United Nations

A/52/60 - E/1997/6


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

17 January 1997

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


                                                                                                         


GENERAL ASSEMBLY                               ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
Fifty-second session                           Substantive session of 1997


       SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INCLUDING QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE WORLD SOCIAL
          SITUATION AND TO YOUTH, AGEING, DISABLED PERSONS AND THE FAMILY

             Implementation of the World Programme of Action for Youth
                            to the Year 2000 and Beyond

                          Report of the Secretary-General


                                     CONTENTS

                                                              Paragraphs  Page

  I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................    1 - 3       3

 II.  IMPLEMENTATION OF THE WORLD PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR
      YOUTH TO THE YEAR 2000 AND BEYOND ....................    4 - 89      3

      A.  National level ...................................    4 - 76      3

      B.  Regional level ...................................   77 - 83     15

      C.  Global level .....................................   84 - 89     17

III.  REVIEW AND APPRAISAL:  PROBLEMS ADDRESSED AND 
      RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................   90 - 97     22

      A.  Problems addressed ...............................   90 - 93     22

          1.  National level ...............................      90       22

          2.  Regional level ...............................      91       23

          3.  Global level .................................   92 - 93     23

      B.  Recommendations ..................................   94 - 97     24

          1.  National level ...............................      94       24

          2.  Regional level ...............................      95       24

          3.  Global level .................................   96 - 97     24

Annex.  Status of implementation of the World Programme of Action for 
        Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond as at December 1996 ..........   26


                                 I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   In its resolution 49/154 of 23 December 1994, entitled "Policies and
programmes involving youth", the General Assembly requested the Secretary-
General, in close cooperation with Member States and youth organizations, to
evaluate youth programmes that were developed during the follow-up of
International Youth Year and to report to it at its fifty-second session, with
a view to ensuring effective implementation of a world programme of action for
youth to the year 2000 and beyond.  In its resolution 50/81 of 14 December
1995, the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to report to it at its
fifty-second session, through the Commission for Social Development and the
Economic and Social Council, on the progress made in the implementation of the
World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond.

2.   The present report is submitted in pursuance of the above-mentioned
resolutions.  It is based on the replies to a questionnaire received from
Member States, organizations and agencies of the United Nations system and
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations concerned with youth.  In
addition, other material was used to prepare the report, in particular the
statements made by delegates of the General Assembly at its fiftieth session
in a segment devoted to the tenth anniversary of the International Youth Year.

3.   Youth-related concerns are also reflected in programmes of action adopted
by three major world conferences held in 1995:  the Copenhagen Programme of
Action adopted by the World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen,
6-12 March), the Conclusions and Recommendations adopted by the Ninth United
Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders
(Cairo, 29 April-8 May) and the Beijing Platform for Action adopted by the
Fourth World Conference on Women:  Action for Equality, Development and Peace
(Beijing, 1-15 September).


            II.  IMPLEMENTATION OF THE WORLD PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR
                 YOUTH TO THE YEAR 2000 AND BEYOND

                                A.  National level

4.   The World Programme of Action for Youth urges Governments that have not
already done so to formulate and adopt an integrated national youth policy as
a means of addressing youth-related concerns.  It recommended that such
measures be taken as part of a continuing process of review and assessment of
the situation of youth, formulation of a cross-sectoral national youth
programme of action in terms of specific, time-bound objectives and a
systematic evaluation of progress achieved and obstacles encountered.  It
further indicated that reinforcing youth-related concerns in development
activities can be facilitated through the existence of multilateral mechanisms
for consultation, dissemination of information, coordination, monitoring and
evaluation.  It stated that such activities should be cross-sectoral in nature
and multidisciplinary in approach and should include the participation of
youth-related departments and ministries, national non-governmental youth
organizations and the private sector.  It also called for national
coordinating mechanisms to be appropriately strengthened for integrated
national youth policies and programmes.  Where such mechanisms do not exist,
Governments are urged to promote their establishment on a multi-level and
cross-sectoral basis.

5.   Table 1 provides a summary of those actions (see below and annex I for
country details).  Much of this action has been undertaken by Governments
since International Youth Year in 1985.  It should be recalled that nearly 100
Governments adopted national youth policies for the first time and set up
national youth coordinating committees for the Year.  A great part of renewed
action now can be traced back to such bodies, which initiated national youth
policies and national youth service programmes in 1985.

6.   Out of a total of 185 Member States, table 1 indicates that 144, or
78 per cent of that total, had formulated a national youth policy of a
cross-sectoral character.  Two years ago, a similar survey on the
implementation of the Guidelines of the 1985 International Youth Year had
revealed 141 Member States or 77 per cent had taken such action.  Similarly,
there was no major change in the number or percentage of Member States that
had designated a national youth coordinating mechanism:  164 or 89 per cent of
the total.  That was the same number and percentage cited in 1994.  However,
the major change concerns the number or percentage of Member States that have
implemented a national youth programme of action:  73, or 40 per cent of the
total.  That represented an increase of 19 such Member States and a 10 per
cent increase of the total (up from 54 or 29 per cent in 1994).


              Table 1.  Summary of actions taken by Governments to
                        implement the World Programme of Action for
                        Youth

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Categories                               Number             Percentage
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Countries that have formulated a
national youth policy (cross-sectoral)     144                   78

Countries that have designated a
national youth coordinating
mechanism (ministry, department,
council, committee, etc.)                  164                   89

Countries that have implemented a
national youth programme of
action (operational, voluntary
services)                                   73                   40

Countries that have taken all
three types of action to
implement the Programme                     58                   31
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.   The following sections provide surveys of government action to formulate
a national youth policy, a national youth coordinating mechanism, and a
national youth programme of action.


                             1.  National youth policy

                                      AFRICA

8.   Recognizing that youth, as a distinct segment of the Botswana society has
special characteristics, problems, needs and interests, the Government of
Botswana has formulated a national youth policy that will serve as a framework
for youth development.  It is envisaged that young women and men will be given
every opportunity to reach their full potential both in their individual
capacities as well as active citizens of society.  In addition to addressing
major concerns and issues, which are critical to young people in Botswana as
well as giving direction to youth programmes and services provided by both
government and non-governmental organizations, the policy further demonstrates
the commitment of the Government to the identification of strategies to
alleviate youth problems.

9.   Malawi's national youth policy aims to establish, as a distinct sector of
government policy, the identity and status of Malawi youth and to create a
direction for youth activities and programmes for various interest groups. 
The policy seeks to address key challenges currently affecting youth such as
unemployment, education opportunities, young people's non-involvement in
decision-making, AIDS and HIV, crime and youth deviance, teenage pregnancy and
drug and alcohol abuse.  The policy also advocates the rights and
responsibilities of young people and the positive role models provided by
adults and parents.

10.  The Government of Mali adopted a national youth policy with six
objectives:  (a) to reinforce youth organizations and the development of their
infrastructures for non-formal education; (b) to create conditions for the
better integration and participation of youth in rural life; (c) to prevent
the social alienation of youth; (d) to promote the social integration of
juvenile delinquents; (e) to support the economic and social integration of
youth in danger of marginalization; and (f) to promote sports activities for
youth.

