienna Declaration and 
       Programme of Action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      37

       Agreed conclusions 1998/2  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      37

 VII.  Humanitarian affairs segment

       Special economic, humanitarian and disaster relief 
       assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      49

       Agreed conclusions 1998/1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      49


       A.  Integrated and coordinated implementation of and
           summits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      54

       B.  Coordination, programme and other questions  . . .      55

           1.  Reports of coordination bodies . . . . . . . .      57

           2.  Malaria and diarrhoeal diseases, in 
               particular cholera . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      57

           3.  Proposed revisions to the medium-term plan 
               for the period 1998-2001 . . . . . . . . . . .      59

           4.  International cooperation in the field of 
               informatics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      59

           5.  Proclamation of an international year of mountains  59

           6.  International Year for the Culture of Peace, 2000   60

           50/227 and 52/12 B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      62

       D.  Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of
           Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples by 
           the specialized agencies and the international 

       E.  Regional cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      65

       F.  Economic and social repercussions of the Israeli
           occupation on the living conditions of
           the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian
           territory, including Jerusalem, and the
           Arab population in the occupied Syrian Golan . . .      67

       G.  Non-governmental organizations . . . . . . . . . .      68

       H.  Economic and environmental questions . . . . . . .      70

           1.  Sustainable development  . . . . . . . . . . .      71

           2.  Natural resources  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      75

           3.  Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      75

           4.  International cooperation in tax matters . . .      75

           5.  Public administration and finance  . . . . . .      76

           6.  Cartography  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      76

           7.  Population and development . . . . . . . . . .      77

       I.  Social and human rights questions. . . . . . . . .      78

           1.  Advancement of women . . . . . . . . . . . . .      80

           2.  Social development . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      82

           3.  Crime prevention and criminal justice. . . . .      82

           4.  Narcotic drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      85


           6.  Implementation of the Programme of Action for
               the Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial
               Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      85

           7.  Human rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      86


   X.  Organizational matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      98

       A.  Action taken by the Council. . . . . . . . . . . .      98

       B.  Proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      98

           1.  Bureau of the Council. . . . . . . . . . . . .      98

           2.  Agenda of the organizational session for 1998.      98

           3.  Basic programme of work for 1998 and 1999. . .      99

           4.  Provisional agenda for the 1998 session of the 
               Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations  .      99


           5.  Proclamation of international years  . . . . .      99

           6.  Postponement of consideration of recommendations
               contained in the report of the Committee on
               Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on its 
               sixteenth session. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      99

           7.  Enlargement of the Executive Committee of the
               Commissioner for Refugees. . . . . . . . . . .     100

           8.  Agenda of the substantive session of 1998. . .     100

           9.  Requests by non-governmental organizations 
               for hearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     100

          10.  Organizational meeting in 1998 of the Commission 
               on Sustainable Development . . . . . . . . . .     100

          11.  Dates of sessions of subsidiary bodies of the 
               Economic and Social Council in 1999. . . . . .     100

          12.  Themes for the 1999 substantive session of the 
               Economic and Social Council. . . . . . . . . .     100

Annexes

  I.  Agendas of the organizational and resumed organizational
      sessions for 1998 and the substantive session of 1998  .    101

 II.  Composition of the Council and its subsidiary and related 
      bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    104

III.  Intergovernmental organizations designated by the Council
      under rule 79 of the rules of procedure for participation 
      in the deliberations of the Council on questions within 
      the scope of their activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . .    149
               

Chapter I

         brought to its attention


            In 1998, the Economic and Social Council adopted resolutions and
paragraphs of those resolutions and decisions are summarized below.


         Proclamation of international years


         Proclamation of international years

proclamation of international years should be submitted directly to the
them to the attention of the Council for evaluation in accordance with the
provisions of the guidelines for international years and anniversaries adopted



         Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters



            By its decision 1998/211, the Council took note of the request
regarding the enlargement of the Executive Committee of the Programme of the
the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General (E/1998/3) and
recommended that the Assembly take a decision at its fifty-third session on
the question of increasing the membership of the Executive Committee
from fifty-three to fifty-four States.


         Coordination, programme and other questions


         International Year of Microcredit 2005

            By resolution 1998/28, the Council recommended to the General
Assembly the adoption of the draft resolution contained therein.


         Coordination, programme and other questions: proclamation of an
         international year of mountains


         Proclamation of an international year of mountains

            In its resolution 1998/30, the Council recommended that the
General Assembly at its fifty-third session proclaim the year 2002 as the
International Year of Mountains.


         Coordination, programme and other questions: international year for
         the culture of peace, 2000


         International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the
         Children of the World (2001-2010)

            By resolution 1998/31, the Council recommended to the General
Assembly the adoption of the draft resolution contained therein.


         International Year for the Culture of Peace, 2000

            In its resolution 1998/37, the Council, recalling General Assembly
resolution 52/15, by which the Assembly proclaimed the year 2000 as the
International Year for the Culture of Peace, requested the General Assembly to
adopt a programme of action for the year 2000.


         Implementation of General Assembly resolutions 50/227 and 52/12 B


         Further measures for the restructuring and revitalization of the
         United Nations in the economic, social and related fields

            The Council adopted resolution 1998/46 and decided to bring it to
the attention of the General Assembly in pursuance of paragraph 70 of annex I
to Assembly resolution 50/277 and paragraphs 9 and 10 of Assembly resolution
52/12 B.


         Development account

            In its decision 1998/296, the Council looked forward to the
outcome of the consideration of the report of the Secretary-General on the
utilization of the development dividend (E/1998/81) under section 34 of the
programme budget for the biennium 1998-1999 by the relevant intergovernmental
bodies.


         Regional cooperation


         Strengthening regional support for persons with disabilities into the
         twenty-first century

            The Council requested the General Assembly to endorse its
resolution 1998/4.


         Economic and environmental questions


         Report of the Secretary-General on the causes of conflict and the
         promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa

            By decision 1998/283, the Council decided, subsequent to the
consideration of the report of the Secretary-General on the causes of conflict
and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa
(A/52/871-S/1998/318) by the General Assembly at its fifty-third session, to
undertake substantive discussions on the implementation of the relevant
recommendations at its substantive session of 1999, taking into account views
expressed by Governments during the discussion of the report at the
fifty-third session of the General Assembly.


         Economic and environmental questions: sustainable development


         Declaring the year 2002 as the International Year of Ecotourism

            In its resolution 1998/40, the Council recommended to the General
Assembly that it declare the year 2002 as the International Year of
Ecotourism.


         Social and human rights questions: crime prevention and criminal
         justice


         Preparations for the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention
         of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders

            By resolution 1998/13, the Council recommended to the General
Assembly the adoption of the draft resolution contained therein.


         Transnational organized crime

            By resolution 1998/14, the Council recommended to the General
Assembly the adoption of the draft resolution contained therein.


         Mutual assistance and international cooperation in criminal matters

            By resolution 1998/15, the Council recommended to the General
Assembly the adoption of the draft resolution contained therein.


         Social and human rights questions: human rights


         Question of a draft declaration on the right and responsibility of
         individuals, groups and organs of society to promote and protect
         universally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms

            In its resolution 1988/33, the Council approved the draft
declaration on the right and responsibility of individuals, groups and organs
of society to promote and protect universally recognized human rights and
fundamental freedoms, as contained in the annex to Commission on Human Rights
resolution 1988/7, and recommended it to the General Assembly for adoption at
its fifty-third session.


         Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance

            By decision 1998/251, the Council, taking note of Commission of
Human Rights resolution 1998/26, approved the Commission's requests to the
Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its fifty-third session
a detailed report on the financial and personnel resources required for the
implementation of the Programme of Action for the Third Decade to Combat
Racism and Racial Discrimination, and to the General Assembly to consider the
possibility of providing the resources required for the implementation of
the Programme of Action for the Third Decade. The Council also endorsed the
Commission's recommendations to the General Assembly to request the
Secretary-General to designate as Secretary-General of the World Conference
the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and to declare 2001 a
year of mobilization against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and
related intolerance.


         Situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

            By decision 1998/260, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/61, endorsed the Commission's decision to extend
the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the
Democratic Republic of the Congo for a further year, to request the Special
Rapporteur to submit an interim report to the General Assembly at its
fifty-third session, and to report to the Commission at its fifty-fifth
session.


         Situation of human rights in Myanmar

            By decision 1998/261, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/63, endorsed the Commission's decision to extend
the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in
Myanmar for a further year and to request the Special Rapporteur to submit an
interim report to the General Assembly at its fifty-third session and to
report to the Commission at its fifty-fifth session.


         Situation of human rights in Nigeria

            By decision 1998/262, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/64, endorsed the Commission's decision to extend
the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in
Nigeria for a further year and to request the Special Rapporteur to submit an
interim report to the General Assembly at its fifty-third session and to
report to the Commission at its fifty-fifth session.


         Situation of human rights in Iraq

            By decision 1998/263, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/65, endorsed the Commission's decision to extend
the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iraq
for a further year and to request the Special Rapporteur to submit an interim
report to the General Assembly at its fifty-third session and to report to the
Commission at its fifty-fifth session.


         Situation of human rights in the Sudan

            By decision 1998/264, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/67, endorsed the Commission's decision to extend
the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the
Sudan for an additional year and approved the Commission's requests to the
Special Rapporteur to report to the Commission on the future need for human
rights field officers, and to report his findings and recommendations to the
General Assembly at its fifty-third session and to the Commission at its
fifty-fifth session.


         Situation of human rights in Rwanda

            By decision 1998/266, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/69, endorsed the Commission's decision to extend
for a further year the mandate of the Special Representative of the Commission
on the situation of human rights in Rwanda and approved the Commission's
request to the Special Representative to report to the General Assembly at its
fifty-third session and to the Commission at its fifty-fifth session.


         Situation of human rights in Afghanistan

            By decision 1998/267, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/70, endorsed the Commission's decision to extend
the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in
Afghanistan for one year and to request the Special Rapporteur to report to
the General Assembly at its fifty-third session and to the Commission at its
fifty-fifth session.


         Rights of the child

            By decision 1998/271, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/76, endorsed the Commission's decision to renew
the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child
prostitution and child pornography for a further three years and to request
the Special Rapporteur to submit an interim report to the General Assembly at
its fifty-third session and a report to the Commission at its fifty-fifth
session.


         Situation of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of
         Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

            By decision 1998/272, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/79, endorsed the Commission's decision to renew
the mandate of the Special Rapporteur for one year and to request the Special
Rapporteur to report to the Commission at its fifty-fifth session and to
present interim reports to the General Assembly at its fifty-third session.


         Situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran

            By decision 1998/273, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/80, endorsed the Commission's decision to extend
the mandate of the Special Representative of the Commission on the situation
of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran for a further year and to
request the Special Representative to submit an interim report to the General
Assembly at its fifty-third session and to report to the Commission at its
fifty-fifth session.


         Situation of human rights in Burundi

            By decision 1998/274, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/82, endorsed the Commission's decision to extend
the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in
Burundi for one year and to request him to submit an interim report to the
General Assembly at its fifty-third session and a report to the Commission at
its fifty-fifth session.


         Question of resources for the Office of the United Nations High
         Commissioner for Human Rights and the human rights activities of the
         United Nations

            By decision 1998/275, the Council, taking note of Commission on
Human Rights resolution 1998/83, approved the Commission's appeal to the
Council, the Secretary-General and the General Assembly to take all necessary
steps, without delay, to secure for the Office of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Human Rights and other relevant components of the
Organization regular budget resources for the current and future bienniums
that would be sufficient to permit the effective fulfilment of the
responsibilities and mandates established by Member States and commensurate
with the importance assigned by the Charter of the United Nations to the
promotion and protection of human rights.


Chapter II

         Special high-level meeting of the Council with the Bretton
         Woods institutions


         1. In accordance with paragraph 88 of annex I to General Assembly
resolution 50/227, the Council held a special high-level meeting with the
Bretton Woods institutions on 18 April 1998 (4th meeting). An account of the
proceedings is contained in the relevant summary record (E/1998/SR.4). The
Council had before it a note by the Secretary-General identifying issues
relating to global financial integration and development (E/1998/9).

         2. The Acting President of the Council made an introductory
statement. The Secretary-General then addressed the meeting.

         3. The Acting President introduced the following panellists: Philippe
Maystadt, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance and Foreign Trade of
Belgium, Chairman of the Interim Committee of the International Monetary Fund;
and Anwar Ibrahim, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance of Malaysia,
Chairman of the Development Committee. After the presentations by the
panellists, interventions were made by Trevor Manuel, Minister of Finance of
South Africa; Fathallah Oualalou, Minister of Economy and Finance of Morocco;
Gu"ne  Taner, Minister of State of Turkey; Muhammad Yaqub, Governor of
the State Bank of Pakistan; Mats Karlsson, State Secretary for Development
Cooperation of Sweden; and Hisashi Owada, Permanent Representative of Japan to
the United Nations. The panellists then responded to the comments made and
questions raised during the dialogue.

         4. The Acting President introduced the following panellists: Clare
Short, Secretary of State for International Development Cooperation of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, also on behalf of the
group of 10 industrialized countries; and Abdelkrim Harchaoui, Minister of
Finance of Algeria, Chairman of the Group of 24. After the presentations by
the panellists, interventions were made by Shankar N. Acharya, Chief
Economic Adviser of the Government of India; Antonello Cabras, Deputy
Minister of Foreign Trade of Italy; Hilde Johnson, Minister of Development
Cooperation and Human Rights of Norway; Nenad Porges, Minister for the Economy
of Croatia; Carolyn McAskey, Vice-President, Multilateral Programmes Branch,
Canadian International Development Agency; and Celso L. N. Amorim, Permanent
Representative of Brazil to the United Nations. The panellists then responded
to the comments made and questions raised during the dialogue.

         5. The Acting President introduced the following panellists: Mr. Fuad
Bawazier, Minister of Finance of Indonesia and Chairman of the Group of 77;
and James W. Michel, Chairman of the Development Assistance Committee of the
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. After the presentations
by the panellists, interventions were made by Jan Pronk, Minister for
Development Cooperation of the Netherlands; William Schuerch, Deputy Assistant
Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs of the United States of
America; Roberts Zile, Minister of Finance of Latvia; and Hugo Noe Pino,
Permanent Representative of Honduras to the United Nations. The panellists
then responded to the comments made and questions raised during the dialogue.

         6. The Acting President introduced the following panellists: Eduardo
Ferna'ndez, Vice-Minister of Finance of Colombia, Chairman of the Non-Aligned
Group; and Antonio Casas Gonza'lez, President of the Central Bank of
Venezuela, Chairman of the Group of 24 for 1997/98. After the presentations by
the panellists, interventions were made by S. A. Samad, Principal Secretary,
Secretariat of the Prime Minister of Bangladesh; Mohsen Nourbakhsh,
Governor of the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran; and Wolf Preuss,
Director-General for United Nations Affairs and Sector Activities, Ministry
for Economic Cooperation and Development of Germany. The panellists then
responded to the comments made and questions raised during the dialogue.

         7. Michel Camdessus, Chairman of the Executive Board and Managing
Director of the International Monetary Fund, and Sven Sandstrom, Managing
Director of the World Bank, commented on the dialogue.

         8. The Acting President circulated his concluding summary, which was
subsequently issued as document E/1998/91. The text read as follows:


         Summary conclusions by the Acting President of the Council


            "1.    Before trying to summarize the many innovative ideas that
         have emerged from this meeting, let me repeat how delighted we at the
         Economic and Social Council are that so many ministers and high-level
         officers participated in this meeting.

            "2.    Its success is testimony to the tenacious efforts of those
         who have worked for months to make it possible -- first and foremost,
         the Secretary-General, Mr. Kofi Annan, the wizard of peace, as he was
         called by an Italian newspaper, whose invitation attracted so many
         distinguished guests.

            "3.    Next, the President of the Council, Ambassador Juan
         Somavi'a, who though unable to be with us today, conceived and
         followed every step in the preparations for this important encounter.
         May I also express my most sincere gratitude to the other members of
         the Bureau: Ambassador Anwarul Chowdhury of Bangladesh,
         Ambassador Roble Olhaye of Djibouti and Ambassador Alyaksandr
         Sychou of Belarus, as well as Mr. Nitin Desai,
         Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs. I would like
         also to especially thank the members of the Council secretariat, the
         interpreters and support staff for making this meeting possible. They
         deserve commendation for their hard work on this project.

            "4.    One theme running through today's dialogue has been the
         recognition that globalization has changed the world and that the
         world must respond. Within this broad framework, our discussions this
         morning have been driven to a large extent by the repercussions of
         the so-called Asian crisis. I say "so-called" because it is
         agreed that we live in an increasingly integrated world and that
         turmoil anywhere poses risks to all countries around the globe.
         Nobody, but nobody, can ensure his or her safety from its spillover
         effects. There is universal recognition that global financial
         integration is not an option -- it is a historical shift.
         Global financial integration offers great opportunities but also
         great challenges; it offers benefits but it also poses great risks.

            "5.    The Asian crisis has resulted in great attention being
         given to the sharing of risks and benefits in times of financial
         turmoil. The question of financial burden-sharing in times of crisis
         is a complicated and technical issue which will have to be
         addressed in other forums. However, our discussions have also
         highlighted the need for a sharing of benefits and risks over the
         longer term. Several speakers have reminded us of the contribution  
         that is to say, the benefits -- of global financial integration to
         Asia's overall economic success and to the reduction in poverty over
         the past few decades; but there are also long-term risks -- the
         risk of marginalization, the risk that some countries or individuals
         may be left behind. There must be a sharing of these long-term
         benefits and risks. Global financial integration should be to the
         benefit of all countries and all peoples; and we must all work
         together to reduce the risks of marginalization. I believe that the
         discussions this morning have demonstrated, encouragingly, a growing
         consensus on the means to maximize such benefits so as to reduce
         these potential risks.

            "6.    In the short term, there continue to be different points of
         view about the reasons for the recent crisis and the most appropriate
         ways of responding to it. Nevertheless, appreciation was expressed
         for the prompt response to the crisis by the international
         community, led by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the
         World Bank. At the same time, there was universal recognition that
         the initial financial crisis has developed wide-ranging economic and
         social dimensions. There was widespread and deep concern about the
         adverse consequences of financial crises for vulnerable groups and
         the profound consequences for poverty. There was unanimity that
         special efforts need to be made to protect the poor and other
         vulnerable groups in times of crisis. The alleviation of poverty must
         remain our ultimate objective, both in the long run and over the
         short term.

            "7.    Our discussions this morning have demonstrated that all of
         us -- international institutions and national Governments -- still
         have much to learn about responding to the forces of global financial
         integration. While many questions remain, we agree that there is a
         need to strengthen the global architecture, that prevention is better
         than cure, and that actions are required at both the international
         and the national levels. The wide-ranging nature of the fallout from
         the crisis calls for a collective response involving all our
         institutions to varying degrees. A number of interesting and
         innovative ideas were presented, demonstrating that this meeting
         has provided an important opportunity to exchange views on the types
         of action that need to be taken by us, individually and collectively.

            "8.    There seems to be universal agreement that more
         information, greater transparency and improved monitoring are
         indispensable in reducing the possibility of financial crises. I
         believe that this meeting has demonstrated, equally, the need
         to develop the flows of information and transparency between our
         institutions. There were many references to the need for policy
         coherence and partnership at all levels, but particularly between our
         institutions. There was a consensus that greater efforts need to be
         made to integrate the financial, economic, social and political
         policies and strategies.

            "9.    The reason for the Economic and Social Council's originally
         being conceived by the fathers of the United Nations, the vision and
         motivation driving recent efforts to renew the economic and social
         sectors, and the inspiration behind today's meeting have all been
         focused on a single goal: to make this world a better place to live
         in for all the people of the planet by giving the developing
         countries, especially the least developed countries, a better chance
         to improve their well-being. We must continue to pool all our efforts
         to eradicate poverty and pave the way towards a future of sustainable
         development. Development must remain the top priority of the United
         Nations."


Chapter III

         Session of the Council on integrated and coordinated
         implementation and follow-up of major United Nations
         conferences and summits


         1. In accordance with its decision 1997/302 of 25 July 1997, the
Council held a session on integrated and coordinated implementation and
follow-up of major United Nations conferences and summits at its 6th to 11th
meetings, held from 13 to 15 May 1998. An account of the Council's discussion
is contained in the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.6-11). The Council had
before it the report of the Secretary-General on the integrated and
coordinated implementation and follow-up of major United Nations
conferences and summits (E/1998/19).

         2. At the 6th meeting, on 13 May, introductory statements were made
by the President of the Council and the Under-Secretary-General for Economic
and Social Affairs.

         3. At the same meeting, general statements on national experiences
with the coordinated and integrated implementation of the outcomes of
conferences by the United Nations system were made by the representatives of
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (on behalf of the
States Members of the United Nations that are members of the European Union
and Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Cyprus and Iceland), Japan, New
Zealand, Romania, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Korea, Canada,
Bangladesh, India, Mexico, the United States of America and Lebanon and by the
observers for Indonesia (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations
that are members of the Group of 77 and China) and the Islamic Republic of
Iran. The observer for Switzerland also made a statement.

         4. Also at the 6th meeting, the Director of the United Nations
Development Group Office of the United Nations Development Programme made a
statement, following which the Head of the Division Reporting Systems
Development Cooperation Directorate of the Development Assistance Committee of
the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development made a presentation
on monitoring development outcomes and measuring development progress.

         5. The representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland made a statement on behalf of the States Members of the
United Nations that are members of the European Union.

         6. At the 7th meeting, on 13 May, the Council held a panel discussion
on the experience of the functional commissions in implementing the guidance
provided by the Council on integrated and coordinated follow-up to major
United Nations conferences and summits and strengthening the process.

         7. Presentations were made by the Chairpersons of the Commission on
the Status of Women and the Commission on Human Rights. In the course of the
ensuing discussion, interventions were made and questions raised by the
representatives of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
(on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
European Union) and Lebanon.

         8. At the same meeting, presentations were made by the Chairperson of
the Commission on Population and Development and the Vice-Chairman of the
Group of Experts on Public Administration and Finance. In the course of the
ensuing discussion, interventions were made and questions raised by the
representatives of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
(on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
European Union) and Sweden.

         9. Also at the same meeting, presentations were made by the
Vice-Chairman of the Commission on Sustainable Development, the Chairman of
the Commission for Social Development, the Chairman of the Statistical
Commission and the Chairman of the Commission on Human Settlements. In the
course of the ensuing discussion, interventions were made and questions raised
by the representatives of Lebanon, New Zealand, the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland (on behalf of the States Members of the
United Nations that are members of the European Union), the United
States of America, Canada and Bangladesh.

         10.   At the 8th meeting, on 14 May, the Council held a panel
discussion on integrated and coordinated follow-up to major United Nations
conferences and summits by the United Nations and the specialized agencies.

         11.   Presentations were made by the Chairperson of the
Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) Task Force on an Enabling
Environment for Economic and Social Development, the Chairperson of the ACC
Task Force on Basic Social Services for All and the Chairperson of the ACC
Task Force on Full Employment and Sustainable Livelihoods. In the course of
the ensuing discussion, interventions were made and questions raised by the
representatives of the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland (on behalf of the States Members of the
United Nations that are members of the European Union), China, Sweden, Canada,
Lebanon, Romania, Zambia and Guyana. The representative of the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization also made an intervention.

         12.   At the same meeting, presentations were made by the Chairperson
of the Inter-Agency Committee on Women and Gender Equality, the Chairperson of
the ACC Consultative Committee on Programme and Operational Questions and the
Chairperson of the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development. A
statement was also made by the Secretary-General of the World Food Summit. In
the course of the ensuing discussion, interventions were made and questions
raised by the representatives of the United States of America, Sweden, the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (on behalf of the States
Members of the United Nations that are members of the European Union) and
Spain.

         13.   At the 9th meeting, on 14 May, the Council held a panel
discussion on integrated and coordinated follow-up to major United Nations
conferences and summits by the United Nations funds and programmes and the
guidance provided by the Council to their Executive Boards.

         14.   Presentations were made by the President of the Executive Board
of the United Nations Children's Fund and the Vice-President of the Executive
Board of the United Nations Development Programme. In the course of the
ensuing discussion, interventions were made and questions raised by the
representatives of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
(on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
European Union), the Russian Federation, Sweden, Canada, the United States of
America and Romania and by the observer for Norway.

         15.   At the same meeting, presentations were made by the Associate
Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme, the Executive
Director of the United Nations Population Fund and the Executive Director of
the United Nations Children's Fund. The Executive Director of the United
Nations Development Fund for Women made a statement. In the course of the
ensuing discussion, interventions were made and questions raised by
the representatives of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that
are members of the European Union), Sweden, Japan, Lebanon, Canada and China
and by the observers for Norway and Indonesia (on behalf of the States Members
of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China). The
representative of the International Labour Organization also made an
intervention.

         16.   Also at the same meeting, the United Nations Resident
Coordinator for the Philippines made a presentation. In the course of the
ensuing discussion, interventions were made and questions raised by the
representatives of Lebanon, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the European Union), Poland and Canada.

         17.   At the same meeting, the representative of the Women's
Environment and Development Organization, a non-governmental organization in
consultative status with the Council (Roster), made a statement.

         18.   At the 10th meeting, on 15 May, the Council held a panel
discussion on the role of the regional commissions in the integrated and
coordinated follow-up to major United Nations conferences and summits.

         19.   Presentations were made by the Executive Secretaries of the
Economic Commission for Africa, the Economic Commission for Europe, the
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and the Economic and
Social Commission for Western Asia. In the course of the ensuing discussion,
interventions were made and questions raised by the representatives of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (on behalf of the States
Members of the United Nations that are members of the European Union),
Japan, the United States of America, Lebanon, Romania, Jordan, China,
the Russian Federation and Sweden and by the observers for Indonesia (on
behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
Group of 77 and China), the Islamic Republic of Iran and Swaziland.

         20.   At the same meeting, statements were made by the
representatives of the following non-governmental organizations in
consultative status with the Council: International Federation of Settlements
and Neighborhood Centres (Special), International Confederation of Free Trade
Unions (General) and International Sociological Association (Roster).

         21.   At the 11th meeting, on 15 May, the Council held a panel
discussion on the role of non-governmental organizations in the integrated and
coordinated follow-up to major United Nations conferences and summits.

         22.   Presentations were made by the following non-governmental
organizations: Non-Governmental Organization Steering Committee for the
Commission on Sustainable Development, United Methodist Office for the United
Nations, Instituto del Tercer Mundo/Social Watch, Women's Environment and
Development Organization, and the Center for Population and Family Health of
the School of Public Health of Columbia University. In the course of the
ensuing discussion, interventions were made and questions raised by the
representatives of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland, Lebanon and Zambia.

         23.   At the same meeting, the President of the Council presented the
following summary of the session:


         Summary by the President of the Council


            "Introduction

            "1.    This session of the Economic and Social Council was of
historic significance. Never in the history of the Council have so many key
actors come together to have a dialogue, and to exchange views, on subject
matter that drives so much of the work of the United Nations in the economic,
social and related fields. Chairs of the functional commissions, of the
Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) task forces and standing
committees, and of the executive boards of the funds and programmes as well as
the executive heads of the funds and programmes and of the regional
commissions, and representatives of civil society -- all have contributed in
a constructive, frank and open way to the success of this session.
The session has provided a wealth of material from which the Council can draw
and upon which it can build when it meets again on this subject at its
substantive session of 1998 in July. Together with the report of the
Secretary-General, which not only is comprehensive in scope but also contains
many new ideas and proposals, the Council is now well positioned to tackle the
all-important subject of conference follow-up and implementation.

            "2.    The Charter of the United Nations gives the Council the
all-important role of providing coordination in general and of giving guidance
and oversight to its subsidiary bodies in particular. For a long time, the
Council has fallen short in performing this essential task and only in recent
years has it begun to reassert itself in carrying out this role.

            "3.    This special session of the Council has given further
evidence that the Council is becoming increasingly effective in carrying out
its key role in ensuring that the follow-up to global conferences is well
integrated, coordinated and effective. In no small way, this session is
carrying forward the reform of the United Nations in the economic, social and
related fields as set out in General Assembly resolutions 50/227 and 52/12 B.

            "4.    The Council sits at the apex of the configuration of United
Nations activities in the economic, social and related fields and as such has
a crucial role to play from both a policy coordination standpoint and a
management forum function. At the same time, integrating conference follow-up
is a daunting task, which requires time, and in-depth examination, and the
Council needs to reflect on how best to achieve it. Furthermore, the task at
hand is now shifting towards implementation and monitoring of results.

            "5.    The breadth and depth of this task were clearly brought out
in the deliberations and can be captured in the following six broad areas,
namely (a) cross-cutting issues; (b) coordination and management role of the
Council, in particular vis-a`-vis its functional commissions and the executive
boards of the funds and programmes; (c) inter-agency coordination; (d)
country-level follow-up; (e) regional-level follow-up; and (f) monitoring.
Under each of these broad areas, a wealth of detailed suggestions, proposals
and recommendations have been made and these are reflected below:


                           "I.  Cross-cutting issues

                 - Poverty eradication and improving the living conditions of
people everywhere should be the overriding objective of the Council's efforts
to ensure an integrated and coordinated follow-up to conferences.

                 - In its role of overseeing the coordinated follow-up to
conferences and summits, the Council will have to strike a proper balance
between the specificity of each of the conferences and summits, which have
their own specific and highly committed constituencies, and the need to
address cross-cutting issues.

                 - It is important to maintain a balance between
cross-sectoral and sectoral issues in conference follow-up. In addition, it is
important that, in the coordinated follow-up, no single issue receive special
attention over others. Selectivity in implementing commitments should be
avoided.


                           "A.  Resources

                 - In focusing on cross-cutting issues, the Council has a
special advantage over its functional commissions. The Council could use the
various goals and targets as its organizing principle for monitoring progress
in conference implementation.

                 - Linking the goals and targets to the issues of financing
and assistance in achieving the commitments made at the conferences would be
especially important, particularly in light of the decline in official
development assistance (ODA).

                 - The decline in resources for conference implementation
needs to be addressed by the Council, as well as the effective use and results
of resource utilization, based, inter alia, on reports by funds and
programmes.


                           "B.  Civil society

                 - Involvement of civil society in an effective way in the
intergovernmental conference follow-up process is essential in view of the
significant role that members of civil society have played in the conferences
themselves as well as in their follow-up and implementation, particularly at
the country level. The private sector should be involved as well, in calling
upon civil society to take social concerns into account as regards the
activities of its members.

                 - The Council should take the lead in promoting greater
involvement of civil society in the work and activities of the United Nations.
Panels at the Council could systematically include one representative of civil
society and ways could be explored for non-governmental organizations to bring
certain issues to the attention of the Council.

                 - Strengthening and adequately funding of the United Nations
Non-Governmental Liaison Service (NGLS) could also be considered.


                 "II.  Coordination and management role of the Council

                 - The Council, in its management function, should provide
more effective guidance to its functional commissions and particularly to the
executive boards of the funds and programmes that are responsible, together
with specialized agencies and all other partners, for facilitating conference
implementation at the country level.


                           "A.  Functional commissions

                 - As a matter of urgency, the Council needs to start a
process, through a dialogue with all bureaux of functional commissions, of
structuring and coordinating the preparations for forthcoming five-year
reviews of conferences and of ensuring that the knowledge and expertise
available in the whole system will be fully used in that process.

                 - Substantive interaction among commissions and with the
Council needs to be further enhanced. The Council needs to consider
commissions' outcomes in an integrated manner, and to identify conflicting
approaches to providing guidance. It should also make greater use of
substantive outcomes of its commissions in its own work.

                 - New developments have been occurring since the conferences
took place: it would be useful for functional commissions to have an agenda
item on emerging issues.

                 - Commissions have consistently improved their working
methods, but there is scope for still further progress, in particular by
refocusing general debates and expanding the interaction with civil society
and experts.

                 - To ensure greater follow-up to commissions' outcomes, the
Council could report every year on the principal outcomes of the functional
commissions as regards follow-up to conferences, for transmission to funds,
programmes and agencies, and broader dissemination.

                 - The Council should find ways of ensuring early availability
of functional commissions' outcomes, so that they can be used in other
forums. The Secretariat should clarify the legal status of these outcomes
before the Council endorses them.

                 - The Secretariat should be actively involved in ensuring the
coordination of functional commissions. This includes circulation of
documentation and outcomes and a more proactive assistance in coordination.


                           "B.  Bureaux of the functional commissions

                 - Transmitting outputs and reports is not sufficient to
ensure coordination. Commissions and their bureaux need to develop a culture
of using other functional commissions' outcomes in their work. Personal
interaction among bureau members -- including having the chair of one
functional commission attend the session of another commission -- is
essential.

                 - Greater interaction between the Bureau of the Council and
the bureaux of functional commissions is essential. The Bureau of the Council
could meet with chairpersons of functional commissions, in January or in May,
to coordinate the work of the upcoming sessions and their preparations.

                 - Meetings between incoming and outgoing bureaux of
functional commissions are important for continuity of work. For improved
sessions' preparation, more functional commissions could consider electing
their bureaux at the end of their session.

                  - Bureaux of functional commissions need to keep all member
States fully informed on sessions' preparations. A mixed composition of
bureaux balanced between capital experts and members of permanent missions
could help maintain the commissions' expertise while enabling greater
interaction with other bureaux.


                       "C.  Executive boards of the funds and programmes

                 - Linking the normative and operational parts of the work of
the United Nations system remains a key challenge for conference
implementation. Guidance by the Council has to become more focused and
relevant to the activities of the funds and programmes, in particular in the
context of the triennial policy review and agreed conclusions on conference
follow-up. Enhanced interaction with executive boards of funds and programmes
and with country teams could assist in this regard.

                 - The respective guidance roles of the Council and of the
executive boards of funds and programmes should be further clarified. The
Council could be the forum for high-level dialogue on broad, cross-cutting
development themes, and could give guidance to the executive boards on the
follow-up to global conferences. The Council should also address cross-cutting
policy issues relating to operational activities as well as to resources.

