United Nations

A/53/211


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

6 August 1998

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH




                                                        A/53/211
       
                                                        Original: English

       
General Assembly       
Fifty-third session
Item 37 of the provisional agenda *
Implementation of the outcome of the World Summit
  for Social Development

     * A/53/150.


          Implementation of the outcome of the World Summit for
                          Social Development


                    Report of the Secretary-General


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                                Summary

            The World Summit for Social Development was held in March 1995 at
Copenhagen, pursuant to General Assembly resolution 47/92. It adopted the
Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action on Social Development, which
was endorsed by the General Assembly in resolution 50/161. At its fiftieth,
fifty-first and fifty-second sessions, the Assembly considered the item
"Implementation of the outcome of the World Summit for Social Development". In
resolution 52/25, the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to report to it
at its fifty-third session on the subject. 

            The present report contains updated information on the
implementation of the outcome of the Summit by intergovernmental bodies,
including the Preparatory Committee for the Special Session of the General
Assembly on the Implementation of the Outcome of the World Summit for Social
Development and Further Initiatives, the Commission for Social Development,
and the Economic and Social Council. Other follow-up activities, including
national reporting, activities undertaken by the United Nations Secretariat,
the United Nations system and civil society are also described in the report.

            The report concludes with a time-table for the intergovernmental
process towards the year 2000, when the special session will take place. It
also indicates that, while it outlines positive development and activities in
implementing the goals of the Summit, much more remains to be done at the
international, regional and national levels to tackle the serious problems of
poverty, unemployment and social disintegration faced by most countries.
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Contents         

                                                      Paragraphs  Page

  I.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1-2       3

 II.  Special session of the General Assembly on the 
      implementation of the outcome of the Summit and 
      other initiatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    3-5       3

III.  Organizational session of the Preparatory 
      Committee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    6-15      3

 IV.  Priority theme for 1998: Promoting social 
      integration and participation of all
      people, including disadvantaged and vulnerable 
      groups and persons: Thirty-sixth session of the 
      Commission for Social Development. . . . . . . .   16-20      4

  V.  Other follow-up activities in 1998 . . . . . . .   21-76      5

      A.  National reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . .   21-27      5

      B.  Economic and Social Council. . . . . . . . .   28-31      6

      C.  United Nations Secretariat and United 
          Nations system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   32-61      7

      D.  Civil society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   62-76      12

 VI.  Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   77-78      14

Annex

      Intergovernmental process leading to the holding 
      of the special session of the General Assembly 
      in the year 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15


        I.      Introduction


1.   At the World Summit for Social Development,
convened by the United Nations in March 1995 at
Copenhagen, pursuant to General Assembly resolution
47/92 of 16 December 1992, Heads of State and
Government adopted the Copenhagen Declaration on Social
Development 1/ and Programme of Action 2/ which represented
a collective commitment to treat social development as the
highest priority of all national and international policies.
These documents were endorsed by the General Assembly
in resolution 50/161 of 22 December 1995.

2.   At its fifty-first and fifty-second sessions, the General
Assembly considered the item on the implementation of the
outcome of the Summit and, in its resolution 52/25 of 26
November 1997, requested the Secretary-General to report
to it at its fifty-third session on the subject. Since the
Summit, three reports on the implementation of its outcome
have been submitted to the Assembly by the
Secretary-General (A/50/670, A/51/348 and A/52/305). The
reports contain descriptions of initiatives and of activities
of a continuing nature; it would, therefore, be useful to refer
to them when considering the present report.



II.  Special session of the General
     Assembly on the implementation of
     the outcome of the Summit and
     further initiatives


3.   The proposal for a special session of the General
Assembly in the year 2000 for an overall review and
appraisal of the implementation of the outcome of the
Summit was put forward by the Summit and subsequently
endorsed by the General Assembly in resolution 50/161.

4.   In resolution 51/202 of 17 December 1996, the
Assembly set out the preparatory process for the special
session, and decided that the Commission for Social
Development, as the functional commission of the
Economic and Social Council with the primary
responsibility for follow-up to the Summit and for review
of the implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration and
Programme of Action would undertake work in 1999 and
2000 for the preparations of the special session.

5.   Through its resolution 52/25, the General Assembly
established a Preparatory Committee, open to the
participation of all States Members of the United Nations
and members of the specialized agencies, with the
participation of observers in accordance with the established
practice of the Assembly. The Assembly also decided that
the Committee would hold its organizational session in May
1998, initiate its substantive activities in 1999 on the basis
of inputs by the Commission for Social Development and
the Economic and Social Council, and would also take into
account contributions by other relevant organs and
specialized agencies of the United Nations system.


III. Organizational session of the Preparatory Committee


6.   The organizational session of the Preparatory
Committee took place in New York from 19 to 22 May
1998. It held a general debate on the preparations for the
special session and two panel discussions on the appraisal
of the implementation of the outcome of the Summit and on
further initiatives to achieve its goals. Panellists included
representatives of Governments, organizations of the United
Nations system, international experts and non-governmental
organizations. Among the issues addressed were the impact
of globalization; external debt; structural adjustment
programmes; a political culture for social progress;
emerging policy challenges and constraints; integrated
approach to poverty eradication; promotion of full
employment; the role of values in policy formulation;
participation and right to information; and social capital.
The discussions highlighted the need for more effective
initiatives and actions at the national, regional and
international levels to implement the agreements reached
at Copenhagen. A summary of the discussion is contained
in the report of the Preparatory Committee to the General
Assembly. 3/

7.   The Committee adopted a number of decisions which
will be brought to the attention of the Assembly at its
fifty-third session. These decisions relate to:


       (a)     Objectives of the special session

8.   The Committee decided that the main purposes of the
special session would be to reaffirm and not to renegotiate
the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action, as
well as to review implementation so far, and to recommend
concrete actions and initiatives to further efforts towards
their full and effective implementation.