11.  In Mozambique, a national youth policy was approved, whose main objective
is to enable both the Government and the civil society to address youth
problems, so as to make it more participative in the process of nation
building.

12.  The Government of South Africa set up a National Youth Commission in 1996
to formulate and coordinate a national youth policy and various programmes to
implement it.

13.  The national strategy of the Sudan has devoted a full chapter to youth. 
It enumerates the general principles for promoting youth activities.  The
strategy has identified five areas for youth:  the cultural and intellectual
areas; aesthetics, art and literature; science; sports and the military;
public social service; and trips, tourist activities and hostels.

14.  Tunisia's youth policy is designed to ensure complementarity among the
three stages of life (childhood, youth and old age), in order to ensure
psychological stability and respect for the values of the community.


                               ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

15.  Australia's youth social justice strategy was introduced to provide a
special focus on youth in the Government's broader social justice strategy.
Australia's government policy focuses primarily on the provision of assistance
and support to all young people in relation to employment, education and
training, financial assistance, housing, health.  Principal features of
Australia's youth policies are the youth training initiative, which aims to
assist early school-leavers through an early intervention strategy and by
providing access to case management; labour market programmes and a youth
training allowance for unemployed 15- to 17-year-olds; "Austudy", which aims
to provide the financial assistance necessary for young people attempting to
exercise their right to an education; pilot programmes targeting young people
who are homeless or at risk of becoming so; and special pilot projects
designed to establish best practice in youth suicide prevention.  Based on
that work, Australia has developed "A National Youth Policy:  A Statement of
Principles and Objectives".

16.  In Bangladesh, a national youth policy has been adopted to promote the
rights of youth, particularly in the areas of education, skills development,
employment and participation in community development activities.

17.  In China, the All-China Youth Federation (ACYF) has been entrusted by the
Government to be in charge of managing and coordinating China's youth affairs.
The Government supports and guides the ACYF to manage the work in youth
affairs.  The ACYF is a united organization of all Chinese youth groups.  When
necessary, the ACYF is able to cooperate bilaterally or multilaterally with
any department, organization or non-governmental group.  It also implements
youth policies and carries out a series of youth activities so as to raise
their citizenship awareness, mobilize and organize them to participate in
state development and economic construction, and help them enhance moral
character, knowledge, ability and qualities.

18.  In India, the Government has set up a Committee on National Youth
Programmes chaired by the Prime Minister.  The Committee, an advisory body,
has members consisting of ministers in charge of various youth-related
departments, provincial ministers, Members of Parliament, representatives of
political parties, non-governmental youth organizations and young people of
various socio-economic backgrounds.  This body has assisted the Government to
update its National Youth Policy, which acknowledges clearly the role of
non-governmental youth organizations as partners in development.  In addition,
the Government has also supported the creation of youth organizations with
large national membership and broad geographic spread across the country.  For
example, the Nehru Youth Centres (Nehru Yuvak Kendras) have been established
in 500 districts out of the total 522 districts in India.

19.  The aims and objectives of the national youth policy of Indonesia are: 
(a) to help foster Indonesia awareness, identity, solidarity and prosperity
among youth; (b) to promote policies and programmes relating to youth as an
integral part of social and cultural values among the Asian and Pacific
nations; and (c) to realize the potential of youth as human resources in
regional development.  The objectives of the Indonesian Youth Development
Strategy towards the Year 2000 and Beyond are:  (a) to enhance the quality of
education among Indonesian youth; (b) to increase employment opportunities
among youth and reduce youth dissocialization; (c) to foster positive and
constructive attitudes for youth facing global changes and challenges of
modernization; and (d) to prepare Indonesian youth for future leadership in
Indonesia and in the Pacific region.  The areas of concern are population;
education and training; unemployment; housing; environment; social security;
crime and drug abuse; AIDS; and youth participation. 

20.  The Islamic Republic of Iran has established the Supreme Council for
Youth to formulate and implement specific programmes based on prevailing needs
and priorities and linking both governmental youth-related offices and
non-governmental youth organizations.  The Council prepared and published "The
Educational Charter of the Young Generation" in 1995 and translated and
distributed it in several languages in 1996.

21.  In Japan, the Committee for the Promotion of Youth Policy, in which the
ministries and the agencies involved make contacts or discussions, has been
organized since 1990.  It formulated "The Guidelines of the Promotion of Youth
Policy".  As a result, the Government can actively promote youth policies with
coordinating measures in various fields such as education, employment,
juvenile delinquency, personal development and family welfare.

22.  Malaysia has embarked on a development programme for youth called
"Rakanmuda".  It has been implemented with the close collaboration of
government agencies, the private sector and non-governmental organizations.

23.  The Government of the Marshall Islands formulated and presented the final
draft of the National Policy on Youth on 17 May 1995.  This draft is awaiting
the legislature's approval before it is implemented.

24.  In the Federated States of Micronesia, the national youth policy was
established in 1994 when the FSM Youth Development Association was created. 
Its by-laws defines youth as those persons between 6 and 35 years of age.
Nevertheless, the definition of youth still varies, depending on the service
criteria of the different service programmes.  The voting age is 18 years,
while the legal age to consume alcohol is 21.  Since approximately 50 percent
of the population is below the age of 15 and almost 70 per cent is below the
age of 25, the national youth policy of the Federated States of Micronesia is
targeted at a major segment of the nation's population.  This policy seeks to
create an educational, social and economic environment that enables young
people to make proper decisions and provides them with opportunities for
productive and socially responsible lives.

25.  In Niue, the National Planning and Development Office has devised a
national development plan that is meant to encompass all components of the
Niuean community, including youth.

26.  Pakistan has established the Social Action Programme, which addresses the
urgent needs of the population, including youth, in the areas of basic
education, primary health care, nutrition, water supply and sanitation.

27.  The Philippines has adopted a national youth policy that ensures priority
attention to the needs and the concerns of young people, based on a review and
appraisal of the situation of youth throughout the nation.

28.  In the Republic of  Korea, the Government has established a comprehensive
long-term plan called the 1992-2000 Basic Plan for the Youth of Korea, which
has been incorporated into the seventh and eighth half-decade Socio-economic
Development Plan.

29.  The Government of Thailand addresses the problems of youth through its
Seventh Child and Youth Development Plan, 1992-1996.  Thailand is now in the
process of carrying out studies to lay down the guidelines for the next Child
and Youth Development Five-Year Plan, 1997-2001. 


                             EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA

30.  The Federal Government of Canada has a comprehensive range of youth
policies and programmes, meeting the needs of young people with respect to
health, social well-being, justice, human rights, employment and income
security.  These complement a wide range of programmes and policies that are
the responsibility of provincial and territorial Governments, which have a
direct jurisdiction in many areas, including education, health and social
programmes.  The Government's youth policies have been developed with
increasing emphasis on the direct involvement of young people.

31.  In 1990, the Government of the Czech Republic adopted a resolution 
entitled "Basic direction of influence of the State on the young generation in
the Czech Republic".  The following tasks were defined in it:  stability of
young families, creation of conditions for the support of employment,
development of talented peoples, use of spare time, support of civic
associations and social security.  In March 1991, the Government passed a
resolution on non-governmental associations that focuses on programmes for the
support and protection of youth.  There are other legislations and resolutions
that address issues facing young people such as drug abuse prevention,
integration of persons with disability and crime prevention.