                 - The executive boards should concentrate on management and
funding issues, with the focus mainly on downstream coordination, thereby
having a role in contributing to the implementation of outcomes of the
conferences at the country level.

                 - Reports to the Council by the executive boards should be
more analytical in order to permit the Council to fulfil its coordination
role. Less emphasis should be placed on process in these reports, with more
space given to factual analysis.

                 - The executive boards should invite the Council to transmit
recommendations back to the boards on ways to better interact with the
Council.


             "III. Inter-agency coordination

                 - The coordinating role of the Council and the active
leadership of ACC are of utmost importance to inter-agency coordination in
view of the fact that the conferences have provided the programmatic basis for
such coordination in terms of joint action, analysis and implementation.

                 - The follow-up to global conferences often requires
collaboration or joint programming, but mechanisms for funding such
initiatives are not always available. Therefore, the Council should encourage
the mobilization of resources for coordination purposes and joint activities.
Special-purpose arrangements and round tables could be needed for funding
specific programmes or themes.


               "A. ACC task forces

                 - The ACC task forces have been particularly important in
translating the conference goals to the field level and their results should
be more fully disseminated.

                 - The resident coordinator system needs to use the task
forces' outputs, in particular in preparing programming frameworks, and to
disseminate them to Governments and other partners. Use by regional
commissions is also important. Feedback on the use of these outputs in
specific country situations is important in order to adapt, update or
supplement them.

                 - Guidance by the Council is required to ensure that
effective successor arrangements for the task forces are in place. The ACC
standing machinery, and the Consultative Committee on Programme and
Operational Questions (CCPOQ) in particular, is taking over from these task
forces and is carrying forward their results.

                 - Follow-up to the work of the task forces should also
include the use of networks of United Nations system organizations. Such
networks make use of tasks managers, enable Headquarters and country
coordination, and use information technology and liaise with ACC.


               "B. ACC standing committees

                 - ACC standing committees should pursue and enhance their
efforts to support policy development based on conference outcomes and to
develop guidance for country-level staff. They should also address further the
issue of resource mobilization.

                 - Regular interaction between the inter-agency committees on
women and gender equality, and on sustainable development, and the CCPOQ is
important. Overall, it is considered that strengthening the system-wide gender
perspective remains an item of unfinished business of coordination.

                 - Communication and interaction should be enhanced between
the two executive committees (the Executive Committee for Economic and Social
Affairs and the United Nations Development Group (UNDG)), and between them
and ACC standing bodies, in particular CCPOQ and the Inter-agency Committee
on Women and Gender Equality (IACWGE), in order to link the broader system
with the executive committees' work.


               "C. ACC and the Council

                 - The interaction between the Council and ACC requires
further improvement and ACC's activities should become more transparent and
there should be a more intensive interaction between ACC and its subsidiary
machinery and the Council. Regular arrangements to facilitate interaction
between the Secretariat and Member States on the activities of ACC could be
established.


               "D. Specialized agencies

                 - The Council needs to strengthen its interaction with the
specialized agencies, and to enhance their participation in the sessions of
the Council. As agencies have their own governing structures and mandate, the
Council should enhance its interaction with the specialized agencies'
governing bodies as well.

                 - The establishment of institutional ties between funds and
programmes and specialized agencies, and between them and the Council,
represents a major issue.


              "IV. Country-level follow-up

                 - Field-level implementation is ultimately the most important
issue. National Governments have a key role in implementing conferences at
the country level, and the United Nations system has an important role as
facilitator. Besides lack of financial resources, coordination of national
conference follow-up remains a problem in many countries. A major issue at the
field level for the follow-up to global conferences is the availability of
national capacities. Capacity-building initiatives should be promoted.

                 - The extent to which national-level implementation has been
successful could be highlighted through having reports by the Secretariat on
the various national experiences on progress in conference follow-up
transmitted to the Council for its consideration.

                 - The resident coordinators play a crucial role in
integrating the United Nations system's action to support national conference
implementation. The follow-up of major United Nations conferences should be
part of their mandate. The resident coordinator system should foster a broad
dialogue and support the involvement of a wide range of parties in the
follow-up to global conferences, including Governments, civil society and
other donors. A joint situation analysis of where a country stands on
conference follow-up may be carried out together with the Government. The
resident coordinator system also has a role in promoting initiatives
to build national capacity for conference implementation.

                 - The role of the United Nations Development Assistance
Framework (UNDAF) in the follow-up to global conferences has been confirmed.
The involvement of the specialized agencies in the UNDAF process, within the
resident coordinator system, should be enhanced in order to ensure better
country-level coordination.

                 - Outputs of ACC task forces and ACC's standardized guidance
are useful tools in enhancing the efforts already undertaken by the United
Nations country teams for conference implementation. Directives for
gender-mainstreaming need to be translated into practical guidelines for field
staff.

                 - The annual reports of the resident coordinators should be
used as a monitoring tool and to disseminate examples of best practices, while
bearing in mind that the variety of country experiences should be reflected
therein.

                 - Training of country teams on follow-up to global
conferences should be encouraged through a wider use of the United Nations
Staff College.

                 - Further identification of conference cross-cutting themes,
and corresponding indicators, could also help national action. It would be
useful to issue a report highlighting the main commitments of conferences as
well as a few best practices for implementation. National handbooks on
national implementation of global agendas could also be developed.

                 - The partnership and cooperation between the United Nations
system and the Bretton Woods institutions need to be further enhanced in
conference follow-up at country level, in close consultation with the
Government and with relevant-other development actors. The recently decided
participation of the World Bank in two UNDAF exercises, where the relation
between UNDAF and country assistance strategies will be explored, should be
further encouraged.

                 - The implementation of conference outcomes in countries in a
post-conflict situation needs to be examined. The Council could pay particular
attention to implementation in countries as they move from a crisis situation
to rehabilitation and long-term development.


               "V. Regional-level follow-up

                 - The regional and subregional dimensions of the follow-up to
conferences require further expansion and improvement as most attention has
thus far been paid to global and country perspectives.

                 - The Council has a role to play in stimulating follow-up by
the regional commissions, and in ensuring that the regional commissions use
the functional commissions' work and address all conferences. This requires
greater involvement of the regional commissions in the work of the Council on
global conferences.

                 - Mechanisms are needed for making the results of the
regional-level deliberations better known to the Council. In this regard, the
Chairman of the group of regional commissions could address the Council
annually.

                 - The activities of the regional commissions in the follow-up
to conferences should be carried out on a more systematic basis. The regional
commissions' interaction with other parts of the United Nations system needs
to be clarified, particularly with regard to the funds and programmes.


              "VI. Monitoring

                 - In order to effectively monitor progress in the
implementation of conferences at the country level, there is an urgent need
for the multilateral system to develop a coherent set of basic indicators, as
well as a need to strengthen the capacity of the United Nations system and of
countries to collect and analyse statistics. The United Nations, the Bretton
Woods institutions and the Development Assistance Committee of the
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/DAC) are urged
to develop and apply common indicators to the maximum extent possible.

                 - The Council, possibly at a future meeting of its
coordination segment, could review ongoing work in the area of statistics and
indicators, in order to ensure coherence and to stimulate further advances in
the area of social indicators in particular.


            "Conclusion

            "6.    In conclusion, it would appear that a number of challenges
have to be confronted in order to ensure not only an effective follow-up to
global conferences but also, and in particular, their implementation at the
country level. Five challenges can be identified:

               "(a)   Ensuring horizontal integration;

               "(b)   Financing for the conference action plans as well as for
horizontal cross-cutting follow-up efforts;

               "(c)   Need to address the insufficiency of relevant
statistical data;

               "(d)   Need for more involvement of civil society;

               "(e)   Mainstreaming of gender and incorporation of human
rights as cross-cutting themes in the follow-up process."


Chapter IV

         High-level segment


         Market access: developments since the Uruguay Round,
         implications, opportunities and challenges, in particular for
         the developing countries and the least developed among them,
         in the context of globalization and liberalization


         1. The high-level segment was held from 6 to 8 July 1998 (12th to
18th meetings of the Council). An account of the proceedings is contained in
the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.12-18). The Council had before it the
following documents:

            (a)    World Economic and Social Survey, 1998 (E/1998/50 and
Corr.1-3);

            (b)    Note by the Secretary-General submitting to the Economic
and Social Council the report prepared by the secretariats of the United
Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Trade Organization
on market access: developments since the Uruguay Round, implications,
opportunities and challenges, in particular for the developing countries and
the least developed among them, in the context of globalization and
liberalization (E/1998/55).

         2. At the 12th meeting, on 6 July, the Secretary-General addressed
the Council.

         3. At the 12th and 13th meetings, on 6 July, the Council held a
policy dialogue and discussion on important developments in the world economy
and international economic cooperation with the heads of the multilateral
financial and trade institutions of the United Nations system. Statements were
made at the 12th meeting, on 6 July, by the panellists, the Chairman of the
Executive Board and Managing Director of the International Monetary
Fund, the President of the World Bank/International Finance Corporation and
the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development. At the 13th meeting, on 6 July, a statement was made by the
Deputy Director-General of the World Trade Organization, also a panellist.

         4. At the 15th meeting, on 7 July, the Council held a panel
discussion entitled "Market access: prospective beyond the Uruguay Round". The
Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations moderated the discussion. The
members of the Council entered into a dialogue after the presentations by the
panellists, F. Bergsten, Director of the Institute for International
Economics; J. Bhagwati of Columbia University; and M. Livanos Cattaui,
Secretary-General of the International Chamber of Commerce.


         Action taken by the Council


         5. At the 18th meeting, on 8 July, the Council adopted the draft
ministerial communique' submitted by the President (E/1998/L.13). The Council
decided to annex the President's summary of the high-level segment to the
communique'. The text read as follows:


         Ministerial communique' of the high-level segment submitted by the
         President of the Council


               "We, the Ministers and Heads of Delegations participating in
the high-level policy dialogue and the high-level segment of the substantive
session of 1998 of the Economic and Social Council, held from 6 to 8 July
1998, having considered the theme  Market access: developments since the
Uruguay Round, implications, opportunities and challenges, in particular for
the developing countries and the least developed among them, in the context of
globalization and liberalization', have adopted the following communique':

            "1.    Fifty years ago, the multilateral trading system was
established as the result of a process that had begun at the United Nations
Conference on Trade and Employment, which was held pursuant to a resolution of
the Economic and Social Council, adopted by the Council at its first session,
in 1946, in which the Council called for a conference to draft a convention
for the establishment of an international trade organization. Over the
succeeding decades, the multilateral trading system made an important
contribution to growth, employment and stability by promoting the
liberalization and expansion of trade and by providing a framework for the
conduct of international trade relations. Today, we reaffirm and renew our
commitment to uphold and strengthen the system which contributes to the
economic and social advancement of all countries and peoples.

            "2.    The continued marginalization of the least developed
countries concerns us deeply. Arresting and reversing their marginalization,
and promoting their expeditious integration into the world economy, constitute
an ethical imperative for the international community. We will work together
towards further enhanced market access for their exports within the context of
supporting their own efforts at capacity-building. We therefore welcome the
initiatives taken by the World Trade Organization in cooperation with other
organizations to implement the Plan of Action for the Least Developed
Countries, including through effective follow-up of the High-level Meeting on
Integrated Initiatives for Least Developed Countries' Trade Development, held
in October 1997. We recognize that full implementation of the Plan of Action
requires further progress towards duty-free imports from least developed
countries. We also invite the World Trade Organization, the United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP), the International Trade Centre (ITC), the World
Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO) and other relevant organizations to provide
enhanced technical assistance to help strengthen the supply capacity of the
least developed countries and to help them take the fullest possible
advantage of trading opportunities arising from globalization and
liberalization.

            "3.    The Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations
resulted in a more open, rule-based and predictable multilateral trading
system and in significant improvements in market access conditions.
Furthermore, since the establishment of the World Trade Organization,
important multilateral negotiations have been concluded that have increased
market access for information technology products, basic telecommunications
services, and financial services. In addition, the dispute settlement
mechanism of the World Trade Organization, which strengthens the rule-based
multilateral trading system, provides effective recourse to members with
regard to defending their market access rights.

            "4.    However, significant non-tariff and tariff barriers and
high variance, with tariff peaks and tariff escalation, still affect a notable
range of products and sectors, particularly ones of export interest to
developing countries, including the least developed countries. The degree of
market access commitments in trade in services varies considerably. Future
trade negotiations should take these issues into account with a view to
securing further broad-based trade liberalization for the benefit of
everyone. Resort to trade actions in the form of contingency measures, such as
anti-dumping duties and countervailing duties, and of unilateral actions
should be subject to increased multilateral surveillance so that they respect
and are consistent with multilateral rules and obligations.

            "5.    Important gains in market access for developing countries'
exports have been achieved through regional trading agreements which have
built upon increased disciplines and tariff concessions resulting from the
Uruguay Round. Bearing in mind the primacy of the multilateral trading system,
and the importance of open regional economic integration, regional trade
agreements should be outward-oriented and supportive of the multilateral
trading system.

            "6.    We stress the importance of effective application by all
members of the World Trade Organization of all provisions of the Final Act
Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations,
1/ taking into account the specific interests of developing countries and in
this respect reiterate the need for the effective implementation of the
special provisions in the multilateral trade agreements and related
ministerial decisions in favour of developing country members, in particular
the least developed among them. The Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)
remains a major instrument for further improving market access of developing
countries; there is scope and need for further improvement of the GSP,
especially for the least developed countries.

            "7.    We recall that the second Ministerial Conference of the
World Trade Organization decided to establish a process to ensure full and
faithful implementation of existing agreements and to prepare for the third
Ministerial Conference. In this regard, we stress the importance of the
submission by the General Council of the World Trade Organization of
recommendations regarding the work programme of the World Trade Organization,
including further liberalization sufficiently broad-based to respond to the
range of interests and concerns of all members of the organization within the
framework of the World Trade Organization, that will enable the members to
take decisions at the third Ministerial Conference of the World Trade
Organization. The second Ministerial Conference of the World Trade
Organization also decided that the General Council of the World Trade
Organization would establish a comprehensive work programme to examine all
trade-related issues relating to global electronic commerce. In this regard,
we stress the importance of assisting developing countries in
capacity-building and the development of their services infrastructure, in
order to enable them to maximize the benefits they could derive from
electronic commerce. Countries with economies in transition also need
such assistance. We call upon UNCTAD, in collaboration with other
organizations, to provide appropriate analytical support and technical
assistance to developing countries in this area.

            "8.    We strongly underline the need to provide technical
assistance to developing countries for capacity-building in trade negotiations
and in taking fullest possible advantage of the dispute settlement mechanism
of the World Trade Organization. We acknowledge with appreciation the
assistance given by UNCTAD to developing countries through its policy research
and analysis and technical assistance and we invite UNCTAD to continue to
provide such support, including assisting developing countries in formulating
a positive agenda for future trade negotiations.

            "9.    We attach great importance to the diversification of
African economies and increased market access for their export products. In
this regard, we express our appreciation to the Secretary-General of the
United Nations for recently putting forward an action-oriented agenda for the
development of Africa. Continued efforts are needed to enhance market access
for products of export interest to Africa and to support the African
economies' efforts at diversification and building of supply capacity.

            "10.   We are concerned about the financial crisis afflicting a
number of countries, with its serious implications for world economic and
trading prospects. There is a need for improved measures to address the
negative effects of the volatility of international capital flows on the
international trading system and the development prospects of developing
countries. Keeping all markets open and maintaining continued growth in world
trade are key elements in overcoming this crisis. In this context, we reject
the use of any protectionist measures. Consideration should be given to the
trade financing needs of the countries affected by the crisis to enable
them to import essential items. It is important that the momentum towards
increased trade liberalization, particularly as regards products of interest
to developing countries, be maintained, and be given attention in the work
leading up to the third Ministerial Conference of the World Trade
Organization. At a broader level, there is a need for greater coherence
between the development objectives agreed to by the international community
and the functioning of the international trading and financial system. To this
end, we call for close cooperation among the United Nations, and multilateral
trade and international financial institutions. An important step in this
direction was the convening of the special high-level meeting of the Economic
and Social Council with the Bretton Woods institutions, on 18 April
1998.

            "11.   While noting that multilateral trade agreements have
contributed to security of market access for members of the World Trade
Organization, we recognize that such security is not enjoyed by non-members,
including those seeking accession to the organization. We emphasize the
importance of attainment of the universality of the multilateral trading
system and the need for government members of the World Trade Organization and
relevant international organizations to provide assistance to non-members of
the World Trade Organization, so as to facilitate their efforts with respect
to accession in an expeditious and transparent manner on the basis of World
Trade Organization-related rights and obligations. The World Trade
Organization and UNCTAD are invited to provide the necessary technical
assistance to these countries in this regard.

            "12.   We welcome the development of a collaborative and
complementary relationship between UNCTAD and the World Trade Organization,
which augurs well for the multilateral trading system and for effective
integration therein of developing countries, including the least developed
countries. We also express our appreciation to the secretariats of UNCTAD and
the World Trade Organization for jointly preparing their excellent report
(E/1998/55) for the high-level segment."


Annex

     Summary of the high-level segment by the President of the Council


            "1.    The high-level segment of the substantive session of 1998
of the Economic and Social Council took place from 6 to 8 July 1998. Following
opening statements by the President of the Council and by the
Secretary-General of the United Nations, the Council held a high-level policy
dialogue with the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF),
the President of the World Bank, the Secretary-General of the United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the Deputy Director-General
of the World Trade Organization on developments in the world economy. Upon
conclusion of the high-level policy dialogue with the heads of the
international financial institutions and the trade organizations, the
Council conducted a high-level debate on the theme of "Market access:
developments since the Uruguay Round, implications, opportunities and
challenges, in particular for the developing countries and the least developed
among them, in the context of globalization and liberalization", at the
closing of which the Council, for the first time in its history, adopted a
ministerial communique'.

            "2.    A panel discussion moderated by the
Deputy-Secretary-General was held on 7 July; the panellists were Mr. F.
Bergsten, Director, Institute for International Economics; J. Bhagwati,
Professor, Columbia University; and Ms. M. Livanos Cattaui, Secretary-General,
International Chamber of Commerce. The subject of the panel was  Market
access: perspective beyond the Uruguay Round'.


         "I.   Opening statements

            "3.    The President of the Council in his opening statement
referred to the current economic crisis in Asia which had made it clear that
integration into the global market could bring great benefits, but carried
serious risks if not managed well. No country was able to remain insulated
from the consequences of events occurring elsewhere. It was of paramount
importance to develop a global rapid response capacity in which Governments
and international institutions together with the private sector, trade
unions and civil society organizations could cooperate to effectively
forestall crises and address them expeditiously when they occurred. The
current strains in the international financial and trading system served to
highlight the need to orient the forces of globalization towards greater
balance among the imperatives of economic growth, social equity, workers'
rights, gender equality and environmental protection. This posed a global
challenge to all international institutions and tested the effectiveness of
the multilateral system as a whole.

            "4.    He stressed that by now it was abundantly clear no single
international organization or country, acting individually, with its own set
of policy measures and its own interpretation of events, had any meaningful
chance to help steer the world towards greater economic and social stability.
It was necessary to progressively develop an integrated policy outlook
reflecting common objectives of the international community. It was not
possible to pursue independent sectoral policies to deal with integrated,
multifaceted and systemic problems. This and future policy dialogues, the
President observed, provided an opportunity for the Council to help
develop a shared understanding of issues and devise a broad policy
orientation to address them.

            "5.    The Secretary-General in his statement noted that global
conditions today offered unprecedented prospects for peace and security. Yet,
the international community seemed ill-equipped to fully harness that
tremendous potential. Tremendous wealth existed alongside chronic destitution.
People around the world were torn between the hopes engendered by decades of
remarkable progress and the fear of future upheavals. Those hopes and fears
were global, as were the economy and markets. However, politics were local and
there was a widening gap between what citizens demanded and what Governments
could deliver. While there was every reason to treasure and nurture the
achievements brought about by the international trading system, the Asian
crisis was a reminder of how factors such as finance, economics and
socio-political forces were working in tandem to shape, and, at times,
shake up the world.

            "6.    The Secretary-General stated that for the United Nations
three broad observations were paramount. First, the crisis had had its most
devastating effect on the marginalization of society. It threatened to undo
years of progress in alleviating poverty and advancing the rights of women.
Second, developing countries were less able than their developed counterparts
to withstand the fallout of the crisis. Third, interdependence among nations
had an essential complement -- interdependence among issues. Finance, trade,
governance and social equity were intimately linked.

            "7.    The open, inclusive, global economy was the most promising
means of widely spreading the benefits of globalization, the Secretary-General
stressed. At the same time, the fear of globalization had to be taken
seriously. The challenge for Governments was to show that global imperatives
could coexist with local needs. Choices had to be made between the confinement
to purely local points of view and the adoption of a more global perspective.
One key question was whether the international community would choose to use
the institutions at its disposal. There was really no choice, as it would be
grievous for the international community to retreat from multilateralism.


         "II.  Policy dialogue

            "8.    The Managing Director of IMF stated that the international
community must support the adjustment programmes of the countries most
severely affected by the Asian crisis. It was also vital that countries with
balance-of-payment surpluses recycle those surpluses in the form of untied
loans and humanitarian aid to countries in the process of adjustment. As
creditors, they should stand ready to grant generous terms for the
restructuring of their claims and support economic recovery in Asia through
new loans. Above all, those countries should keep their markets open.
Countries that pursued strong, progressive trade liberalization, in the
context of general economic reforms and market-oriented policies, would
achieve growth and increased trade performance. For their part, industrialized
countries should liberalize import restrictions. However, they should avoid
replacing tariffs and non-tariff barriers with administered protection
measures, such as anti-dumping restrictions.

            "9.    Working with the World Bank, IMF was exploring ways to
accelerate public enterprise and financial sector reforms, to improve the
assessment of medium-term investments needs and the capacity to absorb
external financing, and to identify potential adverse social consequences of
reforms. In order to make the world less prone to financial crises, the Fund's
surveillance had to become more effective and the transparency of
international finance had to be enhanced. IMF could play a central role in
crisis prevention by encouraging members to strengthen their macroeconomic
policies and financial sectors.

            "10.   The President of the World Bank stated that the Bank had
sought to assist the countries hardest-hit by the Asian financial crisis. The
crisis was not localized and issues in South-East Asia had affected all
countries in different ways. The World Bank had also focused on the structural
and social aspect of the crisis, with particular attention to poverty-related
matters. Attempts had been made to deal with the segments of the economy most
affected, including rural areas, so as to ensure provision of basic social
programming that offered people a sense of hope. There could be no peace and
stability without social stability and hope. Efforts were under way in the
financial, judicial and regulatory systems to provide a framework essential
for the success of the work of IMF. Before gaining access to markets,
countries must establish a fundamental economic base, including infrastructure
and a capacity to attract foreign investment. Helping countries to build such
a framework was one of the essential functions of the World Bank. Also,
transparency between borrower and lender countries was necessary in order to
avoid the distortions that came from corruption, crime and the divergence of
funds.

            "11.   The Secretary-General of UNCTAD stressed that the Asian
crisis had hit the poor particularly hard, in terms of sharp falls in
commodities and in the export prices of some goods. The recent financial
crises had occurred because the Governments concerned, among others, had
failed to manage their countries' integration into the capital markets.
Well-calibrated national policies could help manage financial crises, limit
their potential for lasting damage and re-establish economic growth. Yet, when
an economic crisis became a systemic problem, action was also needed at the
global level. The Asian crisis was only the latest in a string of financial
crises that had disrupted the global economy since the breakdown of the
Bretton Woods system. The international community still needed to learn how to
manage such economic turmoil. It would be useful to conduct an honest
re-evaluation of the international policy response to assess its achievements
and failures. He also noted that it was much more difficult to manage
integration into international capital markets than it was to achieve
successful insertion into the international trading system. Developing
countries should not be pushed or pressured into premature financial
liberalization, as this would deny them the option of protecting their
economies from international financial instability and volatile speculative
capital flows.

            "12.   The Deputy Director-General of the World Trade
Organization, stated that the fiftieth anniversary of the multilateral trading
system six weeks before had demonstrated the virtual consensus throughout
every region on the validity of open trade and economic integration under the
rule of law. More and more, the ground rules provided by the World Trade
Organization reached across, into and around other issues and concerns  
ranging from investment and competition policy, to environmental, development,
health and social policies. The various challenges needed to be faced as
constituting pieces of a larger policy that demanded broader and more
integrated solutions. Developing countries were increasingly represented
in the world's trading system. This reflected the emergence of many of these
countries as important trading powers in their own right. Perhaps most
significant of all was the establishment of improved binding mechanisms for
settling trade disputes. Even the smallest country could now look to the World
Trade Organization in defence of its interests on the basis of shared and
enforceable rules. Still, a variety of non-tariff measures continued to
restrict exports from developing countries, and the fact that national and
international product standards were difficult to meet led to reduced
exports opportunities for least developed countries. Also, in the field of
trade in services, much scope remained for further liberalization.

            "13.   In the ensuing exchange of the Council with the Managing
Director of IMF, the President of the World Bank and the Secretary-General of
UNCTAD, considerable attention was paid to the Asian crisis. It was noted,
in this regard that, while inadequacies in domestic financial and monetary
policies had played a major part in leading to the problems that countries
faced in Asia and elsewhere, those problems would not have reached such
proportions if lending institutions operating in the international markets had
not taken excessive risks. Concern was also expressed about the recent
weakness of the yen which posed a crisis within the crisis. This weakness
could seriously jeopardize the ongoing recovery in some countries.

            "14.   With respect to preventing future crises, it was observed
that the severity and the speed of the Asian crisis had highlighted the need
for rapid global response capacity to prevent and deal with future crises.
This would require the strengthening and adaptation of multilateral
institutions and greater coherence in policy-making. An honest re-evaluation
of the international policy response -- without any preconceptions or
prejudice -- was also needed. Furthermore, constant vigilance by all countries
over all socio-economic parameters had to be maintained. In particular,
soundness of the banking system, avoidance of the unsustainable accumulation
of short-term financing, and the transparent and accountable character of
governance were seen as essential. Also, transparency in international
lending and borrowing were crucially important in order to deal with excessive
short-term and speculative capital flows and problems of corruption and debt
management in the economy. More effective procedures for involving the private
sector in preventing and resolving the debt crisis also needed to be
established. In addition, in order to reap the benefits of globalization while
minimizing its risks, developing countries should continue to liberalize trade
and capital controls, paying due attention to sequencing and the soundness of
the financial and balance-of-payments situation. At the same time,
developing countries should not be pushed into premature financial
liberalization. The fruitful dialogue on these issues at the special
high-level meeting of the Economic and Social Council with the Bretton Woods
institutions, held on 18 April 1998, was widely noted and a call was made to
hold similar meetings in the future.

            "15.   With regard to trade liberalization and market access, it
was noted that they should also be seen in the context of poverty eradication,
the ultimate goal of development efforts. In this context, ensuring the
provision of basic services, creating adequate infrastructure and investing in
human development were all necessary prerequisites of a developing country's
benefiting from any enhancement of global market access for its goods. It was
also noted that numerous tariff -- and non-tariff -- barriers remained, as
well as tariff peaks and escalation, which affected developing countries'
exports. Liberalization should continue in these and other trade areas.
Furthermore, the international trading system could not be viewed in isolation
from other developmental concerns, nor from other related issues. Therefore,
the future multilateral trade agenda should aim at broad-based liberalization
of trade.

            "16.   Concerning coherence of the United Nations system, it was
stressed that cooperation and coordination within the United Nations system,
between the United Nations and the international financial institutions, and
between the United Nations and the World Trade Organization were crucial for
preparing future trade negotiations and addressing other major challenges. At
the same, it was noted that within the United Nations system, a substantial
increase of dialogue and working together had already been achieved; the
challenge was to build upon the progress made to achieve greater
complementarity and coherence in the management of the global economy.


         "III. High-level debate

            "17.   It was generally agreed that liberalized world trade was
essential in promoting growth and development and in eradicating poverty.

            "18.   Full commitment to the multilateral trading system was
expressed. The Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations had resulted
in a more open, rule-based and predictable multilateral trading system and
significant improvement in market access conditions. Full and faithful
implementation of the Uruguay Round commitments, which was considered
essential for the credibility of the multilateral trading system, was called
for.

            "19.   Regret was expressed about the lack of progress in
implementing the provisions on special and differential treatment for
developing countries, and a strengthened commitment and concrete action to
implement these provisions were urged. In this regard, it was recalled that
trading partners must guarantee developing countries full market access, and
industrialized countries should consider granting unilateral duty-free
treatment to developing countries on a preferential basis. However, a number
of developed countries did consider the integration of developing countries
into the world trading system one of the primary objectives of their
development policies, and therefore granted all developing countries, for
almost all the exports of those countries, preferential access to their
markets.

            "20.   It was pointed out that significant tariffs and other
non-tariff barriers to market access remained important impediments in many
sectors, a considerable number of which were of particular interest to
developing countries and least developed countries. The view was expressed
that the implementation of the Uruguay Round was incomplete in many key areas
of particular interest to the developing countries. It was noted that there
was little commercially meaningful integration of textiles and clothing into
the multilateral trading system so far, and that subsidizing agriculture
in developed countries impeded developing countries' agricultural exports as
well as their efforts to attain food security. On the other hand, it
was recalled that the unprecedentedly large number of developing countries
that actively participated in the multilateral trade liberalization had
derived large benefits from it, including in terms of improved access to the
markets of developed countries.

            "21.   The developing of a comprehensive agenda for further trade
liberalization that reflected the interests of all members of the World Trade
Organization was called for. It was noted that the launching of a millennium
round of trade negotiations was crucial for meeting the challenges of a
globalized economy and it was argued that negotiations to further liberalize
agriculture and services should be placed in a broader negotiating framework
that would allow for a balanced treatment of the interests of all members.
Support was expressed for a multilateral framework of rules on investment and
competition in the services sector and for mainstreaming sustainable
development into the multilateral trade liberalization agenda.

            "22.   Reference was made to the agreement at the second
Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization to establish a work
programme in preparation for the next World Trade Organization ministerial
meeting. The developing of a comprehensive agenda for further liberalization,
which would reflect the interest of all members and would be able to deliver
results in a short time, was called for. Also, all partners were invited to be
proactive in setting out their priorities for a multilateral round of trade
negotiations.

            "23.   Measures taken by members of the World Trade Organization
that were in contravention of the spirit of the multilateral trade agreements,
such as contingency measures (for example, transitional safeguard measures,
unilateral rules of origin and back-loading in the implementation of the
agreement on textile and clothing), were deplored. Developed importing
countries were called upon to faithfully work towards integrating fully the
textile and clothing sector into the system. The abuse of anti-dumping
measures and the use of discriminatory trade actions were among the actions to
be rejected. Some delegations stressed that the taking of unilateral measures
as well as the enactment of national laws with extraterritorial effects should
be totally excluded as an option of trade policy in regard to the multilateral
trading system.

            "24.   The mandatory reviews of various agreements, such as the
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, including
Trade in Counterfeit Goods, the Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures
and, especially, the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing
Settlement of Disputes, 2/ were seen as being of considerable importance as
well. In this regard, it was pointed out that the Disputes Settlement
Understanding should, inter alia, include greater technical and legal support
to developing countries in order to make the World Trade Organization judicial
enforcement mechanism more accessible to those countries.

            "25.   The lack of technical abilities of the developing countries
was seen as a major constraint on their efforts to take fuller advantage of
the multilateral trade agreements. The importance of the provision of the
necessary technical assistance to developing countries was underlined. Many
delegations referred to their ongoing support to developing countries in this
regard, as well as to the preferential market access granted by them to these
countries.

            "26.   However, it was noted that securing market access did not
by itself guarantee actual export revenues. Competitiveness was based not only
on quality and price of products but also on such interrelated factors as good
production practices and export financing. Furthermore, comparative advantages
were seen as being time-bound and did not guarantee success in the long run.

            "27.   One delegation pointed out that, while promoting and
increasing exports were universally accepted as a means to create wealth, the
importance of imports was not often accorded similar treatment. His country,
which provided liberal market access, was providing jobs at home and around
the globe.

            "28.   Sound macroeconomic policies and a legal and economic
framework that enhanced the growth of a dynamic private sector were seen as
essential in improving countries' capacity to trade. Equally important were an
enabling environment for investment, good governance, sound competition
policy, fostering of human resources in the areas of trade, trade support
services, strengthened public institutions focusing on trade, and
trade-related infrastructural development.

            "29.   The view was expressed that a multilateral framework of
rules on investment and competition in the service sector should, in
particular, provide a stimulant to foreign direct investment. The importance
of examining trade issues related to electronic commerce was also emphasized.

            "30.   Integration of the least developed countries in the global
trading system was a priority for all. A number of measures to improve their
market access conditions and supply capacity were suggested, such as full and
effective implementation of the Plan of Action for the least developed
countries adopted at the first Ministerial Conference of the World Trade
Organization, 3/ as well as the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related
Technical Assistance, Including for Human and Institutional Capacity-building,
to Support Least Developed Countries in Their Trade and Trade-related
Activities, 3/ adopted at the High-level Meeting on Integrated Initiatives for
Least Developed Countries' Trade Development held in October 1997; provision
of duty-free access to all products and removal of all quantitative import
restrictions for least developed countries; elimination of tariff escalation;
and elimination of time-based elements in the special and preferential
treatment granted to least developed countries in multilateral trade
agreements.

            "31.   Recent preferential actions in favour of least developed
countries, including through improvements in generalized system of preference
(GSP) schemes, were recounted. It was pointed out that least developed
countries themselves needed to continue efforts towards creating a sound
macroeconomic framework, including transparent and accountable governance,
investment in basic social services and openness to trade and investment.

            "32.   Commitments to assist least developed countries and African
countries were reiterated and bilateral initiatives in favour of these
countries were brought to the attention of the Council, and the international
community was called upon to continue its effort to enhance market access for
products of export interest to Africa and to support Africa's efforts towards
diversification and building supply capacity. South-South cooperation in trade
and other areas should also be supported.