       (b)     Issues to be addressed at future sessions of the
               Preparatory Committee


9.   The Committee requested the Secretary-General to
submit to it at its first session a report focusing on the
implementation of the 10 commitments, including the 3 core
issues, at the national, regional and international levels; to
submit to it at its second session, in 2000, the Report on the
World Social Situation, containing an up-to-date
comprehensive assessment of global trends; and to submit
to it, also at its second session, in the year 2000, a
comprehensive document assessing the overall level of
implementation of the outcome of the Summit.


       (c)     Coordination with the Commission for Social
               Development

10.  The Committee recommended that the Commission
for Social Development be entrusted with the responsibility
of acting as the forum for national reporting and identifying
areas where further initiatives are needed for consideration
by the Committee; it also requested the Secretary-General
to formulate general guidelines and a structure and common
framework for national reporting on the progress made and
obstacles encountered.


       (d)     Role of the United Nations system

11.  The Commission reaffirmed that its substantive
activities should take into account the results of other
United Nations major conferences and contributions by
other relevant organs and specialized agencies of the United
Nations system, and invited them to contribute to and be
actively involved in the preparatory process and the special
session, by, inter alia, submitting proposals for further
actions and initiatives.


       (e)     Mobilization of voluntary resources

12.  The Committee invited Governments to contribute to
the Trust Fund for the Follow-up to the World Summit for
Social Development set up to support the participation of
the least developed countries in the work of the Committee
and the special session and the organization by the
Secretariat of expert group meetings, seminars, symposia
and workshops to be held by the Secretariat on issues of
relevance to the special session.


       (f)     Participation of non-governmental
               organizations

13.  The Committee reaffirmed the importance of
participation of non-governmental organizations and the
involvement of civil society in the implementation of and
the follow-up to the Declaration and Programme of Action,
and decided on the modalities for the participation of these
organizations in the work of the Preparatory Committee; it
also decided to defer consideration of the modalities of their
participation at the special session until its next meeting.

       (g)     Arrangements for future sessions

14.  The Committee decided to hold its first substantive
session in New York from 17 to 28 May 1999 and its second
session, also in New York, from 3 to 14 April 2000; and that
the special session will be held for a period of five working
days in the year 2000 at a date to be determined at a later
stage.

15.  With regard to the venue of the special session, the
Government of Switzerland has extended an offer to the
Assembly to hold its special session in the year 2000 at the
United Nations Office at Geneva (see A/AC.253/4). The
Government will finance the additional costs involved in
holding the session at Geneva instead of in New York. At
its organizational session in May 1998, the Preparatory
Committee took note with appreciation of the offer of the
Swiss Government and requested the Secretary-General to
prepare a report on the practical implications, including all
additional direct and indirect financial implications for the
United Nations of this offer in time for the General
Assembly to take a decision on the venue and date at the
main part of its fifty-third session in 1998. The note by the
Secretary-General, contained in document A/53/210, is also
before the Assembly.


    IV.  Priority theme for 1998: promoting social integration and
         participation of all people, including disadvantaged and 
         vulnerable groups and persons: thirty-sixth session of the
         Commission for Social Development


16.  At its thirty-sixth session, 4/ held in New York from 10
to 20 February 1998, the Commission for Social
Development considered the priority theme under its
restructured agenda and multi-year programme of work,
entitled "Promoting social integration and participation of
all people, including disadvantaged and vulnerable groups
and persons". To assist the Commission in its work, the
Secretariat convened two workshops of independent
international experts on the subjects of participation and
social justice and reducing vulnerability. Reports of these
workshops, as well as the report of the Secretary-General
on the subject, were submitted to the Commission
(E/CN.5/1998/4, E/CN.5/1998/5 and E/CN.5/1998/2,
respectively).

17.  Two panels of experts and two dialogues with
non-governmental organizations on the priority theme were
organized during the plenary session of the Commission.
The Commission also heard special presentations by
national representatives on follow-up to the World Summit
for Social Development.

18.  With regard to the priority theme, the Commission
adopted a resolution in which it decided to adopt agreed
conclusions on the topic and to transmit them to the
Economic and Social Council for consideration at its
substantive session of 1998 and appropriate follow-up
action, as well as to the Preparatory Committee for the
Special session of the General Assembly, and to the
Commission on Narcotic Drugs acting in the capacity of the
preparatory body for the June 1998 special session of the
Assembly devoted to countering the world drug problem
together, at its second session in March 1998.

19.  The agreed conclusions contained recommendations
for action at local, national, regional and international levels
in the areas of promoting social integration through
responsive government, full participation in society,
non-discrimination, tolerance, equality and social justice;
enhancing social protection, reducing vulnerability and
enhancing employment opportunities for groups with
specific needs; and violence, crime and the problem of illicit
drugs and substance abuse as factors of social disintegration
(see the report of the Commission for Social Development
on its thirty-sixth session). 4/

20.  It should be noted that the priority themes for the
thirty-seventh session of the Commission for Social
Development (February 1999) will be "Social services for
all" and "Initiation of the overall review of the
implementation of the outcome of the Summit".


        V.     Other follow-up activities in 1998


        A.     National reporting


21.  As indicated in paragraph 7 (c) above, the Preparatory
Committee requested the Secretary-General to formulate as
soon as possible general guidelines and a structure and
common framework for national reporting on the progress
made and obstacles encountered, and to invite Governments
to provide information as soon as possible in order to assist
the Secretary-General in the preparation of his report, to be
submitted to it at its second substantive session in April
2000. The Committee also requested the Secretary-General
to draw upon information already provided by Governments
and compile all data available in and outside the United
Nations system relevant to the implementation of the
Declaration and Programme of Action. The Secretariat is
in the process of formulating those guidelines which, it is
envisaged, will be forwarded to Governments in October
1998.