32.  In Denmark, the National Youth Policy includes legal, political,
socio-economic and cultural aspects.  The National Youth Policy is
cross-sectoral.

33.  The Government of Finland has passed a Youth Work Act 235/95.  Under
section 1, the purpose of the Act is to improve young people's living
conditions and create conditions for their civic activity.  According to the
Act, ministries must include measures geared to young people in their
programmes.  The Act assigns the responsibility for coordinating these
measures to the Ministry of Education.  The Act promotes cross-sectoral
cooperation.

34.  In Liechtenstein, the legal basis of the national youth policy is the
Children and Young Persons Act of 1979.  In 1986, the Government commissioned
a comprehensive study, which identified the several important objectives of
the youth policy:  the integration of young persons in all levels of society;
their participation in decision-making processes; and the avoidance of any
marginalization.  In 1995, the Government commissioned for the first time a
report on the situation of children and young persons in Liechtenstein
containing guidelines for the future youth policy in Liechtenstein. 

35.  The Government of Malta has established a national youth policy that has
been in operation since 1993.  The drafting of the policy involved various
government ministries such as those for social policy, health and education,
as well as the National Youth Council and various individuals in the youth
field.  The national youth policy has served to produce guidelines for the
Ministry responsible for youth affairs and administrators.  The national youth
policy is a yardstick by which the Ministry measures its rate of progress and
is equally so measured by others.  The policy functions as a catalyst,
spurring Government into embarking on its youth programmes and initiatives.

36.  In Romania, the Ministry of Youth and Sport has established objectives
for its youth policy, which are based on the three interrelated concepts of
education, participation in associations and leisure time.  These objectives
include actions to increase the participation of young people in economic
life; develop young people's creative potential; and promote a training system
in order to ensure interaction between the educational system and the labour
market.

37.  The Russian Federation adopted the decree on Russia's preparations for,
and commemoration of, the tenth anniversary of International Youth Year, which
provided for the formation of an interdepartmental commission and a plan of
action aimed at drawing the attention of leaders at all levels to youth
problems and the need for their solution. 


                          LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

38.  The Government of the Bahamas has begun the process of drafting
components of a national youth policy.  This process started after the
Government of the Bahamas established a Consultative Committee on National
Youth Development in 1992. 

39.  Jamaica  established its national youth policy in 1994.  The policy
addresses issues such as institutional framework; education and training;
employment and empowerment; health; drug abuse; recreation and leisure;
values, attitudes and anti-social behaviour; and youth in community and nation
building.  Prepared by the Jamaican Ministry of Local Government, Youth and
Sports, it contained a foreword that acknowledged that the United Nations
draft world programme of action for youth to the year 2000 and beyond served
as an important resource material for the preparation of the National Youth
Policy.

40.  The Government of Montserrat is establishing a national youth policy with
the assistance of the Commonwealth Youth Programme. 

41.  Paraguay has completed the first national youth plan, entitled "The
Country We Want".  It was submitted to the President of the Republic on
21 September 1995.

42.  In Venezuela, the policies directed towards the youth sector can be
divided into two major groups:  those intended to deal with the problem of
integrating youth policies by means of which Venezuela can assume its
responsibilities towards youth; and those relating to the participation of
young people, for building society through the involvement of youth.


                                   WESTERN ASIA

43.  The national youth policy of Bahrain is of an intersectoral policy and
includes the work of ministries of the national Government concerned with such
issues as youth, sports, education, health, employment, commerce and
agriculture.  The literacy rate for youth is very high on a comparative basis
in the region.  Demographic trends indicated that 16 per cent of youth in
Bahrain will live in rural areas and 84 per cent will live in urban areas in
the year 2000.  The median age is estimated to be 27.5 in 2000.

44.  In Egypt, the national youth policy has been formulated by the Supreme
Council for Youth and Sports in coordination with other youth-related
ministries of the Government and in consultation with non-governmental youth
organizations.  The Council has established policies of youth welfare in
various fields (cultural, social and artistic).  Young people are eligible to
vote at age 18. Demographic trends indicate that 39 per cent of youth in Egypt
will live in rural areas and 61 per cent in urban areas by the year 2000.  The
median age will be 21.6 in 2000.  The youth policy in Egypt devotes special
attention to disabled youth, rural youth as well as youth in areas with
particular difficulties.

45.  The national youth policy of the Syrian Arab Republic treats youth as
part of integral strategies taking into consideration the nature of the
society and the tasks before it.  That policy is especially part of the
national aims to achieve comprehensive human development together with
socio-economic development.  This youth policy is coordinated on an
inter-ministerial basis and involves two major non-governmental organizations:
the National Union of Syrian Students (with a membership composed of students
in universities, postgraduate studies and higher and intermediate institutes)
and the Revolutionary Youth Union (with a membership of over 1.5 million
composed of young workers, rural youth, students with both political and
non-political backgrounds, including social, economic, vocational, cultural,
touristic, athletic and artistic.  Forty per cent are girls).

46.  The United Arab Emirates has accorded a high priority, in formulating its
national youth policy as well as its national development policies, to the
question of youth through the promulgation of legislation and the provision of
basic services such as the best possible educational curricula and health and
social programmes, free of charge, in line with its national policies and
regional and international policies.  At the same time, it has striven to
preserve the specific nature of its local communities, which derive their
teachings from the shariah of Islam and the traditions of this society.


                      2.  National youth programmes of action

                                     AFRICA

47.  The Government of Botswana has supported various youth programmes through
non-governmental organizations, to address the different needs of young people
in Botswana.  Examples of youth non-governmental organizations that have been
supported by the Government include the Botswana Work Camps Association, the
Botswana Family Welfare Association and the Botswana Young Women's Christian
Association.

48.  Burkina Faso has developed a policy in the field of education to teach
human rights and the fundamental principles of the Constitution of Burkina
Faso in schools, in centres of professional training and in centres providing
functional literacy.  The Government has also organized a seminar for the
mobilization of resources for the implementation of the national plan for the
education of girls.  In the field of health and the environment, Burkina Faso
has devised and implemented information and education programmes including
seminars and lectures on sexually transmitted diseases and environmental
preservation.  Reforestation camps for young people have been organized.

49.  In Malawi, the Government has established multi-skills training centres
to provide appropriate skills to young people.  The Malawi Youth Credit
Initiative will ensure that young people are provided with credit and training
packages to enable them to enter viable small business.

50.  In Mali, the Government has established a National Youth Service (SNJ),
which enables young graduates to work on voluntary service projects.

51.  In Mozambique, the national youth programme of action focuses on the
following areas:  education for family life, action for community life and
policy and legislation.


                               ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

52.  China has several programmes of action for youth such as the
Cross-Century Young Talented Personnel Project, the Cross-Century Youth
Civilization Project and the Action of Serving Ten Thousand Villages.  In
addition, China has developed rewarding systems for young people such as the
Ten Top Chinese Young People, prominent young entrepreneurs, prominent young
township entrepreneurs, young technical pace-setters, young skilful workers at
their posts, rural young shooting star guides, the Chinese young scientist
prize and Chinese youth science and technology pioneering prizes.  In
addition, television and broadcasting stations have developed special
programmes about youth and children.  More than 100 newspapers and journals
have been published specially for youth and children.  Chinese Youth News is
one of several newspapers and journals that have the widest domestic
circulation.  Young volunteers have launched a drive of voluntary services to
wipe out illiteracy, extend medical care, encourage ecology, promote the law
among youth and spread technology and culture.  In China, there are 27
national youth and children camp-sites. 