            "33.   The importance of official development assistance (ODA) was
also noted. It was pointed out that ODA ensures external financial flows to
countries that have difficulties in mobilizing domestic resources and in
attracting foreign direct investment. ODA-financed development in sectors not
reached by private flows, and the 0.7 per cent target have lost none of their
importance.

            "34.   It was underscored that trade policy had an important role
to play in restoring stability and growth in countries affected by the crisis
in Asia. Rejection of protectionist measures and a clear commitment to pursue
further comprehensive trade and investment liberalization were essential in
this respect. The crisis had shown the importance of promoting greater
coherence between trade and macroeconomic, social and other policies. In this
respect, the United Nations could play an important role in promoting greater
awareness of these interactions and developing international norms. Enhanced
cooperation between the World Trade Organization and the Bretton Woods
institutions was crucial, as was greater cooperation between the United
Nations and the World Trade Organization. The World Trade Organization was
called upon to reflect on how to better effect a coherence between its
activities and the broader needs and concerns of the global economy.

            "35.   The need for promoting the principle of universality in the
multilateral trading system, within the framework of the World Trade
Organization, was emphasized. Early completion of the accession process was
also called for. Many of the countries negotiating entry into the World Trade
Organization expected the next round of negotiations to be open for
participation of interested countries irrespective of their application for
entry into the World Trade Organization. In this regard, it was noted
that countries acceding to the World Trade Organization should not be asked
for commitments higher than those made by countries that had joined the
organization earlier. Early completion of the pending processes for accession
was called for.

            "36.   At the same time, it was stressed that regional trading
arrangements could make an important contribution to a solid and universal
multilateral trading system. Such arrangements could help developing countries
achieve integration into the world trading system as they had helped them
develop and diversify their market bases. However, these arrangements should
be fully consistent with the rules and principles of the international trading
system and should maintain the basic tenet of open regionalism. The experience
gained through such arrangements could benefit the multilateral trading
system.

            "37.   Arguments in favour of making environment and trade
policies mutually supportive were also put forward. Reference was made to a
recent proposal that the World Trade Organization should convene a high-level
meeting on trade and the environment to help overcome the current impasse in
discussion and promote the concept of sustainable development in the World
Trade Organization agenda.

            "38.   The adoption by the International Labour Organization (ILO)
of a Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work was welcomed and
proposals for a practical follow-up mechanism within ILO were eagerly awaited.
To pursue enhanced social and environmental protection through positive
incentives, a number of developed countries had recently started providing,
through their GSP scheme, additional preferences to those developing countries
that had adopted and implemented internationally agreed environmental and
social norms.

            "39.   It was also noted that trade conditionalities to enforce
non-trading objectives, including those related to labour standards and the
environment, could undermine the proper functioning of the multilateral
trading system.

            "40.   One delegation referred to the economic blockade of its
country by a developed country, which ignored the successive resolutions of
the General Assembly condemning that blockade, and called for its total and
unconditional elimination.

            "41.   A few other delegations noted the importance of emphasizing
the danger of an excessive recourse to the imposing of economic sanctions on
developing countries. Two delegations condemned the automatic renewal by the
Security Council of economic sanctions against their countries despite the
General Assembly's calls to put an end to the punitive and unilateral economic
measures. It was pointed out by one delegation that the Assembly had not
adopted those resolutions by consensus.

            "42.   One delegation raised the issue of the banana trade and
expressed discontent with the World Trade Organization ruling that
preferential treatment of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries
contravened the World Trade Organization's principles. The delegate warned
that the implementation of the ruling would bring about a reduction in the
living standards of the people of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and an
acceleration of poverty. A fundamental reform of the dispute settlement was
needed. In a right of reply, one delegation stated that trade dispute
settlements based on rules would always lead to situations in which countries
won some rulings but lost others.

            "43.   Finally, a view was expressed that the United Nations
system as a whole, particularly UNCTAD, should continue to play an active role
in helping developing countries through, inter alia:

               "(a)   Ensuring a continuum in its work programme between
research activities and its capacity-building and technical cooperation
functions;

               "(b)   Providing objective and in-depth analyses of
the effects of liberalization and of any proposals for further liberalization;

               "(c)   Strengthening the capacity of developing countries to
participate in trade negotiations;

               "(d)   Continuing to devote a large part of its work to
building and enhancing capacity to trade in developing countries, in
particular the least developed countries and those in Africa, and
substantially increasing its trade-related technical cooperation;

               "(e)   Strengthening its information and training services, and
strengthening technical cooperation to expand export supply capabilities of
developing countries;

               "(f)   Promoting better coherence among global development,
financial and trade policies so that the ability of the developing
countries to benefit from increasing trade was not compromised by
imperfections in financial markets;

               "(g)   Ensuring that the structural factors such as debt,
inadequate concessional development finance and restrictions on the transfer
of technology did not impede the developing countries in respect of their
availing themselves of the opportunities presented by the multilateral trading
system.

            "44.   In conclusion, many delegations commended UNCTAD and the
World Trade Organization for their excellent joint documentation in
preparation for the high-level segment and for their support towards its
successful outcome."


                               Notes

1/ See Legal Instruments Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of
Multilateral Trade Negotiations, done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994 (GATT
secretariat publication, Sales No. GATT/1994-7).

2/ See Legal Instruments Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of
Multilateral Trade Negotiations, done at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994
(GATT secretariat publication, Sales No. GATT/1994-7).

3/World Trade Organization document WT/LDC/HL/1/Rev.1.


Chapter V

         Operational activities segment


         Operational activities of the United Nations for
         international development cooperation


         1. At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of operational activities of the United Nations for international
development cooperation (agenda item 3) at its 19th to 27th, 33rd, 44th and
47th meetings, held from 9 to 14 July and on 17, 28 and 31 July 1998. A
high-level meeting on operational activities was held at its 19th to 21st
meetings, on 9 July. An account of the discussion is contained in the relevant
summary records (E/1998/SR.19-21). At its 22nd and 23rd meetings, on
10 July, the Council held an informal dialogue with the heads of United
Nations funds and programmes. At its 23rd meeting, the Council also conducted
a panel discussion on the results achieved by the Executive Boards of the
United Nations funds and programmes. An account of the discussion is contained
in the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.22 and 23). At its 24th and 25th
meetings, on 13 July, the Council considered the question of follow-up to
policy recommendations of the General Assembly. An account of the
discussion is contained in the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.24 and 25).
At its 26th and 27th meetings, on 14 July, the Council held an informal
dialogue with the United Nations system country teams from Guatemala and
Mozambique. An account of the discussion is contained in the relevant summary
records (E/1998/SR.26 and 27).


              A.   Advancement of women: implementation of the Beijing
                   Platform for Action and the role of operational activities
                   in promoting, in particular, capacity-building and resource
                   mobilization for enhancing the participation of women in
                   development


         2. At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of the advancement of women: implementation of the Beijing Platform
for Action and the role of operational activities in promoting, in particular,
capacity-building and resource mobilization for enhancing the participation of
women in development (agenda item 3 (a)) at its 19th to 21st and 44th
meetings, on 9 and 28 July. An account of the discussion is contained in the
relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.19-21 and 44). The Council had before it
the following documents:

            (a)    Note by the Secretary-General on the implementation
of the revised system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women,
1996-2001 (E/1998/10);

            (b)    Report of the Secretary-General on the advancement
of women: implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the role of
operational activities in promoting, in particular, capacity-building and
resource mobilization for enhancing the participation of women in development
(E/1998/54 and Corr.1);

            (c)    Report of the Secretary-General on the mid-term
review of the implementation of the system-wide medium-term plan for the
advancement of women, 1996-2001 (E/CN.6/1998/3).


         Action taken by the Council


         3. Under agenda item 3 (a), the Council adopted resolution 1998/26.


         Advancement of women: implementation of the Beijing Platform
         for Action and the role of operational activities in promoting, in
         particular, capacity-building and resource mobilization for enhancing
         the participation of women in development

         4. At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Vice-President of the
Council, Roble Olhaye (Djibouti), introduced a draft resolution (E/1998/L.20)
entitled "Advancement of women: implementation of the Beijing Platform for
Action and the role of operational activities in promoting, in particular,
capacity-building and resource mobilization for enhancing the participation of
women in development", submitted on the basis of informal consultations.

         5. At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/26.

         6. After the adoption of the draft resolution, statements
were made by the observers for Indonesia (on behalf of States Members of the
United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China) and Austria (on
behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
European Union.


              B.   Follow-up to policy recommendations of the General Assembly


         7. At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of follow-up to policy recommendations of the General Assembly
(agenda item 3 (b)) at its 24th, 25th and 47th meetings, on 13 and 31 July. An
account of the discussion is contained in the relevant summary records
(E/1998/SR.24, 25 and 47). The Council had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Report of the Secretary-General on the triennial
comprehensive policy review of operational activities for development of the
United Nations system (E/1998/48 and Add.1);

            (b)    Note by the Secretary-General transmitting the
revised guidelines for the review of policies and procedures concerning
technical cooperation among developing countries (E/1997/110).


         Action taken by the Council


         8. Under agenda item 3 (b), the Council adopted resolution
1998/42 and decision 1998/284.


         Operational activities of the United Nations for the
         international development cooperation segment

         9. At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Vice-President of the
Council, Roble Olhaye (Djibouti), introduced a draft resolution (E/1998/L.43)
entitled "Operational activities of the United Nations for international
development cooperation segment", submitted on the basis of informal
consultations.

         10.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/42.

         11.   After the adoption of the draft resolution, statements
were made by the representatives of Japan, the United States of America and
India, as well as the observers for Indonesia (on behalf of the States Members
of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China) and
Austria (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the European Union).

         12.   At the same meeting, the Council took note of the note
by the Secretary-General on the revised guidelines for the review of policies
and procedures concerning technical cooperation among developing countries.
See Council decision 1998/284.



              C.   Reports of the Executive Boards of the United
                   Nations Development Programme/United Nations Population
                   Fund, the United Nations Children's Fund and the World Food
                   Programme


         13.   At its substantive session, the Council considered the
reports of the Executive Boards of the United Nations Development
Programme/United Nations Population Fund, the United Nations Children's Fund
and the World Food Programme (agenda item 3 (c)) at its 22nd, 23rd, 26th,
27th, 33rd, 44th and 47th meetings, on 10, 14, 28 and 31 July 1998.
An account of the discussion is contained in the relevant summary records
(E/1998/SR.22, 23, 26, 27, 33, 44 and 47). The Council had before it the
following documents:

            (a)    Report of the Executive Board of the United Nations
Development Programme/United Nations Population Fund on its first regular
session of 1998 (DP/1998/12 and Corr.1 and 2); 1/

            (b)    Decisions adopted by the Executive Board of the
United Nations Development Programme/United Nations Population Fund at its
first regular session of 1998 (DP/1998/13); 1/

            (c)    Decisions adopted by the Executive Board of the
United Nations Development Programme/United Nations Population Fund at its
second regular session of 1998 (DP/1998/16 and Corr.1); 1/

            (d)    Decisions adopted by the Executive Board of the
United Nations Development Programme/United Nations Population Fund at its
annual session of 1998 (DP/1998/28); 1/

            (e)    Annual report of the Executive Director of the
United Nations Children's Fund to the Council (E/1998/16);

            (f)    Report of the Executive Board of the United Nations
Children's Fund on the work of its first regular session and annual sessions
of 1998 (E/1998/35 (Parts I and II)); 2/

            (g)    Report of the Executive Board of the World Food
Programme (E/1998/37); 3/

            (h)    Annual reports of the Administrator of the United
Nations Development Programme and the Executive Director of the United Nations
Population Fund to the Council (E/1998/45);

            (i)    Annual report of the Executive Director of the
World Food Programme to the Council (E/1998/62);

            (j)    Note by the Secretariat transmitting information on
the resource mobilization strategy for the United Nations Children's Fund
(E/1998/70);

            (k)    Decisions adopted by the Executive Board of the
United Nations Children's Fund at its 1998 annual session (E/1998/L.11). 2/


         Action taken by the Council


         14.   Under agenda item 3 (c), the Council adopted resolution
1998/27 and decisions 1998/285 and 1998/286.


         Input to the implementation of General Assembly resolution 50/8

         15.   At the 33rd meeting, on 17 July, the representative of
Lithuania, on behalf of the Eastern European States, introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.17) entitled "Input to the implementation of General
Assembly resolution 50/8", which read as follows:

               "The Economic and Social Council,

               "Recalling General Assembly resolution 48/162 of 20
            December 1993 on further measures for the restructuring and
            revitalization of the United Nations in the economic, social and
            related fields,

               "Also recalling General Assembly resolution 50/8 of 1
            November 1995 on the revision of the General Regulations of the
            World Food Programme and reconstitution of the Committee on Food
            Aid Policies and Programmes as the Executive Board of
            the World Food Programme, in which, in operative paragraph 3, the
            Assembly decided, inter alia, that the distribution of seats
            determined therein was to be reviewed within two years after the
            establishment of the Executive Board,

               "Requests the General Assembly during the first part of
            its fifty-third session to review the distribution of seats in the
            Executive Board of the World Food Programme with a view to
            achieving its final outcome in accordance with annex I,
            paragraphs 25 and 30 and other relevant provisions of
            General Assembly resolution 48/162."

         16.   For action by the Council, see paragraph 19 below.


         Issue of the review of the distribution of seats in the
         Executive Board of the World Food Programme

         17.   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the representative of
Lithuania, on behalf of the Eastern European States, introduced a draft
decision (E/1998/L.45) entitled "The issue of the review of the distribution
of seats in the Executive Board of the World Food Programme".

         18.   At the same meeting, on the proposal of the President,
the Council decided to waive rule 54 of its rules of procedure and then
adopted draft decision E/1998/L.45. See Council decision 1998/285.

         19.   In the light of the adoption of the draft decision, the
Council decided to postpone action on the draft resolution entitled "Input to
the implementation of General Assembly resolution 50/8" (E/1998/L.17) to the
resumed substantive session of the Council.

         20.   After the adoption of the draft decision, the observer
for Lithuania made a statement on behalf of the Eastern European States.


         Reporting of the United Nations funds and programmes to the
         Economic and Social Council

         21.   At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Vice-President of
the Council, Roble Olhaye (Djibouti), introduced a draft resolution
(E/1998/L.19) entitled "Reporting of the United Nations funds and programmes
to the Economic and Social Council", submitted on the basis of informal
consultations.

         22.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/27.

         23.   After the adoption of the draft resolution, statements
were made by the observers for Indonesia (on behalf of the States Members of
the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China) and Austria
(on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
European Union).


         Documents considered by the Council under agenda item 3 (c)

         24.   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July 1998, on the proposal
of the President, the Council took note of the documents submitted under the
agenda item. See Council decision 1998/286.


                                      Notes

1/ To be issued in Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
Supplement No. 16 (E/1998/36/Rev.1).

2/To be issued in Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
Supplement No. 15 (E/1998/35/Rev.1).

3/Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998, Supplement 
No. 17.


Chapter VI

         Coordination segment


         Coordination of the policies and activities of the specialized
         agencies and other bodies of the United Nations system related
         to the coordinated follow-up to and implementation of the
         Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action


         1. At its substantive session, the Council held a discussion
on coordination of the policies and activities of the specialized agencies and
other bodies of the United Nations system related to the coordinated follow-up
to and implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
(agenda item 4) at its 32nd, 33rd, 36th to 38th and 47th meetings on 17, 21,
22 and 31 July 1998. An account of the discussion is contained in the relevant
summary records (E/1998/SR.32, 33, 36-38 and 47). The Council had before
it the report of the Secretary-General on coordination of the policies and
activities of the specialized agencies and other bodies of the United Nations
system related to the coordinated follow-up to and implementation of the
Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (E/1998/60).


         Action taken by the Council


         2. At the 47th meeting, on 28 July, the Vice-President of the
Council, Francesco Paolo Fulci (Italy) introduced the draft agreed conclusions
(E/1998/L.23) on the coordinated follow-up to and implementation of the Vienna
Declaration and Programme of Action, submitted on the basis of informal
consultations.

         3. At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft agreed
conclusions, as orally corrected. The text read as follows:



         Agreed conclusions 1998/2


               "The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action 1/
            affirms that the promotion and protection of all human rights and
            fundamental freedoms must be considered as a priority objective of
            the United Nations in accordance with its purposes and principles,
            in particular the purpose of international cooperation. In
            the framework of these purposes and principles, the promotion and 
            protection of all human rights is a legitimate concern of the
            international community. The organs and specialized agencies
            related to human rights should further enhance the coordination
            of their activities based on the consistent and objective
            application of international human rights instruments.

               "All human rights are universal, indivisible,
            interdependent and interrelated. The international community must
            treat human rights globally in a fair and equal manner, on the
            same footing and with the same emphasis. While the significance of
            national and regional particularities and various historical,
            cultural and religious backgrounds must be borne in mind, it is
            the duty of States, regardless of their political, economic and
            cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and
            fundamental freedoms.

               "Taking place after the initial discussion on the
            implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
            during the fifty-fourth session of the Commission on Human Rights,
            the Economic and Social Council portion of the five-year review of
            the implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of
            Action is of particular importance to the ongoing efforts
            of the United Nations to increase system-wide coordinated
            follow-up to, and implementation of, the Vienna
            Declaration and Programme of Action. It will be followed,
            during the fifty-third session of the General Assembly, by the
            overall evaluation of the implementation of the recommendations
            adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights at Vienna.

               "The Economic and Social Council reaffirms the
            important role of non-governmental organizations in the promotion
            of all human rights and in humanitarian activities at the
            national, regional and international levels. The Council
            appreciates their contribution to increasing public
            awareness of human rights issues, to the conduct of education,
            training and research in this field, and to the promotion
            and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.


                   "I.   Increased system-wide coordinated follow-up
                         to and implementation of the Vienna Declaration and
                         Programme of Action

            "1.    The Economic and Social Council reaffirms the need
            for increased coordination in support of human rights and
            fundamental freedoms within the United Nations system. To this
            end, all United Nations organs, bodies and specialized agencies
            whose activities deal with human rights shall cooperate in order
            to strengthen, rationalize and streamline their activities, taking
            into account the need to avoid unnecessary duplication. The
            Council, reaffirming the United Nations system-wide approach to
            human rights, welcomes the fact that human rights are increasingly
            being promoted throughout the United Nations system. The Council
            calls on all components of the United Nations system to continue
            their efforts to increase system-wide coordination and
            inter-agency cooperation to promote all human rights,
            including gender-related aspects, in their activities. The Council
            reaffirms the responsibility of the United Nations High
            Commissioner for Human Rights for coordinating human rights
            promotion and protection activities throughout the United
            Nations system and supports her efforts to promote intra-system
            cooperation and coordination in this area, leading to a
            comprehensive and integrated approach to the promotion and
            protection of human rights based on the contribution of each of
            the United Nations organs, bodies and specialized agencies whose
            activities deal with human rights and on improved inter-agency
            cooperation and coordination. The Council calls upon United
            Nations departments, funds, programmes and specialized agencies,
            within their respective mandates, to participate actively in this
            process.

            "2.    Inter-agency consultations at the working level
            organized by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
            Rights, with the support of the Administrative Committee on
            Coordination, to prepare the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal
            Declaration of Human Rights and the five-year review of
            the implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of
            Action, should continue in the future as a forum for cooperation,
            covering various aspects of United Nations human rights
            activities.

            "3.    The Council recommends that the interrelationship
            and interdependence of democracy, development and respect for all
            human rights guide the United Nations Secretariat and other parts
            of the United Nations system when formulating policies
            or implementing programmes and activities in various areas,
            recognizing that consideration of economic, social and
            humanitarian issues would benefit from a perspective that takes
            fully into account all human rights.

            "4.    The Council calls upon its functional commissions,
            as well as the regional commissions and other organs, bodies and
            specialized agencies, within their respective mandates, to take
            all human rights fully into account in their respective
            activities.

            "5.    The Council emphasizes the need for a comprehensive
            and integrated approach to the promotion and protection of human
            rights based on effective coordination of efforts by United
            Nations bodies and specialized agencies. The Council reiterates
            the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action call for
            the high-level officials of United Nations bodies and agencies, at
            their annual meeting, not only to coordinate their activities but
            also to assess the impact of their strategies and policies on the
            enjoyment of all human rights.

            "6.    The Council reaffirms the importance of ensuring
            the universality, objectivity and non-selectivity of the
            consideration of human rights issues.

            "7.    The Council recommends that all components of the
            United Nations system active in the field coordinate, within their
            respective mandates, their projects in human rights and related
            areas. They should draw on the expertise of the Office of
            the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

            "8.    The Council requests the Secretary-General to
            continue and strengthen his efforts to recruit staff for the
            Secretariat, including staff for the Office of the United
            Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, with the
            paramount consideration being the necessity of securing the
            highest standards of efficiency, competence and integrity, and
            with due regard to the importance of recruiting the staff on as
            wide a geographical basis as possible, bearing in mind that the
            principle of equitable geographical distribution is compatible
            with the highest standards of efficiency, competence and
            integrity, as affirmed by the Commission on Human Rights in its
            report to the Special Commission of the Economic and
            Social Council. 2/ The Council also stresses the need for the
            consideration of gender balance for the recruitment of
            staff at all levels. The Council invites States parties to
            the human rights treaties to give due consideration to equitable
            geographical representation and gender balance when nominating and
            electing members of the human rights treaty bodies.

            "9.    The Council expresses its support for the system-wide human
            rights training of United Nations staff to increase and improve
            cross-sectoral knowledge and thus contribute to human rights
            awareness-building. Components of the United Nations system are
            encouraged to cooperate closely in this regard with the United
            Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

            "10.   The Council recognizes the necessity for the continuing
            adaptation of the United Nations human rights machinery to the
            current and future needs in the promotion and protection of human
            rights as reflected in the Vienna Declaration and Programme
            of Action. The Council reaffirms the recommendation of the
            World Conference on Human Rights that the States parties to
            international human rights instruments, the General Assembly and
            the Economic and Social Council should consider studying
            the existing human rights treaty bodies and the various
            thematic mechanisms and procedures, with a view to promoting
            greater efficiency and effectiveness through better coordination
            of the various bodies, mechanisms and procedures, taking into
            account the need to avoid unnecessary duplication and
            overlapping of their mandates and tasks. The Council takes note of
            the ongoing efforts of the General Assembly, the Commission on
            Human Rights and the Office of the United Nations High
            Commissioner for Human Rights, within their respective
            mandates, in this regard.

            "11.   The Council recognizes the need for increased
            regular budget resources for the expanded activities of the Office
            of the United Nations High Commissioner, in accordance with
            Commission on Human Rights resolution 1998/83. 3/ In this regard,
            the Council reiterates the request of the General Assembly
            to the Secretary-General, as contained in Assembly resolution
            48/141, to provide appropriate staff and resources from within the
            existing and future regular budgets of the United Nations,
            to enable the High Commissioner to fulfil her mandate,
            without diverting resources from the development programmes and
            activities of the United Nations.


                   "II.  Democracy   development   human rights and
                         the right to development and
                         the role of international cooperation

            "1.    The Economic and Social Council calls for
            consistent affirmation throughout the United Nations system of the
            interrelationship and interdependence between democracy,
            development and respect for all human rights and fundamental
            freedoms. The relationship between democracy, development and
            human rights should be taken fully into account in the policies
            and programmes of the United Nations system. The
            international community should support the strengthening
            and promotion of democracy, development and respect for all human
            rights and fundamental freedoms in the entire world. The Council
            reaffirms that the right to development as a universal
            and inalienable right is an integral part of fundamental
            human rights. As stated in the Declaration on the Right to
            Development, 4/ the human person is the central subject of
            development. The Council reaffirms the importance of effective
            international cooperation for the realization of the right
            to development and that progress towards the implementation of the
            right to development requires effective development policies at
            the national level, as well as equitable economic relations
            and a favourable economic environment at the international level.

            "2.    The Council urges the relevant components of the
            United Nations system to take further steps for the realization of
            the right to development and recalls the need for coordination and
            cooperation throughout the United Nations system for more
            effective promotion and realization of the right to development.
            The Council recommends to the relevant components of the United
            Nations system to enhance cooperation with a view to improving
            implementation of the right to development and to cooperate with
            the independent expert on the right to development and the
            working group on the right to development. The Council
            invites the Bretton Woods institutions and regional financial
            institutions to increase their participation in this process.

            "3.    The Council calls upon the United Nations system to
            increase its efforts to eradicate poverty in the framework of its
            overall efforts to promote all human rights. The Council calls for
            continuing focus of the United Nations system on implementing
            its agreed conclusions on system-wide efforts for the
            eradication of poverty, 5/ with particular emphasis on extreme
            poverty, bearing in mind that anti-poverty strategies
            contribute to the enjoyment of all human rights. The
            existence of widespread extreme poverty inhibits the full and
            effective enjoyment of human rights. The Council encourages the
            United Nations system, including the Bretton Woods institutions
            and regional financial institutions, to increase its efforts
            in this regard.

            "4.    The Council calls for increased coordination and
            cooperation throughout the United Nations system, with a view to
            supporting national and international efforts in the promotion and
            protection of economic, social and cultural rights within the
            framework of the indivisibility, interdependence and
            interrelated character of all human rights. The Council supports
            the efforts undertaken by the United Nations High Commissioner for
            Human Rights to promote the realization of economic, social
            and cultural rights and the right to development and to
            assist the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in
            fulfilling its function. The Council also calls upon components of
            the United Nations system to pay increased attention to the
            decisions of the Council and its functional commissions in
            the area of economic, social and cultural rights. The Council
            calls upon the components of the United Nations system to support
            the work of the mechanisms and procedures in the field
            of economic, social and cultural rights.

            "5.    The Council calls upon States to refrain from any
            unilateral measure not in accordance with international law and
            the Charter of the United Nations that creates obstacles to trade
            relations among States and impedes the full realization of the
            human rights set forth in the Universal Declaration of
            Human Rights 6/ and international human rights instruments, in
            particular the rights of everyone to a standard of living adequate
            for their health and well-being, including food and medical care,
            housing and the necessary social services. The Council affirms
            that food should not be used as a tool for political pressure.

            "6.    The Council calls on all parts of the United
            Nations system to support the strengthening and promotion of
            democracy, development and respect for human rights
            and fundamental freedoms in the entire world. The Council
            calls upon the Secretary-General to continue to improve the
            capacity of the United Nations system to respond
            effectively to the requests of Member States through
            coherent and adequate support of their efforts to achieve the
            goals of accountable and transparent governance and
            democratization.

            "7.    The Council calls on all States to adopt and
            vigorously implement existing conventions relating to the dumping
            of toxic and dangerous products and waste and
            to cooperate in the prevention of illicit dumping.

            "8.    The Council calls upon the international community
            to make all efforts to help alleviate the external debt burden of
            developing countries, in order to supplement the efforts of the
            Governments of such countries to attain the full realization of
            the economic, social and cultural rights of their people.


                   "III. Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and
                         related intolerance

            "1.    The Council calls on all relevant components of the
            United Nations system to strengthen their contribution to the
            efforts to eradicate racism, racial discrimination,
            xenophobia and related intolerance. Enhanced participation
            in the Programme of Action for the Third Decade to Combat Racism
            and Racial Discrimination 7/ should become the inter-agency tool
            to achieve improved results in this area. The Council
            calls on the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
            Rights to continue to coordinate all the activities of the Third
            Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, including
            through the establishment of an inter-agency mechanism
            for coordinating all the activities related to the Third
            Decade, in line with General Assembly resolution 52/111.

            "2.    The Council calls on all relevant components of the
            United Nations system to assist the preparatory committee and
            participate actively in the World Conference against Racism,
            Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, to be
            held not later than the year 2001, in accordance with
            General Assembly resolution 52/111 and Commission on Human Rights
            resolution 1998/26. 3/

            "3.    The Council encourages the United Nations system to
            elaborate a comprehensive approach to the elimination of racism,
            racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

            "4.    The Council recommends to the General Assembly to
            declare the year 2001 a year of mobilization against racism,
            racial discrimination, xenophobia and related
            intolerance aimed at drawing the world's attention to the
            objectives of the World Conference and to give new momentum to the
            political commitment.


                   "IV.  Equal status and human rights of women

            "1.    The Council welcomes progress made since the
            adoption of its agreed conclusions 1997/2 and calls for their
            implementation, as the framework of the comprehensive strategy to
            mainstream the gender perspective into all aspects of the
            work of the United Nations, applying at both the Headquarters and
            field levels, including women's political and economic
            empowerment.

            "2.    The Council welcomes the conclusions on the human
            rights of women, adopted by the Commission on the Status of Women
            at its forty-second session, 8/ which together with other
            conclusions adopted by the Commission, contribute to the
            accelerated implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action. 9/

            "3.    The Council calls for special efforts by the United
            Nations system to strengthen expertise concerning the equal status
            and human rights of women. The Council calls upon all entities of
            the United Nations system to further mainstream a gender
            perspective at all levels. Enhanced cooperation between
            the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
            Rights, the Division for the Advancement of Women, the United
            Nations Development Fund for Women, the United Nations
            International Research and Training Institute for the
            Advancement of Women, the United Nations Children's Fund and the
            United Nations Population Fund should be pursued. The Council
            welcomes the growing interaction between the Commission
            on the Status of Women and the Commission on Human Rights,
            including the holding of an interactive dialogue on the human
            rights of women, during the fifty-fourth session of the Commission
            on Human Rights.

            "4.    The Council emphasizes the importance of providing
            training in the human rights of women and gender mainstreaming to
            all United Nations personnel and officials at Headquarters and in
            the field, so that they recognize and deal with violations of the
            human rights of women and can fully integrate gender
            considerations into their work.

            "5.    The Council encourages United Nations bodies and
            agencies to increase cooperation with other organizations in
            developing activities to address, within their respective
            mandates, violations of the human rights of women and to promote
            the full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by
            women, including developing activities with other organizations,
            such as the International Organization for Migration, against
            trafficking in women and children, for purposes of sexual
            exploitation, including the exploitation of prostitution
            of women and girls. The Council welcomes the activities of many
            parts of the United Nations system to eradicate harmful
            traditional practices against women and girls and encourages
            continued coordination between them.

            "6.    The Council recommends to the General Assembly and
            requests the Commission on Human Rights to make explicit the
            integration of a gender perspective when establishing or renewing
            human rights mandates.

            "7.    The Council encourages the human rights treaty
            bodies to continue and increase consideration of the status and
            human rights of women in their deliberations and
            findings and to promote a better understanding of the
            rights contained in international human rights instruments and
            their particular significance to women. The Council
            encourages the human rights treaty bodies to include the
            gender factor in monitoring the implementation of international
            human rights instruments. The Council encourages the strengthening
            of coordination between the Committee on the Elimination of
            Discrimination against Women and the other human rights treaty
            bodies and encourages the human rights treaty bodies to
            coordinate their activities for monitoring the full enjoyment by
            women of their human rights.

            "8.    The Council welcomes the efforts of the United
            Nations to encourage the goal of universal ratification by all
            States of the Convention on the Elimination of All
            Forms of Discrimination against Women 10/ by the year 2000
            and encourages further steps for the achievement of this goal. The
            Council takes note of the work of the Committee on the Elimination
            of Discrimination against Women in reviewing the reservations to
            the Convention and urges States to withdraw reservations that are
            contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention or that are
            otherwise incompatible with international treaty law.


                   "V.   Those requiring special protection

               "The Council requests all components of the United
            Nations system to undertake, in close coordination and cooperation
            with one another, an assessment of the impact of their strategies
            and policies on the enjoyment of human rights by those requiring
            special protection.

            "1.    The Council stresses the importance of efforts by
            concerned United Nations organs, bodies, and specialized agencies
            for the promotion and protection of the rights of the child and
            recognizes that inter-agency cooperation in this respect is
            yielding positive results. The Council supports the
            rights-based approach adopted by the United Nations Children's
            Fund and encourages its further development. Greater international
            cooperation and further development of joint and/or coordinated
            efforts, as well as the involvement of all components of
            the United Nations system in the protection of the rights of the
            child, should be encouraged.

            "2.    The Council requests that human rights and
            humanitarian concerns relating to children affected by armed
            conflict and their protection be fully reflected in all United
            Nations activities, including peacekeeping and peace-building
            activities, and in this regard, requests the relevant United
            Nations bodies and specialized agencies, as well
            as the Committee on the Rights of the Child and other
            component bodies, to enhance their cooperation with the Special
            Representative of the Secretary-General for Children in Armed
            Conflict.

            "3.    The Council further requests the United Nations
            organs, bodies and specialized agencies to continue to address the
            exploitation and abuse of children, including female infanticide,
            harmful child labour, harmful traditional practices against the
            girl child, the sale of children and organs, child prostitution
            and child pornography, as well as other forms of sexual abuse.

            "4.    The Council welcomes the positive results of the
            cooperation between the Committee on the Rights of the Child and
            the United Nations Children's Fund.

            "5.    The Council reaffirms the commitment of the United
            Nations to continuing its efforts in encouraging the achievement
            of the goal of universal ratification of the Convention on the
            Rights of the Child, established by the World Summit for Children
            and reiterated in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action.

            "6.    The Council encourages relevant components of the
            United Nations system, within their mandates, as appropriate, to
            facilitate the negotiating process of the draft United Nations
            declaration on the rights of indigenous people by the working
            group of the Commission on Human Rights, including through
            workshops and seminars, as well as consideration of proposals for
            the possible establishment of a permanent forum for indigenous
            people within the United Nations system, to be discussed in
            the open-ended inter-sessional ad hoc working group of the
            Commission on Human Rights. The Council further encourages Member
            States to consider an early ratification of International Labour
            Organization Convention No. 169 concerning Indigenous and Tribal
            Peoples in independent countries.

