United Nations

A/51/506


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

16 October 1996

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


                                                        A/51/506
                                                              

General Assembly
Fifty-first session
Agenda item 110 (b)


           HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS:  HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS, INCLUDING
           ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES FOR IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVE ENJOYMENT
                   OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS

                         Note by the Secretary-General


     The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the General
Assembly the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
Rights on the implementation of the Plan of Action for the United
Nations Decade for Human Rights Education, pursuant to General
Assembly resolution 50/177 of 22 December 1995.


                                     ANNEX

        Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on
        the implementation of the Plan of Action for the United Nations
                       Decade for Human Rights Education


                                   CONTENTS

                                                              Paragraphs Page

 I.   BACKGROUND ...........................................     1 - 12   4

      A. Proclamation of the Decade and Plan of Action ....      1 - 3    4

      B. Fiftieth session of the General Assembly .........      4 - 8    4

      C. Fifty-second session of the Commission on Human
         Rights ...........................................      9 - 12   5

II.   IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN OF ACTION FOR THE UNITED
      NATIONS DECADE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION ............    13 - 63   6

      A. Introduction .....................................     13 - 15   6

      B. Component one:  Assessing needs and formulating
         strategies for human rights education ............     16 - 18   6

      C. Components two and three:  Strengthening 
         international/regional programmes and capacities
         for human rights education .......................     19 - 34   7

         1.   Mobilization of widespread support for the
              Decade .......................................    19 - 22   7

         2.   Coordination with international/regional
              partners .....................................    23 - 31   7

         3.   Costa Rica Consultation on Pedagogical
              Foundations of Human Rights Education ........    32 - 34   9

      D. Components four and five:  Strengthening national/
         local programmes and capacities for human rights
         education ........................................     35 - 49  10

         1.   Activities undertaken by States ..............    35 - 44  10

         2.   Practical assistance provided by the High
              Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights .........    45 - 49  17

      E. Component six:  Coordinated development of 
         materials for human rights education .............     50 - 54  18

      F. Component seven:  Strengthening the role of the
         mass media .......................................     55 - 57  19

      G. Component eight:  Global dissemination of the
         Universal Declaration of Human Rights ............     58 - 61  19

Appendix.  Language versions of the Universal Declaration of
          Human Rights currently available at the Centre
          for Human Rights at Geneva ................................    21


                                I.  BACKGROUND


               A.  Proclamation of the Decade and Plan of Action

1.   At its forty-ninth session, in resolution 49/184 of 23 December
1994, the General Assembly proclaimed the 10-year period beginning on
1 January 1995 the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education
(1995-2004).  It welcomed the Plan of Action for the Decade submitted
by the Secretary-General in the addendum to his report to the General
Assembly (A/49/261/Add.1-E/1994/110/Add.1).  It also requested the
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, with the assistance
of the Centre for Human Rights and in cooperation with the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to
coordinate the implementation of the Plan of Action.

2.   The Plan of Action has five objectives:  the assessment of needs
and formulation of strategies; building and strengthening human rights
education programmes at the international, regional, national and
local levels; developing and coordinating the development of human
rights education materials; strengthening the role of the mass media;
and promoting the global dissemination of the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights.  The Plan focuses on stimulating and supporting national
and local activities and initiatives and is built upon the idea of a
partnership between Governments, international organizations,
non-governmental organizations, professional associations, individuals
and wide sectors of civil society.

3.   In 1996, the Plan of Action has been supplemented with the
comments made by Governments as requested by the General Assembly and
the Commission on Human Rights.  The final version will be issued in
an addendum to the present report. 


                 B.  Fiftieth session of the General Assembly

4.   At its fiftieth session, the General Assembly adopted resolution
50/177 of 22 December 1995, in which it recalled its resolution 49/184
and took note with appreciation of the report presented to the General
Assembly by the High Commissioner on the implementation of the Plan of
Action for the Decade (A/50/698, annex). 

5.   The General Assembly appealed to all Governments to contribute to
the implementation of the Plan of Action, and in particular to
establish, in accordance with national conditions, a national focal
point (national committee) and a resource and training centre for
human rights education, or where such a centre already existed, to
work towards its strengthening, and to develop and implement an
action-oriented national plan for human rights education. 

6.   The General Assembly requested the High Commissioner to coordinate
the implementation of the Plan of Action and to carry out the tasks
enumerated therein; furthermore, it requested the Centre for Human
Rights, in cooperation with existing monitoring bodies, United Nations
specialized agencies and programmes (in particular the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United
Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the International Labour
Organization (ILO)) and other competent intergovernmental
organizations to contribute, within their respective spheres of
competence, to the implementation of the Plan of Action and to
cooperate with the High Commissioner in this task.  

7.   Furthermore, the General Assembly called upon non-governmental
organizations, as well as all other social justice groups, human
rights advocates, educators, religious organizations and the media, to
increase their involvement in formal and non-formal education in human
rights and to cooperate with the High Commissioner and with the Centre
for Human Rights in implementing the Plan of Action for the Decade.

8.   Finally, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to
consider the possibility of establishing a voluntary fund for human
rights education, with special provision for the support of the human
rights education activities of non-governmental organizations, to be
administered by the Centre for Human Rights. 