53.  India has developed youth centres, aimed at focusing on the employment
capabilities of rural youth that organize leadership training programmes and
social services.  India has also developed a National Services Scheme aimed at
involving university and high school students in rural reconstruction
activities to assist the weaker sections of society.

54.  The Government of the Marshall Islands, with the assistance of a
consulting mission from the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
Pacific (ESCAP), developed and approved a National Youth Congress work
programme to be the national Government's principal programme for youth and
development in the Marshall Islands.  The programme helps mobilize youth to
participate in national development with the sponsor and financial assistance
and support of the Government, churches, other non-governmental organizations,
the private sector and the general public.  Much of the decision-making of the
work programme is decentralized to non-government organizations and local
governments, which in turn receive guidance, advice, support and assistance
from the national Government.

55.  In the Federated States of Micronesia, the Youth Activities Programme is
located in the Department of Environmental and Community Health Services.  The
main objectives of this national youth service programme is:  (a) to
strengthen partnership and policies for youth throughout the nation; (b) to
involve youth in the economic, social, cultural, and religious development of
the country; (c) to strengthen  youth networking and coordination services;
(d) to establish a workable and relevant foundation for youth development; (e)
to strengthen and foster youth training programs; (f) to establish and improve
relevant programmes to safeguard and rehabilitate youth when and where needed;
(g) to establish with and for youth environmental protection strategies within
the community; and (h) to develop youth training programmes in the
preservation of the cultural heritage of the nation. 

56.  In India, the Government has set up a national service scheme, which
encourages students to undertake voluntary community work without
remuneration.  Approximately 1.3 million student volunteers are currently
participating in this national service.  The Government also encourages
non-governmental youth organizations to seek financial assistance from it to
participate in the Youth Development Week.  There is a review of the
applicants and a selection of  those to receive support. 

57.  In the New Zealand island of Niue, young people are given opportunities
to be represented on village councils and statutory bodies.  This is to ensure
youth representation at both the village and the national levels.

58.  In Singapore, the Government has established a youth development fund,
which promotes youth projects.

59.  Sri Lanka have taken concerted action to rationalize and coordinate
vocational and technical training centres through reforms based on a
comprehensive research programme.  The Samurdhi programme of Sri Lanka is
designed to activate the entrepreneurial potential of the poor.  The programme
emphasizes measures targeted at rural youth covering areas such as
agriculture, skill training, land, industry and food production.  

60.  In the Philippines, the Government has appointed youth sectoral
representatives to its Congress to ensure their full participation in the
country's law-making process. 


                             EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA

61.  In Canada, in 1994, the Government introduced the Youth Employment and
Learning Strategy, announcing the formation of Youth Service Canada and
Student Summer Job Action programmes.  The 1996 federal budget reallocated
$315 million of savings to help create new youth employment opportunities over
the next three years. 

62.  The Government of the Czech Republic has established the National
Information System on Youth (NICEM).  This system provides young people with
all kinds of important information of interest to them.  The Government
subsidizes activities of non-governmental organizations in the area of youth
participation such as children's parliaments in towns and villages and help to
young people with disability.

63.  On the basis of its youth policy, Denmark aims to strengthen young
people's participation in the decision-making process in daily life, in
schools, youth clubs and at the regional and national levels.

64.  Finland is preparing its activities in the European Voluntary Service for
Young People.  The ongoing Youth for Europe programme has been successful and
is implemented by the Centre for International Mobility (CIMO).

65.  In Georgia, the State Department of Youth Affairs has worked out a
four-year state policy programme for youth, confirmed by Presidential Decree
No. 332 of May 1996.  This programme consists of the following subprogrammes: 
dissemination of information to youth and the establishment of a centre of
scientific research into youth problems; formation of a legislative base for
the protection of youth rights; promotion of business; ensuring the social
protection of the youth; formation of a system of state support for children
and youth organizations; international youth cooperation; ensuring optimal
physical and spiritual conditions for youth; support of the youth movement in
the protection of the environment; formulation of a system for the elimination
of delinquency and anti-social behaviour, current among the youth; training of
state employees working on youth problems.

66.  Within the framework established by the Children and Young Persons Act,
the Government of Liechtenstein conducts various activities aimed at the
promotion of youth welfare.  There is a variety of non-commercial leisure
amenities such as youth centres run by professionals, music and sports clubs,
scouts and other youth groups.  Efforts are being made to have young people
participate in political bodies on the local level.

67.  The Government of Malta has set up a series of youth-oriented programmes
aimed at increasing participation in voluntary service, enterprise and
specialization.  Together with local banks it has launched a scheme through
which young people obtain unsecured loans in order to launch a business
enterprise or to undertake postgraduate or specialization studies abroad.  The
Department of Youth and Sports subsidizes activities by voluntary youth
organizations to benefit community service activities.

68.  The Russian Federation carries out its work on youth on the basis of a
federal programme called Russia's Youth.  The purpose of the Russian national
programme is to establish legal, economic and organizational machinery for
implementing government youth policies.  One of the priority areas of work of
the programme is to establish a legislative and legal basis for government
youth policies.


                          LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

69.  The Bahamas has a National Youth Development Programme that encompasses
the issue of youth participation and training along with the establishment of
coordinating councils.  The Bahamas has also established a pilot programme
geared towards unemployed school leavers.  The programme places emphasis on
the empowerment of young women.  In addition, the Bahamas has established an
industrial training college to help young people to integrate better into
society.

70.  Barbados has identified a system of appointing a number of youth
commissioners responsible for motivating, mobilizing and channelling 80,000
young people.  Barbados has developed a Youth Entrepreneurship programme
directed at young people who want to pursue self-employment and
entrepreneurial activity.  This programme provides young people with technical
and financial assistance and it is developing a mentor programme that will
give those young people the opportunity to consult closely and work with
established business persons in the private sector.  In addition, the Barbados
Youth Service attempts to reach young people by providing a framework of
character-building and discipline while still providing skills to encourage
their personal development and growth.

71.  Peru's youth programme promotes projects mainly in the fields of
responsible sexuality, education for peace, prevention of drug abuse,
employment counselling and the creation of jobs.

72.  Jamaica, in 1995, has reintroduced the National Youth Service, which had
strong components of leadership training and remedial education.

73.  In Trinidad and Tobago, the greatest priority is attached to training and
employment for young people.  These programmes include the Youth Training and
Employment Partnership and the Apprenticeship Programme and the Apprenticeship
for Industrial Mobilization.  The Youth Training and Employment Partnership
Programme comprises a Career Enhancement Project.  The Apprenticeship for
Industrial Mobilization utilizes on-the-job training techniques as a means of
equipping young people.  Other approaches adopted by the Government to promote
youth employment through training and retraining are youth camps, which offer
a wide range of craft and secretarial courses; trade centres, which
concentrate on the construction industry and skills related to house
maintenance; and youth centres.  In addition, the Civilian Conservation Corps
offers temporary employment in projects related mainly to the improvement of
the environment.  The Aided Self-Help Programme and the Small Business
Management Programme are both designed to assist young entrepreneurs.