22.  In promoting national implementation and reporting,
the Secretary-General addressed letters to Heads of State
and Government in March 1998, in which he stated that,
despite efforts by many Governments to implement the
decisions of the Summit, "poverty, unemployment and
social disintegration continue to be desperately serious
problems which tear at the social fabric of many countries
and are often the source of persistent subregional and
regional tensions". The Secretary-General stressed that, in
order to address these problems effectively, much more was
required, through national action as well as international
cooperation, and called for the contribution of Governments
to strengthen the momentum of implementation of Summit
commitments and to report substantial progress in the year
2000.

23.  Responses from Governments to the Secretary-General's 
letter indicate that many Governments continue
to support strongly the commitments made at Copenhagen
and share the view that the political momentum provided
by the Summit in 1995 needs to be further maintained and
strengthened. While some Governments are promoting
social development in their countries through poverty
eradication, employment generation, building up of
representative local government institutions and human
resources development, others have formulated economic
and social development strategies, established social
investment funds and allocating a greater share of the
budget to the social sector.

24.  Some Governments have also organized conferences
and seminars to further the implementation of Summit goals.
For example, the Government of Austria hosted an
International expert meeting on innovative employment
initiatives at Vienna from 2 to 6 February 1998, as a
European initiative to the regional follow-up to the World
Summit for Social Development. Different innovative
approaches to improve the employment situation in Europe
and further instruments to combat unemployment were
discussed.

25.  The conclusions of the Preparatory Committee
included the following:


            -  The importance of placing growth of employment at
               the centre of macroeconomic policy and of evolving
               an institutional structure within the European Union
               which allows this to happen more readily;

            -  Recognition of the value of employment subsidies as
               a cost-effective method of increasing employment
               opportunities for the long-term unemployed, in
               contrast to passive income support for the
               unemployed;

            -  Recognition of the value of consensual social pacts
               between government, businesses and unions in
               enabling negotiated approaches to both economic and
               social policy. The evidence from a number of
               countries is that such pacts facilitate wage moderation
               in return for employment-generating economic
               policies and improvements in the social wage;

            -  Reorganization of work and reduction in average
               working time can contribute to redistribution of work,
               provided it is organized in ways which do not add to
               the cost of labour.

26.  The Government of Denmark continues to convene
the Copenhagen seminars, launched by the Minister for
Development Cooperation to pursue the debate initiated by
the Summit under the umbrella heading of "Conditions for
social progress", defined as encompassing both the
well-being of individuals and the harmonious functioning
of societies. The subject of the first seminar, held in 1996,
was "World economy for the benefit of all". The second
seminar took place in October 1997 and considered the
topic "Humane markets for humane societies". Four
characteristics of "humane markets" were defined as:

             - Economic participation: allowing full and significant
               economic participation, offering economic
               opportunities to a maximum number of people;

             - Economic justice: providing people with a fair reward
               for their economic activity, without exploitation or
               excessively skewed income and wealth distribution;

             - Economic morality: being ruled by ethical principles;
               when competition is fair and contracts are respected;

             - Economic moderation: remaining restricted to
               economic transactions and not invading all spheres of
               life and society.

27.  The observations of the seminar on these four
characteristics were that unconstrained markets cause
problems. For example, there is growing inequity in many
countries; social norms and values appear to be weakening
and to be a source of growing cynicism; and a major
obstacle to economic moderation is the monetization of
societies. Based on these observations, the seminar
conducted an analysis of conditions for making markets
more humane and examined the following three issues:
features of humane States; cultures to be developed to foster
humane societies; and the search for a new global political
project and for new international institutions. The 1998
seminar, to be convened at the end of October 1998, will
address "Political culture and institutions for a world
community".


        B.     Economic and Social Council


28.  The General Assembly, in resolution 52/25, reaffirmed
that the follow-up to the Summit will be undertaken on the
basis of an integrated approach to social development and
within the framework of a coordinated follow-up to and
implementation of the results of the major international
conferences in the economic, social and related fields. The
Preparatory Committee also reaffirmed that its substantive
activities should take into account the results of other
United Nations major conferences.

29.  The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution
1997/61, stressed the need to promote further integrated and
coordinated implementation and follow-up of the major
international conferences in the social, economic and related
fields, and convened a resumed session from 13 to 15 May
1998 to consider this question. The Council focused its
discussions on six broad areas, namely, cross-cutting issues;
coordination and management role of the Economic and
Social Council, particularly vis-a`-vis its functional
commissions and the executive boards of the funds and
programmes; inter-agency coordination; country level
follow-up; regional level follow-up; and monitoring. At its
substantive session in 1998, the Council adopted resolution
1998/44 on the topic.

30.  At its substantive session in 1998, the Council also
devoted its high-level segment to a ministerial debate on
market access and adopted, for the first time in its history,
a ministerial communique' by which the Council pledges,
inter alia, to work towards further enhanced market access
for the exports of the least developed countries, within the
context of supporting their own efforts at capacity-building.
Concerned about the financial crisis affecting a number of
countries, the Council recognized the need for improved
measures to address the negative effects of the volatility of
international capital flows in the international trading
system and the development prospects of developing
countries.

31.  Pursuant to General Assembly resolutions 50/227 and
52/12 B, of 24 May 1996 and December 1997, respectively,
which mandated review by the Council of its functional
commission, the Vice-President of the Council conducted
an ongoing review of the functional commission of the
Council with specific responsibilities for the follow-up of
the major United Nations conferences and reached
agreements on issues such as working methods, role of the
bureau, participation, documentation, outcome/reporting,
relations with the Economic and Social Council,
interrelationship between functional commissions and
relations with the regional commissions and other relevant
regional bodies.


        C.     United Nations Secretariat and United
               Nations system


32.  Organizations of the United Nations system continue
to undertake individual and joint activities aimed at
implementing the outcome of the Summit.


