United Nations

A/51/450


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

4 October 1996

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


                                               A/51/450


General Assembly
Fifty-first session
Agenda item 101


                                                                              

                   CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

          United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of
                    Crime and the Treatment of Offenders

                       Report of the Secretary-General


                                  CONTENTS

                                                           Paragraphs  Page

  I. INTRODUCTION  .........................................   1 - 4     2

 II. STATUS OF OPERATIONS ..................................   5 - 33    2

     A.  Staffing ..........................................     6       2

     B.  Programme activities ..............................   7 - 33    3

III. FUNDING AND SUPPORT ...................................  34 - 48   10

     A.  Funding sources ...................................  34 - 41   10

     B.  Resources available in 1996 .......................  42 - 45   11

     C.  Additional funding ................................  46 - 48   12

 IV. GOVERNING BOARD .......................................    49      13

  V. FIFTH SESSION OF THE COMMISSION ON CRIME PREVENTION AND
     CRIMINAL JUSTICE ......................................    50      13

 VI. COLLABORATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTES ...................    51      14

VII. CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR ACTION ..................  52 - 61   14

                                                                              

                                I.  INTRODUCTION


1.        The present report has been prepared pursuant to General Assembly
resolution 50/147 of 21 December 1995.  It highlights issues on the status of
the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the
Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI), its operations, staffing, programme
activities and funding, and provides strategic perspectives on the functions
of the Institute, relating to its anticipated substantial contribution to the
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme, for the African region.

2.   The General Assembly, in its resolution 50/147, once again commended the
Institute for the efforts it has made towards fulfilling its mandate,
notwithstanding the serious budgetary constraints of the Institute.  At the
same time, the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to ensure that the
Institute was provided with adequate funds, within the overall appropriation
of the programme budget and from extrabudgetary resources.

3.  The Institute continued to be recognized by member States as a dynamic
operational instrument for enhancing regional cooperation, coordination and
collaboration in the fight against crime, especially in its transnational
dimensions, which could not be adequately dealt with by national action alone.

4.  The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, at its fifth
session, held from 21 to 31 May 1996, was informed of the Institute's efforts
to promote regional technical cooperation and to coordinate activities in
crime prevention, thus aiming at the promotion of sustainable development and
respect for the rule of law by making criminal justice systems more effective
in Africa.


                            II.  STATUS OF OPERATIONS

5.  Apart from indicating the present level of the Institute's operations,
the present report updates the report submitted to the General Assembly in
1995 (A/50/375).

                                     A.  Staffing

6.   In view of its persisting financial difficulties, the Institute was
forced to freeze the posts of its substantive officers, thereby laying off its
core Professional staff as a cost-cutting measure.  Consequently, until the
financial situation of the Institute improves, consultant services will have
to be used to supplement existing expertise in executing the activities
undertaken by the Institute.  The staffing situation is given in table 1.


                                B.  Programme activities

7.   The Institute's programme of work for the period 1995-1996, as approved
by the Governing Board, consists of the following subprogramme activities:

     (a)  General direction and management;

     (b)  Training and human resources development;

     (c)  Comparative research and policy development; 

     (d)  Information and documentation services;

     (e)  Advisory services to Governments and technical cooperation;

     (f)  International cooperation and joint activities; 

     (g)  Conferences and seminars.


                  1.  General direction and management

8.      The Institute continued to implement mandated activities and to
administer its staff, funds and other resources, in conformity with the
stipulations of its Statute and the procedures laid down in its Staff Rules
and Regulations and Financial Rules and Regulations.  Appropriate measures
were taken to ensure that all operations were geared to the required standard
of strict and effective management.  Such an approach enhanced the emphasis
placed on the improved delivery of qualitative services to assist African
countries in the field of crime prevention and control.  The Institute's
position as an active entity in the United Nations Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Programme network was strengthened.

9.      In view of its critical financial situation and the demands on the
Institute to provide services to meet the needs of African countries, a
vigorous campaign was mounted, urging the member States of UNAFRI to pay their
assessed contributions.  In addition, the Institute strengthened its efforts
to build partnerships with donor Governments, agencies and other institutes.


                   2.  Training and human resources development

10.    In approving the training activities that were to be implemented during
1995-1996, the Governing Board, at its fourth ordinary meeting, held in
January 1995, took into consideration the recognized need to put emphasis on
upgrading the skills, knowledge and expertise of crime prevention and criminal
justice personnel in the African region, giving priority to training the
trainers.