            "7.    The Council requests the United Nations Development
            Programme and other components of the United Nations system, in
            cooperation with the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
            Rights as Coordinator of the International Decade of the World's
            Indigenous People, to ensure that their programmes address the
            rights of indigenous people. The Council encourages Member States
            to contribute to the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Indigenous
            Populations, established for projects related to the Decade. The
            Council encourages United Nations agencies, funds and
            programmes, in cooperation with Member States, to support
            the activities of the Decade, including through consideration of
            small grants for projects carried out by indigenous people.

            "8.    The Council urges States and the international
            community to promote and protect the rights of persons belonging
            to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic
            minorities, in accordance with the Declaration on the
            Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and
            Linguistic Minorities. 11/ The Council welcomes the inter-agency
            consultations of the Office of the United Nations High
            Commissioner for Human Rights with United Nations programmes and
            agencies on minority issues. The Council further endorses the
            continuation of inter-agency consultations on minority issues with
            a view to enhancing the exchange of information, including through
            the Working Group on Minorities of the Subcommission on Prevention
            of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, and ensuring
            increased participation of minorities in programmes and projects
            that affect them.

            "9.    The Council further encourages Member States to
            consider early ratification of the International Convention on the
            Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of
            Their Families, 12/ which has not yet entered into force
            owing to the insufficient number of ratifications.

            "10.   The Council encourages its subsidiary bodies and
            other relevant components of the United Nations system to enhance
            their contribution in the promotion and protection of the rights
            of persons with disabilities and to ensure that their
            programmes address the needs of persons with disabilities.
            Furthermore, the Council calls upon the United Nations system and,
            in particular, its funds, programmes and specialized agencies to
            integrate the rights of persons with disabilities into all their
            activities, including through inter-agency consultations
            on disability issues with a view to enhancing the exchange of
            information, and ensuring increased participation of persons with
            disabilities in the programmes and projects that affect them. The
            Council welcomes the interaction between the Special
            Rapporteur on Disability of the Commission for Social Development
            with the Commission on Human Rights and the Committee on the
            Rights of the Child. The Council also encourages the Division
            for Social Policy and Development of the Department of
            Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat to
            enhance the promotion of the World Programme of Action concerning
            Disabled Persons 13/ and to assist Governments, at their
            request, in the implementation of national standards for
            their protection.

            "11.   The Council calls on relevant components of the
            United Nations to strengthen efforts to develop a comprehensive
            approach to the problems of refugees that includes
            the development of strategies to address the root causes
            and effects of the movement of refugees, and to strengthen
            emergency preparedness and response mechanisms and protection and
            assistance for refugees, particularly women and children. The
            Council stresses the need to search for durable solutions
            to the problems of refugees primarily through the preferred
            solution of dignified and safe voluntary repatriation,
            including solutions such as those adopted by the international
            refugee conferences. In this regard, the Council stresses the need
            to ensure international cooperation in the spirit of international
            solidarity and burden sharing, bearing in mind the relevant
            international instruments, in particular the Universal
            Declaration of Human Rights, 6/ the 1951 Convention 14/ and the
            1967 Protocol 15/ relating to the Status of Refugees. The Council
            calls upon all States to support the work of the United Nations
            High Commissioner for Refugees in order to ensure that the
            needs of refugees, returnees and displaced persons of concern to
            the Office of the High Commissioner are fully met.

            "12.   The Council commends the Representative of the
            Secretary-General for his efforts to promote a comprehensive
            strategy that focuses on prevention, as well as better protection,
            assistance and development for internally displaced persons and,
            in this regard, notes the progress achieved to date in
            developing a legal framework. The Council notes with satisfaction
            the designation of the Emergency Relief Coordinator as the focal
            point for inter-agency coordination of humanitarian
            assistance to internally displaced persons. The Council
            encourages all relevant humanitarian assistance and development
            organizations to enhance their collaboration by developing
            frameworks of cooperation to promote protection, assistance and
            development for internally displaced persons.

            "13.   The Council calls upon the United Nations High
            Commissioner for Human Rights, the Joint and Co-sponsored United
            Nations Programme on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired
            Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and its co-sponsors to
            provide technical assistance to States, upon their request, for
            the promotion and protection of human rights in the context of
            HIV/AIDS.


      "VI.  Technical cooperation, human rights education and information

            "1.    The Council welcomes the increasing number of
            requests from Member States for technical assistance in the field
            of human rights undertaken by the Office of the United Nations
            High Commissioner for Human Rights and other parts of the United
            Nations system, within their respective mandates. The Council
            reaffirms that advisory services and technical assistance in the
            field of human rights, which shall be provided upon the request of
            the State concerned, require close cooperation and coordination
            between United Nations bodies and all specialized agencies
            active in the field so as to enhance the effectiveness and
            efficiency of their respective programmes and to promote all human
            rights. This cooperation shall be based on the respective
            comparative advantages for the provision of technical assistance
            in the field of human rights. The Council reaffirms that
            cooperation should be based on dialogue and transparency,
            involving all relevant actors.

            "2.    The Council reiterates that special emphasis should
            be given to measures to assist in the strengthening and building
            of institutions relating to human rights, the strengthening of a
            pluralistic civil society and the protection of groups that have
            been rendered vulnerable. In this context, assistance provided
            upon the request of Governments for the conduct of free and fair
            elections, including assistance in the human rights aspects of
            elections and public information about elections, is of
            particular importance. Equally important is the assistance
            to be given to the strengthening of the rule of law, the promotion
            of freedom of expression and the administration of justice, and to
            the real and effective participation of the people in
            the decision-making processes.

            "3.    The Council reiterates the recommendation of the
            World Conference concerning the assignment of human rights
            officers to regional offices of the United Nations to
            assist in the dissemination of information, training and
            other technical assistance in the field of human rights. The
            Council takes note with interest of the experiences of
            those countries where, upon the request of Governments
            concerned, human rights officers are becoming an integral part of
            United Nations country teams to provide input in the formulation
            and implementation of their respective programmes.

            "4.    The Council encourages the human rights treaty
            bodies, special rapporteurs and special representatives as well as
            working groups, to continue to identify possibilities for
            technical assistance that could be provided at the request of the
            State concerned.

            "5.    The Council welcomes the important work being done
            by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
            Organization, the Department of Public Information of the United
            Nations Secretariat and the Office of the United Nations
            High Commissioner for Human Rights in the implementation
            of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education and calls
            for renewed system-wide efforts to strengthen the contribution to
            the implementation of the goals of the Decade by allocating
            appropriate human and financial resources.

            "6.    The Council encourages relevant departments of the
            Secretariat and other components of the United Nations system, as
            provided for by the Plan of Action for the Decade, 16/to designate
            a human rights education liaison officer to work with the Office
            of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in the
            development of educational activities relating to human rights in
            the area of their competence.

            "7.    The Council recommends that the General Assembly
            reiterate its full support for the World Public Information
            Campaign on Human Rights proclaimed in 1988 and allocate adequate
            resources for its effective performance, and calls upon the
            Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to
            coordinate the substantive aspects of the campaign.


                      "VII.  Implementation

            "1.    The Council urges Governments to incorporate in
            their domestic legislation standards as contained in international
            human rights instruments and to strengthen national structures,
            institutions and organs of society which play a role in promoting
            and safeguarding human rights. The Council affirms that
            relevant specialized agencies and bodies and institutions of the
            United Nations system, as well as other relevant intergovernmental
            organizations whose activities deal with human rights, play a
            vital role in the formulation, promotion and implementation of
            human rights standards, within their respective mandates.

            "2.    The Council supports the efforts of the United
            Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to encourage the
            ratification of all international human rights treaties
            by all States during the next five years, as a means to
            achieve the goal of universal ratification of international human
            rights treaties and protocols adopted within the framework of the
            United Nations system. The Office of the High Commissioner and
            other components of the United Nations system should provide
            assistance, upon request and within their respective mandates, to
            Governments in the process of ratifying such instruments and the
            preparation of initial reports. The Council calls on the
            Secretary-General and the High Commissioner to disseminate
            information on the work of the human rights treaty bodies.

            "3.    The Council welcomes the contribution to the work
            of the human rights treaty bodies made by the specialized agencies
            and United Nations bodies, and encourages the specialized agencies
            and United Nations bodies, the Office of the High Commissioner and
            the persons chairing the human rights treaty bodies to continue
            to explore specific measures to intensify the cooperation
            among them, and also encourages, in this context, meetings of the
            persons chairing the human rights treaty bodies to invite, when
            appropriate, senior representatives of the specialized agencies
            and United Nations bodies to attend their meeting.

            "4.    The Council reiterates the important role of the
            Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in
            coordinating system-wide attention for human rights. In this
            context, the Council calls on relevant components of the United
            Nations system to increase cooperation with the Office of
            the High Commissioner. The Council encourages the High
            Commissioner, within her mandate as set out in General Assembly
            resolution 48/141, to continue to play an active role in promoting
            and protecting human rights, including by preventing human
            rights violations throughout the world. The Council notes with
            interest the increase in the number of human rights field
            operations throughout the world and encourages the High
            Commissioner to consider their further improvement in
            cooperation with other relevant components of the United Nations
            system.

            "5.    The Council recommends that each State consider the
            desirability of drawing up a national plan of action identifying
            steps whereby that State would improve the promotion and
            protection of human rights. In this regard, the Council encourages
            the relevant components of the United Nations system to provide
            assistance at the request of Member States for the adoption and
            implementation of national plans of action in the field of human
            rights.


       "VIII. Interaction between implementation of the Vienna Declaration and
              Programme of Action and outcomes of other United Nations
              conferences and summits

               "The Council reiterates that the implementation of the
            Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action is an integral part of
            the coordinated follow-up to major conferences and summits
            convened by the United Nations. The Vienna Declaration
            and Programme of Action, together with outcomes of the
            other major conferences and summits organized by the United
            Nations, shall be further integrated into the programme of work of
            all organizations of the United Nations system."

         4. Statements were made by the representatives of Brazil and
Lebanon and by the observer for the Syrian Arab Republic.


         Report of the Secretary-General on the coordination of the
         policies and activities of the specialized agencies and other bodies
         of the United Nations system related to the coordinated follow-up to
         and implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action

         5. Also at the 47th meeting, on the proposal of the President, the
Council took note of the report of the Secretary-General on the coordination
of the policies and activities of the specialized agencies and other bodies of
the United Nations system related to the coordinated follow-up to and
implementation of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. See Council
decision 1998/287.


                                       Notes

1/  A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), chap. III.

2/  E/CN.4/1998/85 and Corr.1.

3/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
Supplement No. 3 (E/1998/23).

4/  General Assembly resolution 41/128.

5/  Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-first Session,
Supplement No. 3 (A/51/3/Rev.1), chap. III, para. 2, agreed
conclusions 1996/1.

6/  General Assembly resolution 217 A (III).

7/  General Assembly resolution 49/146.

8/  See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
Supplement No. 7 (E/1998/27), chap. I, sect. B.

9/  Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-
15 September 1995 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.96.IV.13),
chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.

10/ General Assembly resolution 34/180, annex.

11/ General Assembly resolution 47/135

12/ General Assembly resolution 45/158.

13/ General Assembly resolution 37/52.

14/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 189, No. 2545.

15/ Ibid., vol. 606, No. 8791.

16/ A/49/261/Add.1-E/1994/110/Add.1, annex


Chapter VII

         Humanitarian affairs segment


         Special economic, humanitarian and disaster relief assistance


         1. At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of special economic, humanitarian and disaster relief assistance
(agenda item 5) at its 28th to 32nd meetings, from 14 to 17 July 1998. An
account of the discussion is contained in the relevant summary records
(E/1998/SR.28-32). The Council had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Report of the Secretary-General on strengthening of
the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations
(A/53/139-E/1998/67);

            (b)    Letter dated 9 July 1998 from the Permanent
Representative of Azerbaijan to the United Nations addressed to the
Secretary-General (A/53/172-E/1998/86).

         2. At its 29th meeting, on 15 July, the Council held an
informal dialogue with the executive and deputy executive heads of the
Inter-Agency Steering Committee and the Executive Committee for Humanitarian
Affairs.

         3. At its 30th and 31st meetings, on 16 July, the Council
held an informal dialogue on natural disasters and on complex emergencies with
the participation of a number of United Nations resident and humanitarian
coordinators. An account of the discussion is contained in the relevant
summary records.


         Action taken by the Council


         4. At the 32nd meeting, on 17 July, the Vice-President of the
Council, Alyaksandr Sychou (Belarus), introduced the draft agreed conclusions
on special economic, humanitarian and disaster relief assistance
(E/1998/L.15).

         5. At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft agreed
conclusions as set out below.


         Agreed conclusions 1998/1


            "1.    The Economic and Social Council is addressing the
            theme of  Strengthening of the coordination of humanitarian
            activities of the United Nations system' in its first humanitarian
            segment. Previous relevant resolutions, in particular General
            Assembly resolution 46/182 of 19 December 1991 and its
            annex, including the guiding principles contained therein, provide
            the basis of this discussion.

            "2.    The Council takes note of the report of the
            Secretary-General on strengthening of the coordination of
            emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations
            (A/53/139-E/1998/67). It welcomes progress made in
            strengthening the coordination of humanitarian assistance of the
            United Nations, and wishes to give guidance for
            further developments in this direction.

            "3.    The Council reiterates the need for coordinated
            humanitarian assistance and adequate financial resources to ensure
            an ongoing capacity for a prompt, timely and effective response by
            the United Nations system to natural disasters and other
            emergencies, both for immediate relief and for the smooth
            transition between relief, rehabilitation, reconstruction and
            long-term development, which are not necessarily sequential and
            often proceed at the same time.

            "4.    The Council reaffirms that humanitarian operations
            are generally implemented through close cooperation among
            Governments and the United Nations, its agencies,
            other international organizations and non-governmental
            organizations. Each State has the responsibility first and
            foremost to take care of the victims of natural disasters
            and other emergencies occurring on its territory. Hence,
            the affected State has the primary role in the initiation,
            organization, coordination and implementation of
            humanitarian assistance within its territory. The
            magnitude and duration of many emergencies may be beyond the
            response capacity of many affected countries.
            International cooperation to address emergency situations
            and strengthen the response capacity of affected countries is thus
            of great importance. Such cooperation should be provided in
            accordance with international law and national laws.
            Intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations
            working impartially and with strictly humanitarian motives should
            continue to make a significant contribution in supplementing
            national efforts.

            "5.    The Council is concerned by the growing number of
            natural disasters and environmental emergencies which often strike
            countries that lack the resources to cope with them adequately.

            "6.    The Council affirms its support for the principles
            and norms of international humanitarian law, and stresses the
            urgent need to ensure respect for and promotion of these
            principles and norms. The Council is also concerned by the
            increasingly difficult context in which humanitarian assistance in
            some areas takes place, in particular the continuous erosion, in
            many cases, of the respect for international humanitarian law and
            principles, through deliberate violence both against civilians,
            particularly women and children, and aid workers. The Council
            welcomes the continued efforts of the Special Representative of
            the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict to prevent
            the targeting of women and children in conflict situations, stop
            the recruitment and use of children as soldiers in hostilities in
            violation of international law, and support the demobilization and
            reintegration of child soldiers. The Council notes the importance
            of engaging a much wider segment of civil society in raising
            awareness for humanitarian issues and respect for international
            humanitarian law and principles, and in supporting humanitarian
            programmes.

            "7.    The Council reaffirms General Assembly resolution
            52/167 of 16 December 1997 on the safety and security  of
            humanitarian personnel, in which the Assembly calls upon all
            Governments and parties in complex humanitarian emergencies, in
            particular armed conflicts and post-conflict situations, in
            countries where humanitarian personnel are operating, in
            conformity with the relevant provisions of international law and
            national laws, to ensure the safe and unhindered access of
            humanitarian personnel in order to allow them to perform
            efficiently their task of assisting the affected civilian
            population, including refugees and internally displaced persons.
            The Council also reaffirms the necessity for all humanitarian
            personnel to respect the national laws of the countries in
            which they are operating.

            "8.    The Emergency Relief Coordinator, in cooperation
            with the Division for the Advancement of Women of the United
            Nations Secretariat, should ensure that a gender perspective is
            fully integrated into humanitarian activities and policies.

            "9.    The Council welcomes the efforts undertaken by the
            Secretary-General to strengthen the coordination of humanitarian
            assistance of the United Nations system, in particular through the
            creation of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian
            Affairs, with its three core functions of policy development and
            coordination, advocacy of humanitarian issues and coordination of
            humanitarian emergency response, as well as the guiding objectives
            of the Office in implementing the reforms. It fully supports the
            leadership role of the Emergency Relief Coordinator for the
            ongoing coordination of humanitarian assistance activities
            and prioritization of programmes within United Nations
            Consolidated Appeals. The Council notes that the Office for the
            Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs is responsible for sharing
            all relevant information with the United Nations Mine
            Action Service, the focal point within the United Nations system
            for all mine-related activities, and other partners on the
            humanitarian implications of landmines, and will work to ensure
            that humanitarian needs are met as an integral component of the
            overall humanitarian endeavour.

            "10.   The Council commends the Inter-Agency Standing
            Committee (IASC) under the leadership of the Emergency Relief
            Coordinator as the primary mechanism for inter-agency coordination
            for its efforts to achieve coherent coordination structures
            at the field level and to promote, at the inter-agency level, a
            clear division of responsibilities and ensure accountability, as
            well as for improving the reporting modalities by the funds and
            programmes on their humanitarian assistance activities.
            The Council welcomes the use of inter-agency negotiating
            teams led by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian
            Affairs, to advocate the respect of humanitarian principles in the
            field and the development of contingency planning.

            "11.   The Council notes with satisfaction the designation
            of the Emergency Relief Coordinator as the focal point for
            inter-agency coordination of humanitarian assistance to internally
            displaced persons (IDPs), and also notes the adoption by
            IASC of the guiding principles on IDPs, and encourages the
            Emergency Relief Coordinator, in fulfilling this function, to work
            closely with all agencies and organizations involved, in
            particular with the Representative of the Secretary-General
            on IDPs, who will report to the Commission of Human Rights
            on his efforts and on the views expressed to him on these guiding
            principles.

            "12.   The Council shares the view of the Secretary-General that
            the resident coordinator should normally coordinate the
            humanitarian assistance activities of the United Nations by
            assuming the dual function of resident/humanitarian coordinator.
            Other mechanisms, namely the appointment of a humanitarian
            coordinator distinct from the resident coordinator and the
            designation of a lead agency as well as the appointment of a
            regional coordinator, might be justified under appropriate
            circumstances. The Council fully supports enhanced efforts
            to clarify the parameters of authority for the
            resident/humanitarian coordinator functions, the establishment
            of selection criteria and procedures, and specific training and
            performance review mechanisms for humanitarian coordinators, and
            encourages the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
            and IASC to pursue these goals vigorously. The Council encourages
            all United Nations funds and programmes to cooperate fully
            in developing and maintaining a roster of qualified candidates.

            "13.   The Council calls upon the Secretary-General to
            develop emergency rules and procedures to ensure a rapid response
            to humanitarian crises, as requested in General Assembly
            resolution 46/182.

            "14.   The Council welcomes the emphasis in the report of
            the Secretary-General on the issues of natural disasters and
            environmental emergencies, and reaffirms the importance it
            attaches to this aspect of the Emergency Relief Coordinator's
            mandate. The Council reaffirms that disaster reduction forms an
            integral part of the sustainable development strategies and
            national development plans of vulnerable countries and
            communities. The Council stresses that disaster preparedness and
            early warning must be further strengthened at country and regional
            levels, inter alia, through better coordination among relevant
            United Nations bodies and cooperation with interested
            Governments, regional organizations and other relevant
            sectors, in order to maximize the effectiveness of natural
            disaster response, in particular in developing countries.
            Particular efforts should be undertaken to enhance local
            capacity in disaster response, as well as to utilize capacities
            already existing in developing countries which may
            be available closer to the site of a disaster and at lower
            cost. The Council commends the work of the United Nations Disaster
            Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) teams in providing rapid need
            assessments and facilitating the coordination of disaster
            response. The Council takes note that a review of the
            International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) will
            take place at the substantive session of 1999 of the Council.

            "15.   The Council commends the Emergency Relief Coordinator for
            his efforts in implementing General Assembly resolution 52/200
            entitled "International cooperation to reduce the impact of the El
            Nin~o phenomenon" and invites the United Nations
            Inter-agency Task Force on El Nin~o to provide its experiences on
            national capacity programmes for disaster management as an input
            to the development of the disaster reduction strategy for the
            twenty-first century.

            "16.   The Council recognizes the contributions made by
            donor Governments to the United Nations Trust Fund for Disaster
            Relief Assistance and notes that the unearmarked contributions to
            the reserve of this Trust Fund could usefully be increased, and
            therefore strongly encourages further contributions to this
            reserve.

            "17.   The Council recognizes that the phases of relief,
            rehabilitation, reconstruction and development are generally not
            consecutive but often overlap and occur simultaneously. It also
            recognizes that a 'relief/development gap' may occur in
            countries emerging from crisis which may be addressed,
            inter alia, through a strategic framework, to be developed in
            consultation with Governments. The Council notes the need to
            develop, through a strategic framework, when appropriate, a
            comprehensive approach to countries in crisis, in which
            key aspects of durable recovery, peace-building, all human rights,
            sustained economic growth and sustainable development, in
            accordance with the relevant resolutions of the General
            Assembly and recent United Nations conferences, are included. The
            development of such a comprehensive approach must involve national
            authorities as well as the United Nations system, donors and
            intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. National
            authorities must take a leading role in all aspects of the
            recovery plan. In this context, the Council welcomes the
            recognition by the World Bank of the need for its entry into an
            early dialogue with humanitarian agencies and to participate from
            the outset in effective coordination mechanisms in relation to
            countries emerging from crisis. The Council stresses that
            strengthening capacities to enable societies in post-conflict
            situations to manage their own affairs is a critical
            factor for recovery and development. In this context, the
            roles and responsibilities of Governments are important.

            "18.   The Council underlines that the consolidated appeal
            process (CAP) remains the principal resource mobilization tool for
            humanitarian assistance. The Council stresses the importance of
            ensuring adequate funding for humanitarian activities, in
            particular of consolidated appeals. It welcomes efforts to
            prioritize needs and to enhance capabilities so as to better take
            into account linkages with development-oriented activities which
            should continue to be intensified. It underlines that the
            consolidated appeals process should be carried out in full
            collaboration with United Nations bodies and other relevant
            humanitarian organizations, international financial
            institutions, donors and host Governments as an important
            step towards a more integrated and strategic approach. It stresses
            that contributions to humanitarian assistance should not be
            provided at the expense of development assistance. The
            Council encourages the efforts to improve the format and
            structure of the CAP so as to make them effective programming
            instruments for the purpose of strategic planning. The Council
            further stresses that strengthened United Nations humanitarian
            activities must be supported by adequate responses to all
            United Nations humanitarian appeals. Broadening the base of the
            donors may contribute to an increased response to appeals. The
            Council stresses that the response to international appeals should
            not be overly influenced by the levels of media interest, and
            must be commensurate with the needs of the affected population.

            "19.   The Council invites the Secretary-General to submit
            to the General Assembly at its fifty-third session, for its
            consideration, his proposals for putting the Office for
            the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs on a sound
            financial basis for the coordination of humanitarian assistance
            activities.

            "20.   The Council stresses the importance of ensuring an
            overall accountability of humanitarian actors. It supports the
            development by IASC of a field-based system for strategic
            monitoring which will help assess how programme targets and
            strategic objectives are being met.

            "21.   The Council affirms the importance of discussion of
            policies and activities in the humanitarian area in the Council
            and the General Assembly. The Council requests the
            Secretary-General, in consultation with Governments,
            to recommend, at its organizational session, ways in which the
            humanitarian segment may be enhanced so as to strengthen the role
            of the Council as regards the coordination and policy
            guidance of United Nations system humanitarian activities,
            taking fully into account the outcome and views expressed by
            Member States during the substantive session of 1998 of the
            Council.

            "22.   The Council requests the Secretary-General to
            report to the Council at its next humanitarian segment on the
            implementation of/follow-up to these agreed conclusions."


Chapter VIII

         General segment


             A.    Integrated and coordinated implementation of and
                   follow-up to major United Nations conferences and summits


         1. At is substantive session, the Council considered the
question of integrated and coordinated implementation of and follow-up to
major United Nations conferences and summits (agenda item 6) at its 42nd and
47th meetings, on 27 and 31 July 1998. An account of the discussion is
contained in the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.42 and 47). The
Council had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Report of the Secretary-General on integrated and
coordinated implementation and follow-up of major United Nations conferences
and summits (E/1998/19);

            (b)    Report of the Secretary-General on the
implementation of the agreed conclusions of the 1997 coordination segment of
the Economic and Social Council on freshwater, including clean and safe water
supply and sanitation (E/1998/56);

            (c)    Report of the Secretary-General on the
implementation of the agreed conclusions of the 1997 coordination segment of
the Economic and Social Council on mainstreaming the gender perspective into
all policies and programmes of the United Nations system (E/1998/64);

            (d)    Statement of commitment of the Administrative
Committee on Coordination for action to eradicate poverty (E/1998/73).


         Action taken by the Council


         2. Under agenda item 6, the Council adopted resolutions
1998/43 and 1998/44 and decisions 1998/288 and 1998/290.


         Mainstreaming the gender perspective into all policies and
         programmes in the United Nations system

         3. At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the President of the
Council introduced a draft resolution (E/1998/L.32) entitled "Mainstreaming
the gender perspective into all policies and programmes in the United Nations
system", submitted on the basis of informal consultations.

         4. At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/43.

         5. Before the adoption of the draft resolution, statements
were made by the observers for Indonesia (on behalf of the States Members of
the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China) and Austria
(on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
European Union).

         6. After the adoption of the draft resolution, the
representative of Germany made a statement.


         Integrated and coordinated implementation and follow-up of
         major United Nations conferences and summits

         7. At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the President of the
Council introduced a draft resolution (E/1998/L.42) entitled "Integrated and
coordinated implementation and follow-up of major United Nations conferences
and summits, submitted on the basis of informal consultations.

         8. At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/44.

         9. After the adoption of the draft resolution, statements
were made by the representatives of Canada, the United States of America,
Japan and Chile and by the observers for Austria (on behalf of the States
Members of the United Nations that are members of the European Union) and
Indonesia (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group of 77 and China).


         Basic indicators for the integrated and coordinated
         implementation and follow-up of the major United Nations conferences
         and summits in the economic, social and related fields

         10.   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the President of the
Council introduced a draft decision (E/1998/L.41) entitled "Basic indicators
for the integrated and coordinated implementation and follow-up of the major
United Nations conferences and summits in the economic, social and related
fields", submitted on the basis of informal consultations.

         11.   At the same meeting, the representative of Mexico
corrected the draft decision.

         12.   After statements by the representatives of India and
Mexico, the Council adopted the draft decision. See Council decision 1998/290.

         13.   After the adoption of the draft decision, statements
were made by the representative of India and by the observer for Indonesia (on
behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the
Group of 77 and China).


         Documents considered by the Economic and Social Council in
         connection with integrated and coordinated implementation of and
         follow-up to major United Nations conferences and summits

         14.   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Council, on the
proposal of the President, took note of documents considered in connection
with integrated and coordinated implementation of and follow-up to major
United Nations conferences and summits. See Council decision 1998/288.


             B.    Coordination, programme and other questions


         15.   At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of coordination, programme and other questions (agenda item 7) at its
41st, 42nd and 44th to 47th meetings, on 24 and 27 to 31 July 1998. An account
of the discussion is contained in the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.41,
42 and 44-47). It had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Proposed revisions to the medium-term plan for the
period 1998-2001 (A/53/6);

            (b)    Report of the Committee for Programme and
Coordination on the first part of its thirty-eighth session (A/53/16 (Part I)
and Corr.1); 1/

            (c)    Report of the Secretary-General on preventive
action and intensification of the struggle against malaria and diarrhoeal
diseases, in particular cholera (E/1998/20);

            (d)    Annual overview report of the Administrative
Committee on Coordination for 1997 (E/1998/21);

            (e)    Report of the Secretary-General on international
cooperation in the field of informatics (E/1998/44);

            (f)    Note by the Secretary-General transmitting the
report of the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization on preparations for the International Year of Peace,
2000 (E/1998/52);

            (g)    Report of the Secretary-General on the proclamation
of an international year of mountains (E/1998/68);

            (h)    Letter dated 26 June 1998 from the Permanent
Representative of Kyrgyzstan to the United Nations addressed to the
Secretary-General (E/1998/80);

            (i)    Letter dated 30 June 1998 from the Permanent
Representative of Bangladesh to the United Nations addressed to the President
of the Economic and Social Council, conveying a proposal to proclaim 2005 an
international year of microcredit (E/1998/83);

            (j)    Letter dated 8 July 1998 from the Permanent
Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations addressed to the President of
the Economic and Social Council (E/1998/85).


         Action taken by the Council


         16.   Under agenda item 7, the Council adopted resolutions
1998/28 to 1998/31, 1998/36, 1998/37 and 1998/45 and decision 1998/289.


         International Year of Microcredit, 2005

         17.   At the 42nd meeting, on 27 July, the representative of
Bangladesh, also on behalf of the Bahamas*, Belarus, Bolivia*, Burkina Faso*,
Burundi*, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica*, Co^te d'Ivoire*, the
Democratic Republic of the Congo*, the Dominican Republic*, El Salvador,
Eritrea*, Fiji*, Guyana, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of)*, Italy, Japan,
Kazakhstan*, Kenya*, Lesotho, Malawi*, Malaysia*, Mauritius, Morocco*,
Namibia*, Nepal*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama*, Peru*, the Philippines*,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines*, Senegal*, Sri Lanka, the Sudan*, the
Syrian Arab Republic*, Thailand*, Tunisia, the United Republic of Tanzania*
and Vanuatu*, introduced a draft resolution (E/1998/L.25 and Corr.1) entitled
"International Year of Microcredit, 2005". Subsequently Azerbaijan*, Benin*,
the Central African Republic, Djibouti, the Gambia, Indonesia*, Jordan,
Mongolia*, Pakistan, Slovenia, Spain, the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia* and Viet Nam joined in sponsoring the draft resolution.

         18.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council adopted
the draft resolution. See Council resolution 1998/28.

         19.   Before the adoption of the draft resolution, the
representative of Bangladesh made a statement.


              1.   Reports of coordination bodies

         20.   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Council took note
of the report of the Committee for Programme and Coordination on the first
part of its thirty-eighth session, and the annual overview report of the
Administrative Committee on Coordination for 1997. See Council decision
1998/289.


         2.   Malaria and diarrhoeal diseases, in particular cholera

         21.   At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the observer for
Indonesia*, on behalf of the States members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group of 77 and China, introduced a draft resolution
(E/1998/L.30) entitled "Malaria and diarrhoeal diseases, in particular
cholera", which read as follows:

               "The Economic and Social Council,

               "Reaffirming the agreed conclusions of the coordination
            segment of its substantive session of 1993,

               "Recalling its resolutions 1994/34 of 29 July 1994 and
            1995/63 of 28 July 1995 and General Assembly resolutions 49/135 of
            19 December 1994 and 50/128 of 20 December 1995,

               "Noting with concern that malaria and diarrhoeal
            diseases remain prevalent in developing countries, especially in
            Africa, and also noting their dire consequences for health and
            development in Africa,

               "Recognizing that these diseases especially afflict
            people living in poverty, that effective and affordable means of
            preventing and treating them are available and that combating them
            is an effective and essential element in eradicating poverty and
            fostering development,

               "Noting the leadership role in global malaria control
            given to the World Health Organization in General Assembly
            resolution 49/135 and Economic and Social Council resolution
            1995/63, and the role of the World Health Organization in
            directing and coordinating international efforts to
            prevent and control these diseases,

               "Acknowledging the important contributions of the
            United Nations funds and programmes and the role of the United
            Nations Children's Fund and other bodies of the United Nations,
            non-governmental organizations and a wide variety of
            individuals and organizations in controlling these diseases,

               "Noting in particular the critical role of industry in
            supporting research and development of vaccines, drugs and
            diagnostic tests that will further improve the efficacy of control
            efforts and the catalytic role being played by the United Nations
            Development Programme, the World Bank and the Special Programme
            for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases of the World Health
            Organization in supporting industry,

               "Warmly acknowledging the statement supporting malaria
            prevention and control made during the summit meeting of the Heads
            of State of the Group of Eight, held in Birmingham in May 1998,
            and the pledge of 60 million pounds in support of the Roll Back
            Malaria initiative of the World Health Organization,

               "1. Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General on
            preventive action and intensification of the struggle against
            malaria and diarrhoeal diseases, in particular cholera;

               "2. Supports the actions taken in 1997 and 1998 with
            respect to malaria prevention and control in the context of
            African economic recovery and development by the Assembly of Heads
            of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity;

               "3. Appreciates the actions taken to strengthen
            research in endemic countries of Africa under the Multilateral
            Initiative on Malaria in Africa, an initiative widely
            supported by members of the international development
            community and by scientists within those endemic countries;

               "4. Endorses the Roll Back Malaria initiative of the
            World Health Organization supporting the existing African
            initiative on malaria;

               "5. Requests the United Nations, and appeals to
            international organizations, multilateral financial institutions,
            the specialized agencies, organs and programmes of the United
            Nations system, non-governmental organizations, the private sector
            and other groups, to join as partners in this initiative
            by, inter alia, contributing technical and financial support;

               "6. Notes that vaccines provide some of the most
            effective means of preventing disease and that vaccine
            development, although now made more feasible by multiple
            developments in the field of biotechnology, remains a difficult
            and long-term task highly deserving of increased financial
            support;

               "7. Stresses the importance of adopting national plans
            of action in conformity with the Global Malaria Control Strategy
            of the World Health Organization in countries where malaria is
            endemic;

               "8. Urges international development partners, in
            collaboration with private industry, to intensify their efforts to
            develop and widely distribute vaccines and other remedies against
            malaria and diarrhoeal diseases, including cholera;

               "9. Calls upon the international community, in
            particular the donor countries, to expand financial resources as
            well as other assistance including medical and technical
            assistance to the affected developing countries, in particular the
            African countries, for the implementation of work plans and
            projects in this field;

               "10.   Urges the Director-General of the World Health
            Organization to continue to provide, in collaboration with the
            United Nations Children's Fund and other concerned United Nations
            agencies and programmes and other relevant international
            organizations such as International Centre for Diarrhoeal
            Diseases Research and the International Vaccine Institute,
            technical expertise and support to endemic countries;

               "11.   Requests the Secretary-General to submit a
            progress report to the Economic and Social Council at its
            substantive session of 1999 on the implementation
            of the present resolution, to be prepared in collaboration
            with the Director-General of the World Health Organization and
            other relevant organizations, organs, bodies and programmes of the
            United Nations system."