        1.     Administrative Committee on Coordination

33.  In seeking to develop a coordinated approach to the
follow-up to global conferences held during the 1990s, with
a view to promoting sustained and integrated
implementation at the country level of the policy
recommendations emanating from these conferences,
including the World Summit for Social Development, the
Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC)
established three thematic ad hoc inter-agency task forces
(on basic social services for all; on employment and
sustainable livelihoods; and on the enabling environment
for social and economic development), as well as the
Inter-Agency Committee for Women and Gender Equality.
The task forces have completed their mandated work and
their outputs include: (a) identification of key elements of
the policy framework for pursuing conference goals; (b)
recommendations and guidelines for the United Nations
system programming; (c) country reviews and case studies;
(d) identification of other areas requiring attention (such as
the role of civil society; elaboration of statistics and
indicators; and the use of information technology); and (e)
institutional arrangements for follow-up.

34.  In its report for 1997 to the Economic and Social
Council (E/1998/21), ACC reviewed the work of the task
forces and stressed the need to put to best use of the lessons
learned. It made a number of decisions for ensuring that the
momentum for implementation that has been created was
further sustained, and that supporting the translation of
conference outcomes into concrete national policies and
programmes remains a key priority. The Administrative
Committee called upon the organizations of the United
Nations system to utilize fully existing national-level
mechanisms and frameworks, and that maximum advantage
should be taken of the results of the work of the three task
forces.

35.  In order to ensure the coherent and integrated support
of the United Nations system to the field level follow-up to
conference goals, the ACC Consultative Committee on
Programme and Operational Questions and the United
Nations Development Group Office jointly sponsored a
workshop in Turin, Italy, in December 1997. The workshop
developed integrated guidance for the resident coordinator
system for country level follow-up to global conferences.
At its twelfth session (2 6 March 1998), the Consultative
Committee decided to convert this integrated guidance into
an ACC note to be distributed to all United Nations system
country teams.

36.  Overall, ACC has found that the task forces has
constituted an unprecedented system-wide effort to
providing integrated, coordinated and productive support
to Governments in the follow-up to major conferences. The
task forces have contributed to deepening the understanding
within the United Nations system of the policy framework
and development agendas at the country level and have
highlighted the need for continuing dialogue among the
United Nations agencies concerned, and between
organizations of the United Nations system and national
Governments.


        2.     United Nations Secretariat

37.  In the United Nations Secretariat, one of the main
functions of the newly created Department of Economic and
Social Affairs is to assist Member States in providing,
through the General Assembly, the Economic and Social
Council and their relevant subsidiary bodies, a coordinated
framework for promoting and monitoring, as appropriate,
the implementation of agreed plans, strategies, programmes
or platforms of action, including coordinated follow-up to
the United Nations conferences and special sessions of the
Assembly in the economic, social and related fields.

38.  Within the Department, the Division for Social Policy
and Development continues to serve as focal point for the
follow-up to the Summit. Central activities of the
restructured Division involve encouraging, supporting and
coordinating the implementation of the Declaration and
Programme of Action of the Summit by national
Governments, civil society, the private sector and
international organizations. An important focus for the
Division during the next two years will be the preparations
for the special session of the Assembly in 2000. To this end,
preparatory work being undertaken by the Division include
the organization and co-sponsoring of expert groups
meetings, seminars and workshops, encouraging and
evaluating national reporting, supporting research projects,
monitoring and assessing national and global trends;
commissioning background documents on issues which will
be addressed by the special session; and working with
non-governmental organizations and other representatives
of the civil society, including the private sector in
preparation for the session.

39.  Other core functions of the Division, within the
framework of follow-up to the Summit, include:
(a) facilitating the negotiation of agreed positions,
resolutions, international standards and norms through the
Commission for Social Development, the Economic and
Social Council, the General Assembly and other
intergovernmental forums, notably the special session of the
General Assembly in 2000; (b) supporting and facilitating
United Nations system-wide cooperation and programme
coordination on social issues; (c) promoting the exchange
of information and ideas by the facilitation of dialogue
among Governments and between Governments and civil
society; (d) advocating recognition of special needs, such
as those of the poor or unemployed, and of groups requiring
specific support; and (e) providing advisory services to
Governments on request about social policies and
programmes aimed at contributing to development.


        3.     United Nations system

40.  The International Labour Organization (ILO), the
lead agency in the follow-up on the promotion of productive
employment, has actively promoted increasing awareness
of the importance of attaining the goal of full, productive
and freely chosen employment as an integral element for
fulfilling the commitments adopted at Copenhagen. The ILO
chaired the ACC Task Force on Full Employment and
Sustainable Livelihoods, the main output of which was a
synthesis report focusing on individual country employment
reviews to identify the main lessons from their pursuit of
full employment and sustainable livelihoods and explore
whether these lessons can be replicated in other countries.
Follow-up implementation is under way at the country level.
The lessons learned have been incorporated into the
synthesis report and a set of guidelines for use by the United
Nations resident coordinators have been prepared. ILO also
worked with its Governing Body to adapt these lessons
learned and experiences to a broader set of country
employment reviews and a process at regional seminars and
at an international consultation on the follow-up to the
Summit. This international consultation will be hosted by
ILO in November 1999 and will include other international
organizations. It is expected that this event will contribute
significantly to the assessment of progress of the Summit
and to the preparation of initiatives. ILO is also considering
the holding of a World Employment Conference in the near
future.

41.  In the area of the observance of core international
labour standards, in response to the Summit's call for
"safeguarding and promoting respect for basic workers'
rights" with specific reference to "the prohibition of foster
labour and child labour, the freedom of association, the
right to organize and bargain collectively, and the principle
of non-discrimination", the Director-General of ILO
launched a special campaign on ratification of the standards
which are derived from these basic principles. The
International Labour Conference held in June 1998 adopted
a Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at
Work, committing Member States to respect the principles
inherent in core labour standards and promoting their
universal application. ILO has also undertaken activities
related to the eradication of child labour, in particular
through the International Programme for the Elimination of
Child Labour. Drafting of a new Convention concerning the
eradication of child labour is under consideration.