          C.  Fifty-second session of the Commission on Human Rights

9.   At its fifty-second session, in resolution 1996/44 of 19 April
1996, the Commission on Human Rights took note with appreciation of
the report presented to the Commission by the High Commissioner on the
implementation of the Plan of Action for the Decade (E/CN.4/1996/51). 
It requested the High Commissioner to accelerate, within existing
resources, the implementation of the Plan of Action and, in
particular, to encourage and facilitate the establishment of national
plans of action, focal points (national committees) and centres for
human rights education in Member States, in accordance with national
conditions.      

10.  The Commission invited all Governments to consider the
establishment of national focal points (national committees) for human
rights education and the development of national plans of action for
human rights education, as envisaged in the Plan of Action, including
the building and strengthening of programmes and capacities for formal
and informal human rights education and cooperation with
non-governmental organizations and the private sector in pursuing the
objectives of the Plan of Action. 

11.  Furthermore, the Commission requested the human rights monitoring
bodies to place emphasis on the implementation by Member States of
their international obligation to promote human rights education;
invited all relevant specialized agencies, in particular UNESCO and
ILO, and United Nations programmes, especially UNICEF, and other
intergovernmental organizations to enhance their contribution to the
implementation of the Plan of Action; and called upon international,
regional and national non-governmental organizations, as well as other
social justice groups, human rights advocates, educators, religious
and community organizations and the media, to increase their
involvement in formal and non-formal education in human rights and to
cooperate with the High Commissioner and the Centre for Human Rights
in implementing the Plan of Action.
         
12.  Finally, the Commission invited the High Commissioner to seek the
views of States on ways and means to increase support to the Decade,
with special emphasis on activities of non-governmental organizations
in the field of human rights education, and on the advisability of
establishing a voluntary fund for this purpose, and to report on that
issue to the Commission at its fifty-third session.


        II.  IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN OF ACTION FOR THE UNITED NATIONS
             DECADE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION

                               A.  Introduction

13.  The High Commissioner has reported on the implementation of the
Plan of Action for the Decade to the General Assembly (A/50/698) and
to the Commission on Human Rights (E/CN.4/1996/51).  When necessary,
the present report will make direct reference to those documents, in
order to avoid repetition.  

14.  To be able to carry out the activities foreseen in the Plan of
Action, the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights has developed a
two-year technical cooperation project funded against contributions
made by Governments to the Voluntary Fund for Technical Cooperation in
the Field of Human Rights.  This project has as its main objective the
enhancement of national capacities for human rights education, and
specific activities being undertaken under this project are
illustrated below.

15.  The present report follows the structure of the Plan of Action,
illustrating the status of its implementation by its eight components.


         B.  Component one:  Assessing needs and formulating strategies
             for human rights education

16.  The High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights is carrying out the
two surveys envisaged in the Plan of Action, i.e., on existing
programmes and materials for human rights education at the
international, regional and national level and on the existing
versions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

17.  Targeted questionnaires for Governments, international and
national governmental and non-governmental organizations are now being
prepared, and will be broadly disseminated in the coming months.  The
information gathered will be subsequently processed and made available
to all interested partners of the Decade through a comprehensive
report and a database.

18.  In the meantime, the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights has
already undertaken two preliminary surveys, i.e., on existing
materials for human rights education (see component six) and on
existing versions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (see
component eight).  UNESCO has also contributed to this effort through
the promotion of preliminary surveys on programmes in some selected
countries (for the contribution of UNESCO, see component two).     

       C.  Components two and three:  Strengthening international/regional
           programmes and capacities for human rights education
        
             1.  Mobilization of widespread support for the Decade
 
19.  Information on specific activities carried out by the High
Commissioner/
Centre for Human Rights in order to seek support for the Decade, in
particular to generate support for the Decade at the highest levels of
government, has already been provided in the two previous reports of
the High Commissioner on the implementation of the Plan of Action
(A/50/698 and E/CN.4/1996/51).

20.  In addition, the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights has
been disseminating information on the Decade by answering related
inquiries, on a daily basis, by interested representatives of
Governments, non-governmental organizations, academics, students and
other interested individuals and organizations.  Also, the High
Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights organized an information briefing
on the Decade during the 1996 session of the Commission on Human
Rights, open to all interested organizations and individuals; on that
occasion, future initiatives were discussed with the participants and
educational materials were made available.

21.  Moreover, the High Commissioner took an active part in several
activities undertaken at the international level under the auspices of
the Decade.  Those initiatives included:  the Geneva Training Course
in International Human Rights Law and Diplomacy organized by the
International Service for Human Rights (March-April 1996); the
fourteenth international training session on human rights and peace
training, organized by the International Training Centre on Human
Rights and Peace Training (Geneva, July 1996); the diplomacy training
programme organized by the University of New South Wales (Sydney,
August 1996); the symposium "Education for a culture of peace"
organized by the International Institute on Peace Education (Tokyo,
August 1996); and the workshop "Human rights and civic education"
organized by the Open Society Institute (Budapest, September 1996). 
Also, in August the High Commissioner cooperated in the production of
teaching and training video materials to promote the Decade in Japan,
as well as in the Asia-Pacific region, upon the initiative of the
Asia-Pacific Human Rights Information Centre.

22.  Other general activities for the enhancement of human rights
education undertaken by the High Commissioner are included in his
report to the General Assembly (A/51/36).