         22.   At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Vice-President of
the Council, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (Bangladesh), introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.37) entitled "Malaria and diarrhoeal diseases, in
particular cholera", submitted on the basis of informal consultations held on
draft resolution E/1998/L.30.

         23.   At the same meeting, the President of the Council
orally revised operative paragraph 11 of the draft resolution to read as
follows:

               "Requests the Secretary-General to submit a progress
            report to the Economic and Social Council at its substantive
            session of 2001 on the implementation of the present resolution,
            to be prepared by the Director-General of the World Health
            Organization, in collaboration with other relevant organizations,
            organs, bodies and programmes of the United Nations system".

         24.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted draft
resolution E/1998/L.37 as orally revised. See Council resolution 1998/36.

         25.   In the light of the adoption of draft resolution
E/1998/L.37, draft resolution E/1998/L.30 was withdrawn by its sponsors.


              3.   Proposed revisions to the medium-term plan for the
                   period 1998-2001

         26.   The Council took no action on the question of proposed
revisions to the medium-term plan for the period 1998 2001 (agenda item 7
(c)).


              4.   International cooperation in the field of informatics


         The need to harmonize and improve United Nations informatics
         systems for optimal utilization and accessibility by all States

         27.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the President of the
Council introduced a draft resolution (E/1998/L.16) entitled "The need to
harmonize and improve United Nations informatics systems for optimal
utilization and accessibility by all States", submitted on the basis of
informal consultations.

         28.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/29.


    Suggested guidelines for addressing the year 2000 problem of computers

         29.   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Vice-President of
the Council, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (Bangladesh), introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.40) entitled "Suggested guidelines for addressing the
year 2000 problem of computers", submitted on the basis of informal
consultations.

         30.   At the same meeting the Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/45.


              5.   Proclamation of an international year of mountains

         31.   At the 42nd meeting, on 27 July, the observer for
Kyrgyzstan*, also on behalf of Afghanistan*, Albania*, Algeria, Andorra*,
Angola*, Argentina, Armenia*, Australia*, Austria*, Azerbaijan*, Bahrain*,
Bangladesh, Barbados*, Belarus, Benin*, Bhutan*, Bolivia*, Bosnia and
Herzegovina*, Brazil, Bulgaria*, Canada, the Central African Republic, Chile,
China, Colombia, the Congo*, Costa Rica*, Co^te d'Ivoire*, Croatia*, Cuba,
Cyprus*, the Czech Republic, Djibouti, Ecuador*, Egypt*, El Salvador,
Ethiopia*, Fiji*, France, Gabon, Georgia*, Germany, Greece*, Guatemala*,
Guinea*, Guyana, Honduras*, Iceland, India, Indonesia*, Iran (Islamic Republic
of)*, Ireland*, Italy, Jamaica*, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan*, Kenya*, Latvia,
Lebanon, Lesotho, Liechtenstein*, Luxembourg*, Malawi*, Malaysia*, Malta*,
Mauritius, Monaco*, Mongolia*, Morocco*, Myanmar*, Nepal*, the Netherlands*,
New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Peru*, the Philippines*, Portugal*,
the Republic of Korea, the Republic of Moldova*, Romania, the Russian
Federation, Saint Lucia, San Marino*, Slovakia*, Slovenia*, Solomon Islands*,
South Africa*, Spain, Sri Lanka, Switzerland*, Tajikistan*, Thailand*, the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia*, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan*,
Uganda*, Ukraine*, the United States of America, Uruguay*, Viet Nam and
Yemen*, introduced a draft resolution (E/1998/L.21), entitled "Proclamation of
an international year of mountains".

         32.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council adopted
the draft resolution. See Council resolution 1998/30.

         33.   Before the adoption of the draft resolution, the
observer for Kyrgyzstan made a statement (see E/1998/SR.45).

         34.   After the adoption of the draft resolution, the
observer for Austria (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations
that are members of the European Union) made a statement.


              6.   International Year for the Culture of Peace, 2000


         International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence
         for the Children of the World (2001-2010)

         35.   At the 42nd meeting, on 27 July, the representative of
Bangladesh, also on behalf of Afghanistan*, Barbados*, Belarus, Brazil,
Burundi*, Cape Verde, Costa Rica*, Co^te d'Ivoire*, Gabon, Guinea*, Jordan,
Kyrgyzstan*, Madagascar*, Mali*, Malta*, Morocco*, Mozambique, the Niger*,
Panama*, Papua New Guinea*, the Philippines*, Poland, Qatar*, Saint Lucia,
Swaziland*, Turkmenistan*, Togo and Venezuela*, introduced a draft resolution
(E/1998/L.14) entitled "International Decade for a Culture of Non-Violence and
Peace for the Children of the World (2001 2010)". The draft resolution read as
follows:

               "The Economic and Social Council

               "Recommends to the General Assembly, in this year of
            the commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal
            Declaration of Human Rights which sustains the spirit, concept and
            practice of peace and non-violence, the adoption at its
            fifty-third session of the following resolution:


            International Decade for a Culture of Non-violence and Peace 
            for the Children of the World

                    The General Assembly,

                    Recalling its resolution 52/15 of 20 November 1997
               and Economic and Social Council resolution 1997/47 of 22 July
               1997 proclaiming the year 2000 as the International Year for
               the Culture of Peace, as well as General Assembly
               resolution 52/13 of 20 November 1997 on a culture of peace,

                    Recognizing that enormous harm and suffering are
               caused to children through different forms of violence at every
               level of our societies throughout the world and that principles
               and practice of non-violence and peace can promote respect for
               life and dignity of each human being without prejudice or
               discrimination of any kind, especially for the world's
               children,

                    Recognizing also the role of education in
               constructing a culture of non-violence and peace, in particular
               by teaching the practice of non-violence to children, as it
               promotes the purposes and principles of the Charter of the
               United Nations,

                    Emphasizing that the promotion of a culture of
               non-violence and peace that emanates from childhood will
               contribute to the strengthening of international peace and
               cooperation for socio-economic and cultural development, and
               will help children to be aware, not only of their rights but
               also of their responsibilities, by learning how to live
               together in harmony, within their families and among fellow
               human beings,

                    Underlining that the proposed decade will
               contribute to advance the implementation of the other
               objectives, activities and programmes of the United
               Nations aimed at promoting human rights, education,
               non-discrimination, volunteers' commitments, protection of the
               environment and protection of children in especially difficult
               circumstances as enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of
               the Child,

                    Convinced that an international decade for a
               culture of non-violence and peace for the children of the
               world, at the beginning of the new millennium,
               would give a strong encouragement to the efforts of the
               international community to foster harmony, peace and
               development throughout the world,

                    1.   Proclaims that the period 2001-2010 will
               constitute the International Decade for a Culture of
               Non-violence and Peace for the Children of the World;

                    2.   Invites the Secretary-General to present a
               report to the General Assembly at its fifty-fifth session, in
               consultation with all relevant United Nations bodies and
               non-governmental organizations, to finalize the draft
               programme of action of the Decade in connection with
               the implementation of the Decade at local, national, regional
               and international levels, and to coordinate the agenda and
               mandate of the Decade;

                    3.   Invites each Member State to take the
               necessary steps to ensure that the practice of non-violence is
               taught at all levels in their society including in
               each educational institution, which will focus on the
               practical meaning and benefits of the practice of non-violence
               in daily life;

                    4.   Calls upon the relevant United Nations bodies
               such as the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations
               Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the
               Office of the United Nations High Commissioner
               for Refugees, spiritual leaders throughout the world,
               non-governmental organizations, educational institutions, the
               media, the performing arts and civil societies to actively
               support the Decade for the benefit of every child of the
               world;

                    5.   Decides to include in the provisional agenda
               of its fifty-fifth session an item entitled "International
               Decade for a Culture of Non-violence and Peace
               for the Children of the World (2001 2010)".'"

         36.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council had before
it a revised draft resolution (E/1998/L.14/Rev.1) entitled "International
Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the Children of the World
(2001-2010)", submitted by Afghanistan*, Antigua and Barbuda*, Argentina,
Bangladesh, Barbados*, Belarus, Brazil, Burundi*, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia,
Costa Rica*, Co^te d'Ivoire*, Djibouti, Ecuador*, El Salvador, Gabon,
Guatemala*, Guinea*, Guyana, India, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan*, Madagascar*, Mali*,
Malta*, Mauritius, Morocco*, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger*, Nigeria*,
Panama*, Papua New Guinea*, the Philippines*, Poland, Qatar*, Saint Lucia,
Swaziland*, Togo, Turkmenistan* and Venezuela*. Subsequently Angola*, Benin*,
the Congo*, the Democratic Republic of the Congo*, the Dominican Republic*,
Malawi*, Nepal*, Thailand*, Tunisia, the United Republic of Tanzania*, Uganda*
and Uruguay* joined in sponsoring the draft resolution.

         37.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the revised
draft resolution. See Council resolution 1998/31.

         38.   Before the adoption of the draft resolution, a
statement was made by the observer for Austria on behalf of the States Members
of the United Nations that are members of the European Union.


         International Year for the Culture of Peace, 2000

         39.   At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the representative of
Bangladesh, also on behalf of Chile, Costa Rica*, Co^te d'Ivoire*, Ecuador*,
El Salvador, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Togo and Turkey, introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.31) entitled "International Year for the Culture of
Peace, 2000". Subsequently, Cape Verde, the Dominican Republic*,
Guatemala*, Mali*, Morocco*, Nigeria*, Panama*, Paraguay*, the Philippines*,
Somalia*, the United Republic of Tanzania* and Uruguay* joined in
sponsoring the draft resolution.

         40.   At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Vice-President of
the Council, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (Bangladesh), introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.38) entitled "International Year for the Culture of
Peace, 2000", submitted on the basis of informal consultations held on draft
resolution E/1998/L.31.

         41.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted draft
resolution E/1998/L.38. See Council resolution 1998/37.

         42.   In the light of the adoption of draft resolution
E/1998/L.38, draft resolution E/1998/L.31 was withdrawn by its sponsors.


              C.   Implementation of General Assembly resolutions
                   50/227 and 52/12 B


         43.   At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of the implementation of General Assembly resolutions 50/227 and
52/12 B (agenda item 8) at its 43rd, 47th and 48th meetings, on 27 and 31 July
1998. It had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Report of the Secretary-General on the
restructuring and revitalization of the United Nations in the economic, social
and related fields (A/53/137-E/1998/66);

            (b)    Report of the Secretary-General on the joint
exploratory review of cooperation between the United Nations and the Bretton
Woods institutions (E/1998/61);

            (c)    Report of the Secretary-General on the utilization
of the development dividend (E/1998/81).


         Action taken by the Council


         44.   Under agenda item 8, the Council adopted resolutions
1998/46 and 1998/47 and decision 1998/296.


         Further measures for the restructuring and revitalization of
         the United Nations in the economic, social and related fields

         45.   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Vice-President of
the Council, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (Bangladesh), introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.18) entitled "Further measures for the restructuring and
revitalization of the United Nations in the economic, social and related
fields", submitted on the basis of informal consultations. In his statement,
he orally revised the draft resolution as follows:

            (a)    In annex I, paragraph 15, the square brackets were removed;

            (b)    In annex III, paragraph 13, a new sentence was
added at the end of the paragraph, which read "In this regard, the Economic
and Social Council encourages the Secretary-General to take into account these
measures in his report under the agenda item on regional cooperation in 1999";

            (c)    In annex III, section D was deleted.

         46.   A statement of the programme budget implications of the
draft resolution, submitted by the Secretary-General in accordance with rule
31 of the rules of procedure of the Economic and Social Council, was
circulated in document E/1998/L.35.

         47.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution, as orally revised. See Council resolution 1998/46.

         48.   After the adoption of the draft resolution, statements
were made by the representatives of the Russian Federation, Japan, China, the
United States of America, Cuba, Canada, Lebanon and Bangladesh and by the
observers for Austria (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations
that are members of the European Union), Indonesia (on behalf of
the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77
and China) and Australia.


         Further measures for the restructuring and revitalization of
         the United Nations in the economic, social and related fields:
         modalities for elections

         49.   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Vice-President of
the Council, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (Bangladesh), introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.46) entitled "Further measures for the restructuring and
revitalization of the United Nations in the economic, social and related
fields: modalities for elections", submitted on the basis of informal
consultations.

         50.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/47.


         Development account

         51.   At the 48th meeting, on 31 July, the observer for
Indonesia, on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group of 77 and China, orally proposed a decision on the
development account.

         52.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
decision (subsequently issued as document E/1998/L.50). See Council decision
1998/296.

         53.   Before the adoption of the draft decision, statements
were made by the representatives of Pakistan, Cuba, the Russian Federation and
Algeria and by the observers for Austria (on behalf of the States Members of
the United Nations that are members of the European Union) and Egypt.

         54.   After the adoption of the draft decision, statements
were made by the representatives of Canada, the United States of America and
Pakistan and by the observer for Egypt.


         D.   Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting
              of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples by the
              specialized agencies and the international institutions
              associated with the United Nations


         55.   At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of the implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of
Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples by the specialized agencies and
the international institutions associated with the United Nations (agenda item
9) at its 39th, 40th and 46th meetings, on 23 and 30 July 1998. An account of
the discussion is contained in the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.39,
40 and 46). The Council had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Report of the Secretary-General on the
implementation of the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and
Peoples by the specialized agencies and the international institutions
associated with the United Nations (A/53/130 and Corr.1);

            (b)    Letter dated 18 June 1998 from the Chairman of the
Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People
to the Secretary-General (A/53/152-E/1998/71);

            (c)    Report of the Secretary-General on assistance to
the Palestinian people (A/53/153-E/1998/75);

            (d)    Report of the President of the Council on
consultations held with the Chairman of the Special Committee on the Situation
with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of
Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (E/1998/76).


         Action taken by the Council


         56.   Under agenda item 9, the Council adopted resolution
1998/38 and decision 1998/282.


         Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of
         Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples by the 
         specialized agencies and the international institutions
         associated with the United Nations

         57.   At the 40th meeting, on 23 July, the representative of
Cuba, also on behalf of China, Co^te d'Ivoire*, Iran (Islamic Republic of)*,
Iraq*, Papua New Guinea*, the Sudan*, the Syrian Arab Republic*, the United
Republic of Tanzania*, Tunisia, Viet Nam and Zambia, introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.22) entitled "Implementation of the Declaration
on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples by the
specialized agencies and the international institutions associated with
the United Nations". Subsequently, Colombia, Grenada*, India, Lebanon,
Namibia* and Togo joined in sponsoring the draft resolution.

         58.   At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, Algeria joined in
sponsoring the draft resolution.

         59.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution by a recorded vote of 24 to none, with 19 abstentions. See Council
resolution 1998/38. The voting was as follows: 2/

            In favour:

               Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cape Verde,
               Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Djibouti, El Salvador, Guyana,
               India, Lesotho, Mexico, Mozambique, New Zealand, Nicaragua,
               Republic of Korea, Saint Lucia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Viet
               Nam.

            Against:

               None.

            Abstaining:

               Belarus, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland,
               France, Gabon, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Poland,
               Romania, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom of
               Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States
               of America.

         60.   After the draft resolution was adopted, the
representative of the Russian Federation made a statement.


         Report of the Secretary-General on assistance to the
         Palestinian people

         61.   At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, on the proposal of the
President, the Council took note of the report of the Secretary-General on
assistance to the Palestinian people. See Council decision 1998/282.


              E.   Regional cooperation


         62.   At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of regional cooperation (agenda item 10) at its 34th and 35th
meetings, on 20 July 1998. An account of the discussion is contained in the
relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.34 and 35). The Council had before it the
following documents:

            (a)    Summary of the economic survey of Europe, 1997
(E/1998/11);

            (b)    Summary of the survey of the economic and social
situation in Africa, 1998 (E/1998/12);

            (c)    Summary of the economic and social survey of Asia
and the Pacific, 1998 (E/1998/13);

            (d)    Summary of the economic survey of Latin America and
the Caribbean, 1997 (E/1998/14);

            (e)    Summary of the survey of the economic and social
developments in the ESCWA region, 1997 1998 (E/1998/15);

            (f)    Report of the Secretary-General on regional
cooperation in the economic, social and related fields (E/1998/65 and
Add.1-3).

         63.   At the 34th meeting, on 17 July, the Council held a
panel discussion with the Executive Secretaries of the regional commissions.


         Action taken by the Council


         64.   Under agenda item 10, the Council adopted resolutions
1998/3 to 1998/6 and decisions 1998/213 and 1998/214.


         Recommendations made by the regional commissions

         65.   The recommendations made to the Council by the regional
commissions are contained in an addendum to the report of the
Secretary-General on regional cooperation in the economic, social and related
fields (E/1998/65/Add.2).


   Review of the regional commissions by the Economic and Social Council

         66.   At the 35th meeting, on 20 July, the Council adopted a
draft resolution entitled "Review of the regional commissions by the Economic
and Social Council", recommended by the Economic Commission for Europe
(E/1998/65/Add.2, chap. I, sect. A). See Council resolution 1998/3.


         Strengthening regional support for persons with disabilities
         into the twenty-first century

         67.   At the 35th meeting, on 20 July, the Council adopted a
draft resolution entitled "Strengthening regional support for persons with
disabilities into the twenty-first century", recommended by the Economic and
Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (E/1998/65/Add.2, chap. I, sect.
B). See Council resolution 1998/4.


         Venue of the twenty-eighth session of the Economic Commission
         for Latin America and the Caribbean

         68.   At the 35th meeting, on 20 July, the Council adopted a
draft decision entitled "Venue of the twenty-eighth session of the Economic
Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, recommended by the Economic
Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (E/1998/65/Add.2, chap. I,
sect. C). See Council decision 1998/213.


         Relationships between the Economic Commission for Africa,
         United Nations agencies, and regional and subregional organizations
         in Africa

         69.   At the 35th meeting, on 20 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution I entitled "Relationships between the Economic Commission for
Africa, United Nations agencies, and regional and subregional organizations in
Africa", recommended by the Economic Commission for Africa (E/1998/65/Add.2,
chap. I, sect. D). See Council resolution 1998/5.


         Revision of the medium-term plan, 1998 2001, of the Economic
         Commission for Africa

         70.   At the 35th meeting, on 20 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution II entitled "Revision of the medium-term plan, 1998 2001, of
the Economic Commission for Africa", recommended by the Economic Commission
for Africa (E/1998/65/Add.2, chap. I, sect. D). See Council resolution 1998/6.

         Documents considered by the Economic and Social Council in
         connection with the question of regional cooperation

         71.   At the 35th meeting, on 20 July, on the proposal of the
President, the Council took note of documents considered in connection with
the question of regional cooperation. See Council decision 1998/214.

         72.   At the 35th meeting, on 20 July, after the adoption of
all draft proposals, statements were made by the observers for Austria (on
behalf of the State Members of the United Nations that are members of the
European Union) and Indonesia (on behalf of the States Members of the United
Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China).



      F.   Economic and social repercussions of the Israeli occupation on the
           living conditions of the Palestinian people in the occupied
           Palestinian territory, including Jerusalem, and the Arab
           population in the occupied Syrian Golan


         73.   At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of the economic and social repercussions of the Israeli occupation on
the living conditions of the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian
territory, including Jerusalem, and the Arab population in the occupied Syrian
Golan (agenda item 11) at its 39th, 40th, 42nd and 45th meetings, on 23, 27
and 29 July 1998. An account of the discussion is contained in the relevant
summary records (E/1998/SR.39, 40, 42 and 45). The Council had before it a
note by the Secretary-General transmitting the report prepared by the
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia on the economic and social
repercussions of the Israeli settlements on the Palestinian people in the
Palestinian territory, including Jerusalem, and of the Arab population in the
occupied Syrian Golan (A/53/163-E/1998/79).


         Action taken by the Council


         74.   Under agenda item 11, the Council adopted resolution
1998/32 and decision 1998/239.


         Economic and social repercussions of the Israeli occupation
         on the living conditions of the Palestinian people in the occupied
         Palestinian territory, including Jerusalem, and of the Arab
         population in the occupied Syrian Golan

         75.   At the 42nd meeting, on 27 July, the representative of
Jordan, also on behalf of Algeria, Bangladesh, Cuba, Djibouti, Egypt*,
Malaysia*, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates*, introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.26) entitled "Economic and social repercussions of the
Israeli occupation on the living conditions of the Palestinian people
in the occupied Palestinian territory, including Jerusalem, and of the Arab
population in the occupied Syrian Golan". Colombia, Indonesia*, Morocco*
and Oman subsequently joined in sponsoring the draft resolution.

         76.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council adopted
the draft resolution by a recorded vote of 44 to 1, with no abstentions. See
Council resolution 1998/32. The voting was as follows:

         In favour:

            Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil,
            Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic,
            Djibouti, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Guyana, Iceland,
            India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Latvia, Lebanon, Mauritius, Mexico,
            Mozambique, New Zealand, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Republic
            of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Spain, Sri Lanka,
            Sweden, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain and
            Northern Ireland, Viet Nam.

         Against:

            United States of America.

         Abstaining:

            None.

         77.   Before the draft resolution was adopted, the
representative of the United States of America made a statement. After the
adoption of the draft resolution, the representative of the Russian Federation
made a statement.


         Note by the Secretary-General on the economic and social
         repercussions of the Israeli occupation on the living conditions of
         the Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territory,
         including Jerusalem, and the Arab population in the occupied
         Syrian Golan

         78.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council took note
of the note by the Secretary-General on the economic and social
repercussions of the Israeli occupation on the living conditions of the
Palestinian people in the occupied Palestinian territory, including
Jerusalem, and the Arab population in the occupied Syrian Golan
(A/53/163-E/1998/79). See Council decision 1998/239.


              G.   Non-governmental organizations


         79.   At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of non-governmental organizations (agenda item 12) at its 45th
meeting, on 29 July 1998. An account of the discussion is contained in the
relevant summary record (E/1998/SR.45). It had before it the following
documents:

            (a)    Report of the Secretary-General on the work of the
Non-Governmental Organizations Section of the Secretariat (E/1998/43 and
Corr.1);

            (b)    Report of the Committee on Non-Governmental
Organizations on its resumed 1997 session (E/1998/8);

            (c)    Report of the Committee on Non-Governmental
Organizations on the first and second parts of its 1998 session (E/1998/72 and
Add.1).


         Action taken by the Council


         80.   Under agenda item 12, the Council adopted decisions
1998/231 to 1998/238.


         Recommendations contained in the report of the Committee on
         Non-Governmental Organizations on its resumed 1997 session (E/1998/8)


         Enlargement of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations

         81.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council adopted
draft decision I, entitled "Enlargement of the Committee on Non-Governmental
Organizations", recommended by the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations
(E/1998/8, chap. I, sect. A). See Council decision 1998/231.


         Applications for consultative status and requests for
         reclassification received from non-governmental organizations

         82.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council adopted
draft decision II, entitled "Applications for consultative status and requests
for reclassification received from non-governmental organizations",
recommended by the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations (E/1998/8,
chap. I, sect. A). See Council decision 1998/232.


         Applications from organizations of indigenous people not in
         consultative status with the Economic and Social Council for
         participation in the open-ended inter-sessional Working Group 
         of the Commission on Human Rights to elaborate a draft declaration
         on the rights of indigenous people

         83.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council adopted
draft decision III, entitled "Applications from organizations of indigenous
people not in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council for
participation in the open-ended inter-sessional Working Group of the
Commission on Human Rights to elaborate a draft declaration on the rights
of indigenous people", recommended by the Committee on Non-Governmental
Organizations  (E/1998/8, chap. I, sect. A). See Council decision 1998/233.


         Expansion of the participation of non-governmental
         organizations on the Roster for the purposes of the work of the
         Commission on Sustainable Development

         84.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council adopted
draft decision IV, entitled "Expansion of the participation of
non-governmental organizations on the Roster for the purposes of the work of
the Commission on Sustainable Development", recommended by the Committee on
Non-Governmental Organizations (E/1998/8, chap. I, sect. A). See Council
decision 1998/234.


         Recommendations contained in the report of the Committee on
         Non-Governmental Organizations on the first part of its 1998 session
         (E/1998/72)


         Applications for consultative status received from
         non-governmental organizations

         85.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council considered
draft decision I, entitled "Applications for consultative status received from
non-governmental organizations", recommended by the Committee on
Non-Governmental Organizations (E/1998/72, chap. I, sect. A).

         86.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
decision. See Council decision 1998/235.

         87.   Before the adoption of the draft decision, the
representative of Turkey made a statement. After the adoption of the draft
decision, the observer for Armenia made a statement.

         Implementation of Economic and Social Council decision 1996/302

         88.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council adopted
draft decision II, entitled "Implementation of Economic and Social Council
decision 1996/302", recommended by the Committee on Non-Governmental
Organizations (E/1998/72, chap. I, sect. A). See Council decision 1998/236.


         Applications from organizations of indigenous people not in
         consultative status with the Economic and Social Council for
         participation in the open-ended inter-sessional Working Group 
         of the Commission on Human Rights to elaborate a draft declaration
         on the rights of indigenous people

         89.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council adopted
draft decision III, entitled "Applications from organizations of indigenous
people not in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council for
participation in the open-ended inter-sessional Working Group of the
Commission on Human Rights to elaborate a draft declaration on the rights
of indigenous people", recommended by the Committee on Non-Governmental
Organizations (E/1998/72, chap. I, sect. A).  See Council decision 1998/233.


         Recommendations contained in the report of the Committee on
         Non-Governmental Organizations on the second part of its 1998 
         session (E/1998/72/Add.1)


         Applications for consultative status received from
         non-governmental organizations

         90.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council adopted
draft decision I, entitled "Applications for consultative status received from
non-governmental organizations", recommended by the Committee on
Non-Governmental Organizations (E/1998/72/Add.1, chap. I). See Council
decision 1998/235.


  Resumed 1998 session of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations

         91.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the Council considered
draft decision II, entitled "Resumed 1998 session of the Committee on
Non-Governmental Organizations", recommended by the Committee on
Non-Governmental Organizations (E/1998/72/Add.1, chap. I). The Council was
informed that the draft decision had no programme budget implications.

         92.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
decision.  See Council decision 1998/237.


         Documents considered in connection with the question of
         non-governmental organizations

         93.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, on the proposal of the
President, the Council took note of reports considered in connection with the
question of non-governmental organizations.  See Council decision 1998/238.


              H.   Economic and environmental questions


         94.   At its substantive session, the Council considered
economic and environmental questions (agenda item 13) at its 39th, 40th and
45th to 47th meetings, on 23 and 29 to 31 July 1998.  An account of the
discussion is contained in the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.39, 40 and
45-47).  The Council had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Proposals from subsidiary bodies of the Economic
and Social Council on social and human rights questions (E/1998/59);

            (b)    Note by the Secretary-General on the causes of
conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in
Africa (E/1998/88);

            (c)    Letter dated 13 July 1998 from the Permanent
Representative of Vanuatu to the United Nations addressed to the President of
the Economic and Social Council on the proposed graduation of Vanuatu from the
list of the least developed countries (E/1998/89);

            (d)    Statement submitted by the International
Multiracial Shared Cultural Organization, a non-governmental organization in
special consultative status with the Economic and Social Council
(E/1998/NGO/5).


         Action taken by the Council


         95.   Under agenda item 13, the Council adopted decisions
1998/283 and 1998/291.


         Report of the Secretary-General on the causes of conflict and
         the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa

         96.   At the 45th meeting, on 29 July, the representative of
Mozambique introduced a draft decision (E/1998/L.33) entitled "Report of the
Secretary-General on the causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace
and sustainable development in Africa.  Subsequently, the United States of
America joined in sponsoring the draft resolution.

         97.   At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Vice-President of
the Council, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (Bangladesh), orally revised the draft
decision on the basis of informal consultations.

         98.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted draft decision
E/1998/L.33, as orally revised. See Council decision 1998/283.


         Documents considered by the Economic and Social Council in
         connection with the question of economic and environmental questions

         99.   At the 47th meeting on 31 July, the Council, on the
proposal of the President, took note of documents considered in connection
with the question of economic and environmental questions. See Council
decision 1998/291.

         100.  At the same meeting, statements were made by the
representatives of the United States of America, Canada and China and by the
observers for Austria (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations
that are members of the European Union) and Indonesia (on behalf of the States
Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China).


              1.   Sustainable development

         101.  The Council considered the question of sustainable
development (agenda item 13 (a)) at its 39th, 40th, 42nd, 44th and 46th
meetings, on 23, 27, 28 and 30 July 1998. An account of the discussion is
contained in the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.39, 40, 42, 44 and 46).
The Council had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Report of the Secretary-General on the development
of a vulnerability index for small island developing States
(A/53/65-E/1998/5);

            (b)    Report of the Secretary-General on products harmful
to health and the environment (A/53/156-E/1998/78);

            (c)    Report of the Commission on Sustainable Development
on its sixth session (E/1998/29); 3/

            (d)    Report of the Committee for Development Planning on
its thirty-second session (E/1998/34); 4/

            (e)    Note by the Secretary-General on consumer
protection and guidelines for sustainable development (E/1998/63);

            (f)    Statement submitted by the Inter-Parliamentary
Union, a non-governmental organization in general consultative status with the
Economic and Social Council (E/1998/NGO/1);

            (g)    Report of the Secretary-General on consumer
protection: guidelines for sustainable consumption (E/CN.17/1998/5).


         Action taken by the Council


         102.  Under agenda item 13 (a), the Council adopted
resolutions 1998/39, 1998/40 and 1998/41 and decisions 1998/215, 1998/216 and
1998/217.


         Consumer protection guidelines for sustainable consumption

         103.  At the 40th meeting, on 23 July, the Council adopted
draft decision I, entitled "Consumer protection guidelines for sustainable
consumption", recommended by the Commission (E/1998/29, chap. I). See Council
decision 1998/215.


         Matters relating to the third session of the
         Intergovernmental Forum on Forests

         104.  At the 40th meeting, on 23 July, the Council adopted
draft decision II, entitled "Matters relating to the third session of the
Intergovernmental Forum on Forests", recommended by the Commission (E/1998/29,
chap. I). See Council decision 1998/216.


         Report of the Commission on Sustainable Development on its
         sixth session and provisional agenda for the seventh session 
         of the Commission

         105.  At the 40th meeting, on 23 July, the Council adopted
draft decision III, entitled "Report of the Commission on Sustainable
Development on its sixth session and provisional agenda for the seventh
session of the Commission", recommended by the Commission (E/1998/29, chap.I).
See Council decision 1998/217.


         Status of the least developed countries

         106.  At the 42nd meeting, on 27 July, the Observer for
Indonesia*, on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group of 77 and China, and Canada and New Zealand, introduced a
draft resolution (E/1998/L.27) entitled "Report of the Committee for
Development Planning on its thirty-second session", which read as follows:

               "The Economic and Social Council,

               "Recalling General Assembly resolution 52/210 of 18
December 1997 regarding the necessity of assessing the usefulness of a
vulnerability index as a criterion for the designation of least developed
countries,

               "Taking note of paragraph 167 of the report of the
Committee for Development Planning on its thirty-second session, which states
that the Committee did not undertake such an assessment,

               "Taking note also of the content of the letter of the
Prime Minister of Vanuatu, which was circulated as a document of the Economic
and Social Council, advancing reasons to support the position that the review
of Vanuatu's status should be deferred to the year 2000,

               "1. Affirms the need for such an assessment to be made
as a precursor to a decision on the graduation of Vanuatu from the list of
least developed countries;

               "2. Requests the Committee for Development Planning to
provide to the Economic and Social Council a report on the usefulness of
a vulnerability index as a criterion for the designation of least developed
countries;

               "3. Further requests the Committee for Development
Planning to include in its report consideration of the findings of the work of
all relevant international agencies on the vulnerability of small island
developing States;

               "4. Decides to postpone a decision on the graduation of
Vanuatu until the Committee for Development Planning has completed its work
on examining the usefulness of a vulnerability index as a criterion for the
designation of least developed countries."

         107.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Vice-President of
the Council, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (Bangladesh), introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.39) entitled "Status of the least developed countries",
submitted on the basis of informal consultations held on draft resolution
E/1998/L.27.

         108.  At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/39.

         109.  Before the adoption of the draft resolution, the
observer for Indonesia made a statement on behalf of the States Members of the
United Nations that are members of the Group of 77 and China. After the
adoption of the draft resolution, statements were made by the representative
of the United States of America and by the observer for Vanuatu.

         110.  In the light of the adoption of draft resolution
E/1998/L.39, draft resolution E/1997/L.27 was withdrawn by its sponsors.


         Declaring the year 2002 as the International Year of
         Ecotourism

         111.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the observer for
Indonesia*, on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group of 77 and China, introduced a draft resolution
(E/1998/L.28) entitled "Declaring the year 2002 as the International Year
of Ecotourism". Subsequently, Turkey joined in sponsoring the draft
resolution.

         112.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Vice-president of
the Council, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (Bangladesh), orally revised the draft
resolution on the basis of informal consultations.

         113.  The Observer for the Philippines *, proposed an
amendment, which was seconded by the representative of Turkey. The Council
then adopted draft resolution E/1998/L.28 as orally revised and amended. See
Council resolution 1998/40.