74.  In Venezuela, programmes have been established such as job training
programmes, youth rehabilitation and supervised recreation, drug prevention
programmes, cultural programmes, health programmes and education programmes.


                                   WESTERN ASIA

75.  The Syrian Arab Republic has supported the national youth service
activities of the Revolutionary Youth Union in eradicating the illiteracy of
thousands of citizens in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture for a
campaign that aims at eradicating illiteracy before the year 2000, in addition
to other volunteer activities, which reflect positively on the progress and
development of the country.  Several government ministries maintain close
relations with youth organizations in two areas:  health education, especially
with regard to the AIDS disease and the prevention thereof, and the
enhancement of environmental awareness to preserve the environment and reduce
pollution.  These organizations also organize continuous educational campaigns
against the devastating scourge of drugs and in the area of crime prevention. 

76.  In the United Arab Emirates, the Ministry of Youth and Sports serves as
the Secretariat for the Arab Federation of Youth Organizations recently
established by the League of Arab States (LAS) to promote youth exchanges and
service.


                                B.  Regional level

77.  The Programme of Action indicated that the activities of the United
Nations regional commissions, in cooperation with concerned regional
intergovernmental and non-governmental youth and youth-related organizations,
are essential complements to both national and global action aimed at building
national capacities.  Regional commissions, within their existing mandates,
were urged to promote the implementation of the Programme of Action through
incorporation of its goals in their plans, to undertake comprehensive reviews
of the progress achieved and obstacles encountered and to identify options to
further regional-level action.  The Programme further indicated that regional
intergovernmental meetings of ministers responsible for youth, in cooperation
with the concerned United Nations regional commissions, regional
intergovernmental organizations and regional non-governmental youth
organizations, could make particular contributions to the formulation,
implementation, coordination and evaluation of action at the regional level,
including periodic monitoring of regional youth programmes.

78.  Five United Nations conferences on youth were held for the preparations
for International Youth Year (1985) in cooperation with each of the 5 United
Nations regional economic commissions and 20 regional meetings of Governmental
Ministers responsible for youth, initiated in honour of International Youth
Year.  While the 5 regional meetings were convened by the United Nations, 20
follow-up meetings were convened by other regional and interregional
intergovernmental organizations as a follow-up to the Year.  LAS has convened
several meetings of the Council of Arab Ministers responsible for Youth and
Sports since 1983 and Conferences of Francophone Ministers of Youth and Sports
have likewise been held.  Eight Ibero-American youth minister conferences have
been convened since 1985 and four Council of Europe conferences of European
ministers responsible for youth since 1985.  The Commonwealth Youth Programme
has convened two interregional meetings of Commonwealth ministers responsible
for youth (1992 and 1995), the Organization of African Unity (OAU) has held
two regional meetings of African ministers responsible for youth and
development (1993 and 1996).  Other intergovernmental organizations, including
the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Indian Ocean
Commission (IOC) and South Pacific Commission (SPC), have also convened
meetings at the subregional level of ministers responsible for youth since
1992.  However, the United Nations has not been involved in the sponsorship of
these regional and interregional meetings of ministers responsible for youth. 
The Programme of Action has called for closer cooperation between these
existing regional and interregional meetings of ministers responsible for
youth and more direct involvement of the United Nations and its regional
commissions in these processes and in cooperation with the relevant regional
and interregional intergovernmental organizations.

79.  On 24 April 1996 ESCAP adopted resolution 52/4, entitled "Promoting human
resources development among youth in Asia and the Pacific", recalling both
General Assembly resolution 50/81, in which the Assembly adopted the World
Programme of Action for Youth to  the Year 2000 and Beyond, and ESCAP
resolution 50/7, in which the Commission adopted the Jakarta Plan of Action on
Human Resources Development in the ESCAP region as revised in 1994. 

80.  Pursuant to that resolution, the United Nations Asia-Pacific Meeting on
Human Resources Development for Youth was held by ESCAP in Beijing from 22 to
26 October 1996.  It was organized in cooperation with the All-China Youth
Federation, with financial assistance from the Government of China, the United
Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Christian Conference of Asia.  The
meeting was attended by representatives of ESCAP members and associate members
who were senior officials in governmental ministries and departments
responsible for youth matters.  In addition, a number of international,
regional, and national non-governmental youth organizations, intergovernmental
youth organizations and agencies and organizations of the United Nations
system attended the meeting.  It marked the first time since 1984 that such a
meeting was held by any of the five United Nations regional commissions for
leaders of youth-related governmental, non-governmental and intergovernmental
organizations regarding the implementation of a major General Assembly
resolution on youth.

81.  The Meeting adopted the Beijing Statement on Human Resources Development
for Youth as a contribution of Asia and the Pacific to the World Youth Forum
of the United Nations System.  It was also transmitted to the Forum as a
contribution from Asia and the Pacific to the evolution of a global vision of
the role of youth in development in the twenty-first century.  The Statement
was based on the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resources Development in the
ESCAP Region, which identified youth as a priority target group for human
resource development in terms of each of  three interdependent components
comprising this process:  (a) investment in human resources to enhance
productive capabilities; (b) utilization of those human resources to produce
increased output; and (c) consumption of the resulting outputs to improve the
quality of life.  The Beijing Statement was guided in particular by the World
Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond and the proposals
therein for integrated action to address more effectively the problems of
young people and to enhance their participation in development.

82.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) in cooperation with the Economic
Commission for Africa (ECA) held the Pan-African Conference on Youth and
Development from 18 to 22 March 1996 in Addis Ababa.  The participants
discussed and made a number of recommendations in the following areas:  the
youth situation in Africa; peace, participation and development; youth, health
and development; challenges for youth in the rural and urban sectors; youth
and environment; opportunities for the girl child; and youth and African
regional integration.  The meeting also decided on modalities for the
implementation of the recommendations, which include:  short- and long-term
measures at the national level, and short- and long-term policies and measures
at the regional and intercontinental levels.  It is important to note that the
Conference decided to convene a bi-annual Pan-African Conference on Youth and
Development to review and assess the progress achieved since the holding of
the first Conference.  Furthermore, youth organizations from 10 African
countries along with the scouts participated in the Conference.  They held
their own youth forum at the Conference and decided to convene a Congress of
the Pan-African Youth in Algeria in 1996 to revitalize the African youth
movement so that it can mobilize all the African youth to participate actively
in all processes aimed at addressing the political, social, cultural and
economic challenges facing the continent.  Towards that end, the Government of
Algeria has offered to host the conference.

83.  The European Community Action Programme for Cooperation in the Field of
Education (SOCRATES) was launched in 1995 and runs to the end of 1999. 
Spanning the 15 member States of the European Union, as well as Norway,
Iceland and Liechtenstein, it is the first European initiative covering
education at all ages and forms part of a broader approach to the concept of
lifelong learning. 