             2.  Coordination with international/regional partners

United Nations system

23.  The High Commissioner has been placing particular emphasis on the
coordination of activities with UNESCO, given its experience and
ongoing activities in the field of human rights education.  After the
signing of a memorandum of understanding between the High Commissioner
and the Director-General of UNESCO (October 1995), regular
consultations and cooperation between the two institutions have taken
place.  Accordingly, in January 1996, a representative of the High
Commissioner participated in the annual meeting of directors of human
rights institutes held in Paris, at UNESCO headquarters, which focused
on the Decade; in February, a delegation from UNESCO met in Geneva
with the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights to discuss in
detail, inter alia, joint activities in the framework of the Decade. 
In March, a representative of the High Commissioner participated in
the second annual meeting of the UNESCO Advisory Committee on
Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy.  In July, a
delegation from the Centre for Human Rights met in Paris with UNESCO
officers to discuss joint projects between the High
Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights and UNESCO in the field of human
rights education. 

24.  As a contribution to the Decade, UNESCO has also been enhancing
its activities for the promotion of education for peace, human rights,
democracy, international understanding and tolerance.  More detailed
information on these educational activities, undertaken in the
framework of the UNESCO transdisciplinary project "Towards a culture
of peace", is given in its report prepared in response to General
Assembly resolution 50/173 of 22 December 1995 (A/51/395).
      
25.  A joint project has been developed between the High
Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights and the Department of Public
Information of the United Nations Secretariat concerning the global
dissemination of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (see
component eight).

26.  Also, in his previous report to the General Assembly (A/50/698),
the High Commissioner has already reported on the contribution to the
implementation of the Decade undertaken by the United Nations
Secretariat, the human rights treaty bodies and the following United
Nations bodies and specialized agencies:  World Bank, United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP), UNICEF, United Nations Institute for
Training and Research (UNITAR) and United Nations Research Institute
for Social Development (UNRISD).  In his report to the Commission on
Human Rights (E/CN.4/1996/51), the High Commissioner has listed the
contribution of other partners:  Office of the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), International Labour Office, United
Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Economic Commission for Europe
(ECE) and Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
(ECLAC).

27.  In addition, the United Nations Volunteers programme has expressed
interest in working with the High Commissioner in promoting human
rights.  The programme has already undertaken some interesting
projects in this regard in Rwanda, Guatemala, Cambodia, Haiti and
Georgia, where United Nations Volunteers have been working for the
promotion of human rights both at the grass-roots level and in the
area of the administration of justice.  Accordingly, the United
Nations Volunteers programme is actively exploring ways and means to
create innovative programming to assist in human rights promotion at
the grass-roots level.

Other international organizations

28.  As far as other international organizations are concerned, in his
report to the Commission on Human Rights (E/CN.4/1996/51), the High
Commissioner provided detailed information on the related activities
of the Council of Europe and International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC).  In addition, the Council of Europe has informed the High
Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights of the recent publication of the
second edition of the "Directory of Summer Schools and other
University Courses in Human Rights", a practical source of information
for students, human rights activists, governmental officials, lawyers,
judges and other professionals interested in short-term training
courses in the field of human rights.

29.  Another intergovernmental organization, the Commonwealth
Secretariat, has also informed the High Commissioner that it has
initiated a Commonwealth programme of human rights education to
contribute to the Decade.  In September 1995, the Commonwealth
Secretariat organized the Commonwealth Oxford Conference on Human
Rights Education, which adopted an agenda and framework for human
rights education activities throughout the Decade.  One of the
recommended activities within the Commonwealth agenda was the
convening of regional workshops in different Commonwealth countries to
review current activities and to develop and coordinate future
regional and national programmes.  Accordingly, the first regional
workshop, aiming at bringing together public officials responsible for
human rights training within government departments, representatives
from national institutions, non-governmental organizations and the
media from the Pacific region, was held in July 1996.

Non-governmental organizations

30.  The High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights has continued
actively to seek support and engaging in a dialogue within the
framework of the Decade with several international non-governmental
organizations, centres and associations that organize (often through
their networks of national chapters) international programmes for
human rights education addressed to specific targets or with a
regional or thematic focus.  In this framework, the participation of
the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights in the initiatives
mentioned in paragraphs 19 to 22 above is to be considered.

31.  Also, the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights has supported
the establishment of human rights education programmes by
non-governmental organizations through broad dissemination of the
materials published by the Centre for Human Rights (see component
six).
 

            3.  Costa Rica Consultation on Pedagogical Foundations of
                Human Rights Education

32.  The Plan of Action requests the Centre for Human Rights to promote
the organization of international workshops to identify concepts,
materials and methods for human rights education on priority human
rights themes (A/49/261/Add.1-E/1994/110/Add.1, annex, para. 48).  In
this context, the High Commissioner responded favourably to a request
from the Government of Costa Rica for financial assistance in the
organization of an international consultation on the relevance of
educational theories and practices to human rights education.

33.  This international consultation, organized by the Government of
Costa Rica and the People's Decade for Human Rights Education, and
supported by ILO, the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, UNDP and the High
Commissioner, was held at Heredia, Costa Rica, from 22 to 26 July
1996.  Educators, activists and scholars from various regions of the
world discussed pedagogical foundations of human rights education on
the basis of the assumption that "human rights education should
involve more than the provision of information and should constitute a
comprehensive life-long process by which people at all levels in
development and in all strata of society learn respect for the dignity
of others and the means and methods of ensuring that respect in all
societies" (General Assembly resolution 49/184).