11.     Owing to the lack of funds, however, the training activities that had
been scheduled for implementation in 1995 could not be executed.

12.   The Institute cooperated with the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Division of the United Nations Secretariat and the International Scientific
and Professional Advisory Council (ISPAC) in the training workshop on the
training of trainers of the custodial corps of Malawi, Uganda and the United
Republic of Tanzania, held at UNAFRI from 10 to 14 July 1995; the participants
were senior-level officers.  The workshop offered the opportunity for testing
the Basic Manual for Correction Workers, developed by ISPAC.  In addition, the
workshop considered and recommended practical measures to strengthen
subregional and regional cooperation regarding the training of corrections
personnel.

13.   The Institute further cooperated with the United Nations Interregional
Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), the Commonwealth Secretariat
and the University of Botswana in organizing a regional training workshop
entitled "Crime in southern Africa:  towards the year 2000", held at Gaborone
from 19 to 21 June 1996.  The workshop was attended by 49 participants from
six southern African countries.  The majority of the participants were senior-
level decision makers and managers or administrators of criminal justice
departments or services; others were from academic institutions.  The training
workshop addressed key issues relating to social change in southern Africa
and, in particular, the impact of organized crime, corruption and drug
trafficking on society.  Ways and means to prevent urban criminality and
violence against women were discussed, as well as possibilities to cope better
with problems of youth, including street children.  Representatives of the
Institute, who served as resource persons, briefed participants on the results
of the Ninth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the
Treatment of Offenders, particularly as regards possible implications for
Africa.  To this end, the significance and relevance of UNAFRI towards
enhanced regional cooperation was stressed once again.  The report of the
workshop will be published and made available to all countries of the region.

14.   The Governing Board, at its fourth ordinary meeting, approved the
following training activities to be undertaken in 1996:

      (a)  A training seminar entitled "Environmental crime:  sanctioning
strategies and sustainable development".  The execution of this activity will
depend on the approval of the requested rephasing of unspent funds, which were
made available in 1994 by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), to
be utilized in 1996.  As at 30 June 1996, the decision of UNDP was still
pending;

      (b)  A ministerial workshop on the development and implementation of
joint strategies and modalities to deal with transnational criminality in
Africa.  The workshop will be organized jointly by the Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Division and the Institute, in the context of the
implementation of the Naples Political Declaration and Global Action Plan
against Organized Transnational Crime.  The implementation of this activity
will depend upon the availability of funds.

15.   In line with the Institute's efforts to seek partnerships for joint
activities, further training projects have been designed and submitted to
funding agencies (see paras. 26 ff.).


               3.  Comparative research and policy development

16.   The action-oriented study on the resettlement of street children has
been continued, notwithstanding the Institute's severe financial limitations. 
An encouraging follow-up of the study was the training workshop on crime
prevention in urban areas.  The Institute sponsored the workshop, in
collaboration with some local communities.  Thirty participants, including
social workers working with street children, parents of street children,
community leaders, managers of local grass-roots communities and law
enforcement personnel, were sensitized to the need for local community
intervention geared towards effective social integration of street children in
their communities of origin.  The Institute will publicize this initiative in
order to raise awareness of the situation that street children have to face in
the African region.  Funds permitting, the Institute will replicate this
initiative in several other African countries.

17.   As mentioned in the previous report (A/50/375, para. 18), the Institute
completed an initial action-oriented study on the social rehabilitation of
prisoners.  The report of the study has been included in a monograph on the
rehabilitation of prisoners, which should be issued to interested parties
subject to the availability of funds.  The monograph was available, as a
background document, in both English and French, at the All African Prisons
Conference, held at Kampala from 19 to 21 September 1996.

18.   The Institute continued to identify, analyse and publish trends and
patterns of criminality, indicating, on the basis of studies undertaken in
various African countries, the deleterious consequences of crime to the
sustainable development of African countries, particularly when considering
economic and organized crime in its transnational dimensions.  The Institute
used every opportunity, especially its biannual newsletter and its
participation in subregional, regional and international meetings, to raise
awareness of the importance of such research, which is a basic requirement for
developing effective practical measures to combat crime.