                                 C.  Global level

84.  The World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond calls
for the Commission for Social Development, in its capacity as the subsidiary
body of the Economic and Social Council responsible for global social
development issues, to play an important role as the focal point for the
implementation of the Programme of Action.  The Commission was called upon to
continue the policy-level dialogue on youth for policy coordination and for
periodic monitoring of issues and trends.  The General Assembly invited
current regional and interregional conferences of ministers responsible for
youth affairs in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean and
Western Asia to intensify cooperation among each other and to consider meeting
regularly at the international level under the aegis of the United Nations. 
The Assembly indicated that such meetings could provide an effective forum for
a focused global dialogue on youth-related issues.

85.  Youth-related bodies and organizations of the United Nations system were
invited to cooperate with the above-mentioned conferences.  In this
connection, the existing ad hoc inter-agency working group on youth was
requested to meet annually and to invite all concerned bodies and agencies of
the United Nations system and related intergovernmental organizations to
discuss ways and means by which they could promote the implementation of the
Programme of Action on a coordinated basis.  The Programme also indicated that
effective channels of communication between non-governmental youth
organizations and the United Nations system were essential for dialogue and
consultation on the situation of youth and implications for the implementation
of the Programme of Action.  It recalled that the General Assembly had
repeatedly stressed the importance of channels of communication in the field
of youth.  It recommended that the Youth Forum of the United Nations System
contribute to the implementation of the Programme of Action through the
identification and promotion of joint initiatives to further its objectives so
that they better reflect the interests of youth.

86.  Pursuant to General Assembly resolutions 44/59 of 8 December 1989 and
50/81, the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of
the Secretariat, in partnership with the Austrian Federal Youth Council,
convened the World Youth Forum of the United Nations System, bringing together
approximately 400 representatives of non-governmental youth organizations,
youth-related agencies and organizations of the United Nations system, and
other intergovernmental organizations representing regional conferences of
ministers responsible for youth affairs.  Participants came from over 150
countries.  The main objective of the Forum was to promote the implementation
of the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond by
reflecting in particular the views of youth and the initiation of joint youth
projects in this regard.  The outcome consisted of a report and networking
arrangements based on the recommendations adopted by the Forum for joint
action regarding youth policy, youth communication, youth training and youth
projects proposed by the Forum's 12 working groups based on the priority
issues of the World Programme of Action for Youth.

87.  A unique system of co-management was agreed upon bringing together
representatives of non-governmental youth organizations and youth-related
organizations and agencies of the United Nations system both to co-chair
12 working groups and to form a bureau to provide the overall direction of the
representation of non-governmental youth organizations and youth-related
organizations and agencies of the United Nations system.

88.  A brief summary of the recommendations adopted by the World Youth Forum
follows:

                                  Recommendations

Working Group 1.  Youth, education and leisure-time activities

     The Forum affirmed education to be a "universal right".  Delegates
recommended the development of a multicultural curriculum to be used worldwide
in both formal and informal education.  Among other suggestions, their
projects included training schemes, a "United Nations cafe'" and a tool kit
training programme to promote self-employment.

     Declaring its intention to build on the momentum of the convergence in
1995 of the tenth anniversary of the International Youth Year (1985), the
fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations and the adoption by the General
Assembly of the Action Programme for Youth, the Forum stressed that education
and leisure required new methods of organization, financing and
conceptualization to respond to the emerging challenges of the twenty-first
century.

Working Group 2.  Youth and employment

     The Forum emphasized the seriousness of the employment problems
confronting the world's youth.  Participants called for United Nations funding
for youth groups involved in specific programmes designed to promote youth
employment and self-employment.  They believe Governments should collaborate
with youth to design programmes and that training should always take into
consideration the requirements of the labour market.

Working Group 3.  Youth, health and population

     Affirming the need to invest in young people's health in order to ensure
a transfer of health to future generations, the Forum called on the media and
entertainment industry to promote positive role models and images that support
rather than undermine health and development.

     Younger health personnel should be included in policy-making, delegates
said, also citing a need for refresher courses on youth concerns and exchanges
programmes for youth involved in health- and population-related issues.  One
member of the working group on health and population said that anonymous
screening for AIDS could break down people's reluctance to be tested,
particularly in certain cultures.

Working Group 4.  Youth, hunger and poverty

     The Forum analysed the causes of global poverty.  Unequal distribution of
resources contributed to unemployment and underemployment, and a lack of
international strategy and deficiencies in education and environmental
protection exacerbated those problems.  Participants said only an integrated
global effort could solve those problems and called for efforts to identify
and share available resources.  The Forum made specific recommendations for
both governmental and United Nations system actions to enhance the
participation of youth in projects dealing with the eradication of hunger and
poverty.

Working Group 5.  Youth, environment and sustainable development

     The Forum called for channels of communication in order to echo youth
concerns on the environment and sustainable development.  They called for a
"Youth Project Contract" that would empower young people to forge partnerships
with United Nations entities, organizations, governmental institutions, local
authorities, non-governmental organizations and scientific institutions.

Working Group 6.  Youth and human settlements

     The Forum proposed that the recommendations of the second United Nations
Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) in the areas of shelter and urban
planning be given higher priority on the agendas of all United Nations
programmes, including the World Programme of Action for Youth.  Delegates
discussed the possibility of establishing training programmes on human
settlements to promote common understanding between professionals and youth
groups.  They urged the establishment of a newsletter to disseminate Youth
Habitat news and information.

Working Group 7.  Youth and drug abuse

     Prevention was the main focus of the Forum's recommendations on drug
abuse, which proposed the development of "youth-friendly" methods to
communicate anti-drug-abuse messages to young people at risk.  Among its
recommendations, the Forum called on the United Nations to invest in the
future by supporting a range of youth projects on drug prevention around the
world; to encourage training in drug prevention for youth leaders; to support
workshops for teachers and youth groups to develop training manuals and
information kits on drug prevention and to support non-judgemental youth
programmes aimed at enabling young people to make informed choices in relation
to substances.

Working Group 8.  Juvenile delinquency and justice

     The Forum asked that juvenile offenders be viewed as current and possibly
future victims.  Delegates stressed that hopelessness, desperation and adverse
economic circumstances should be seen as contributing to juvenile criminality
and called for training seminars for juvenile justice professionals, parents
and other concerned adults.

     They declared that imprisonment is "not an adequate solution" to ensure
that youthful offenders are reintegrated into society and urged that
non-governmental organizations be given access to young prisoners.

Working Group 9.  Youth, tolerance, racism and xenophobia

     The Forum called for the promotion of increased knowledge in order to
counter intolerance.  Stressing the equal value of each individual,
participants called for a "tolerance network" database to help fight racism
and xenophobia and for special efforts to break down ethnic and racial
stereotypes.  Youth was a resource that could be used to eliminate racism and
prejudice in the world.

     Delegates asked that the issue of intolerance be identified as an
additional priority area to those already included in the World Programme of
Action for Youth, and that young people put pressure on Governments to
implement existing human rights instruments having a bearing on tolerance.

Working Group 10.  Girls and young women

     The Forum noted that its working group on girls and young women, that
began with the participation of 29 women and one man, was paradoxically the
only group at the Forum that did not reflect the organizers' expressed
intention to achieve gender balance throughout the proceedings.  It called for
better dissemination of information to all women concerning international
issues that affect women and girls, including "disaffected groups".  Delegates
wanted to see wider circulation of key international documents on women's
rights, including various United Nations conventions.  Women, they said,
should be empowered to communicate at all levels as equal partners.