34.  Accordingly, the participants discussed several challenges facing human
rights education in contemporary societies, and stressed, in particular, that
there was a need for the following:

     (a) To consider human rights education as a learning process through
which learners develop their awareness of, and capacity to act to further
human rights aspirations in response to interaction with learning
facilitators, who must also, in their personal behaviour and methods, respect
the dignity of learners with varying capacities;

     (b) To bear in mind that human rights education takes place in all
places ("learning environments") where people interact in a way in which there
is a potential for learning through exchange, sharing of ideas, reception of
information, contact and communication, and therefore not only in institutions
of formal education;

     (c) For human rights education not to be theoretical, but to be relevant
to people's experience and, therefore, rooted in the historical, social,
psychological, ethnic, gender, linguistic and other contexts of the learners;

     (d) To discuss not only about rights, but also about the remedies to
human rights violations as provided in the international and national legal
and political frameworks, and to critically analyse the obstacles to the full
realization of human rights as an integral part of human rights education;

     (e) To use culturally appropriate and economically viable expressions to
translate international instruments of human rights law into daily language
and realities.


           D.  Components four and five:  Strengthening national/local
               programmes and capacities for human rights education

                      1.  Activities undertaken by States

35.  This section will partially reiterate and supplement with new data the
information already provided in the report of the High Commissioner to the
Commission on Human Rights (E/CN.4/1996/51), in order to present a complete
overview of the status of the implementation of the Plan of Action by States,
at the national level.


General observations on the Decade

36.  In response to the efforts of the High Commissioner to generate support
for the Decade at the highest levels of Government, Heads of State and
governmental authorities from several countries (Algeria, Argentina, Brazil,
Cambodia, Canada, Chad, Chile, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Denmark, Ecuador,
Guyana, Holy See, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Liechtenstein, Malta,
Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Norway, Peru, Paraguay, Romania, South
Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine and Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia) have expressed support for the Decade, and have
provided information on steps already taken towards the implementation of the
Plan of Action in their respective countries.  Some countries have mentioned
difficulties encountered in the implementation of the Plan of Action, and
others have expressed the need for international assistance (Chad, Ecuador,
Jordan, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Sudan).  The authorities of other countries
(Croatia, Monaco, Malta, Sweden, Ukraine) requested the High
Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights to provide materials for human rights
education.

Establishment of national focal points and national centres for human rights
education

37.  In 1995, the Commission on Human Rights and the General Assembly both
appealed to all Governments to establish, according to national conditions, a
national focal point (national committee) for human rights education, and a
resource and training centre for human rights education.  This request was
reiterated by the Commission on Human Rights in 1996.  The High Commissioner
has asked all Governments to create these committees, and is discussing with
UNESCO a joint strategy to this end.

38.  As a matter of fact, the Plan of Action for the Decade envisages that
national focal points for human rights education would be designated in each
State.  Such focal points may consist of specially constituted committees
including representatives of relevant government agencies, non-governmental
organizations, the private sector and educators or, alternatively, existing
appropriate structures or organizations, such as ombudsman offices, national
human rights commissions, or national human rights training and research
institutes.

39.  It is suggested that the focal points' tasks should be to identify
national human rights education needs and to develop a national plan of action
for human rights education containing specific objectives, strategies and
programmes for the enhancement of human rights education at all levels,
including pre-schools, primary and secondary schools, higher education,
professional schools, training programmes for public officials and non-formal
learning, including general public information.  They should also be charged
with raising funds; channelling international and regional inputs, information
and support to the local and grass-roots levels in their respective countries
and coordinating with regional and international bodies involved in
implementing the objectives of the Decade; and reporting to the High
Commissioner on needs, proposals and progress made towards the realization of
the goals of the Decade.

40.  The focal points should work in close collaboration with a national
human rights resource and training centre capable of undertaking research,
training trainers, preparing, collecting, translating and disseminating human
rights materials and organizing conferences, workshops and courses.  States
have been encouraged to establish such national centres or, where such centres
already exist, to work towards their strengthening (see Plan of Action, paras.
60 and 61).

41.  As of end September 1996, the following national focal points (national
committees) and centres had been established:

     (a) Algeria:  National Observatory of Human Rights (focal point and
centre), which is composed of members of the public sector and of
associations;

     (b) Argentina:  National Direction for the Promotion of Human Rights
within the Office of the Under-Secretary of Social and Human Rights of the
Ministry of Interior (focal point and centre), which has already undertaken
relevant activities in all sectors of society (see para. 44 (e) (i) below);

     (c) Chad:  Ministry of National Education (focal point) and National
Commission of UNESCO (centre);

     (d) Croatia:  National Committee on Human Rights Education, which has
began, under the auspices of the Office of the Prime Minister, to develop a
national plan of action;

     (e) France:  National Committee, which will report shortly to the High
Commissioner on its activities;

     (f) Holy See:  National Committee composed of representatives of several
institutions (focal point);

     (g) Japan:  a headquarters for the promotion of the Decade, chaired by
the Prime Minister, was established in December 1995.  The headquarters has
the task of promoting a comprehensive policy to implement measures on human
rights education by assuring cooperation among the ministries and agencies
concerned, and is now drawing up a National Plan of Action.  The first meeting
was held in March, 1996.  Members of the headquarters include the Minister of
Justice, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Education and
administrative vice-ministers of about 20 governmental agencies;