42.  The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
continues to take an active role globally and regionally in
the follow-up to the Summit while maintaining its main
focus at the country level. The UNDP mandate to make
poverty its overriding priority has necessitated substantial
restructuring of programme focus and has begun to change
the nature of dialogue between country offices,
Governments and civil society. The analysis of country
cooperation frameworks for the 1997 2000 programming
cycle has provided UNDP with clear evidence of the interest
of Governments in engaging with the United Nations system
to address major themes of the Copenhagen Programme of
Action. Results include increased emphasis on explicit
social development initiatives, such as establishing national
anti-poverty strategies and targets; enhancing the
sustainable livelihoods of those living in poverty;
mainstreaming gender issues in development programming;
and broadening the institutional base for civil society
organization cooperation with the United Nations system.

43.  The Human Development Report 1997 was devoted
to documenting the multidimensionality, extent, severity and
complexity of global poverty, devising new ways (e.g. the
human poverty index) to measure it, and to proposing
feasible and affordable strategies for combating it. UNDP
will publish its first comprehensive poverty report in late
1998. At the policy level, UNDP is engaged, often in
partnership with other institutions of the United Nations
system, in research activities on linkages between poverty
reduction and gender equality and between poverty
reduction and inequality, as well as in assessing the impacts
of globalization on poverty and resource distribution. The
Poverty Strategies Initiative (a multi-donor programme
launched immediately following the Summit) has facilitated
UNDP work with over 80 countries in supporting country
anti-poverty strategies in various stages of development.

44.  The involvement of UNDP with the other two Summit
themes is closely woven into the overall focus of UNDP
programmes on poverty eradication at country, regional and
global levels. As a complement to mainstream approaches
to job creation through stimulating economic growth and
associated human resources development strategies (e.g.
institution strengthening and training), UNDP is developing
a comprehensive concept of support for sustainable
livelihoods systems in several pilot countries worldwide.
Rather than concentrating solely on a needs-based approach
to the poor, sustainable livelihoods programmes reach out
to the excluded to build on assessments of community
strengths and try to learn how men, women and their
families cope and adapt to various forms of shock and
stress. UNDP assists countries with the necessary
macro-policy adjustments to provide an enabling
environment for appropriate coping/adaptive policies and
activities that enhance livelihood sustainability, recognizing
that specific barriers that women face exercise an overall
downward effect upon family and community strategies, and
require specific attention at both macro and micro levels.
An international working group of eminent scholars and
practitioners has been formed to help UNDP in this effort.

45.  The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) has
been cooperating closely with other organizations of the
United Nations system in the follow-up of major
conferences, including the Summit. UNICEF participated
in the work of the ACC Task Forces and has been active in
the pilot phase of the United Nations Development
Assistance Framework, the development of common country
assessments and in the formulation of sectoral support
studies on the financing of basic social services in more than
two dozen countries. The objective of these studies is to
build national capacities to gather and analyse information
on relevant expenditures covered by the 20/20 Initiative.
Regional workshops on methodologies and findings led to
the creation of a strong intergovernmental network of policy
makers on the initiative. A major international meeting on
the 20/20 initiative will be held in Hanoi, Viet Nam, at the
end of 1998 to assess the progress made since the 1996 Oslo
Conference. UNICEF is working with Governments, UNDP
and the World Bank to place the policy issues related to the
financing of basic social services on the agenda of round
table and consultative group meetings.

46.  The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
chaired the Task Force on Basic Social Services, which has
produced a number of "end products", including
(a) guidelines on basic education, on a common approach
to national capacity building in tracking child and maternal
mortality, on primary health care, on reproductive health
and on women's empowerment; (b) guidance notes on
international migration and development; (c) a wall chart
on basic social services for all; (d) an advocacy card,
entitled "Why invest in basic social services?"; (e) donor
collaboration in assistance to the social sector: three country
case studies; and (f) a compendium of social issues from the
United Nations Global Conferences of the 1990s. These
guidelines, advocacy and informational material are
designed to promoting integrated conference
implementation at the country level.

47.  The Task Force concentrated its efforts on developing
quantitative and qualitative indicators, which are critical in
assessing the progress made towards implementing the
conference goals and the effectiveness of country policies
and programmes. To this end, the Task Force developed
indicators which permit baseline assessments of a country's
reproductive health situation and allows countries to
measure improvements in this area. The wall chart on basic
social services provides country-level data in six key areas
(population; primary health care; nutrition; basic education;
drinking water and sanitation; and shelter), with 12 key
indicators to assist countries in monitoring progress in
meeting conference goals in the provision of basic social
services. The work of the Task Force, including the
Guidelines, has been distributed to the United Nations
resident coordinators to make operational the programmes
of action emanating from the global conferences. The above
material will be useful for formulating common country
assessments and as part of the United Nations Development
Assistance Framework. They are also intended for a variety
of development partners, such as Governments, civil society
groups, research institutions and private sector stakeholders,
in order to implement conference goals and other
international agendas.

48.  UNFPA has revised its programme areas and
operational modalities. It has sharpened its strategic focus
to concentrate on three priority areas, namely, reproductive
health, including family planning and sexual health;
population and development strategies and advocacy. The
Fund's work in these three principal areas is based on the
cross-cutting themes of the global conferences, namely,
poverty eradication, gender mainstreaming, the enabling
environment and human rights.

49.  The Executive Board of the World Bank adopted the
Strategic Compact in 1997, which refocuses its development
agenda, strengthening its institutional priorities and placing
more emphasis on the cost-effective achievements of results
on the ground and on the creation of new and stronger
partnerships with other development organizations. Its
expanded social agenda includes promoting
community-based development, strengthening indigenous
capacity and engaging in public consultation and outreach
to many new partners. In the past 18 months, some 20
country assistance strategies have been prepared in a
participatory fashion. The Bank also cooperates with United
Nations agencies in collecting social data and in monitoring
and implementing the Copenhagen Declaration and
Programme of Action, including collaboration with UNDP
and UNICEF on poverty-related issues.