Working Group 11.  Youth participation and youth rights

     In addition to its call for youth representation in national delegations
to the General Assembly and related conferences, the Forum proposed the
creation of a United Nations "Youth Rights Charter" and the appointment by the
Assembly of a special rapporteur to monitor youth rights for no less than
three years.  It recommended that young people should have the right to travel
freely, including representatives of youth organizations.

     Governments, the group recommended, should include human rights education
in school curricula.  Another proposal was the establishment of training
courses for trainers in the field of human rights and for the development of
relevant training materials to enhance youth participation and rights.

Working Group 12.  Youth and communications

     On the premise that information is power, the Forum said global
communications among young people meant giving them a chance to empower
themselves.  To realize the vision of this worldwide dialogue, unhindered
access to information for every young person must be ensured.

     Noting that decentralized information reached the greatest possible
number of young people, the group suggested a number a research projects aimed
at identifying special channels of communication favoured by youth.  Another
suggestion was the establishment of an information centre for conflict areas.

     New technologies, such as the Internet, should be improved so that young
people could establish a real exchange on their situations and needs, leading
to the setting up of a "world youth network".  Particular emphasis was placed
on the need to incorporate mass media education in school curricula in order
to provide young people with criteria for understanding the working pitfalls
of media.


                            Other international events

89.  Another international event to promote the implementation of the World
Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond, the Global
Indigenous and Youth Cultural Olympics, was held at Manila from 24 February to
3 March 1996, with the theme "Partnership in action with youth for peace and
sustainable development".  During the meeting, the Assistant Secretary-General
for Human Rights, Mr. Ibrahima Fall, launched the Programme on a global basis
on behalf of the Secretary-General.  In section II of the Manila Declaration
adopted by that meeting (see A/51/293, annex), youth were affirmed the right
to play an active part in all aspects of the social, economic, political,
educational, cultural, spiritual and moral life as partners in the development
of society.  This section entitled "Youth" contained  five parts:  (a)
education and health; (b) human rights and responsibilities; (c)
participation; (d) peace and sustainable development; and (e) the arts, the
media, and sports.  The meeting indicated that all young people had the right
to basic and relevant education and to health services in their own interest
and that of society as a whole. It noted that indigenous youth as well as
other disadvantaged and vulnerable youth should be protected and encouraged to
participate in the life of society.   In addition, the meeting encouraged
Governments to implement youth entrepreneurship programmes.


        III.  REVIEW AND APPRAISAL:  PROBLEMS ADDRESSED AND RECOMMENDATIONS

                              A.  Problems addressed
                                         
                                1.  National level

90.  At the national level, the present report has revealed at least six major
obstacles to effective governmental action to implement this Programme of
Action:  (a) inadequate political will to treat both the problems and
potentials of youth on an inter-sectoral basis; (b) lack of an integrated
national youth policy drawing the various youth-related policies of the
sectoral ministries and departments of the national Government and its
provincial and local agencies; (c) insufficient training opportunities for
personnel from the youth-related ministries and departments of the Government
to effectively deal with youth needs and aspirations; (d) low budgetary
support for the delivery of such youth policies to the target constituencies
on a coordinated basis and involving the sharing of resources of youth-related
departments; (e) problems of defining youth and its subgroups and their varied
needs (adolescents aged 15-18, youth 19-24) and not confusing policies and
programmes of children with those for and with youth; and (f) lack of
systematic national reviews of the situation of youth (jointly by governmental
and non-governmental organizations most concerned and with participation of
the private sector, which has a social and economic interest in such surveys).


                                2.  Regional level

91.  At the regional level, there has been an uneven reaction by the regional
commissions to General Assembly resolutions 49/154 and 50/81, which called on
them to take action to both review and appraise the regional situations of
youth and to design regional youth programmes of action to prepare for and
follow up on the World Programme of Action in each region.  A review of
regional intergovernmental action on youth since 1985 has revealed that all of
the major regional meetings of ministers responsible for youth have been
convened by other regional intergovernmental organizations and not by the
United Nations regional commissions.  Only ESCAP has taken regional action to
promote the World Programme of Action for Youth.  The existing regional
meetings of ministers responsible for youth do not, in fact, include all of
the respective Member States in their meetings.  The Latin American meetings
do not include Member States from the Caribbean; the African meetings are
often split between the Francophone and Anglophone States; and the Asian
meetings are restricted to the subregions of the Association of South-East
Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation
(SAARC) and do not include East Asia or the Pacific, while the West Asian
meetings have not been held so frequently.  With the exception of ESCAP, the
activities of the regional commissions, regional offices of the youth-related
organizations and agencies of the United Nations system and related regional
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations have not been
sufficiently coordinated especially to promote the Programme of Action in each
region.


                                 3.  Global level

92.  Finally, at the global level, in the 50-year history of the United
Nations, there has never been a regular series of meetings under the aegis of
the Organization to bring together the senior officials of governmental
ministries and departments responsible for youth matters to provide a global
focus on youth policies and programmes.

93.  As of 1996, approximately 166 of the total of 185 Member States have
youth-related departments and ministries.  If there has been a lack of such a
global platform at the governmental level, there has also been a lack of an
effective global platform at the non-governmental and intergovernmental
levels.  Without the direct involvement of such constituencies most concerned,
the World Programme of Action for Youth will remain on the shelf.  Moreover,
the youth-related operational activities of the United Nations have not been
directly related to the global standards adopted on youth by the General
Assembly and the global discussions have not been related to such operational
projects.


                                B.  Recommendations
                                         
                                1.  National level 

94.  At the national level, the United Nations Youth Fund, as well as other
youth-related funds in the United Nations system, could support national
review meetings, especially in the least developed countries and at least in
all regions of the South. Such meetings could bring together representatives
of:  (a) the youth-related ministries and departments of the national
Governments (especially those concerned with education, health, employment and
youth participation); (b) youth-related organizations and agencies of the
United Nations system; (c) national non-governmental youth organizations; and
(d) concerned private sector companies and industries.  The discussions could
focus on the national situation of youth and on the national policies and
programmes of the participants regarding this situation of youth.  The World
Programme of Action for Youth could be reviewed and referred to in these
discussions to better link national and global policies in this field and to
design more appropriate programmes.  The youth-related organizations and
agencies of the United Nations system are invited to consider, support and
follow up national youth programmes of action adopted by such meetings.


                                2.  Regional level

95.  At the regional level, the regional commissions are invited to act on the
requests of the General Assembly to become more involved in both
intergovernmental and non-governmental review meetings in this field and in
each region, and likewise to support and follow up the regional youth
programmes of action adopted by such meetings.  The World Programme of Action
for Youth calls upon regional non-governmental youth organizations, regional
offices of bodies and organizations of the United Nations system and regional
intergovernmental organizations concerned with youth to consider meeting on a
biennial basis to review and discuss issues and trends and to identify
proposals for regional and subregional cooperation.  The regional commissions
are invited to play an essential role through the provision of a suitable
venue and appropriate input regarding regional action.