     (h) Norway:  National Committee for Human Rights Education has been
established.  Its members come from government and a wide variety of private
organizations, and it is organized as a working group under the Advisory
Committee on Human Rights to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with the United
Nations Association of Norway acting as secretariat.  The activities of the
Committee are funded by the Norwegian Government;

     (i) Sudan:  National Committees for Human Rights Education at the States
level;

     (j) Tunisia:  National Commission for human rights education, composed
by representatives from the Ministries of Education, of Higher Education and
Scientific Research, of Youth and Childhood, of Women and Family, of Culture,
of Information, of Health, Justice, Interior and Foreign Affairs, from the
Higher Committee for Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and main relevant
non-governmental organizations and associations.  A Human Rights
Documentation, Publication, Research and Study Centre linked to the Higher
Committee for Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms has also been established.

42.  The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has underlined the importance of the
establishment of focal points at the national level and of providing them with
intellectual and material resources; other countries (Cyprus, Jordan, Mexico,
Paraguay, Romania, Sudan) have informed the High Commissioner of the imminent
establishment of such structures.  Cuba stated that the focal point should be
within the Government, since it is the Government that is responsible for the
formulation of national policies for human rights education.  Brazil stressed
that, since the country has a federal structure with states and municipalities
endowed with autonomy as far as the organization of the educational system is
concerned, it would not be appropriate to establish a single focal point at
the federal level to deal with school and university teaching.

43.  Several Governments (Brazil, Chad, Guyana, Jamaica, Italy, Norway, Peru,
Tunisia) pointed out the importance of collaboration between Governments and
the civil society in the implementation of the Plan of Action for the Decade. 
In this regard, Chad stressed the fact that since non-governmental
organizations and associations of civil society are important actors in the
area of human rights education and training, sometimes compensating for the
limited action of the authorities, a positive contribution by States to human
rights education could also be the elimination of obstacles to the creation of
such organizations and associations.

Activities undertaken within the framework of the Decade

44.  Several governmental authorities have informed the High Commissioner for
Human Rights of activities relevant to human rights education or undertaken
within the framework of the Decade.  A summary of this information is provided
below:

     (a) Primary and secondary schools.  Governments' endeavours in this area
are of two main types:  incorporation of human rights as a key element in
national legislation regulating education in schools; and production of
materials, revision of curricula and textbooks and training of teachers.  Such
activities include the following:

     (i) Chile has adopted fundamental objectives and minimum obligatory
         contents of basic Chilean education, which constitute the
         educational policy basis for the design of school curricula and
         which include human rights issues, to be introduced in the curricula
         of compulsory education by the end of the century;

    (ii) Turkey has included topics such as democracy and human rights in its
         educational system, incorporating them as key principles in the
         national Education Law, the Regulations on Primary and Secondary
         Schools and other related regulations;

   (iii) Romania has incorporated in its Education Law (art. 4), the
         fostering of respect for fundamental human rights and freedoms as
         one of the ultimate aims of education;

    (iv) The Social Sciences Unit of the Department of Education of Malta, in
         collaboration with national non-governmental organizations, has
         started a broad programme of human rights awareness in schools and
         has prepared training materials on the rights of the child, on
         tolerance and on human rights in general.  It has also promoted
         in-service courses for teachers on human rights, tolerance and
         peace;

     (v) The Ministry of Education of Mauritius has set up a curriculum panel
         team to revise materials to be used in schools for human values
         education, and is working in close cooperation with a national
         non-governmental organization dealing with teacher training in this
         regard;

    (vi) The Ministry of Human Rights and the Ministry of Education of
         Morocco have signed an agreement for the introduction of human
         rights education in schools and have presented to the High
         Commissioner a project including, inter alia, the production of
         human rights training and educational materials for teachers and
         students, and the training of teachers, authors of textbooks and
         curricula and other concerned school personnel in human rights
         standards;

   (vii) Jordan has informed the High Commissioner of a project for the
         introduction of human rights terms and concepts into school
         curricula, which includes the establishment of a committee of human
         rights experts (including representatives of the Ministry of
         Education and specialists in human rights), a workshop on human
         rights to be attended by drafters of curricula, a survey of existing
         textbooks to determine how human rights are presented, and the
         preparation of training materials and aids for school personnel and
         of reference sources for students;

  (viii) Peru noted that in 1995 the new secondary school curricula including
         human rights issues (courses in civic education and family
         education) was introduced;

    (ix) In Turkey, courses on civics and human rights and democracy and
         human rights are offered to secondary school students.  Courses and
         seminars on human rights for administrators and teachers were
         organized in 1995 and are foreseen for the future;

     (x) Chad is considering the integration of human rights into the school
         curricula;

    (xi) Paraguay has adopted a new educational reform providing for a new
         school curriculum which incorporates the subject "education for
         democracy", considered to be one of the main themes concerning
         respect for the dignity of the human being;

   (xii) Norway reported that the principles of human rights and information
         about the organization and activities of the United Nations are
         already included in the curriculum of Norwegian schools;

  (xiii) The Ministry of Education and Sport of Brazil is studying the
         introduction into the school curricula, starting with primary
         school, of human rights as part of the concepts and values which
         constitute the theme "Socialization and ethics".  Instead of
         creating a new discipline, this theme will be incorporated in the
         traditional disciplines in a transdisciplinary way, in order to
         favour the assimilation and practice of moral values on the part of
         the students. Also, a programme for the training of teachers, to
         provide them with instruments for contributing to the development of
         responsible future citizens, has been established;