50.  The World Bank continues its work on the Social
Capital Initiative, which includes a number of studies
undertaken to measure social capital in selected countries
and to show its impact on development outcomes. A
programme of comparative research on local level
institutions and social capital represents an effort to increase
the Bank's understanding of the role of local level
institutions in the sustainable development process.

51.  The Social Capital Initiative has three goals: (a) to aim
to assess the impact of initiatives to strengthen social capital
on project effectiveness; (b) to demonstrate that outside
assistance can help in the process of social capital
formation; and (c) to contribute to the development of
indicators for monitoring social capital and methodologies
for measuring its impact on development.

52.  As part of the Bank's movement towards the
implementation of a new development paradigm which
integrates social, cultural, institutional and economic
factors, the Bank is keen to incorporate, in a better way,
social capital considerations into its project lending and
policy advice. The Bank's Social Development Task Force
has identified five possible levels of action which the Bank
could undertake:

               (a)     Use current and new tools to understand more
thoroughly the nature of existing institutions in client
countries and their roles in social and economic
development, in order to ensure that Bank programmes
avoid weakening existing, positive social capital and to
identify areas when institutional strengthening is needed;

               (b)     Where possible, work with existing social
capital, especially peoples' associations and organizations,
for the design and delivery of projects;

               (c)     Facilitate enabling environments that foster the
strengthening of social capital in a country; this might
include fostering greater interaction between civil society
and government, enhanced civil liberties, enhanced
mechanisms for government transparency, and stronger
contracts and economic institutions;

               (d)     Invest directly in social capital, through, for
example, training and capacity-building of local
organizations or through direct financial support;

               (e)     Conduct further research on the distributive and
growth implications of strengthening social capital, and on
strategies for working with civil society organizations.

53.  The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that
it has increasingly integrated social concerns into structural
adjustment policies and has given significant priority to
good governance and to the role of civil society in
development. In this regard, an external evaluation
recommended improvements in the Fund's enhanced
structural adjustment facility including identifying social
impact during programme formulation; monitoring of
vulnerable groups; and systematic follow-up on variations
in social spending. As a follow-up to major United Nations
conferences, including the Summit, the IMF notes that it is
paying particular attention to the need for higher levels of
public expenditure on primary health care and basic
education; assisting countries with appropriate
macroeconomic policies that promote the efficient use of
resources; and encouraging price and market liberalization,
open exchange rates, trade, and more flexible labour
markets and financial sector reforms that remove barriers
to employment and income generation. The Fund also
assists in preparing government policy framework papers
that incorporate these aspects and that include targets for
basic social spending and for social indicators.

54.  The regional commissions, within their respective
mandates, continue to initiate activities for the
implementation and follow-up of the Summit.

55.  As an integral part of the follow-up activity the
Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) has placed special
emphasis on social policy and poverty analysis. ECA has
been promoting a dialogue with Member States on equity
and growth, linkages between poverty, gender and ethnicity;
making public expenditures pro-poor in Africa; and building
national capacities for poverty analysis and monitoring.
ECA will publish a status report on poverty annually and
is planning to convene a regional meeting to review the
progress made towards implementing the outcome of the
Summit in Kenya in October 1998.

56.  The Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean (ECLAC) has concentrated its analytical
activities on how certain analytical and policy aspects can
be linked within an integrated approach so as to reinforce
existing areas of complementarity between efforts to seek
greater growth and social equity. From this perspective,
ECLAC has been conducting studies on such issues as
growth and social equity, role of social policy, relevance of
environmental and demographic aspects, educational reform
for development with social equity, regional and world
economic integration. ECLAC has collaborated extensively
with organizations of the United Nations system in this area.
It also prepared the annual report, the Social Panorama of
Latin America 1997, which evaluated the most relevant
aspects of social development in the region, particularly
those associated to the social equity dimension. Some of the
topics discussed included employment, income distribution,
poverty, the situation of young people and children, gender
and social expenditure. Special emphasis is placed on the
structural aspects of income distribution, the composition
of employment and the transmission between generations
of educational and labour opportunities. The Social
Panorama included a section on the deliberations held at the
First Regional Conference in the Follow-up to the Social
Summit (held in April 1997 in S o Paulo, Brazil).

57.  The Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) has
focused on social statistics and self-employment through the
creation of small and medium-sized enterprises, in
cooperation with UNDP. ECE held a workshop on poverty
among ageing, organized within the framework of the
International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. Through
its analytical work, ECE will address such issues as
economic reforms and its impact on income distribution,
employment and poverty.

58.  The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and
the Pacific (ESCAP) convened the Fifth Asian and Pacific
Ministerial Conference on Social Development at Manila
from 5 to 11 November 1997, hosted by the Government of
the Philippines. 5/ The Conference reviewed and assessed the
progress made towards attaining the goals of the Agenda for
Action on Social Development in the ESCAP Region and
the means to enhance the regional cooperation in its
support. The Manila Declaration on Accelerated
Implementation of the Agenda for Action on Social
Development in the ESCAP Region, adopted by the
Conference, in its resolution 54/2 of 22 April 1998
contained recommendations for achieving the interrelated
goals of eradicating poverty, expansion of employment, and
enhancement of social integration. In implementing social
development programmes and activities of the ESCAP
region, particular attention has been accorded to integrated
approach as well as to strengthening the role of non-governmental
organizations and civil society. At its fifty-fourth session, 
held in April 1998, 6/ the Commission called
for the convening of a regional meeting of senior officials
in 1999 to review progress in the implementation of the
preparations for the global review of the follow-up to the
Summit by the General Assembly at its special session in
2000.

59.  Analytical work has included the Economic and Social
Survey of Asia and the Pacific 1998, which examined the
causes underlying the current financial crisis and suggested
policy measures for preventing future upheavals. Among
the causes, the Survey discussed current account deficits,
weakness in the financial sector, the role of the private
market players and policy responses relating to private
capital inflows. The Survey also examined the trends and
patterns of equity in the region as well as the
interrelationship between poverty, income inequality and
growth.