                                 3.  Global level

96.  The recommendations of the World Programme of Action for Youth to the
Year 2000 and Beyond include the role of the Commission for Social Development
in continuing its policy-level dialogue on youth for policy coordination and
periodic monitoring of issues and trends; regular meetings at the
international level, under the aegis of the United Nations, of ministers
responsible for youth affairs, building on the current regional and
interregional conferences of ministers responsible for youth affairs in
Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean and Western Asia; annual
meetings of the existing ad hoc inter-agency group on youth in which all the
bodies and agencies of the United Nations system concerned and related
intergovernmental organizations can participate to discuss ways and means by
which they can further and promote the implementation of the Programme of
Action on a coordinated basis; meetings of the Youth Forum of the United
Nations System to contribute to the implementation of the Programme of Action
through the identification and promotion of joint initiatives to further its
objectives so that they better reflect the interests of youth; and the role of
the United Nations Youth Fund to support the implementation of the Programme
of Action through pilot action to encourage the participation of youth in
devising and carrying out operational projects.

97.  By adopting the Programme of Action, the General Assembly has agreed to
those recommendations.  The time has now come to implement these global
recommendations and to report to the Assembly through the Commission on
progress achieved and obstacles encountered.


                                       ANNEX

           Status of implementation of the World Programme of Action for
             Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond as at December 1996 a/


Afghanistan b/, c/
Albania b/, c/
Algeria b/, c/
Andorra b/, c/
Angola b/, c/
Antigua and Barbuda b/, c/
Argentina b/, c/
Armenia c/
Australia b/, c/, d/
Austria b/, c/, d/
Azerbaijan c/
Bahamas b/, d/
Bahrain b/, c/
Bangladesh b/, c/, d/
Barbados b/, c/, d/
Belarus b/, c/
Belgium b/, c/, d/
Belize b/, c/
Benin b/, c/
Bhutan c/
Bolivia b/, c/, d/
Bosnia and Herzegovina e/
Botswana b/, c/, d/
Brazil c/
Brunei Darussalam b/, c/
Bulgaria b/, c/
Burkina Faso b/, c/, d/
Burundi b/, c/
Cambodia e/
Cameroon b/, c/
Canada b/, c/, d/
Cape Verde c/
Central African Republic b/, c/
Chad b/, c/
Chile b/, c/, d/
China b/, c/, d/
Colombia b/, c/
Comoros b/, c/
Congo b/, c/
Costa Rica b/, c/, d/
Co^te d'Ivoire b/, c/
Croatia b/, c/
Cuba b/, c/, d/
Cyprus b/, c/, d/
Czech Republic b/, c/
Democratic People's Republic of Korea b/, c/, d/
Denmark b/, c/,d
Djibouti b/, c/
Dominica c/
Dominican Republic e/
Ecuador b/, c/
Egypt b/, c/, d/
El Salvador c/
Equatorial Guinea e/
Eritrea e/
Estonia c/
Ethiopia b/, c/
Fiji b/, c/
Finland b/, c/, d/
France b/, c/, d/
Gabon b/, c/
Gambia b/, c/
Georgia c/
Germany b/, c/, d/
Ghana b/, c/, d/
Greece b/, c/, d/
Grenada c/
Guatemala b/, c/
Guinea b/, c/
Guinea-Bissau c/
Guyana b/, c/
Haiti b/, c/
Honduras b/, c/
Hungary b/, c/, d/
Iceland b/, c/, d/
India b/, c/, d/
Indonesia b/, c/, d/
Iran (Islamic Republic of) b/, c/, d/
Iraq c/
Ireland b/, c/, d/
Israel b/, c/, d/
Italy d/
Jamaica b/, c/, d/
Japan b/, c/, d/
Jordan b/, c/
Kazakstan e/
Kenya b/, c/
Kuwait c/
Kyrgyzstan e/
Lao People's Democratic Republic d/
Latvia c/
Lebanon b/, c/
Lesotho b/, c/
Liberia b/, c/
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya c/
Liechtenstein b/, c/, d/
Lithuania c/
Luxembourg b/, c/, d/
Madagascar b/, c/
Malawi b/, c/, d/
Malaysia b/, c/, d/
Maldives b/, c/
Mali b/, c/, d/
Malta b/, c/, d/
Marshall Islands b/, c/, d/
Mauritania b/, c/
Mauritius b/, c/
Mexico a/, c/
Micronesia (Federated States of) b/, c/, d/
Monaco b/, c/, d/
Mongolia c/
Morocco b/, c/
Mozambique b/, c/, d/
Myanmar e/
Namibia b/, c/
Nepal b/, c/
Netherlands b/, c/, d/
New Zealand b/, c/, d/
Nicaragua b/, c/, d/
Niger c/
Nigeria b/, c/, d/
Norway b/, c/, d/
Oman b/, c/
Pakistan b/, c/
Palau e/
Panama b/, c/
Papua New Guinea b/, c/, d/
Paraguay b/, c/
Peru b/, c/, d/
Philippines b/, c/, d/
Poland b/, c/, d/
Portugal b/, c/, d/
Qatar e/
Republic of Korea b/, c/, d/
Republic of Moldova b/, c/
Romania b/, c/, d/
Russian Federation b/, c/, d/
Rwanda b/, c/
Saint Kitts and Nevis b/, c/
Saint Lucia b/, c/
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines b/, c/
Samoa b/, c/
San Marino c/
Sao Tome and Principe c/
Saudi Arabia b/, c/
Senegal b/, c/
Seychelles b/, c/
Sierra Leone b/, c/
Singapore b/, c/
Slovakia b/, c/
Slovenia b/, c/
Solomon Islands b/, c/
Somalia e/
South Africa b/, c/, d/
Spain b/, c/, d/
Sri Lanka b/, c/, d/
Sudan b/, c/
Suriname b/, c/, d/
Swaziland b/, c/
Sweden b/, c/, d/ 
Syrian Arab Republic b/, c/, d/
Tajikistan e/
Thailand b/, c/
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia e/
Togo b/, c/
Trinidad and Tobago b/, c/, d/
Tunisia b/, c/
Turkey b/, c/
Turkmenistan e/
Uganda b/, c/
Ukraine b/, c/
United Arab Emirates b/, c/, d/
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland b/, c/, d/
United Republic of Tanzania b/, c/, d/
United States of America d/
Uruguay b/, c/
Uzbekistan e/
Vanuatu b/, c/
Venezuela b/, c/, d/
Viet Nam b/, c/, d/
Yemen b/, c/
Yugoslavia b/, c/
Zaire b/, c/
Zambia b/, c/
Zimbabwe b/, c/, d/


---------------
a/  The data in the present annex have been drawn from the database on youth
of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the
Secretariat, as well as from replies from Member States to a questionnaire
sent by the Secretariat in 1996.

b/  Formulation of a national youth policy (cross-sectoral).

c/  Designation of a national youth coordinating mechanism (ministry,
department, council, committee, etc.).

d/  Implementation of a national youth programme of action (operational,
voluntary service).

e/  No data received on national youth policies, coordinating mechanisms or
programmes of action. 

                                       ----- 


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Date last posted: 10 January 2000 10:05:30
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