   (xiv) Ecuador is supporting youth participation through the project "Nuevo
         Rumbo Cultural", addressed to school students and devoted to human
         rights and peace education;

    (xv) In Mexico, the Secretary of Public Education, together with the
         National Commission on Human Rights, is promoting human rights
         education in schools through the ongoing national programme of
         educational development and the programme on textbooks and human
         rights education;

   (xvi) Sri Lanka reported that human rights education is part of school and
         university curricula from primary to post-graduate levels;

     (b)  University teaching.  Peru pointed out that human rights constitutes
a subject of study in several law faculties of the country, and in one of
them, training materials and manuals on human rights are being elaborated to
be used by teachers in schools.  Turkey reported that human rights issues are
included in MA and PhD programmes;

     (c)  Justice personnel and armed forces.  Since 1992, Turkey has included
human rights in the curricula of the gendarmerie schools.  The number of
courses relating to human rights has been increased in police colleges and
academies, where the topic is a separate course in the curricula.  A number of
police officers participate in the exchange training programmes of the Council
of Europe.  In addition, prison and security personnel are trained in human
rights and the Government's commitments under international law.  Chad
informed the High Commissioner that the human rights training programmes for
the military and for administration of justice personnel contain disciplines
relating to human rights;

     (d)  General public.  Several activities aimed at increasing human rights
awareness among the general public have been undertaken.  For instance, the
President of Brazil has instituted a National Prize for Human Rights, to be
awarded by the President annually, on 10 December, to personalities and
organizations particularly active in the promotion of human rights.  Malta has
proposed to the competent authorities the production of a television campaign
on human rights;

     (e)  Comprehensive initiatives for human rights education at the national
level.  Four initiatives on human rights education, undertaken in Argentina,
Italy, Tunisia and Ukraine, are specifically noteworthy for their
comprehensiveness:

     (i) In 1995, Argentina designated a focal point for human rights
         education.  The focal point (see para. 41 (b) above), through a
         project of technical cooperation established with the Centre for
         Human Rights, has carried out, in collaboration with
         non-governmental organizations, a series of important activities. 
         These include:  training courses on human rights for teachers aimed
         at the establishment of a national network of teachers for human
         rights education; dissemination of human rights documents, such as
         the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, the Universal
         Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the
         Child; establishment of a publicly accessible National Documentation
         Centre; preparation and dissemination of a bibliography on human
         rights education, which has been distributed to all educational
         establishments, governmental and non-governmental agencies,
         libraries and international organizations; human rights training for
         police officials and trainers; workshops on human rights and the
         penitentiary system; human rights training for lawyers and other
         members of the legal profession; establishment of a series of
         agreements with provincial and national universities in order to
         carry out joint projects; production of a publication on human
         rights ("Facts and rights");

    (ii) In Italy, a joint effort of the National Academy of Scientists and
         the Italian Government has produced a survey of human rights
         education and information in Italy which contains information on
         human rights education in primary schools, secondary schools and
         higher education (collected through specific questionnaires), on
         existing programmes for human rights training for professional
         groups (police, prison personnel, magistrates and lawyers, teachers,
         health personnel), and on the existing information about human
         rights among the public in general, with an emphasis on the role of
         the media.  All the current activities of governmental and
         non-governmental agencies active in this area are reviewed, and
         detailed suggestions for improvement, addressed to the Italian
         Government, are made.  Annexed to the survey is a list of documents
         relating to human rights education translated into Italian
         (including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and several
         United Nations documents, including the Plan of Action for the
         Decade) and a list of the addresses of all institutes and
         governmental and non-governmental agencies dealing with human rights
         education, which can be contacted and can provide materials for
         developing further programmes.  The survey, whose publication is
         imminent, will be disseminated throughout the country, and in
         particular in all educational establishments;

   (iii) Tunisia has presented to the High Commissioner a report that
         includes information on all activities carried out throughout
         Tunisian society for the promotion of human rights.  Some
         initiatives were carried out prior to the proclamation of the
         Decade; however, it is noteworthy to underline the broad range of
         activities reported, which include: reform and strengthening of the
         programmes of civic education for primary and secondary schools;
         establishment of human rights chairs in law faculties and of a
         Department of Civic Education to assure the training of teachers and
         the coordination of human rights research; in-service training of
         teachers; integration of human rights in the curricula of the
         training of law enforcement agencies (police and prison officers),
         including the publication of a code of conduct for these agencies;
         sensitization of the general public through the media, and the
         publication and dissemination of human rights materials;
         organization of seminars and support to human rights research;
         annual celebration of 10 December through the awarding of an annual
         human rights prize, media events, school competitions and the
         organization of regional conferences on human rights issues;
         cooperation with international institutions and non-governmental
         organizations;

    (iv) In May 1995, the Government of Ukraine issued a decree regarding the
         programme of legal education of the population of Ukraine, which
         provides for a wide range of activities in the field of human rights
         education.  In pursuance of this resolution, educational programmes
         in the field of human rights targeted to different age groups are
         being developed throughout the country; priority is given to
         children.  Within this general framework, the Government has
         requested the Centre for Human Rights to provide a number of
         institutions (ministries, institutions of higher education and
         libraries) with human rights publications so that governmental
         officials, students, researchers and readers may have easy access to
         international instruments and information on human rights.