     Protection against products harmful to health and the environment

         114.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the observer for
Indonesia*, on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group of 77 and China, introduced a draft resolution
(E/1998/L.29) entitled "Protection against products harmful to health
and the environment", which read as follows:

               "The Economic and Social Council,

               "Recalling General Assembly resolutions 37/137 of 17
            December 1982, 38/149 of 19 December 1983, 39/229 of 18 December
            1984 and 44/226 of 22 December 1989, as well as Assembly decisions
            47/439 of 22 December 1992 and 50/431 of 20 December 1995,

               "Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General on
            products harmful to health and the environment, which contains a
            review of the sales publication Consolidated List of Products
            Whose Consumption and/or Sale have been Banned, Withdrawn,
            Severely Restricted or not Approved by Governments,

               "Noting with satisfaction the continued close
            collaboration among the United Nations, the World Health
            Organization and United Nations Environment Programme
            in the preparation of the Consolidated List,

               "Taking into account the need to continue to utilize
            the work being undertaken by relevant organizations of the United
            Nations system and other intergovernmental organizations in this
            area, as well as that being carried out under international
            agreements and conventions in related areas in updating
            the Consolidated List,

               "Taking note of the successful conclusion of the
            negotiations to develop a legally binding instrument for the
            application of the prior informed consent procedure
            for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in
            international trade,

               "1. Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General on
            products harmful to health and the environment and notes the
            progress being achieved in increasing the number of countries that
            participate in the preparation of the Consolidated List of
            Products Whose Consumption and/or Sale have been Banned,
            Withdrawn, Severely Restricted or not Approved by Governments;

               "2. Expresses its appreciation for the cooperation
            extended by Governments in the preparation of the Consolidated
            List and urges all Governments, in particular those that have not
            yet done so, to provide the necessary information to relevant
            organizations for inclusion in future issues of the
            Consolidated List;

               "3. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to
            prepare the Consolidated List focusing on chemicals and
            pharmaceutical products in alternate years, with the
            same frequency for each official language in publishing
            the Consolidated List as envisioned in General Assembly
            resolutions 39/229 and 44/226;

               "4. Also requests the Secretary-General to continue to
            provide the necessary technical assistance to developing
            countries, at their request, for the establishment
            and/or strengthening of national capacity for managing
            hazardous chemicals and pharmaceutical products;

               "5. Urges the adoption of the agreed text of the
            convention on the application of the prior informed consent
            procedure at the diplomatic conference to be held in
            Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and a speedy ratification
            thereafter;

               "6. Invites the Trade and Environment Committee of the
            World Trade Organization to complete its review, for possible
            revival, of the domestically prohibited goods notification system;

               "7. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to
            report every three years, in accordance with General Assembly
            resolution 39/229, on the implementation of the present resolution
            and of previous Assembly resolutions on the same subject."

         115.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Vice-President of
the Council, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (Bangladesh), introduced a draft
resolution (E/1998/L.34) entitled "Products harmful to health and the
environment", on the basis of informal consultations held on draft
resolution E/1998/L.29.

         116.  At the same meeting, the Council adopted draft
resolution E/1998/L.34. See Council resolution 1998/41.

         117.  In the light of the adoption of draft resolution
E/1998/L.34, draft resolution E/1998/L.29 was withdrawn by its sponsors.


              2.   Natural resources

         118.  The Council had no documents before it under this
question (item 13 (b)). No proposals were submitted under the item.


              3.   Energy

         119.  The Council had no documents before it under this
question (item 13 (c)). No proposals were submitted under the item.


              4.   International cooperation in tax matters

         120.  At its substantive session, the Council considered the question
of international cooperation in tax matters (agenda item 13 (d)) at its 39th
and 40th meetings, on 23 July 1998. It had before it the report of the
Secretary-General on the Eighth Meeting of the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on
International Cooperation in Tax Matters (E/1998/57).


         Action taken by the Council


         121.  Under agenda item 13 (d), the Council adopted decision
1998/218.


                   Ninth Meeting of the Group of Experts on
                   International Cooperation in Tax Matters

          122.  At the 40th meeting, the Council adopted the recommendation
made by the Eighth Meeting of the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on International
Cooperation in Tax Matters regarding the dates of the Ninth Meeting, in 1999
(E/1998/57, para. 51). See Council decision 1998/218.


              5.   Public administration and finance

         123.  At its substantive session, the Council considered the question
of public administration and finance (agenda item 13 (e)) at
its 39th and 40th meetings, on 23 July 1998. It had before it the following
documents:

            (a)    Report of the Secretary-General on the
implementation of General Assembly resolution 50/225 (A/53/173-E/1998/87);

            (b)    Report of the Secretary-General on the work of the
Fourteenth Meeting of Experts on the United Nations Programme in Public
Administration and Finance (E/1998/77).


         Action taken by the Council


         124.  Under agenda item 13 (e), the Council adopted decisions
1998/219 and 1998/220.


                   Fifteenth meeting of Experts in Public
                   Administration and Finance

         125.  At the 40th meeting, the Council adopted the
recommendation made by the Fourteenth Meeting of Experts in Public
Administration and Finance regarding the dates of its Fifteenth
Meeting, in 2000 (E/1998/77, para. 3). See Council decision 1998/219.


         Assessment of progress made in the implementation of General
         Assembly resolution 50/225

         126.  At the 40th meeting, the Council adopted the recommendation
made by the Fourteenth Meeting of Experts in Public Administration and
Finance regarding the assessment of progress made in the implementation of
General Assembly resolution 50/225 (E/1998/77, para. 4). See Council decision
1998/220.


              6.   Cartography

         127.  At its substantive session, the Council considered the question
of cartography (agenda item 13 (f)) at its 39th and 40th meetings, on 23
July 1998. It had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Letter dated 6 February 1998 from the Permanent
Representative of Turkey to the United Nations addressed to the
Secretary-General transmitting the text of a letter of the same date from His
Excellency, Mr. Aytu  Plu"mer addressed to the Secretary-General
(A/52/788-E/1998/6);

            (b)    Report of the Secretary-General on the Seventh United
Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names
(E/1998/47).


         Action taken by the Council


         128.  Under agenda item 13 (f), the Council adopted decision
1998/221.


         Recommendations of the Seventh United Nations Conference on
         the Standardization of Geographical Names

         129.  At the 40th meeting, the Council adopted the recommendations
made by the Seventh United Nations Conference on the Standardization of
Geographical Names (E/1998/47, para. 12 (a) (c)). See Council decision
1998/221.


              7.   Population and development

         130.  At its substantive session, the Council considered the
question of population and development (agenda item 13 (g)) at is 39th and
40th meetings, on 23 July 1998. It had before it the report of the Commission
on Population and Development on its thirty-first session (E/1998/25).5/


         Action taken by the Council


         131.  Under agenda item 13 (g), the Council adopted
resolutions 1998/7 and 1998/8 and decision 1998/222.


         Importance of population census activities for evaluation of
         progress in implementing the Programme of Action of the 
         International Conference on Population and Development

         132.  At the 40th meeting, the Council adopted draft
resolution I, entitled "Importance of population census activities for
evaluation of progress in implementing the Programme of Action of the
International Conference on Population and Development", recommended
by the Commission on Population and Development (E/1998/25, chap. I, sect. A).
See Council resolution 1998/7.


         Review and appraisal of the implementation of the Programme
         of Action of the International Conference on Population and
         Development

         133.  At the 40th meeting, the Council adopted draft
resolution II, entitled "Review and appraisal of the implementation of the
Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and
Development", recommended by the Commission on Population and Development
(E/1998/25, chap. I, sect. A). See Council resolution 1998/8.


         Report of the Commission on Population and Development on its
         thirty-first session and provisional agenda for the thirty-second
         session of the Commission

         134.  At the 40th meeting, the Council considered the draft
decision entitled "Report of the Commission Population and Development on its
thirty-first session and provisional agenda for the thirty-second session of
the Commission", recommended by the Commission on Population and Development
(E/1998/25, chap. I, sect. B).

         135.  The Director of the Population Division of the
Department of Economic and Social Affairs recommended that, under item 4 of
the proposed agenda for the thirty-second session,  the reference to the
report of the ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All be deleted.

         136.  At the 40th meeting, the Council adopted the draft
decision as amended. See Council decision 1998/222.

              I.   Social and human rights questions


         137.  The Council considered social and human rights
questions at its organizational session (agenda item 5), resumed
organizational session (agenda item 8) and substantive session
(agenda items 14 (a) to (g)) at its 3rd, 5th, 44th and 46th to 49th meetings,
on 6 February, 7 May and 28, 30 and 31 July and 5 August 1998. An account of
the discussion is contained in the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.3, 5,
44 and 46-49). The Council had before it a note by the Secretariat containing
a list of proposals requiring action by the Council or brought to its
attention (E/1998/59) as well as the following documents:

                   Advancement of women (agenda items 8 and 14 (a)):

                      (a)    Report of the Committee on the
Elimination of Discrimination against Women on the work of its eighteenth
session (A/53/36 (Part I)); 6/

                      (b)    Note by the Secretary-General on the
implementation of the revised system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement
of women, 1996-2001 (E/1998/10);

                      (c)    Report of the Commission on the Status of Women
on its forty-second session (E/1998/27 and Corr.1); 7/

                      (d)    Report of the Board of Trustees of the
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women on
its eighteenth session (E/1998/46);

                      (e)    Report of the Secretary-General on the
follow-up to and implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for
Action (E/1998/53);

                      (f)    Statement submitted by the Inter-Parliamentary
Union, a non-governmental organization in general consultative status with the
Economic and Social Council (E/1998/NGO/2);

                      (g)    Statement submitted by the World Veterans
Federation, a non-governmental organization in general consultative status
with the Economic and Social Council (E/1998/NGO/6);

                      (h)    Statement submitted by the Society for
Post-Traumatic Stress Studies, a non-governmental organization in
general consultative status with the Economic and Social Council
(E/1998/NGO/7);

         Social development (agenda item 14 (b)):

                      (i)    Report of the Commission for Social Development
on its thirty-sixth session (E/1998/26); 8/

                      (j)    Statement submitted by the Inter-Parliamentary
Union, a non-governmental organization in general consultative status with the
Economic and Social Council (E/1998/NGO/3);

                      (k)    Statement submitted by the World Veterans
Federation, a non-governmental organization in general consultative status
with the Economic and Social Council (E/1998/NGO/6);

         Crime prevention and criminal justice (agenda item 14 (c)):

                      (l)    Report of the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice on its seventh session (E/1998/30 and Corr.1); 9/

         Narcotic drugs (agenda item 14 (d)):

                      (m)    Report of the Secretary-General on the
implementation of the United Nations System-Wide Action Plan on Drug Abuse
Control (A/53/129-E/1998/58);

                      (n)    Report of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs on its
forty-first session (E/1998/28) 10/

                      (o)    Report of the International Narcotics Control
Board for 1997 (E/INCB/1997/1);

      United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (agenda item 14 (e)):

                      (p)    Report of the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees (E/1998/7 and Corr.1); 11/

                      (q)    Letter dated 27 July 1998 from the
Permanent Representative of Viet Nam to the United Nations addressed to the
President of the Economic and Social Council (E/1998/93).

         Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Third
         Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination 
         (Agenda item 14 (f)):

                      (r)    Report of the Secretary-General on the
implementation of the Programme of Action for the Third Decade to Combat
Racism and Racial Discrimination (E/1998/51);

            Human rights (agenda items 5 and 14 (g)): 12/

                      (s)    Letter dated 15 April 1998 from the Permanent
Representative of Turkey to the United Nations addressed to the
Secretary-General (E/1998/18);

                      (t)    Report of the Committee on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights on its sixteenth and seventeenth sessions (E/1998/22); 13/

                      (u)    Letter dated 12 May 1998 from the Charge'
d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Turkey to the United Nations
addressed to the Secretary-General (E/1998/49);

                      (v)    Note by the Secretary-General transmitting the
general comments of the Human Rights Committee (E/1998/74);

                      (w)    Report of the United Nations High Commissioner
for Human Rights (E/1998/84);

                      (x)    Note by the Secretary-General on privileges and
immunities of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the
independence of judges and lawyers (E/1998/94);

                      (y)    Letter dated 29 July 1998 from the Charge'
d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Singapore to the United Nations
addressed to the President of the Economic and Social Council (E/1998/95);

                      (z)    Statement of the administrative and programme
budget implications of the draft decisions recommended for adoption by the
Economic and Social Council in documents E/1997/L.23 and Add.2 and E/1998/22,
submitted by the Secretary-General in accordance with rule 31 of the rules of
procedure of the Council (E/1998/L.4);

                      (aa)   Compendium of draft proposals from subsidiary
bodies of the Economic and Social Council (E/1997/L.23 and Add.2);

                      (bb)   Extract from the report of the Commission on
Human Rights at its fifty-fourth session (E/1998/L.24);

                      (cc)   Statement submitted by the Inter-Parliamentary
Union, a non-governmental organization in general consultative status with the
Economic and Social Council (E/1998/NGO/4).


         Action taken by the Council


         Reports considered by the Economic and Social Council in
         connection with social and human rights questions

         138.  At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, on the proposal of the
President, the Council took note of a number of reports under item 14. See
Council decision 1998/294.


              1.   Advancement of women

         139.  Under agenda items 8 and 14 (a), the Council adopted
resolutions 1998/2, 1998/9 to 1998/12 and 1998/48 and decision 1998/224.


         Action taken by the Council


         Recommendations contained in the report of the Commission on
         the Status of Women on its forty-second session (E/1998/27 and
         Corr.1)

         Follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and full
         implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action

         140.  At the 5th meeting, on 7 May 1998, the Council
considered a draft resolution (reproduced in document E/1998/L.8) entitled
"Follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and full implementation of
the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action", recommended by the
Commission on the Status of Women acting as the Preparatory Committee for the
High-level Review in the Year 2000 of the Implementation of the Nairobi
Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women and the Beijing
Platform for Action (E/1998/27, chap. I, sect. A).

         141.  At the same meeting, the Council approved the draft
resolution for adoption by the General Assembly. See Council resolution
1998/2.


         Situation of women and girls in Afghanistan

         142.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution I, entitled "Situation of women and girls in Afghanistan",
recommended by the Commission on the Status of Women (E/1998/27, chap. I,
sect. B). See Council resolution 1998/9.


         Palestinian women

         143.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council voted on
draft resolution II, entitled "Palestinian women", recommended by the
Commission on the Status of Women (E/1998/27, chap. I, sect. B). The draft
resolution was adopted by a recorded vote of 40 to 1, with 2 abstentions. See
Council resolution 1998/10. The voting was as follows: 14/

         In favour:

            Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil,
            Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Cuba, Czech Republic, Djibouti,
            El Salvador, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Guyana, India,
            Italy, Japan, Lesotho, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique,
            New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Republic of Korea,
            Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Spain, Sri Lanka,
            Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
            Ireland, Viet Nam.

         Against:
           
            United States of America.

         Abstaining:
           
            Colombia, Iceland.

         144.  Before the draft resolution was adopted, the
representative of the United States of America made a statement.


         Mid-term review of the system-wide medium-term plan for the
         advancement of women, including the status of women in the
         Secretariat

         145.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution III, entitled "Mid-term review of the system-wide medium-term
plan for the advancement of women, including the status of women in the
Secretariat", recommended by the Commission on the Status of Women (E/1998/27,
chap. I, sect. B). See Council resolution 1998/11.


         Conclusions of the Commission on the Status of Women on
         critical areas of concern identified in the Beijing Platform for
         Action

         146.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution IV, entitled "Conclusions of the Commission on the Status of
Women on the critical areas of concern identified in the Beijing Platform for
Action", recommended by the Commission on the Status of Women (E/1998/27 and
Corr.1, chap. I, sect. B). See Council resolution 1998/12.


         Report of the Commission on the Status of Women on its
         forty-second session and provisional agenda and documentation 
         for the forty-third session of the Commission

         147.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted a
draft decision entitled "Report of the Commission on the Status of Women on
its forty-second session and provisional agenda and documentation for the
forty-third session of the Commission", recommended by the Commission on the
Status of Women (E/1998/27, chap. I, sect. C). See Council decision 1998/224.


         International Research and Training Institute for the
         Advancement of Women

         148.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the observer for
Indonesia*, on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are
members of the Group 77 and China, introduced a draft resolution (E/1998/L.36)
entitled "International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of
Women". Subsequently, Austria*, Italy, the Netherlands*, Portugal*, Spain and
Turkey joined in sponsoring the draft resolution.

         149.  At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Council adopted
the draft resolution. See Council resolution 1998/48.

         150.  After the draft resolution was adopted, statements were
made by the observers for Indonesia (on behalf of the States Members of the
United Nations that are members of the Group of 77) and Austria (on behalf of
the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the European
Union).


              2.   Social development

         151.  Under agenda item 14 (b), the Council adopted decisions
1998/225 and 1998/226.


         Action taken by the Council


         Recommendations contained in the report of the Commission for
         Social Development on its thirty-sixth session (E/1998/26)

         Activities of the Consultative Group for the International
         Year of Older Persons

         152.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft decision I, entitled "Activities of the Consultative Group for the
International Year of Older Persons", recommended by the Commission for Social
Development (E/1998/26, chap. I, sect. A). See Council decision 1998/225.


         Report of the Commission for Social Development on its
         thirty-sixth session and provisional agenda and documentation 
         for the thirty-seventh session of the Commission

         153.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft decision II, entitled "Report of the Commission for Social Development
on its thirty-sixth session and provisional agenda and documentation for the
thirty-seventh session of the Commission", recommended by the Commission for
Social Development (E/1998/26, chap. I, sect. A). See Council decision
1998/226.


              3.   Crime prevention and criminal justice

         154.  Under agenda item 14 (c), the Council adopted
resolutions 1998/13 to 1998/24 and decisions 1998/227 and 1998/228.



         Action taken by the Council


         Recommendations contained in the report of the Commission on
         Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice on its seventh session
         (E/1998/30 and Corr.1)

         Preparations for the Tenth United Nations Congress on the
         Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders

         155.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council considered
draft resolution I, entitled "Preparations for the Tenth United Nations
Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders",
recommended by the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
(E/1998/30 and Corr.1, chap. I, sect. A). The Council was informed that
the draft resolution contained no programme budget implications.

         156.  At the same meeting, the Council approved the draft
resolution for adoption by the General Assembly. See Council resolution
1998/13.


         Transnational organized crime

         157.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council considered
draft resolution II, entitled "Transnational organized crime", recommended by
the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (E/1998/30 and Corr.1,
chap. I, sect. A). The attention of the Council was drawn to the statement of
programme budget implications contained in annex II to the report of the
Commission.

         158.  At the same meeting, the Council approved the draft
resolution for adoption by the General Assembly. See Council resolution
1998/14.

    Mutual assistance and international cooperation in criminal matters

         159.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council approved
draft resolution III, entitled "Mutual assistance and international
cooperation in criminal matters", recommended by the Commission on Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice (E/1998/30, chap. I, sect. A) for adoption by
the General Assembly. See Council resolution 1998/15.


         Action against corruption

         160.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution I, entitled "Action against corruption", recommended by the
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (E/1998/30, chap. I, sect.
B). See Council resolution 1998/16.


         Regulation of explosives for the purpose of crime prevention
         and public health and safety

         161.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution II, entitled "Regulation of explosives for the purpose of
crime prevention and public health and safety", recommended by the Commission
on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (E/1998/30, chap. I, sect. B). See
Council resolution 1998/17.


         Measures to regulate firearms for the purpose of combating
         illicit trafficking in firearms

         162.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution III, entitled "Measures to regulate firearms for the purpose
of combating illicit trafficking in firearms", recommended by the Commission
on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (E/1998/30, chap. I, sect. B). See
Council resolution 1998/18.


      Action against illegal trafficking in migrants, including by sea

         163.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution IV, entitled "Action against illegal trafficking in migrants,
including by sea", recommended by the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice (E/1998/30 and Corr.1, chap. I, sect. B). See Council
resolution 1998/19.


      Action to combat international trafficking in women and children

         164.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution V, entitled "Action to combat international trafficking in
women and children", recommended by the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice (E/1998/30, Chap. I, sect. B). See Council resolution
1998/20.


       United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and
       criminal justice

         165.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution VI, entitled "United Nations standards and norms in crime
prevention and criminal justice", recommended by the Commission on Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice (E/1998/30, chap. I, sect. B). See Council
resolution 1998/21.


         Status of foreign citizens in criminal proceedings

         166.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution VII, entitled "Status of foreign citizens in criminal
proceedings", recommended by the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice (E/1998/30, chap. I, sect. B). See Council resolution 1998/22.


         International cooperation aimed at the reduction of prison
         overcrowding and the promotion of alternative sentencing

         167.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution VIII, entitled "International cooperation aimed at the
reduction of prison overcrowding and the promotion of alternative sentencing",
recommended by the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
(E/1998/30, chap. I, sect. B). See Council resolution 1998/23.


         Technical cooperation and advisory services in crime
         prevention and criminal justice

         168.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council considered
draft resolution IX, entitled "Technical cooperation and advisory services in
crime prevention and criminal justice", recommended by the Commission on Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice (E/1998/30, chap. I, sect. B). The attention
of the Council was drawn to the statement of programme budget implications
contained in annex II to the report of the Commission (E/1998/30).

         169.  At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/24.


         Report of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal
         Justice on its seventh session and provisional agenda and
         documentation for the eighth session of the Commission

         170.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft decision I, entitled "Report of the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice on its seventh session and provisional agenda and
documentation for the eighth session of the Commission", recommended by the
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (E/1998/30, chap. I, sect.
C). See Council decision 1998/227.


         Appointment of members of the Board of Trustees of the United
         Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute

         171.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft decision II, entitled "Appointment of members of the Board of Trustees
of the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute",
recommended by the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
(E/1998/30, chap. I, sect. C). See Council decision 1998/228.


              4.   Narcotic drugs

         172.  Under agenda item 14 (d), the Council adopted
resolution 1998/25 and decisions 1998/229, 1998/230 and 1998/240.


         Action taken by the Council


         Recommendations contained in the report of the Commission on
         Narcotic Drugs on its forty-first session (E/1998/29)


         Demand for and supply of opiates for medical and scientific needs

         173.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted a
draft resolution entitled "Demand for and supply of opiates for medical and
scientific needs", recommended by the Commission on narcotic Drugs (E/1998/28,
chap. I, sect. A). See Council resolution 1998/25.


         Provisional agenda and documentation for the forty-second
         session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs

         174.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft decision I, entitled "Provisional agenda and documentation for the
forty-second session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs", recommended by the
Commission (E/1998/28, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/229.


         Report of the International Narcotics Control Board

         175.  At the 44th meeting, on 28 July, the Council adopted
draft decision II, entitled "Report of the International Narcotics Control
Board", recommended by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (E/1998/28, chap. I,
sect. B). See Council decision 1998/230.


         Report of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs

         176.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision III, entitled "Report of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs",
recommended by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (E/1998/28, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/240.


              5.   United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

         177.  No proposals were submitted under this question (item 14 (e)).


              6.   Implementation of the Programme of Action for the
                   Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination

         178.  No proposals were submitted under this question (item 14 (f)).


              7.   Human rights


         Action taken by the Council at its organizational and resumed
         organizational sessions

         Recommendations contained in the report of the Committee on
         Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on its sixteenth session

         179.  Pursuant to its decision 1997/321 of 18 December 1997,
the Council, at its 3rd and 5th meetings, on 6 February and 7 May 1998,
considered four draft decisions, recommended for adoption by the Committee on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights at its sixteenth session. The texts of
the draft decisions were contained in the compendium of draft proposals from
subsidiary bodies of the Economic and Social Council (E/1997/L.23 and Add.2).
A statement of programme budget implications of the draft decisions was
contained in document E/1998/L.4.

         180.  At the 3rd meeting, on 6 February, the Council decided
to postpone consideration of the four draft decisions to its resumed
organizational session. See Council decision 1998/210 A.

         181.  At the 5th meeting, on 7 May, the Council decided to
postpone consideration of three draft decisions contained in document
E/1998/L.23 to a future session, together with the statement of programme
budget implications contained in document E/1998/L.4. See Council decision
1998/210 B.

         182.  The Council took no action with respect to the draft
decision entitled "Extraordinary additional session of the pre-sessional
working group of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (20 24
April 1998)", contained in document E/1998/L.23/Add.2. See Council decision
1998/210 B.


         Action taken by the Council at its substantive session


         183.  Under agenda item 14 (g), the Council adopted
resolutions 1998/33 to 1998/35 and decisions 1998/241 to 1998/281, 1998/292
and 1998/293.


         Recommendations contained in the extract from the report of
         the Commission on Human Rights on its 54th session (E/1998/L.24)

         Question of a draft declaration on the right and
         responsibility of individuals, groups and organs of 
         society to promote and protect universally recognized 
         human rights and fundamental freedoms

         184.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution I, entitled "Question of a draft declaration on the right and
responsibility of individuals, groups and organs of society to promote and
protect universally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. A).
See Council resolution 1998/33.


         Working group of the Commission on Human Rights to elaborate
         a draft declaration in accordance with paragraph 5 of General
         Assembly resolution 49/214 of 23 December 1994

         185.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution II, entitled "Working group of the Commission on Human Rights
to elaborate a draft declaration in accordance with paragraph 5 of General
Assembly resolution 49/214 of 23 December 1994", recommended by the Commission
on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. A). See Council resolution
1998/34.


         Question of a draft optional protocol to the Convention
         against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading 
         Treatment or Punishment

         186.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft resolution III, entitled "Question of a draft optional protocol to the
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
Punishment", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap.
I, sect. A). See Council resolution 1998/35.


         The use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights
         and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to
         self-determination

         187.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council voted on
draft decision 1, entitled "The use of mercenaries as a means of violating
human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to
self-determination", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights
(E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). The draft decision was adopted by a recorded
vote of 26 to 13, with 7 abstentions. See Council decision 1998/241. The
voting was as follows:

         In favour:

            Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil Chile, China,
            Colombia, Cuba, Djibouti, El Salvador, Guyana, India, Jordan ,
            Lebanon, Lesotho, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Oman, Pakistan,
            Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, Turkey, 
            Viet Nam.

         Against:
            
            Belgium, Canada, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Japan,
            Nicaragua, Poland, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom of Great Britain
            and Northern Ireland, United States of America.

         Abstaining:
 
            Belarus, Czech Republic, France, Latvia, New Zealand,
            Republic of Korea, Romania.


         Adverse effects of the illicit movement and dumping of toxic
         and dangerous products and wastes on the enjoyment of human rights

         188.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council voted on
draft decision 2, entitled "Adverse effects of the illicit movement and
dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes on the enjoyment of human
rights", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I,
sect. B). The draft decision was adopted by a recorded vote of 26 to 20, with
2 abstentions. See Council decision 1998/242. The voting was as follows:

         In favour:

            Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile, China,
            Colombia, Cuba, Djibouti, El Salvador, Guyana, India, Jordan,
            Lebanon, Lesotho, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Oman, Pakistan,
            Saint Lucia, Sri Lanka, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Viet Nam.

         Against:

            Belarus, Belgium, Canada, Cape Verde, Czech Republic,
            Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Japan, New Zealand,
            Nicaragua, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation,
            Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom of Great Britain and
            Northern Ireland, United States of America.

         Abstaining:

            Latvia, Republic of Korea.


         Working Group on Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission
         on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and the
         International Decade of the World's Indigenous People

         189.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 3, entitled "Working Group on Indigenous Populations of the
Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and
the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People", recommended by the
Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council
decision 1998/243.


         Migrants and human rights

         190.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 4, entitled "Migrants and human rights", recommended by the
Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council
decision 1998/244.


         Implementation of the Declaration on the Elimination of All
         Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or
         Belief

         191.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 5, entitled "Implementation of the Declaration on the
Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on
Religion or Belief", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights
(E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/245.


         Rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious
         and linguistic minorities

         192.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 6, entitled "Rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic
religious and linguistic minorities", recommended by the Commission on Human
Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/246.


   A permanent forum for indigenous people in the United Nations system

         193.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 7, entitled "A permanent forum for indigenous people in the
United Nations system", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights
(E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/247.


         The right to food

         194.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 8, entitled "The right to food", recommended by the Commission
on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision
1998/248.


         Effects on the full enjoyment of human rights of the economic
         adjustment policies arising from foreign debt and, in particular, on
         the implementation of the Declaration on the Right to Development

         195.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council voted on
draft decision 9, entitled "Effects on the full enjoyment of human rights of
the economic adjustment policies arising from foreign debt and, in particular,
on the implementation of the Declaration on the Right to Development",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
The draft decision was adopted by a recorded vote of 22 to 19, with 7
abstentions. See Council decision 1998/249. The voting was as follows:

         In favour:

            Algeria, Bangladesh, Cape Verde, China, Colombia, Cuba,
            Djibouti, Guyana, India, Jordan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Mauritius,
            Mozambique, Oman, Pakistan, Saint Lucia, Sri Lanka, Togo, Tunisia,
            Turkey, Viet Nam.

         Against:

            Belarus, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France,
            Germany, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, New Zealand, Poland,
            Romania, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom of
            Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America.

         Abstaining:

            Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua,
            Republic of Korea.


         Human rights and extreme poverty

         196.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 10, entitled "Human rights and extreme poverty", recommended by
the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council
decision 1998/250.


     Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerances

         197.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 11, entitled "Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and
related intolerance", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights
(E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/251.


         Effective implementation of international instruments on
         human rights, including reporting obligations under international
         instruments on human rights

         198.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 12, entitled "Effective implementation of international
instruments on human rights, including reporting obligations under
international instruments on human rights", recommended by the
Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council
decision 1998/252.


         Question of the realization in all countries of the economic,
         social and cultural rights contained in the Universal Declaration of
         Human Rights and in the International Covenant on Economic, Social
         and Cultural Rights, and study of special problems which the
         developing countries face in their efforts to achieve these human
         rights

         199.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 13, entitled "Question of the realization in all countries of
the economic, social and cultural rights contained in the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenant on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights, and study of special problems which the
developing countries face in their efforts to achieve these human rights",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I,
sect. B). See Council decision E/1998/253.


    Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

         200.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 14, entitled "Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading
treatment or punishment", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights
(E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision E/1998/254.


         Question of enforced or involuntary disappearances

         201.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 15, entitled "Question of enforced or involuntary
disappearances", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24,
chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision E/1998/255.


         The right to restitution, compensation and rehabilitation for
         victims of grave violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms

         202. At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 16, entitled "The right to restitution, compensation and
rehabilitation for victims of grave violations of human rights and fundamental
freedoms", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap.
I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/256.


         Internally displaced persons

         203.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 17, entitled "Internally displaced person", recommended by the
Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council
decision E/1998/257.


         National institutions for the promotion and protection of
         human rights

         204.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 18, entitled "National institutions for the promotion and
protection of human rights", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights
(E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/258.


         Situation of human rights in Cambodia

         205.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 19, entitled "Situation of human rights in Cambodia",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/259.


     Situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

         206.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 20, entitled "Situation of human rights in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights
(E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/260.

         207.  Before the draft decision was adopted, a statement was
made by the representative of Japan. After the draft decision was adopted, a
statement was made by the observer for the Democratic Republic of the Congo.


         Situation of human rights in Myanmar

         208.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 21, entitled "Situation of human rights in Myanmar",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/261.


         Situation of human rights in Nigeria

         209.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 22, entitled "Situation of human rights in Nigeria",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/262.


         Situation of human rights in Iraq

         210.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council voted on
draft decision 23, entitled "Situation of human rights in Iraq", recommended
by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). The draft
decision was adopted by a recorded vote of 27 to none, with 18 abstentions.
See Council decision 1998/263. The voting was as follows:

         In favour:

            Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech
            Republic, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy,
            Japan, Latvia, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Poland, Republic of
            Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United
            Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of
            America.

         Against:

            None.

         Abstaining:

            Algeria, Bangladesh, Cape Verde, China, Colombia, Cuba,
            Djibouti, Guyana, 15/ India, Jordan, Lebanon, Mozambique,
            Pakistan, Saint Lucia, Sri Lanka, Togo, Tunisia, Viet Nam.

         211.  Before the adoption of the draft decision, statements
were made by the representative of the United States of America and by the
observer for Iraq.


         Situation of human rights in the Sudan

         212.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 24, entitled "Situation of human rights in the Sudan",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/264.


         Extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions

         213.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 25, entitled "Extrajudicial, summary of arbitrary executions",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/265.


         Situation of human rights in Rwanda

         214.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 26, entitled "Situation of human rights in Rwanda", recommended
by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council
decision 1998/266.

         Situation of human rights in Afghanistan

         215.  At the 27th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 27, entitled "Situation of human rights in Afghanistan",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/267.


         Situation of human rights in Equatorial Guinea and assistance
         in the field of human rights

         216.  At the 46 the meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 28, entitled "Situation of human rights in Equatorial Guinea
and assistance in the field of human rights", recommended by the Commission on
Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/268.


         The right to development

         217.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 29, entitled "The right to development", recommended by the
Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council
decision 1998/269.


         Human rights and thematic procedures

         218.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 30, entitled "Human rights and thematic procedures",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/270.


         Rights of the child

         219.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 31, entitled "Rights of the child", recommended by the
Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council
decision 1998/271.


         Situation of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the
         Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

         220.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 32, entitled "Situation of human rights in Bosnia and
Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/272.

         221.  After the adoption of the draft decision, the
representative of the Russian Federation made a statement.


         Situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran

         222.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council voted on
draft decision 33, entitled "Situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic
of Iran", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I,
sect. B). The draft decision was adopted by a recorded vote of 25 to 8, with
11 abstentions. See Council decision 1998/273. The voting was as follows:

         In favour:

            Algeria, Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech
            Republic, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Guyana, Iceland,
            Italy, Japan, Latvia, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Poland, Romania,
            Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
            of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America.

         Against:

            Bangladesh, China, Cuba, India, Jordan, Oman, Pakistan, Viet Nam.

         Abstaining:

            Belarus, Cape Verde, Colombia, Djibouti, Mexico, Mozambique,
            Republic of Korea, Saint Lucia, Sri Lanka, Togo, Tunisia.