60.  Among other follow-up activities, ESCAP has
provided assistance through advisory missions and national
workshops on the implementation of the regional Social
Development Agenda in Fiji, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal
and Vanuatu, with funding support from the Asian
Development Bank. In the area of poverty reduction,
ESCAP has undertaken both analytical and operational
activities in the following areas: growth strategies and
structural reforms; human resources development; social
development; rural development; population issues; women
in development; and industry and technology. In
cooperation with the South Asian Association for Regional
Cooperation (SAARC) and UNDP, a project entitled
"SAARC Seven Sisters: district development coordination
and improved poverty project design", was implemented.
Technical assistance activities have been undertaken in
support of initiatives to attain goals of the Asian Pacific
Decade of Disabled Persons, 1993 2002, and the
International Year of Older Persons.

61.  The Economic Commission for Western Asia
(ESCWA) adopted the issue of the follow-up to global
conferences, including the Summit, as the theme of the first
meeting of the ESCWA Committee on Social Development,
which was held in March 1997. ESCWA is planning to
convene a regional follow-up meeting to the Summit in
November 1998, in cooperation with ILO, the League of
Arab States and the Arab Network of non-governmental
organizations, focusing on the three core issues addressed
by the Summit, surveying national policies on these issues
and assessing the impact of their implementation. It is
envisaged that recommendations from this meeting will be
addressed at the Arab Regional Meeting on Integrated
Conferences to be held in 1999. ESCWA's analytical work
included a preliminary overview of socio-economic
developments in the region for 1997 1998.


        D.     Civil society


        1.     Participation of non-governmental
               organizations at sessions of the Commission for
               Social Development and the special session of
               the General Assembly

62.  Subsequent to the convening of the Summit,
participation of non-governmental organizations in the work
of the Commission for Social Development increased
markedly from one session to another. In 1996, the special
session of the Commission was attended by representatives
from 49 non-governmental organizations. The number of
non-governmental organizations which attended the session
of the Commission the following year rose to 108.
Attendance at the thirty-sixth session of the Commission
(10-20 February 1998) by non-governmental organizations
reached the unprecedented number of 141.

63. Since 1996, sessions of the Commission have been
structured according to the themes of the Summit: poverty
eradication; productive employment and social integration.
Linking the work of the Commission to the follow-up to the
Summit and directing its deliberations to issues dealt with
at Copenhagen has also increased the interest of
non-governmental organizations in its meetings.

64. In addition, meetings of the Commission have been
organized in a manner that allows non-governmental
organizations to make a more constructive and active
contribution, focusing mainly on substantive issues
emerging from the Summit. Some expert members of the
panels were selected from non-governmental organizations.
At the thirty-sixth session of the Commission, a dialogue
segment between representatives of non-governmental
organizations and Member States was introduced for the
first time. The Commission has therefore set in motion the
active contribution of non-governmental organizations in
global efforts aimed at implementing the Copenhagen
Declaration and Programme of Action.

65. In May 1998, following the thirty-sixth session of the
Commission for Social Development, the organizational
session of the Preparatory Committee for the special session
of the General Assembly considered the question of the
participation of non-governmental organizations at both the
work of the Committee and the special session.

66. In recognizing the importance of participation of
non-governmental organizations and the involvement of
civil society in the implementation and follow-up to the
Declaration and Programme of Action of the Summit, the
Committee decided to open its work to the participation of
those non-governmental organizations which are accredited
to attend sessions of the Commission for Social
Development, in accordance with the relevant resolutions
and decisions of the Economic and Social Council. It also
decided that the participation of non-governmental
organizations at the special session will be guided by
relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and will take
into account the experience gained at the mid-decade review
of the outcome of major United Nations conferences.

67. The Committee further encouraged Governments to
include representatives of civil society in their national
preparatory process, as well as in their delegations to the
Preparatory Committee and to the special session.


        2.     Activities of non-governmental organizations in
               implementing the outcome of the Summit

68. Non-governmental organizations involved in the
implementation of the outcome of the Summit have also
played an active role in reminding Governments of their
commitments made at Copenhagen and sensitizing public
opinion on follow-up activities. In that connection,
conferences, symposia and seminars have been organized
worldwide; grass-roots activities have been conducted,
mainly in partnership with governmental institutions.

69. In 1997, a group of major non-governmental
organizations enjoying consultative status with the
Economic and Social Council and having representatives
at United Nations Headquarters joined efforts to form the
Non-Governmental Organization Committee on Social
Development. Affiliated with the Conference of
Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Status
with the Economic and Social Council, the Committee aims
at supporting social development programmes formulated
and implemented by the United Nations and advocating for
a better integration of social policy, sustainable
development and economic progress in the work of various
decision-making bodies, organizations, agencies and
programmes of the United Nations. The Committee
contributed significantly to a better planning and
coordination of the participation of non-governmental
organizations at the thirty-sixth session of the Commission
for Social Development. It has also begun consultations on
the preparatory process for the special session of the
General Assembly to review the outcome of the Summit.

70. The "Social Watch" initiative, launched in 1996 by
a group of non-governmental organizations from the South
and the North, has established itself as a major publication
in monitoring social development policies and programmes
carried out by Governments in compliance with the goals
set by the Summit. The 1998 edition presents a set of social
indicators used in accessing the implementation of the
Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action. This
initiative attempts to establish quantifiable indicators aimed
at tracing political will and equity.

71. In its efforts to foster democracy and good
governance, social justice and economic prosperity through
international cooperation, the Inter-Parliamentary Union
(IPU) has made recommendations on various specific
problems of world economic and social development. At the
Summit, IPU stressed issues such as world interdependence,
sustainable human development and increased resources
towards social development. The ninety-eighth
Inter-Parliamentary Conference (Cairo, September 1997)
was devoted to the topic of employment in a globalizing
world. At its ninety-ninth Conference (Windhoek, April
1998), the Union took up, among others, the issue of
engaging an action to combat HIV/AIDS in view of its
devastating human, economic and social impact and foreign
debt as a factor limiting the integration of developing
countries into the process of globalization. In connection
with the follow-up to the Summit, the IPU Committee on
Sustainable Development recommended that IPU urge
Governments which participated in the Summit to "give
proof of their political will, confirm progress and implement
the recommendations awaiting action, as contained in the
1995 report of the Summit". The Union is in the process of
developing a questionnaire to be sent to parliaments, in
preparation for the special session of the General Assembly
in 2000.