                  2.  Practical assistance provided by the High
                      Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights

45.  In paragraph 14 above, mention has been made of a two-year global
technical cooperation project developed by the Centre for Human Rights through
which the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights is carrying out the
activities envisaged in the Plan of Action aimed at supporting and enhancing
national capacities for human rights education through:

     (a)  The collection and dissemination of information on existing
programmes and initiatives at the international, regional and national level
(see component one);

     (b)  The development and dissemination of materials for human rights
education (see component six);

     (c)  The development and dissemination of methodologies for human rights
education;

     (d)  The development of strategies to involve the media in human rights
education (see component seven).

46.  The project has been carried out since May 1996.  The activities are
being illustrated in each section on the implementation of the relevant
component of the Plan of Action.

47.  As far as methodologies for human rights education are concerned, draft
guidelines are being prepared to assist Governments to develop national Plans
of Action for human rights education.  The draft guidelines will be revised
during an expert meeting which will be organized by the High
Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights before the end of 1996, and will be made
available to all Governments in the first months of 1997.

48.  Furthermore, in 1997, an expert meeting on methodologies for human rights
education for different target groups will be organized in cooperation with
UNESCO.

49.  Finally, the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights has intensified
its technical cooperation activities for the promotion of human rights;
details about these activities at the national, regional and global level are
outlined in the report of the Secretary-General to the Commission on Human
Rights (see E/CN.4/1996/90).


             E.  Component six:  Coordinated development of materials
                 for human rights education

50.  The High Commissioner/Centre for Human Settlements has enhanced the
production of human rights publications and materials and their dissemination
among governmental and non-governmental organizations.  Detailed information
on these materials and on other relevant activities undertaken by the
Department of Public Information of the United Nations Secretariat can be
found in the report of the Secretary-General on the development of public
information activities in the field of human rights, which will be presented
in a separate report to the General Assembly; this report will include a
complete list of publications issued by the Centre for Human Rights and
available as of September 1996.

51.  Also, through the above-mentioned technical cooperation project in
support to the Decade, the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights is
planning to produce, by the end of 1997, six training packages to support the
training activities addressed to professional groups undertaken by the Centre
for Human Rights and by the national focal points and centres for human rights
education. The training packages will incorporate the methodological approach
mentioned in paragraph 75 of the Plan of Action, and address the following
professional groups:  prison officers; primary and secondary schoolteachers;
legal professionals (judges and lawyers); national and local non-governmental
organizations; media; and human rights monitors.

52.  Also, three handbooks on human rights and constitutions, human rights and
parliament and human rights and conflict resolution, and a publication for
pre-primary/primary school audiences are part of the materials to be prepared
under the same project.

53.  As of September 1996, work has started on the development of six training
packages and on the handbook on human rights and conflict resolution, in close
cooperation with relevant specialized experts and organizations.

54.  Finally, the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights has actively
collected materials for human rights education, and its collection  now
includes hundreds of publications for human rights education and training
produced by different governmental and non-governmental sources in various
languages.  Access to this collection has been made available to human rights
educators who have visited the Centre for Human Rights, and in the future will
constitute part of the Documentation Centre to be established within the High
Commissioner/ Centre for Human Rights.


        F.  Component seven:  Strengthening the role of the mass media

55.  To increase the incorporation by the media of human rights information
and public education into their work, the Centre for Human Rights is producing
a training package for media professionals (see component six).

56.  Also, consultations have been undertaken between the High Commissioner/
Centre for Human Rights and the Department of Public Information of the United
Nations Secretariat on the establishment of a media advisory board, as part of
a broader media strategy of the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights. 
More information on the work done in this regard can be found in the report of
the High Commissioner to the General Assembly (A/51/36).

57.  Also, the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights and the Department of
Public Information have increased their public information activities in the
field of human rights, which are detailed in the forthcoming report of the
Secretary-General on the development of public information activities in the
field of human rights.


                 G.  Component eight:  Global dissemination of the
                     Universal Declaration of Human Rights

58.  Since December 1995, a broad survey on existing versions of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights has been conducted by the High Commissioner/Centre
for Human Rights and the Department of Public Information and its information
centres and services throughout the world, in cooperation with
non-governmental organizations.  This preliminary survey resulted in the
collection in the Centre for Human Rights, up to September 1996, of about 180
language versions of the Universal Declaration, in addition to some 30 other
versions in pictorial, audio-visual and other formats (videotapes, tape
cassettes, posters, books for children, picture books, general books and a
version for the disabled), which constitute the basis for further
consultations in the implementation of this component of the Plan of Action. 
A complete list of these versions, organized by geographical areas and by type
of material, is periodically updated and is available from the High
Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights (an abbreviated list is appended to the
present report). During 1996, copies of these versions have been provided to
several organizations, in particular non-governmental organizations, which
requested them for use within their educational programmes.

59.  As a contribution to the efforts towards the dissemination of the
Universal Declaration, the Algerian focal point for human rights education,
the National Observatory of Human Rights, has forwarded to the High
Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights a new language version in Tamazight
(Berber) produced in the framework of the Decade.

60.  Also, UNESCO and the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights are
currently exploring other initiatives for the dissemination of the Universal
Declaration in schools.