         223.  Before the adoption of the draft decision, statements
were made by the representative of Lebanon and by the observer for the Islamic
Republic of Iran.


         Situation of human rights in Burundi

         224.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 34, entitled "Situation of human rights in Burundi",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/274.


         Question of resources for the Office of the United Nations
         High Commissioner for Human Rights and the human rights activities of
         the United Nations

         225.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 35, entitled "Question of resources for the Office of the
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the human rights
activities of the United Nations", recommended by the Commission on Human
Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect B). See Council decision 1998/275.


         Effects of structural adjustment policies on the full
         enjoyment of human rights

         226.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council voted on
draft decision 36, entitled "Effects of structural adjustment policies on the
full enjoyment of human rights", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights
(E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). The draft decision was adopted by a recorded
vote of 28 to 18, with 1 abstention. See Council decision 1998/276. The voting
was as follows:

         In favour:

            Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile, China,
            Colombia, Cuba, Djibouti, El Salvador, Guyana, India, Jordan,
            Lebanon, Lesotho, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Oman,
            Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Saint Lucia, Sri Lanka, Togo,
            Tunisia, Turkey, Viet Nam.

         Against:

            Belarus, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France,
            Germany, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, New Zealand, Romania,
            Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom of Great Britain
            and Northern Ireland, United States of America.

         Abstaining:

            Poland.


         Protection of the heritage of indigenous people

         227.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 37, entitled "Protection of the heritage of indigenous people",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).
See Council decision 1998/277.


         Freedom of movement and population transfer

         228.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council considered
draft decision 38, entitled "Freedom of movement and population transfer",
recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B).

         229.  At the same meeting the representative of Jordan
proposed the following amendments:

            (a)    In the fourth line, the word "final" should be
deleted;

            (b)    In the last line, the reference to the document
symbol E/CN.4/Sub.2/1997/23 should be deleted.

         230.  Also at the same meeting, statements were made by the
representatives of Turkey, Lebanon, Austria (on behalf of the States Members
of the United Nations that are members of the European Union) and Canada, as
well as by the representative of the Office of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Human Rights.

         231.  At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Council adopted
the draft decision as orally amended. See Council decision 1998/292.

         232.  After the adoption of the draft decision, statements
were made by the representatives of Lebanon, Jordan and Canada and by the
observers for Austria (on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations
that are members of the European Union) and Nigeria.


         Human rights and terrorism

         233.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council voted on
draft decision 39, entitled "Human rights and terrorism", recommended by the
Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). The draft decision
was adopted by a recorded vote of 23 to none, with 22 abstentions. See Council
decision 1998/278. The voting was as follows:

         In favour:

            Algeria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Brazil, China, Colombia,
            Cuba, Djibouti, El Salvador, Guyana, India, Lesotho, Mozambique,
            Oman, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Saint
            Lucia, Sri Lanka, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Viet Nam.

         Against:

            None.

         Abstaining:

            Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Czech
            Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Latvia,
            Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden,
            United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
            United States of America.

         234.  Before the adoption of the draft decision, a statement
was made by the representative of Mexico.


         Question of human rights and states of emergency

         235.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 40, entitled "Question of human rights and states of
emergency", recommended by the Commission on Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap.
I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/279.


     Dates of the fifty-fifth session of the Commission on Human Rights

         236.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 41, entitled "Organization of the work of the fifty-fifth
session of the Commission on Human Rights", recommended by the Commission on
Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/280.


         Organization of the work of the fifty-fifth session of the
         Commission on Human Rights

         237.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council adopted
draft decision 42, entitled "Organization of the work of the fifty-fifth
session of the Commission on Human Rights", recommended by the Commission on
Human Rights (E/1998/L.24, chap. I, sect. B). See Council decision 1998/281.

                                *  *  *

         238.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, after the adoption of
the draft resolutions and decisions, statements were made by the
representative of Cuba and by the observer for Austria (on behalf of the
States Members of the United Nations that are members of the European Union).


         Recommendations contained in the report of the Committee on
         Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

         239.  At the 46th meeting, on 30 July, the Council considered
four draft decisions recommended for adoption by the Committee on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights at its sixteenth and seventeenth sessions. The
texts of the decisions were contained in the report of the Committee on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights at its sixteenth and seventeenth sessions
(see E/1998/22). A statement of the programme budget implications of the draft
decisions, submitted by the Secretary-General in accordance with rule 31 of
the rules of procedure of the Council, was circulated in document E/1998/L.4.


         Consideration by the Economic and Social Council of the draft
         recommendations contained in the Report of the Committee on Economic,
         Social and Cultural Rights on its sixteenth session

         240.  At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Vice-President of
the Council, Anwarul Karim Chowdhury (Bangladesh), introduced a draft decision
(E/1998/L.48) entitled "Consideration by the Economic and Social Council of
the draft recommendations contained in the report of the Committee on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on its sixteenth session", submitted on
the basis of informal consultations.

         241.  At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
decision. See Council decision 1998/293.


                                 Notes

1/  See Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-third Session,
Supplement No. 16.

2/  The delegation of Lebanon subsequently indicated that, had it been
present during the voting, it would have voted in favour of the draft
resolution.

3/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
Supplement No. 9.

4/  Ibid., Supplement No. 14.

5/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
Supplement No. 5.

6/  Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-third Session,
Supplement No. 36.

7/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
Supplement No. 7 and corrigendum.

8/  Ibid., Supplement No. 6.

9/  Ibid., Supplement No. 10 and corrigendum.

10/ Ibid., Supplement No. 8.

11/ To be issued as Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-
third Session, Supplement No. 12.

12/ The report of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (A/53/41)
was not made available to the Council in time for its consideration of
the item at its substantive session.

13/ Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
Supplement No. 2.

14/ The delegations of Jordan, Togo and Tunisia subsequently stated
that, had they been present, they would have voted in favour of the
draft resolution.

15/ The delegation of Guyana subsequently stated that it had intended
to vote in favour of the draft decision, and not against it.

*/  In accordance with rule 72 of the rules of procedure of the Economic
and Social Council.


Chapter IX

         Elections, appointments, nominations and confirmations


            The Council considered the question of elections,
appointments, nominations and confirmations at its organizational and resumed
organizational sessions (agenda item 7) and its substantive session (agenda
item 1). The question was considered at the 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 47th meetings,
on 3 and 6 February, 7 May and 31 July 1998. An account of the proceedings is
contained in the relevant summary records (E/1998/SR.2, 3, 5 and 47). The
Council had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Annotated provisional agenda for the organizational
session for 1998 (E/1998/2/Add.1);

            (b)    Note by the Secretary-General on elections and
nominations postponed from previous sessions (E/1998/L.1);

            (c)    Note by the Secretary-General on the election of
nine members of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
(E/1998/L.1/Add.1 and Corr.1, Add.14 and Add.16);

            (d)    Note by the Secretary-General on the election of 11
members of the Executive Board of the United Nations Development
Programme/United Nations Population Fund (E/1998/L.1/Add.2);

            (e)    Note by the Secretary-General on the election of
members of the functional commissions of the Council (E/1998/L.1/Add.3);

            (f)    Note by the Secretary-General on the election of
six members of the Executive Board of the World Food Programme
(E/1998/L.1/Add.4);

            (g)    Note by the Secretary-General on the election of 20
members of the Commission on Human Settlements (E/1998/L.1/Add.5);

            (h)    Note by the Secretary-General on the nomination of
seven members of the Committee for Programme and Coordination
(E/1998/L.1/Add.6);

            (i)    Note by the Secretary-General on the election of 11
members of the Executive Board of the United Nations Children's Fund
(E/1998/L.1/Add.7);

            (j)    Note by the Secretary-General on the election of
eight members of the Programme Coordination Board of the Joint United Nations
Programme on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(HIV/AIDS) (E/1998/L.1/Add.8);

            (k)    Note by the Secretary-General on the election of
the 19 members of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations
(E/1998/L.1/Add.9);

            (l)    Note by the Secretary-General on the appointment of
three members of the Board of Trustees of the International Research and
Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (E/1998/L.1/Add.10 and
Add.15);

            (m)    Note by the Secretary-General on the appointment of
members of the Committee for Development Planning (E/1998/L.1/Add.11);

            (n)    Note by the Secretary-General on elections to the
Committee on New and Renewable Sources of Energy and on Energy for Development
(E/1998/L.1/Add.12 and Add.17);

            (o)    Note by the Secretary-General on elections to the
Committee on Natural Resources (E/1998/L.1/Add.13);

            (p)    Note by the Secretary-General on the confirmation
of representatives on the functional commissions of the Council (E/1998/L.2
and Corr.1 and Add.1 and 2).


         Action taken by the Council


            Under the item on elections, the Council adopted decisions
1998/202 A, B and C.


Chapter X

         Organizational matters


         1. The Council held its organizational session for 1998 at
United Nations Headquarters on 22 January and 3 and 6 February 1998 (1st to
3rd meetings), a special high-level meeting with the Bretton Woods
institutions on 18 April (4th meeting), a resumed organizational
session at United Nations Headquarters on 7 May (5th meeting), a session on
integrated and coordinated implementation and follow-up of major United
Nations conferences and summits from 13 to 15 May (6th to 11th meetings) and
its substantive session at United Nations Headquarters from 6 to 31 July and
on 5 August 1998 (12th to 49th meetings). An account of the proceedings is
contained in the summary records (E/1998/SR.1-49).


              A.   Action taken by the Council


         2. At its organizational session for 1998, the Council
adopted one resolution and nine decisions concerning organizational matters.
See Council resolution 1998/1 and decisions 1998/201 and 1998/203 to 1998/210.

         3. At its resumed organizational session for 1998, the
Council adopted one decision on organizational matters. See Council decision
1998/211.

         4. At its substantive session of 1998, the Council adopted
four decisions concerning organizational matters. See Council decisions
1998/212, 1998/223, 1998/295 and 1998/298.


              B.   Proceedings


         5. The 1st meeting, on 22 January, was opened by the
President of the Economic and Social Council for 1997, Vladimir Galuska (Czech
Republic). Upon election, the President of the Council for 1998, Juan Somavi'a
(Chile), made a statement.


              1.   Bureau of the Council

         6. Pursuant to paragraph 2 (k) of its resolution 1988/77, the
Council met on 22 January for the purpose of electing its Bureau.

         7. At the 1st meeting, the Council elected, by acclamation,
Paolo Fulci (Italy), Anwarul Chowdhury (Bangladesh), Roble Olhaye (Djibouti)
and Alyaksandr Sychou (Belarus) Vice-Presidents of the Council for 1998.


              2.   Agenda of the organizational session for 1998

         8. The Council considered the agenda of its organizational
session at the 1st meeting, on 22 January. It had before it the annotated
provisional agenda (E/1998/2 and Corr.1).

         9. At the same meeting, the Council adopted the agenda of the
organizational session (see annex I to the present report).

         10.   At the 3rd meeting, on 6 February, on the
recommendation of the President, the Council decided to include in the
provisional agenda of the resumed organizational session for 1998 the item
entitled "Social and human rights questions: advancement of women".
See Council decision 1998/203.


              3.   Basic programme of work for 1998 and 1999

         11.   The Council considered its basic programme of work for
1998 and 1999 at the 2nd and 3rd meetings, on 3 and 6 February. It had before
it a note by the Secretary-General containing the basic programme of work for
1998 and 1999 (E/1998/1).

         12.   At the 2nd meeting, on 3 February, the Vice-President
of the Council, Anwarul Chowdhury (Bangladesh), made a statement on the
informal consultations held on the basic programme of work for 1998 and 1999.
On the recommendation of the President, the Council adopted an oral decision
on the question of regional cooperation. See Council decision 1998/201.

         13.   At the 3rd meeting, on 6 February, the Council had
before it the draft proposals on the basic programme of work for 1998 and 1999
submitted by the Vice-President of the Council, Mr. Chowdhury (Bangladesh)
(E/1998/L.6). Mr. Chowdhury made a statement on the informal consultations
held on the outstanding issues before the organizational session.

         14.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
decisions contained in document E/1998/L.6 and, on the recommendation of the
President, three oral decisions. See Council decisions 1998/205 to 1998/209.


              4.   Provisional agenda for the 1998 session of the
                   Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations

         15.   At the 3rd meeting, on 6 February, the Council had
before it a note by the Secretariat containing the provisional agenda for the
1998 session of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations (E/1998/L.3).

         16.   At the same meeting, the Council approved the
provisional agenda. See Council decision 1998/204.


              5.   Proclamation of international years

         17.   At the 3rd meeting, on 6 February, the representative
of the Russian Federation introduced a draft resolution entitled "Proclamation
of international years" (E/1998/L.5). The Council adopted the draft
resolution. See Council resolution 1998/1.


              6.   Postponement of consideration of recommendations
                   contained in the report of the Committee on Economic,
                   Social and Cultural Rights on its sixteenth session*

         18.   At the 3rd meeting, on 6 February, on the recommendation of the
President, the Council decided to postpone to its resumed organizational
session consideration of the recommendations contained in the report of the
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on its sixteenth session
(see E/1998/L.23 and Add.2) and of the statement of the administrative and
programme budget implications of those recommendations (E/1998/L.4). See
Council decision 1998/210 A. At the 5th meeting, on 7 May, the Council
postponed consideration of three of the recommendations and the related
statement of administrative and programme budget implications, and
decided to take no action on the fourth recommendation. See Council decision
210 B.


              7.   Enlargement of the Executive Committee of the
                   Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for
                   Refugees

         19.   At the 5th meeting, on 7 May 1998, the Council had
before it a draft decision entitled "Enlargement of the Executive Committee of
the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees"
(E/1998/L.7).

         20.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft
decision. See Council decision 1998/211.


              8.   Agenda of the substantive session of 1998

         21.   At the 12th meeting, on 6 July, the Council considered
the agenda and organization of work of its substantive session of 1998. It
had before it the following documents:

            (a)    Annotated provisional agenda (E/1998/100 and Add.1);

            (b)    Proposed programme of work for the substantive
session (E/1998/L.9);

            (c)    Note by the Secretariat on the status of
documentation for the session (E/1998/L.10/Rev.1).

         22.   At the same meeting, the Council adopted the agenda of
the substantive session of 1998 (see annex I) and approved the organization of
work of the session. See Council decision 1998/212, paragraph 1.


       9.   Requests by non-governmental organizations for hearings

         23.   At the 19th, 28th and 32nd meetings, on 9, 15 and 17
July, on the recommendation of the Committee on Non-Governmental
Organizations (E/1998/82 and Add.1 and 2), the Council approved requests made
by non-governmental organizations to be heard by the Council at its
substantive session of 1998. See Council decision 1998/212, paragraph 2.


             10.   Organizational meeting in 1998 of the Commission on
                   Sustainable Development

         24.   At the 40th meeting, on 23 July, on the proposal of the
President, the Council authorized the Commission on Sustainable Development to
convene an organizational meeting in 1998 for the purpose of holding elections
to fill the two remaining posts of vice-chairmen at its seventh session. See
Council decision 1998/223.


             11.   Dates of sessions of subsidiary bodies of the
                   Economic and Social Council in 1999

         25.   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Council had before
it a draft decision entitled "Dates of sessions of subsidiary bodies of the
Economic and Social Council in 1999" (E/1998/L.44), submitted by the President
of the Council. At the same meeting, the Council adopted the draft decision.
See Council decision 1998/295.


             12.   Themes for the 1999 substantive session of the
                   Economic and Social Council

         26.   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July, the Council had before
it a draft decision entitled "Themes for the 1999 substantive session of the
Economic and Social Council" (E/1998/L.47), submitted by the Vice-President of
the Council, Mr. Anwarul Chowdhury (Bangladesh).

         27.   At the 49th meeting, on 5 August, the Council adopted
the draft decision. See Council decision 1998/298.


                                    Note

* See also chap. VII, paras.179-182 and 239-241

Annex I

         Agendas of the organizational and resumed organizational
         sessions for 1998 and the substantive session of 1998


  Agenda of the organizational and resumed organizational sessions for 1998


         Adopted by the Council at its 1st meeting, on 22 January 1998


         1. Election of the Bureau.

         2. Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters.

         3. Basic programme of work of the Council.

         4. Proclamation of international years.

         5. Reports, conclusions and recommendations of subsidiary bodies:
            human rights questions.

         6. Regional cooperation in the economic, social and related fields.

         7. Elections, nominations and confirmations.

         8. Social and human rights questions: advancement of women. a/


         Agenda of the substantive session of 1998


         Adopted by the Council at its 12th meeting, on 6 July 1998


         1. Adoption of the agenda and other organizational matters.


         High-level segment

         2. Market access: developments since the Uruguay Round, implications,
            opportunities and challenges, in particular for the developing
            countries and the least developed among them, in the context of
            globalization and liberalization. 

      Operational activities of the United Nations for international
      development cooperation segment

         3. Operational activities of the United Nations for
            international development cooperation:

            (a)  Advancement of women: implementation of the Beijing Platform
                 for Action and the role of operational activities in
                 promoting, in particular, capacity-building and resource
                 mobilization for enhancing the participation of women in
                 development;

            (b)  Follow-up to policy recommendations of the General Assembly;

            (c)  Reports of the Executive Boards of the United Nations
                 Development Programme/United Nations Population Fund,
                 the United Nations Children's Fund and the World Food
                 Programme.

         Coordination segment

         4. Coordination of the policies and activities of the specialized
            agencies and other bodies of the United Nations system related to
            the following theme: Coordinated follow-up to and implementation
            of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action.


         Humanitarian affairs segment

         5. Special economic, humanitarian and disaster relief assistance.


         General segment

         6. Integrated and coordinated implementation of and follow-up to
            major United Nations conferences and summits.

         7. Coordination, programme and other questions:

            (a)  Reports of coordination bodies;

            (b)  Malaria and diarrhoeal diseases, in particular cholera;

            (c)  Proposed revisions to the medium-term plan for the period
                 1998-2001;

            (d)  International cooperation in the field of informatics;

            (e)  Proclamation of an international year of mountains;

            (f)  International Year for the Culture of Peace, 2000.

         8. Implementation of General Assembly resolutions 50/227 and 52/12 B.

         9. Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence
            to Colonial Countries and Peoples by the specialized agencies and
            the international institutions associated with the United Nations.

        10. Regional cooperation.

        11. Economic and social repercussions of the Israeli occupation on
            the living conditions of the Palestinian people in the
            occupied Palestinian territory, including Jerusalem, and the Arab
            population in the occupied Syrian Golan.

        12. Non-governmental organizations.

        13. Economic and environmental questions:

            (a)  Sustainable development;

            (b)  Natural resources;

            (c)  Energy;

            (d)  International cooperation in tax matters;

            (e)  Public administration and finance;

            (f)  Cartography;

            (g)  Population and development.

       14.  Social and human rights questions:

            (a)  Advancement of women;

            (b)  Social development;

            (c)  Crime prevention and criminal justice;

            (d)  Narcotic drugs;

            (e)  United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees;

            (f)  Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Third
                 Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination;

            (g)  Human rights.


                                   Notes

*/ Item included in the agenda of the resumed organizational session
for 1998 in accordance with Council decision 1998/203.


Annex II

      Composition of the Council and its subsidiary and related bodies


                       Economic and Social Council

                      (54 members; three-year term)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998        Membership in 1999 a/         Term expires on
                                                          31 December
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Algeria                   Algeria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Argentina                 Belarus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Bangladesh                Belgium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Belarus                   Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Belgium                   Cape Verde . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Brazil                    Chile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Canada                    Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Cape Verde                Comoros. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Central African Republic  Cuba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Chile                     Djibouti . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
China                     El Salvador. . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Colombia                  France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Comoros                   Gambia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Cuba                      Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Czech Republic            Iceland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Djibouti                  India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
El Salvador               Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Finland                   Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
France                    Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Gabon                     Lesotho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Gambia                    Mauritius. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Germany                   Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Guyana                    Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Iceland                   New Zealand. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
India                     Oman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Italy                     Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Japan                     Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000

Jordan                    Republic of Korea. . . . . . . . . 1999
Latvia                    Saint Lucia. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Lebanon                   Sierra Leone . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Lesotho                   Spain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Mauritius                 Sri Lanka. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Mexico                    Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Mozambique                United States of America . . . . . 1999
New Zealand               Viet Nam . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Nicaragua                 Zambia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Oman
Pakistan
Poland
Republic of Korea
Romania
Russian Federation
Saint Lucia
Sierra Leone
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sweden
Togo
Tunisia
Turkey
United Kingdom of Great 
  Britain and Northern
  Ireland
United States of America
Viet Nam
Zambia
----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                Functional commissions and subcommissions


                        Statistical Commission

                     (24 members; four-year term)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998 and 1999                 Term expires on 31 December
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2001
Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2001
Botswana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2001
Bulgaria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1999
China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1999
Colombia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1999
Co^te d'Ivoire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2001
Czech Republic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2000
Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2001
Iceland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2001
India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2000
Jamaica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2000
Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2000
Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2000
Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2000
Pakistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1999
Portugal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2000
Romania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1999
Russian Federation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2001
Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1999
Togo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1999
Tunisia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2001
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2000
United States of America. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1999
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
       
               Commission on Population and Development

                     (47 members; four-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998       Membership in 1999 b/    Term expires on 31 December
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Algeria                  Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Bangladesh               Belgium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Belgium                  Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Brazil                   Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Bulgaria                 Burundi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Cameroon                 Cameroon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Canada                   Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
China                    Chile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Congo                    China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Co^te d'Ivoire           Co^te d'Ivoire . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Egypt                    Croatia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
El Salvador              Egypt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Ethiopia                 Ethiopia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
France                   France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Germany                  Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Hungary                  Guinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
India                    Haiti. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Indonesia                Hungary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Iran (Islamic 
  Republic of)           India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Jamaica                  Indonesia. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Japan                    Iran (Islamic Republic of) . . . . 2002
Kenya                    Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Malawi                   Jamaica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Malaysia                 Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Malta                    Kenya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Mexico                   Malawi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Netherlands              Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Niger                    Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Nigeria                  Netherlands. . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Panama                   Niger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Peru                     Nigeria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Philippines              Panama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Republic of Korea        Philippines. . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Russian Federation       Republic of Korea. . . . . . . . . 2001
South Africa             Russian Federation . . . . . . . . 2001
Sudan                    South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Sweden                   Sudan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Syrian Arab Republic     Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Thailand                 Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
The former Yugoslav 
  Republic of Macedonia  Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Turkey                   Ukraine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Ukraine                  United Kingdom of Great Britain 
                           and Northern Ireland . . . . . . 2001
United Kingdom of Great 
  Britain and Northern
  Ireland                United States of America . . . . . 2001
United States of America Yemen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
---------------------------------------------------------------------------



                   Commission for Social Development

                      (46 members; four-year term)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998       Membership in 1999 c/  Term expires on 31 December
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Argentina                Algeria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Austria                  Argentina. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Belarus                  Belarus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Benin                    Cameroon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Cameroon                 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Canada                   Chile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Chile                    China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
China                    Croatia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Cuba                     Cuba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Dominican Republic       Democratic People's Republic 
                           of Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Ecuador                  Dominican Republic . . . . . . . . 2002
Egypt                    Ecuador. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Ethiopia                 Finland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Finland                  France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
France                   Gabon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Gabon                    Gambia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Gambia                   Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Germany                  Haiti. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Guatemala                India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
India                    Iran (Islamic Republic of) . . . . 2002
Iran (Islamic 
  Republic of)           Jamaica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Jamaica                  Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Japan                    Malawi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Malawi                   Malta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Malaysia                 Mauritania . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Malta                    Nepal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Mauritania               Netherlands. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Mongolia                 Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Nepal                    Peru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Netherlands              Philippines. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Norway                   Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Pakistan                 Republic of Korea. . . . . . . . . 1999
Peru                     Romania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Philippines              Russian Federation . . . . . . . . 1999
Poland                   South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Republic of Korea        Spain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Romania                  Sudan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Russian Federation       Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
South Africa             Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Spain                    Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Sudan                    Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Togo                     United States of America . . . . . 1999
Uganda                   Venezuela. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Ukraine
United States of America
Venezuela
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                       Commission on Human Rights

                      (53 members; three-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998       Membership in 1999       Term expires on 31 December
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Argentina                Argentina. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Austria                  Austria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Bangladesh               Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Belarus                  Bhutan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Bhutan                   Botswana . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Botswana                 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Brazil                   Cape Verde . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Cape Verde               Chile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Canada                   China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Chile                    Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
China                    Congo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Congo                    Cuba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Cuba                     Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Czech Republic           Democratic Republic of the Congo . 1999
Democratic Republic of 
  the Congo c/           Ecuador. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Denmark                  El Salvador. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Ecuador                  France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
El Salvador              Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
France                   Guatemala. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Germany                  India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Guatemala                Indonesia. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Guinea                   Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
India                    Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Indonesia                Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Ireland                  Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Italy                    Liberia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Japan                    Luxembourg . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Luxembourg               Madagascar . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Madagascar               Mauritius. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Malaysia                 Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Mali                     Morocco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Mexico                   Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Morocco                  Nepal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Mozambique               Niger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Nepal                    Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Pakistan                 Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Peru                     Peru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Philippines              Philippines. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Poland                   Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Republic of Korea        Qatar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Russian Federation       Republic of Korea. . . . . . . . . 2001
Rwanda                   Romania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Senegal                  Russian Federation . . . . . . . . 2000
South Africa             Rwanda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Sri Lanka                Senegal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Sudan                    South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Tunisia                  Sri Lanka. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Uganda                   Sudan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Ukraine                  Tunisia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
United Kingdom of Great  United Kingdom of Great Britain
  Britain and Northern     and Northern Ireland . . . . . . 2000
United States of America United States of America . . . . . 2001
Uruguay                  Uruguay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Venezuela                Venezuela. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


 Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities

                              (26 members)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Members elected on 22 April 1996, for a four-year term, by
         the Commission on Human Rights at its fifty-second session
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Marc Bossuyt (Belgium)
            Alternate: Guy Genot (Belgium)

         Volodymyr Boutkevitch (Ukraine)
            Alternate: Olexandre Kouptchichine (Ukraine)

         Asbjorn Eide (Norway)
            Alternate: Jan Helgesen (Norway)

         Ribot Hatano (Japan)
            Alternate: Yozo Yokota (Japan)

         Ahmed M. Khalifa (Egypt)
            Alternate: Ahmed Khalil (Egypt)

         Miguel J. Alfonso Marti'nez (Cuba)
            Alternate: Marianela Ferriol Echevarri'a (Cuba)

         Ioan Maxim (Romania)
            Alternate: Petru Pavel Gavrilescu (Romania)

         Mustapha Mehedi (Algeria)

         Sang Yong Park (Republic of Korea)

         Clemencia Forero Ucros (Colombia)
            Alternate: Jorge Orlando Melo (Colombia)

         Halima Embarek Warzazi (Morocco)
            Alternate: Mohamad Benkaddour (Morocco)

         David Weissbrodt (United States of America)
            Alternate: Robert J. Portman (United States of America)

         Fisseha Yimer (Ethiopia)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Members elected on 6 April 1998, for a four-year term by the
         Commission on Human Rights at its fifty-fourth session
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Jose' Bengoa (Chile)

         Erica-Irene A. Daes (Greece)
            Alternate: Kalliopi Koufa (Greece)

         Fan Guoxiang (China)
            Alternate: Zhong Shukong (China)

         He'ctor Fix-Zamudio (Mexico)
            Alternate: Alfonso Gomez-Robledo Vaduzco (Mexico)

         Rajenda Kalidas Wimala Goonesekere (Sri Lanka)
            Alternate: Deepika Udagama (Sri Lanka)

         El-Hadji Guisse' (Senegal)

         Franc'oise Jane Hampson (United Kingdom of Great Britain and
            Northern Ireland)
            Alternate: Helena Cook (United Kingdom of Great Britain
               and Northern Ireland)

         Louis Joinet (France)
            Alternate: Emmanuel Decaux (France)

         Joseph Oloka-Onyango (Uganda)

         Paulo Se'rgio Pinheiro (Brazil)
            Alternate: Mari'lia S. Zelner Gonc'alves (Brazil)

         Teimuraz O. Ramishvili (Russian Federation)
            Alternate: Vladimir Kartashkin (Russian Federation)

         Yeung Kam Yeung Sik Yuen (Mauritius)

                  Soli Jehangir Sorabjee (India)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                   Commission on the Status of Women

                      (45 members; four-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998       Membership in 1999       Term expires on 31 December
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Angola                   Belgium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Belgium                  Bolivia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Bolivia                  Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Brazil                   Burundi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Bulgaria                 Chile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Chile                    China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
China                    Co^te d'Ivoire . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Congo                    Cuba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Co^te d'Ivoire           Democratic People's Republic of 
                           Korea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Cuba                     Dominican Republic . . . . . . . . 1999
Dominican Republic       Egypt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Ethiopia                 Ethiopia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
France                   France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Germany                  Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Ghana                    Ghana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Greece                   India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
India                    Iran (Islamic Republic of) . . . . 2001
Indonesia                Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Iran (Islamic 
  Republic of)           Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Japan                    Lebanon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Lebanon                  Lesotho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Lesotho                  Lithuania. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Malaysia                 Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Mali                     Mali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Mexico                   Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Morocco                  Mongolia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Norway                   Morocco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Paraguay                 Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Peru                     Paraguay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Philippines              Peru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Poland                   Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Portugal                 Republic of Korea. . . . . . . . . 2001
Republic of Korea        Russian Federation . . . . . . . . 2002
Russian Federation       Rwanda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Rwanda                   Saint Lucia. . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Saint Lucia              Senegal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Slovakia                 Slovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Sri Lanka                Sri Lanka. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001

Sudan                    Sudan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Swaziland                Swaziland. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Thailand                 Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Togo                     Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Uganda                   Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
United Kingdom of Great  United Kingdom of Great
  Britain and Northern     Britain and Northern 
  Ireland                  Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
United States of America United States of America . . . . . 1999
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


                       Commission on Narcotic Drugs

                       (53 members; four-year term)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Membership in 1998 and 1999       Term expires on 31 December
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Algeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Bolivia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Brazil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Bulgaria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Colombia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Co^te d'Ivoire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Cuba. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Czech Republic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Ecuador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       France. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Ghana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Greece. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Iran (Islamic Republic of). . . . . . . . .   1999
       Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Jamaica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Lao People's Democratic Republic. . . . . .   2001
       Lebanon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Malaysia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Mauritius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Morocco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Pakistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Poland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Portugal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Republic of Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Romania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Russian Federation. . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Sierra Leone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       South Africa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Sweden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Syrian Arab Republic. . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Thailand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Tunisia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Turkey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
         Northern Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       United States of America. . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Uruguay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2001
       Venezuela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


         Subcommission on Illicit Drug Traffic and Related Matters in
                            the Near and Middle East

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Members
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Afghanistan                             Oman
         Azerbaijan                              Pakistan
         Bahrain                                 Qatar
         Egypt                                   Saudi Arabia
         India                                   Syrian Arab Republic
         Iran (Islamic Republic of)              Tajikistan
         Iraq                                    Turkey
         Jordan                                  Turkmenistan
         Kazakhstan                              United Arab Emirates
         Kuwait                                  Uzbekistan
         Kyrgyzstan                              Yemen
         Lebanon                                 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


         Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

                      (40 members; three-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Membership in 1998 and 1999       Term expires on 31 December
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Benin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Bolivia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Botswana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Brazil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Colombia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Costa Rica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Co^te d'Ivoire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Ecuador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Fiji. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       France. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Gambia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Iran (Islamic Republic of). . . . . . . . .   2000
       Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Jamaica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Lesotho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Malawi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Pakistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Poland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Republic of Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Romania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Russian Federation. . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Saudi Arabia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Swaziland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Sweden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Togo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Tunisia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
       United States of America. . . . . . . . . .   2000
       Zambia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1999
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
              

          Commission on Science and Technology for Development

                              (53 members)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Membership in 1998 d/ e/
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Angola                                 Jamaica
       Austria                                Malawi
       Bahamas                                Malta
       Belarus                                Namibia
       Belgium                                Netherlands
       Benin                                  Pakistan
       Bolivia                                Panama
       Brazil                                 Portugal
       Bulgaria                               Qatar
       Cameroon                               Republic of Korea
       China                                  Romania
       Colombia                               Russian Federation
       Costa Rica                             Slovakia
       Co^te d'Ivoire                         Tunisia
       Cuba                                   Uganda
       Democratic Republic of the Congo       Ukraine
       Ethiopia                               United Kingdom of Great Britain
                                                and Northern Ireland
       Germany                                United Republic of Tanzania
       Ghana                                  Uruguay
       Guinea                                 Venezuela
       India
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
       
                    Commission on Sustainable Development

                        (53 members; three-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership of            Membership as of           Term expires at close of
sixth session            seventh session              session in the year
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Algeria                  Algeria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Antigua and Barbuda      Angola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Belgium                  Belgium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Benin                    Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Bolivia                  Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Brazil                   Cameroon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Bulgaria                 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Canada                   China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Central African Republic Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
China                    Co^te d'Ivoire . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Colombia                 Cuba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Co^te d'Ivoire           Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Czech Republic           Democratic People's Republic 
                           of Korea . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Democratic People's      Democratic Republic of the Congo . 2002
  Republic of Korea
Djibouti                 Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Egypt                    Djibouti . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Finland f/               Egypt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
France                   France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Gabon                    Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Germany                  Guyana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Guyana                   Hungary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Hungary                  India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
India                    Indonesia. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Indonesia                Iran (Islamic Republic of) . . . . 2000
Iran (Islamic 
  Republic of)           Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Ireland                  Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Japan                    Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Mauritania               Kazakhstan . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Mauritius                Lebanon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Mexico                   Mauritania . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Mozambique               Mauritius. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Netherlands              Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
New Zealand              Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Nicaragua                Netherlands. . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Niger                    New Zealand. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Pakistan                 Nicagarua. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Panama                   Niger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Peru                     Panama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Philippines              Paraguay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Poland                   Peru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Portugal                 Philippines. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Russian Federation       Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Saudi Arabia             Republic of Korea. . . . . . . . . 2002
Slovakia                 Russian Federation . . . . . . . . 2002
Spain                    Slovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Sri Lanka                Spain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Sudan                    Sri Lanka. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Switzerland              Sudan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Thailand                 The former Yugoslav Republic of 
                           Macedonia. . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
United Kingdom of        Tunisia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
  Great Britain and 
  Northern Ireland
United States of America United Kingdom of Great Britain 
                           and Northern Ireland . . . . . . 1999

Venezuela                United States of America . . . . . 1999
Zimbabwe                 Venezuela. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                          Regional commissions

                      Economic Commission for Africa

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Members
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Algeria                           Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
       Angola                            Madagascar
       Benin                             Malawi
       Botswana                          Mali
       Burkina Faso                      Mauritania
       Burundi                           Mauritius
       Cameroon                          Morocco
       Cape Verde                        Mozambique
       Central African Republic          Namibia
       Chad                              Niger
       Comoros                           Nigeria
       Congo                             Rwanda
       Co^te d'Ivoire                    Sao Tome and Principe
       Democratic Republic of the Congo  Senegal
       Djibouti                          Seychelles
       Egypt                             Sierra Leone
       Equatorial Guinea                 Somalia
       Eritrea                           South Africa
       Ethiopia                          Sudan
       Gabon                             Swaziland
       Gambia                            Togo
       Ghana                             Tunisia
       Guinea                            Uganda
       Guinea-Bissau                     United Republic of Tanzania
       Kenya                             Zambia
       Lesotho                           Zimbabwe
       Liberia
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Switzerland participates in a consultative capacity in the work of the
Commission by virtue of Council resolution 925 (XXXIV) of 6 July 1962.
       