72. The International Council on Social Welfare (ICSW)
is focusing its work on the preparation of the review of
implementation of the Summit. To this end, it has been
organizing regional and subregional non-governmental
organization forums and other meetings on Summit
implementation. In September 1997, it organized an 
non-governmental organization Forum on Social Development
in Asia and the Pacific, held at Kuala Lumpur. The Forum
adopted a non-governmental organization statement entitled
"Message to Manila", which was presented to the Fifth
Asian and Pacific Ministerial Conference on Social
Development in Manila in November 1997. The Council's
plans for 1998 and 1999 include subregional forums in the
following countries: Ecuador (for the Andean region);
Jamaica (for the Caribbean region); Guatemala (for the
Central America region); India (for the South Asia region);
Fiji (for the Pacific region); Thailand (for the south-east
Asia region); and the Czech Republic (for the eastern
European region). This series of meetings is intended to
stimulate and coordinate regional and subregional efforts
for the implementation of the agreements reached at
Copenhagen.

73.  The Council has also contributed greatly to the active
involvement of non-governmental organizations in sessions
of the Commission for Social Development. Through the
organization of the Non-Governmental Organization Forum
for Social Development, held jointly with the Friedrich
Ebert Foundation in 1998 prior to the session of the
Commission, and the Issues Forum, held during sessions of
the Commission, ICSW provided an opportunity to
non-governmental organizations, representatives of
Governments and officials of the United Nations to
exchange views and share perspectives on issues debated
by the Commission.

74.  At the beginning of 1998, ICSW developed plans for
a three-year Copenhagen Project which will focus on
preparation for the special session in 2000 and on initial
follow-up to that session. The principal goal of the project
is to strengthen the capacity of ICSW members and other
non-governmental organizations throughout the world,
especially in developing countries, to participate in the
process of the special session.

75.  Since 1994, representatives of more than 40
non-governmental organizations from the fields of
development, social and environmental policies have been
cooperating within the framework of the German 
non-governmental organization forum entitled "World Social
Summit", with the major task of supporting the
implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration and
Programme of Action. It includes charitable and religious
organizations, as well as political foundations, the German
Women's Council and the German Confederation of Trade
Unions. The Friedrich Ebert Foundation is responsible for
coordinating the activities of the Forum.

76.  The Forum for African Women Educationalists in
Malawi organized a ministerial conference for the
Sub-Sahara African region on the 20/20 Initiative as a
follow-up activity to the World Summit for Social
Development. The Conference aimed at providing a forum
for ministers of education and finance to review the status
of successes and failures in implementing the 20/20
Initiative as a means of increasing resources for social
development.


       VI.     Conclusion


77.  The intergovernmental process leading to the year
2000, when the special session of the General Assembly for
the review and appraisal of the implementation of the
outcome of the World Summit on Social Development and
to consider further actions and initiatives will take place,
can be found in the annex to the present report.

78.  While the present report has concentrated on positive
developments and activities in implementing the outcome
of the Summit, it is clear that far more extensive and
effective action is required at the international, regional and
national levels to tackle the desperately serious problems
of poverty, unemployment and social disintegration faced
by most countries. Governments agreed to this at the
organizational session of the Preparatory Committee for the
special session. The challenge is to identify the most
effective additional concrete initiatives to move towards the
goals set at Copenhagen.


                            Notes


          1/   Report of the World Summit for Social Development,
               Copenhagen, 6 12 March 1995 (United Nations publication,
               Sales No. E.96.IV.8), chap. I, resolution 1, annex I.

          2/   Ibid., annex II.

          3/   Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-third Session,
               Supplement No. 45 (A/53/45).

          4/   Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
               Supplement No. 6 (E/1998/26).

          5/   See E/ESCAP/1096.

          6/   Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1998,
               Supplement No. 20, chap. III-IV.


                                  Annex

         Intergovernmental process leading to the holding of the
         special session of the General Assembly in the year 2000


----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Year/month                  Meeting                         Actions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1998 (October/    General Assembly,          Decision on venue and dates
December)         fifty-third session        of the special session

                                             Review progress made and provide
                                             further guidance
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1999              Commission for Social      Proposals to the Economic
(9-19 February)   Development, thirty-       and Social Council on social
                  seventh session            services for all

                                             Input to first session of
                                             Preparatory Committee
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1999              Preparatory Committee,     Proposals on agenda of second
(17-28 May)       first substantive          session; additional documentation
                  session
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1999 (July)       Economic and Social        High-level segment on the role
                  Council, substantive       of employment and work in
                  session                    poverty eradication: the
                                             empowerment and advancement of
                                             women

                                             Overall review of theme of
                                             poverty eradication
                                             to contribute to the special
                                             session
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
1999              General Assembly,          Take stock and provide
(October-         fifty-fourth session       additional guidance
December)   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2000              Commission for Social      Proposals to Preparatory
(7-18 February)   Development, thirty-       Committee on overview of
                  eighth session             follow-up to Summit
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2000              Preparatory Committee,     Proposals to the special
(3-14 April)      second substantive         session
                  session
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2000 (dates and   Special session of the     Review of Summit agreements and
venue to be       General Assembly on the    consideration of further 
decided)          implementation of the      initiatives
                  outcome of the World
                  Summit for Social 
                  Development and 
                  Further Initiatives
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2000 (July)       Economic and Social        Consider report of Commission
                  Council, substantive       for Social Development 
                  session                    
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2000 (October-    General Assembly,          Consider report of the special
December)         fifty-fifth session        session
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                 -----


                    

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