61.  Finally, in this section it is noteworthy to take into consideration that
the Commission on Human Rights adopted resolution 1996/42 of 19 April 1996 on
the preparations for the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration.  In this
resolution, the Commission requested the High Commissioner to coordinate the
preparation of the anniversary, and called upon Governments, human rights
treaty bodies, relevant United Nations organs and agencies, non-governmental
organizations and national institutions to participate in it.  In this
framework, the Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights has organized and
chaired in the past months several meetings in this regard which were attended
by United Nations system agencies and programmes and non-governmental
organizations.

                                    *  *  *

62.  This Decade for Human Rights Education is a challenging undertaking for
all the members of the international community.  The High Commissioner has
been working towards the implementation of the Plan of Action with very
limited human and financial resources.  Also, the current financial crisis of
the United Nations will further undermine the work of the High Commissioner as
the coordinator of the Decade (for instance, lack of funds will not allow
publications of the High Commissioner/Centre for Human Rights to be reprinted
in large stocks and translated in all United Nations official languages, which
will undermine the dissemination of human rights information to the public).

63.  The full implementation of this Plan of Action and the success of this
Decade will require, in the coming months, a more strong commitment to it on
the part of the international community, and the availability of more human
and financial resources to coordinate efforts towards global human rights
education.



                                   APPENDIX

        Language versions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
         currently available at the Centre for Human Rights at Geneva

        (Joint project of the Department of Public Information and the
                           Centre for Human Rights)


     Esperanto


                                  1.  AFRICA

Afrikaans
Akuapem Twi 
Amharic
Arabic
Asante
Bambara
Baoule
Bemba
Dagaare
Dagbani
Dangme
English
Eve
Fante
French
Ga
Gonja
Hausa/Haoussa
Igbo
Kaonde
Kasem
Kinyarwanda
Kirundi
Kpelewo
Lingala
Lozi
Lunda/Chokwe-lunda
Luvale
Maninka
Ndebele
Nyanja
Nzema
Oshiwambo
Peulh/Pular
Portuguese
Shona
Somalian
Sotho/Pedi (Northern)
Sussu/Soussou Sosso
Swahili
Tamazight (Beraber)
Tonga
Wolof
Xhosa
Yoruba       
Zulu    


                               2.  NORTH AMERICA

English
French
Marshallese
Mikmaq
Spanish (Castellano)



                         3.  CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA

Achuar-Shiwiar    
Aguaruna     
Amahuaca     
Amarakaeri        
Amuesha-Yanesha   
Arabela
Asha'ninca         
Ashe'ninca         
Aymara       
Bora    
Campa pajonalino    
Candoshi-Shapra    
Caquinte 
Cashibo-Cacataibo 
Cashinahua         
Chayahuita         
Chinanteco         
Creole
English 
French 
Guarani
Huitoto murui      
Kaqchikel          
K'iche 
Mam      
Matse's 
Mayan 
Mazateco 
Nomatsiguenga      
Paez (Nasa)        
Portuguese        
Q'eqchi 
Quechua 
Quechua de Ambo-Pasco    
Quechua de Ayacucho 
Quechua de Cajamarca 
Quechua del Callejon de Huaylas 
Quechua de Cotahuasi (Arequipa) 
Quechua del Cusco 
Quechua de Huamalies (Huanuco) 
Quechua de Margos (Sur de Dios de
  Mayo, Huanuco) 
Quechua del Norte de Junin 
Quechua de Pomabamba (Ancash) 
Quichua
Sharanahua         
Shipibo-Conibo     
Spanish (Castellano) 
Ticuna 
Tojol a'bal                                               
Tseltal 
Tzotzil
Urarina 
Wayu (Guajiro)                                            
Yagua


                                   4.  ASIA

Assamese      
Bengali
Burmese/Myanmar
Chinese 
English 
Farsi/Persian     
Filipino (Tagalog) 
Gujarati 
Gurmukhi      
Hindi 
Indonesian         
Japanese
Kannada 
Khmer 
Korean        
Lao     
Malagasy 
Malayalam          
Marathi
Mongolian         
Nepali/Nepalese   
Oriya 
Pushtu/Pakhto and Durri 
Portuguese        
Sinhalese
Tamil
Telugu
Thai     
Tibetan 
Urdu     
Vietnamese         


                                  5.  EUROPE

Albanian
Bulgarian
Croatian
Czech 
Catalan 
Danish 
Dutch 
English 
Faroese 
Finnish
French 
Galician 
German       
Greek
Greenlandic        
Hungarian         
Icelandic 
Irish 
Italian
"Luxembourguese"    
Macedonian        
Maltese 
Norwegian          
Polish
Portuguese        
Romanian     
Sami     
Serbian (cyrillic) 
Serbo-Croatian    
Slovak 
Slovenian          
Spanish (Castellano)
Swedish
Turkish 
Welsh 


                 6.  FORMER UNITED SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

Armenian     
Byelorussian       
Estonian
Georgian 
Kazakh (cyrillic) 
Kirghiz 
Lithuanian         
Russian 
Tadjik (cyrillic) 
Tartar (cyrillic) 
Ukrainian 


                                7.  MIDDLE EAST

Arabic 
Farsi/Persian
Hebrew     


                                  8.  OCEANIA

Chamorro      
English 
French 
Palauan 
Ponapean 
Trukese 
Yapese


                                     ----- 

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Date last posted: 28 December 1999 17:35:10
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