                      Economic Commission for Europe

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  Members
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Albania                           Lithuania
       Andorra                           Luxembourg
       Armenia                           Malta
       Austria                           Monaco
       Azerbaijan                        Netherlands
       Belarus                           Norway
       Belgium                           Poland
       Bosnia and Herzegovina            Portugal
       Bulgaria                          Republic of Moldova
       Canada                            Romania
       Croatia                           Russian Federation
       Cyprus                            San Marino
       Czech Republic                    Slovakia
       Denmark                           Slovenia
       Estonia                           Spain
       Finland                           Sweden
       France                            Switzerland
       Georgia                           Tajikistan
       Germany                           The former Yugoslav Republic of
                                            Macedonia
       Greece                            Turkey
       Hungary                           Turkmenistan
       Iceland                           Ukraine
       Ireland                           United Kingdom of Great Britain and
                                            Northern Ireland
       Israel                            United States of America
       Italy                             Uzbekistan
       Kazakhstan                        Yugoslavia g/
       Kyrgyzstan
       Latvia
       Liechtenstein
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Holy See participates in the work of the Commission in accordance with
Commission decision N (XXXI) of 5 April 1976.
       

          Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                Members
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Antigua and Barbuda       Honduras
       Argentina                 Italy
       Bahamas                   Jamaica
       Barbados                  Mexico
       Belize                    Netherlands
       Bolivia                   Nicaragua
       Brazil                    Panama
       Canada                    Paraguay
       Chile                     Peru
       Colombia                  Portugal
       Costa Rica                Saint Kitts and Nevis
       Cuba                      Saint Lucia
       Dominica                  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
       Dominican Republic        Spain
       Ecuador                   Suriname
       El Salvador               Trinidad and Tobago
       France                    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
                                    Ireland
       Grenada                   United States of America
       Guatemala                 Uruguay
       Guyana                    Venezuela
       Haiti
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Associate members
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Aruba                     Netherlands Antilles
       British Virgin Islands    Puerto Rico
       Montserrat                United States Virgin Islands
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Germany and Switzerland participate in a consultative capacity in the work of
the Commission by virtue of Council resolutions 632 (XXII) of 19 December 1956
and 861 (XXXII) of 21 December 1961, respectively.
       

           Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Members

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Afghanistan                       Nauru
       Armenia                           Nepal
       Australia                         Netherlands
       Azerbaijan                        New Zealand
       Bangladesh                        Pakistan
       Bhutan                            Palau
       Brunei Darussalam                 Papua New Guinea
       Cambodia                          Philippines
       China                             Republic of Korea
       Democratic People's Republic 
          of Korea                       Russian Federation
       Fiji                              Samoa
       France                            Singapore
       India                             Solomon Islands
       Indonesia                         Sri Lanka
       Iran (Islamic Republic of)        Tajikistan
       Japan                             Thailand
       Kazakhstan                        Tonga
       Kiribati                          Turkey
       Kyrgyzstan                        Turkmenistan
       Lao People's Democratic Republic  Tuvalu
       Malaysia                          United Kingdom of Great Britain and
                                            Northern Ireland
       Maldives                          United States of America
       Marshall Islands                  Uzbekistan
       Micronesia (Federated States of)  Vanuatu
       Mongolia                          Viet Nam
       Myanmar
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             Associate members
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       American Samoa                    Guam
       Commonwealth of the Northern 
          Mariana Islands                Hong Kong, China
       Cook Islands                      Macau
       French Polynesia                  New Caledonia
                                         Niue
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Switzerland participates in a consultative capacity in the work of the
Commission by virtue of Council resolution 860 (XXXII) of 21 December 1961.
       

             Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              Members
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Bahrain                           Palestine
       Egypt                             Qatar
       Iraq                              Saudi Arabia
       Jordan                            Syrian Arab Republic
       Kuwait                            United Arab Emirates
       Lebanon                           Yemen
       Oman
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
       
                         Standing committees

               Committee for Programme and Coordination

                    (34 members; three-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998       Membership in 1999 h/    Term expires on 31 December
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Argentina                Argentina. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Austria                  Austria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Bahamas                  Bahamas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Brazil                   Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Cameroon                 Cameroon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
China                    Congo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Congo                    France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Democratic Republic 
  of the Congo           Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Egypt                    Indonesia. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
France                   Iran (Islamic Republic of) . . . . 1999
Germany                  Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Indonesia                Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Iran (Islamic 
  Republic of)           Nicaragua. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Italy                    Nigeria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Japan                    Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Mexico                   Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Nicaragua                Romania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Nigeria                  Russian Federation . . . . . . . . 2000
Pakistan                 Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Poland                   Trinidad and Tobago. . . . . . . . 1999
Republic of Korea        Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Romania                  Ukraine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Russian Federation       United Kingdom of Great Britain 
                            and Northern Ireland. . . . . . 1999
Thailand                 United States of America . . . . . 2000
Togo                     Zambia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Trinidad and Tobago      Zimbabwe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Uganda                   
Ukraine
United Kingdom of Great 
  Britain and Northern 
  Ireland
United States of America
Uruguay
Zambia
Zimbabwe
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                     Commission on Human Settlements

                       (58 members; four-year term)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998       Membership in 1999 i/   Term expires on 31 December
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Algeria                  Algeria  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Bangladesh               Argentina. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Barbados                 Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Belarus                  Barbados . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Belgium                  Belarus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Benin                    Belgium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Brazil                   Benin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Bulgaria                 Bolivia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Cameroon                 Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Chile                    Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
China                    Cameroon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Colombia                 Chile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Costa Rica               China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000

Czech Republic           Colombia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Denmark                  Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Dominican Republic       Democratic Republic of the Congo . 2002
Ecuador                  Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Ethiopia                 Ecuador. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Finland                  Ethiopia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
France                   Finland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Gabon                    France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Gambia                   Gabon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Germany                  Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
India                    India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Indonesia                Indonesia. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Iran (Islamic 
   Republic of)          Iran (Islamic Republic of) . . . . 2002
Italy                    Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Jamaica                  Jamaica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Japan                    Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Jordan                   Jordan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Kazakhstan               Kenya. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Kenya                    Liberia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Liberia                  Lithuania. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Malawi                   Malawi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Mexico                   Mali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Namibia                  Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Netherlands              Namibia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Nigeria                  Netherlands. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Norway                   Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Pakistan                 Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Philippines              Philippines. . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Poland                   Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Republic of Korea        Republic of Korea. . . . . . . . . 2000
Romania                  Russian Federation . . . . . . . . 2002
Russian Federation       Spain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Spain                    Sri Lanka. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Sri Lanka                Sudan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Sudan                    Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Sweden                   Tunisia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Tunisia                  Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Turkey                   United Kingdom of Great Britain 
                            and Northern Ireland. . . . . . 2002
Uganda                   United Arab Emirates . . . . . . . 1999
United Arab Emirates     United States of America . . . . . 2002
United Kingdom of 
   Great Britain and
   Northern Ireland      Venezuela. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
United States of America Viet Nam . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002
Venezuela                Zambia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Zambia
Zimbabwe
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


              Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations

                            (19 members)

     Members elected for a four-year term beginning on 1 January 1999 j/

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
         Algeria                   Ireland
         Bolivia                   Lebanon
         Chile                     Pakistan
         China                     Romania
         Colombia                  Russian Federation
         Cuba                      Sudan
         Ethiopia                  Tunisia
         France                    Turkey
         India                     United States of America
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                              Expert bodies

         Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International
                    Standards of Accounting and Reporting

                       (34 members; three-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Membership in 1998 and 1999 k/          Term expires on 31 December
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Benin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Brazil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Bulgaria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Cameroon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Comoros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Costa Rica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Cyprus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       France. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Gabon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Gambia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Jamaica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Jordan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Kenya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Lebanon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Malawi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Namibia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Pakistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Panama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Portugal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Russian Federation. . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Sierra Leone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Sweden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Thailand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
          Northern Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
       
                   Committee for Development Planning


      Members appointed by the Economic and Social Council, on the
      nomination of the Secretary-General, for a term expiring on
                         31 December 1998 l/ m/


         Maria Agusztinovics (Hungary)
         Bionisio Dias Carnerio-Netto (Brazil)
         Makhtar Diouf (Senegal)
         E. El-Hinnawi (Egypt)
         Just Faaland (Norway)
         Gao Shangquan (China)
         Patrick Guillaumont (France)
         Ryokichi Hirono (Japan)
         Nurul Islam (Bangladesh)
         Taher Kanaan (Jordan)
         Louka T. Katseli (Greece)
         Linda Lim (Singapore)
         Nguyuru H. I. Lipumba (United Republic of Tanzania)
         Nora Lustig (Argentina/Mexico)
         Solita C. Monsod (Philippines)
         Bishnodat Persaud (Guyana)
         Akilagpa Sawyerr (Ghana)
         Klaus Schwab (Germany)
         Arjun Sengupta (India)
         Alexandre Shokhin (Russian Federation)
         Frances Stewart (United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
            Northern Ireland)
         Lance Taylor (United States of America)
         Alvaro Uman~a
         Miguel Urrutia (Colombia)


           Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
      
                      (18 members; four-year term)
           
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Membership in 1998                    Term expires on 31 December
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Ade Adekuoye (Nigeria). . . . . . . . . . .        1998
       Mahmoud Samir Ahmed (Egypt) . . . . . . . .        1998
       Philip Alston (Australia) . . . . . . . . .        1998
       Ivan Antanovich (Belarus) . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Virginia Bonoan-Dandan (Philippines). . . .        1998
       Dumitru Ceausu (Romania). . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Oscar Ceville (Panama). . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Abdessatar Grissa (Tunisia) . . . . . . . .        2000
       Mari'a de los Angeles Jime'nez Butraguen~o (Spain) 2000
       Valeri I. Kouznetsov (Russian Federation) .        1998
       Jaime Alberto Marchan Romero (Ecuador). . .        1998
       Ariranga Govindasamy Pillay (Mauritius) . .        2000
       Kenneth Osborne Rattray (Jamaica) . . . . .        2000
       Eibe Riedel (Germany) . . . . . . . . . . .        1998
       Walid M. Sa'di (Jordan) . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Philippe Texier (France). . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Nutan Thapalia (Nepal). . . . . . . . . . .        1998
       Javier Wimer Zambrano (Mexico). . . . . . .        1998
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Membership in 1999                     Term expires on 31 December
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Mahmoud Samir Ahmed (Egypt) . . . . . . . .        2002
       Ivan Antanovich (Belarus) . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Clement Atangana (Cameroon) . . . . . . . .        2002
       Virginia Bonoan-Dandan (Philippines). . . .        2002
       Dumitru Ceausu (Romania). . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Oscar Ceville (Panama). . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Abdessatar Grissa (Tunisia) . . . . . . . .        2000
       Paul Hunt (New Zealand) . . . . . . . . . .        2002
       Mari'a de los Angeles Jime'nez Butraguen~o (Spain) 2000
       Valeri I. Kouznetsov (Russian Federation) .        2002
       Jaime Marchan Romero (Ecuador). . . . . . .        2002
       Ariranga Govindasamy Pillay (Mauritius) . .        2000
       Kenneth Osborne Rattray (Jamaica) . . . . .        2000
       Eibe Riedel (Germany) . . . . . . . . . . .        2002
       Walid M. Sa'di (Jordan) . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Philippe Texier (France). . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Nutan Thapalia (Nepal). . . . . . . . . . .        2002
       Javier Wimer Zambrano (Mexico). . . . . . .        2002
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       

                    Committee on Natural Resources

                     (24 members; four-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Membership in 1998 n/ o/ 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Gustavo Alvarez (Uruguay)
      Denis Davis (Canada)
      Vladislav M. Dolgopolov (Russian Federation)
      Malin Falkenmark (Sweden)
      Siripong Hungspreug (Thailand)
      Adel Jalili (Islamic Republic of Iran)
      Owen MacDonald Kankhulungo (Malawi)
      Mohammad Nawaz Khan (Pakistan)
      Li Yuwei (China)
      Jesu's Marti'ez Fri'as (Spain)
      Wafik Meshref (Egypt)
      Hendrik Martinus Oudshoorn (Netherlands)
      Neculai Pavlovschi (Romania)
      Mari'a Luisa Reyna de Aguilar (El Salvador)
      Karlheinz Rieck (Germany)
      Carlos A. Salvi'dar (Paraguay)
      Manuel Carlos Serrano Pinto (Portugal)
      Eddy Kofi Smith (Ghana)
      Carlos G. Tomboc (Philippines)
      Carmen Luisa Vela'squez de Visbal (Venezuela)
      Kenya
      Nigeria
      Zambia
----------------------------------------------------------------------------


      Committee on New and Renewable Sources of Energy and on Energy
                             for Development

                      (24 members; four-year term)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Membership in 1998 p/ o/
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      Fe'lix L. Campos Mejivar (El Salvador)
      Johannes Tonderayi Chigwada (Zimbabwe)
      Bernard Devin (France)
      Jose' Mari'a Gamio Cia (Uruguay)
      Zhang Guocheng (China)
      Paul-Georg Gutermuth (Germany)
      Wolfgang Hein (Austria)
      Jo'n Ingimarsson (Iceland)
      Ahmad Kahrobaian (Islamic Republic of Iran)
      Choon-Ho Kim (Republic of Korea)
      William Michael Mebane (Italy)
      Daniel F. Pe'rez Ferna'ndez-Ravetti (Paraguay)
      Eduardo Praselj (Venezuela)
      E. V. R. Sastry (India)
      Wilhelmus Turkenburg (Netherlands)
      Dimitri B. Volfberg (Russian Federation)
      Qatar
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                              Related bodies

           Executive Board of the United Nations Children's Fund

                      (36 members; three-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998       Membership in 1999       Term expires on 31 December
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Antigua and Barbuda      Antigua and Barbuda. . . . . . . . 2000
Azerbaijan               Azerbaijan . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Bangladesh               Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Belgium                  Belgium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Cape Verde               Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
China                    Cape Verde . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Comoros                  China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Congo                    Comoros. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Cuba                     Congo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Czech Republic           Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Finland                  Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
France                   Finland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Germany                  France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Greece                   Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Indonesia                Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Jamaica                  Guyana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Japan                    Indonesia. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Kazakhstan               Jamaica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya   Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Namibia                  Kazakhstan . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
New Zealand              Libyan Arab Jamahiriya . . . . . . 2000
Nicaragua                Nicaragua. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Nigeria                  Nigeria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Norway                   Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Oman                     Oman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Russian Federation       Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
South Africa             Paraguay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Sudan                    Russian Federation . . . . . . . . 2001
Suriname                 South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Sweden                   Sudan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Switzerland              Switzerland. . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Ukraine                  Ukraine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
United Kingdom of Great  United Kingdom of Great Britain
   Britain and               and Northern Ireland . . . . . 2000
   Northern Ireland
United States of America United States of America . . . . . 1999
Viet Nam                 Yemen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Yemen                    Zimbabwe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


       Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations
                   High Commissioner for Refugees

                            (53 members)

       Algeria                           Madagascar
       Argentina                         Morocco
       Australia                         Namibia
       Austria                           Netherlands
       Bangladesh                        Nicaragua
       Belgium                           Nigeria
       Brazil                            Norway
       Canada                            Pakistan
       China                             Philippines
       Colombia                          Poland
       Democratic Republic of the Congo  Russian Federation
       Denmark                           Somalia
       Ethiopia                          South Africa
       Finland                           Spain
       France                            Sudan
       Germany                           Sweden
       Greece                            Switzerland
       Holy See                          Thailand
       Hungary                           Tunisia
       India                             Turkey
       Iran (Islamic Republic of)        Uganda
       Ireland                           United Kingdom of Great Britain and
                                            Northern Ireland
       Israel                            United Republic of Tanzania
       Italy                             United States of America
       Japan                             Venezuela
       Lebanon                           Yugoslavia
       Lesotho
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
       
       Executive Board of the United Nations Development Programme/
                    United Nations Population Fund

                     (36 members; three-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998       Membership in 1999 q/    Term expires on 31 December
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Antigua and Barbuda      Antigua and Barbuda. . . . . . . . 1999
Argentina                Austria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Australia                Belarus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Austria                  Botswana . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Belize                   Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Botswana                 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Brazil                   China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Canada                   Cuba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
China                    Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Czech Republic           Democratic Republic of the Congo . 2000
Democratic Republic 
   of the Congo          Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Denmark                  Ethiopia . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
France                   Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Ghana                    Ghana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Guinea                   Guatemala. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
India                    Guinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Ireland                  India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Jamaica                  Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Japan                    Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Lebanon                  Jamaica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya   Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Madagascar               Kyrgyzstan . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Malaysia                 Lebanon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Netherlands              Libyan Arab Jamahiriya . . . . . . 1999
Norway                   Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Pakistan                 Republic of Korea. . . . . . . . . 2000
Republic of Korea        Russian Federation . . . . . . . . 1999
Romania                  South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Russian Federation       Spain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
South Africa             Switzerland. . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Spain                    Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Thailand                 Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Ukraine                  Ukraine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
United Kingdom of        United Kingdom of Great Britain
   Great Britain and        and Northern Ireland. . . . . . 1999
   Northern Ireland
United Republic          United Republic of Tanzania. . . . 2000
   of Tanzania
United States of America United States of America . . . . . 2001
----------------------------------------------------------------------------


            Executive Board of the World Food Programme r/

                   (36 members; three-year term)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                         Membership in 1998 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Members elected by  Term expires      Members elected by   Term expires
the Economic and    on 31 December    the FAO Council      on 31 December
Social Council  
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Angola . . . . . . . . . 1999         Algeria. . . . . . . . . . 1998
Belgium. . . . . . . . . 1999         Australia. . . . . . . . . 1999
Cameroon . . . . . . . . 1998         Bangladesh . . . . . . . . 2000
Denmark. . . . . . . . . 1998         Brazil . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Ethiopia . . . . . . . . 1999         Burundi. . . . . . . . . . 2000
Finland. . . . . . . . . 2000         Canada . . . . . . . . . . 1998
India. . . . . . . . . . 1998         China. . . . . . . . . . . 1998
Indonesia. . . . . . . . 2000         Cuba . . . . . . . . . . . 1998
Iran (Islamic 
   Republic of). . . . . 1999         El Salvador. . . . . . . . 2000
Japan. . . . . . . . . . 1999         Germany. . . . . . . . . . 1998
Mexico . . . . . . . . . 1999         Jordan . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Norway . . . . . . . . . 2000         Netherlands. . . . . . . . 2000
Pakistan . . . . . . . . 2000         Nigeria. . . . . . . . . . 1998
Paraguay . . . . . . . . 1998         Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . 2000
Russian Federation . . . 2000         Senegal. . . . . . . . . . 1999
Sierra Leone . . . . . . 2000         Slovakia . . . . . . . . . 1999
Sweden . . . . . . . . . 1998         Switzerland. . . . . . . . 1999
Tunisia. . . . . . . . . 1998         United States of America . 2000
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        Membership in 1999
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Members elected by   Term expires     Members elected by    Term expires
the Economic and     on 31 December   the FAO Council t/    on 31 December
Social Council s/
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Angola . . . . . . . . . 1999         Australia. . . . . . . . . 1999
Belgium. . . . . . . . . 1999         Bangladesh . . . . . . . . 2000
Congo. . . . . . . . . . 2001         Brazil . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Denmark. . . . . . . . . 2001         Burundi. . . . . . . . . . 2000
Ethiopia . . . . . . . . 1999         El Salvador. . . . . . . . 2000
Finland. . . . . . . . . 2000         Jordan . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Haiti. . . . . . . . . . 2001         Netherlands. . . . . . . . 2000
Indonesia. . . . . . . . 2000         Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . 2000
Iran (Islamic 
   Republic of). . . . . 1999         Senegal. . . . . . . . . . 1999
Japan. . . . . . . . . . 1999         Slovakia . . . . . . . . . 1999
Mexico . . . . . . . . . 1999         Switzerland. . . . . . . . 1999
Morocco. . . . . . . . . 2001         United States of America . 2000
Pakistan . . . . . . . . 2000         Russian Federation . . . . 2000
Sierra Leone . . . . . . 2000         Sweden . . . . . . . . . . 2001
United Kingdom of Great 
   Britain and 
   Northern Ireland. . . 2000
Yemen. . . . . . . . . . 2001
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


                 International Narcotics Control Board


      Members elected by the Economic and Social Council to serve
          on the Board as constituted under the 1972 Protocol 
         Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Membership from 2 March 1997             Term expires on 1 March
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Edward A. Babayan (Russian Federation). . .        2000
       C. Chakrabarty (India). . . . . . . . . . .        2002
       Nelia P. Corte's-Maramba (Philippines). . .        2002
       Jacques Franquet (France) . . . . . . . . .        2002
       Abdol-Hamid Ghodse (Islamic Republic of Iran)      2002
       Alfonso Go'mez Me'ndez (Colombia) . . . . .        2002
       Dil Jan Khan (Pakistan) . . . . . . . . . .        2002
       Mohamed A. Mansour (Egypt). . . . . . . . .        2000
       Anto'nio Lourenco Martins (Portugal). . . .        2000
       Herbert S. Okun (United States of America).        2002
       Alfredo Pemjean (Chile) . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Oskar Schroeder (Germany) . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Elba Torres Graterol (Venezuela). . . . . .        2000
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       

      Board of Trustees of the International Research and Training
                Institute for the Advancement of Women

                    (11 members; three-year term)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Membership as at 1 July 1998             Term expires on 30 June
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Selma Acuner (Turkey) . . . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Esther Mari'a Ashton (Bolivia). . . . . . .        2001
       Zakia Amara Bouaziz (Tunisia) . . . . . . .        2000
       Maria Jonas (Austria) . . . . . . . . . . .        1999
       Noe"lie Kangoye (Burkina Faso). . . . . . .        1999
       Mona Chemali Khalaf (Lebanon) . . . . . . .        1999
       Norica Nicolai (Romania). . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Mamosebi Theresia Pholo (Lesotho) . . . . .        2001
       Glenda P. Simms (Jamaica) . . . . . . . . .        2000
       Amaryllis T. Torres (Philippines) . . . . .        2000
       Cecilia Valca'rcel Alca'zar (Spain) . . . .        2001
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
       
           Committee for the United Nations Population Award u/

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Members elected for a three-year term beginning on 1 January 1998 v/

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Cape Verde w/                     Lesotho w/
       El Salvador                       Netherlands
       Grenada w/                        Romania x/
       Guatemala                         Thailand
       Iran (Islamic Republic of)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
       
   Programme Coordination Board of the Joint United Nations Programme on
      Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

                      (22 members; three-year term)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Membership in 1998       Membership in 1999 y/   Term expires on 31 December
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Algeria                  Algeria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Australia                Australia. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Barbados                 Barbados . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Belgium                  Belgium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
China                    Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Congo                    China. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Co^te d'Ivoire           Co^te d'Ivoire . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Denmark                  Finland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Germany                  Germany. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
India                    India. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
Japan                    Japan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Mexico                   Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Pakistan                 Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Paraguay                 Russian Federation . . . . . . . . 2001
Poland                   South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Russian Federation       Spain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001
South Africa             Switzerland. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000
Switzerland              Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999
Thailand                 United Kingdom of Great Britain 
                            and Northern Ireland. . . . . . 2000
Uganda
United Kingdom of Great 
   Britain and 
   Northern Ireland
United States of America
----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                 Notes


               a/   The remaining 18 seats are to be filled by the
General Assembly at its fifty-third session.

               b/   The Council postponed to a future session the
election of two members from Latin American and Caribbean States for a term
beginning on the date of election and expiring on 31 December 2000
and one member for a term beginning on the date of election and expiring on 31
December 2001 (decision 1998/202 B).

               c/   The Council postponed to a future session the
election of three members from African States for a four-year term beginning
on 1 January 1999 (decision 1998/202 B).

               d/   At its resumed organizational session for 1998, the
Council postponed to a future session the election of six members from Asian
States and six members from Western European and other States (decision
1998/202 B).

               e/   At its substantive session of 1998, the Council
decided to terminate the current membership of the Commission as of 31
December 1998 (resolution 1998/47). Elections to the Commission, whose
membership is to be reduced from 53 to 33 (see Council resolution 1998/46,
annex I), will be held at the resumed substantive session of 1998.

               f/   At the 47th meeting, on 31 July 1998, the Council
elected Finland for a term beginning on the date of election to complete the
term of Sweden (decision 1998/202 C).

               g/   By decision 1993/316, the Economic and Social
Council decided that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and
Montenegro) should not participate in the work of the Economic Commission for
Europe as long as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)
did not participate in the work of the General Assembly.

               h/   The remaining members are to be elected by the
General Assembly at its fifty-third session on the nomination of the Economic
and Social Council. At its 5th meeting, on 7 May 1998, the Council nominated
six Member States for election to the Committee and postponed to a future
session the nomination of one member from African States for a three-year term
beginning on 1 January 1999 and of one member from Western European and other
States for a term beginning on the date of election and expiring on 31
December 1999 (decision 1998/202 B).

               i/   The Council postponed to a future session the
election of two members from African States for a four-year term beginning on
1 January 1999 (decision 1998/202 B).

               j/   The Council postponed to a future session the
election of one member from African States for a four-year term beginning on 1
January 1999 (decision 1998/202 B).

               k/   The Council postponed to a future session the
election of one member from Latin American and Caribbean States for a term
beginning on the date of election and expiring on 31 December 1999
(decision 1998/202 B).

               l/   At its resumed substantive session of 1997, the
Council decided to extend the term of the members of the Committee by one
year, beginning on 1 January 1998 (decision 1997/212 C).

               m/   In accordance with Council resolution 1998/47 of 31
July 1998, the current membership of the Committee is to be terminated as of
31 December 1998. The Committee is to be renamed the Committee for Development
Policy (Council resolution 1998/46, annex I). The members of the new Committee
will be nominated by the Secretary-General, and will be approved by the
Council at its resumed substantive session of 1998.

               n/   At its resumed organizational session for 1996, the
Council decided that Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, the Netherlands, Nigeria and
Zambia would nominate experts for a term beginning on 1 January 1997 (decision
1996/222). Egypt, Ghana, Malawi and the Netherlands subsequently nominated
experts. At the 5th meeting, on 7 May 1998, the Council postponed to a future
session the election of one expert from Eastern European States for a term
beginning on the date of election (see decision 1998/202 B).

               o/   In accordance with Council resolution 1998/47 of 31
July 1998, the current membership of the Committee is to be terminated as of
31 December 1998. The Committee on Natural Resources and the Committee on New
and Renewable Sources of Energy and on Energy for Development are to be merged
into a single expert body to be named the Committee on Energy and Natural
Resources for Development (Council resolution 1998/46, annex I). The members
of the new Committee will be elected by the Council at its resumed substantive
session of 1998.

               p/   The previous sessions, the Council had decided that
the Netherlands would nominate an expert for a term beginning on 1 January
1997 (decision 1996/222) and that Qatar would nominate an expert for a term
beginning on the date of election (decision 1997/212 B). The Netherlands
subsequently nominated an expert. At the 5th meeting, on 7 May 1998, the
Council postponed to a future session the election of five experts from
African States and two experts from Eastern European States for a term
beginning on the date of election (see decision 1998/202 B).

               q/   At its 5th meeting, on 7 May 1998, the Council
elected Germany for a two-year term beginning on 1 January 1999 to complete
the term of France; and Sweden for a one-year term beginning on 1 January 1999
to complete the term of Norway (decision 1998/202 B).

               r/   By resolution 50/8 of 1 November 1995, the General
Assembly decided, subject to the concurrence of the Conference of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, that the Committee on Food Aid
Policies and Programmes should be reconstituted as the Executive Board of the
World Food Programme, with 36 members elected from among the States Members of
the United Nations or the States members of the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, and that the Economic and Social Council
and the Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
should elect 18 members each, according to the pattern set out in the
resolution. The members of the Executive Board are elected from five lists set
out in the Basic Texts of the World Food Programme and reproduced in document
E/1998/L.1/Add.4.

               s/   At the 5th meeting, on 7 May 1998, the Council
elected the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland for a
two-year term beginning on 1 January 1999 to complete the term of
Norway (decision 1998/202 B).

               t/   The remaining six seats are to be filled by the
Council of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations at its
session to be held in November 1998.

               u/   For the regulations governing the Award, see
General Assembly resolution 36/201 and decision 41/445.

               v/   The Council postponed to a future session the
election of one member from African States for a term beginning on the date of
election and expiring on 31 December 2000 (decision 1998/202 B).

               w/   Elected at the 5th meeting, on 7 May 1998 (decision
1998/202 B).

               x/   Elected at the 2nd meeting, on 3 February 1998
(decision 1998/202 A).

               y/   At the 5th meeting, on 7 May 1998, the Council
elected Finland for a one-year term beginning on 1 January 1999 to complete
the term of Denmark. The Council postponed to a future session the
election of two members from African States and one member from Asian States
for a three-year term beginning on 1 January 1999.                  


                               Annex III

         Intergovernmental organizations designated by the Council
       under rule 79 of the rules of procedure a/ for participation in
         the deliberations of the Council on questions within the
                       scope of their activities


         Organizations accorded permanent observer status by the
                           General Assembly 


         Africa, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (General
         Assembly resolution 36/4)

         African Development Bank (General Assembly resolution 42/10)

         Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (General
         Assembly resolution 33/18)

         Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin
         America and the Caribbean (General Assembly resolution 43/6)

         Andean Community (General Assembly resolution 52/6)

         Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee (General Assembly
         resolution 35/2)

         Caribbean Community (General Assembly resolution 46/8)

         Central American Integration System (General Assembly
         resolution 50/2)

         Commonwealth of Independent States (General Assembly
         resolution 48/237)

         Commonwealth Secretariat (General Assembly resolution 31/3)

         Council of Europe (General Assembly resolution 44/6)

         Economic Cooperation Organization (General Assembly
         resolution 48/2)

         European Community (General Assembly resolution 3208 (XXIX))

         International Committee of the Red Cross (General Assembly
         resolution 45/6)

         International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)
         (General Assembly resolution 51/1)

         International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent
         Societies (General Assembly resolution 49/2)

         International Organization for Migration (General Assembly
         resolution 47/4)

         International Seabed Authority (General Assembly resolution
         51/6)

         International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (General
         Assembly resolution 51/204)

         Latin American Economic System (SELA) (General Assembly
         resolution 35/3)

         Latin American Parliament (General Assembly resolution 48/4)

         League of Arab States (General Assembly resolution 477 (V))

         Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (General
         Assembly resolution 48/5)

         Organization of African Unity (General Assembly resolution
         2011 (XX))

         Organization of American States (General Assembly resolution
         253 (III))

         Organization of the Islamic Conference (General Assembly
         resolution 3369 (XXX))

         Permanent Court of Arbitration (General Assembly resolution 48/3)

         South Pacific Forum (General Assembly resolution 49/1)

         Sovereign Military Order of Malta (General Assembly 
         resolution 48/265)



         Organizations designated by the Economic and Social Council


                   Participation on a continuing basis

         African Regional Centre for Technology (Council decision 1980/151)

         Asian Productivity Organization (APO) (Council decision 1980/114)

         Council of Arab Economic Unity (Council decision 109 (LIX))

         International Centre for Genetic Engineering and
         Biotechnology (Council decision 1997/215)

         International Centre for Public Enterprises in Developing
         Countries (ICPE) (Council decision 1980/114)

         Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) (Council decision
         1980/114)

         Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
         (Council decision 109 (LXX))

         Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science
         and Culture (Council decision 1986/156)

         Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Council
         decision 109 (LIX))

         Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine
         Environment (Council decision 1992/265)

         Union of Economic and Social Councils of Africa (Council
         decision 1996/225)

         World Tourism Organization (Council decision 109 (LIX))


         Participation on an ad hoc basis

         African Accounting Council (Council decision 1987/161)

         African Cultural Institute (Council decision 1987/161)

         Arab Security Studies and Training Centre (Council decision 1989/165)

         Council of Arab Ministers of the Interior (Council decision 1987/161)

         Customs Cooperation Council (Council decision 1989/165)

         International Bauxite Association (Council decision 1987/161)

         International Civil Defence Organization (Council decision 109 (LIX))

         Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (Council decision 
         239 (LXII))

        
a/ The text of rule 79, entitled "Participation of other intergovernmental
organizations" reads: "Representatives of intergovernmental organizations
accorded permanent observer status by the General Assembly and of other
intergovernmental organizations designated on an ad hoc or a continuing basis
by the Council on the recommendation of the Bureau may participate, without
the right to vote, in the deliberations of the Council on questions within the
scope ofthe activities of the organizations".

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Date last posted: 10 January 2000 10:05:30
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