19.   The Institute was encouraged by an increased willingness of African
States to base their policy decisions with regard to crime prevention and
criminal justice issues on appropriate, adequate, valid and reliable data, as
has been indicated by several participants of training activities organized by
the Institute.  The Institute will continue to undertake advisory missions and
train national officials towards establishing appropriate structures and
systems for the regular production of the required crime data.  However, the
non-availability of research funds remained the major constraint in this
regard.

20.   The Governing Board approved three research activities to be undertaken
in 1995-1996, subject to the availability of funds:

      (a)  Continuation of the African survey on crime, victimization and
criminal justice administration.  The funds are still not available for its
implementation.  In the meantime, however, the Institute is cooperating with
the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division and UNICRI in exploring
possible sources of funding to undertake a victimization survey in one or two
francophone countries in West Africa.  This is a significant activity towards
future development of the work programme of the Institute, particularly with
regard to its responsiveness to the priority needs of African countries;

      (b)  As mentioned in the previous report (A/50/375, para. 17), the
Institute completed a study on street children in Kampala.  Based on those
findings, action-oriented studies on the resettlement of street children in
other African countries are planned to be undertaken, again subject to the
availability of adequate funds.  It should be noted that this activity will be
conducted fully in line with the priority theme "prevention of violence
against children" of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Programme;

      (c)  Continuation of the action-oriented study on prisoners' social
rehabilitation in other African countries (see para. 17 above).


                       4.  Information and documentation services

21.   During the period under review, the Institute published its biannual
newsletter (vol. 6, No. 2 and vol. 7, No. 1) in English and French.  The
newsletters were widely distributed to countries in the region, to other
institutes comprising the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Programme network and to international bodies.  The mailing list has continued
to expand.  The Institute continued its compilation of the roster of African
experts in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice, and
criminology, now containing 24 expert data entries, as well as the roster of
African country profiles.

22.   The Institute participated in the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Programme's common project of connecting all the entities of the network on
Internet.  The National Institute of Justice (United States of America), which
was setting up its Internet-based information network, assisted the Institute
in this regard.  The National Institute of Justice will provide the
infrastructure for UNAFRI, with a view to linking it to the United Nations
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Information Network homepage, which will
provide the Institute with the necessary access to Internet, providing useful
material, research and survey publications of interest to the African region.

23.   The Institute's efforts to further develop its specialized reference
library were supported by other crime prevention institutes, government
agencies, academic institutions and associated organizations.  Notwithstanding
this assistance, persistent budgetary constraints continued negatively to
affect the Institute's information and documentation services.


          5.  Advisory services to Governments and technical cooperation

24.   In view of its severe financial situation, the Institute was unable to
undertake any advisory mission in 1995.  Similarly, the difficult economic and
financial situation faced by most countries in the African region discouraged
Governments from requesting such services at their own expense.


                6.  International cooperation and joint activities

25.   High priority was given to further improve the cooperation between
UNAFRI and the institutes and centres comprising the Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Programme network and other relevant organizations.  The
efforts previously made to establish contacts with agencies that have
indicated interest in cooperating with the Institute within and outside the
African region were further strengthened.  Emphasis was again placed on
increased participation among the organizations in exchanging information,
views and experience relating to activities concerning crime prevention and
criminal justice.  In this respect, the Institute's efforts were guided by the
decisions of the Ninth Congress and the fifth session of the Commission on
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, particularly with regard to
strengthening cooperation and coordination among institutes, so as to ensure
complementariness of activities and avoidance of competition with one another.
The Institute is grateful for the assistance provided by other institutes in
the network that have facilitated its participation in the annual joint
programme coordination meetings of the network.  Thus, even though the
Institute's programme of work and budget is determined by its Governing Board
as a functional body of the Conference of Ministers of the Economic Commission
for Africa (ECA), the Institute's programme of work is in fact guided by and
in line with the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme.

26.   The Institute maintained its strong support for planned joint activities
as a practical measure to enhance its capacity to provide needed services to
member States and thereby work towards the fulfilment of its mandate,
especially in view of its difficult financial situation.  Fortunately, the
Institute is increasingly becoming better informed of and more actively
involved in activities undertaken in the African region by other entities of
the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme network.

27.  The Institute participated in a number of joint cooperation activities
during the reporting period.  The Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Division and ISPAC co-sponsored a training workshop on the training of
trainers of the custodial corps (see para. 12).  UNICRI, the Commonwealth
Secretariat, the University of Botswana and the Institute co-sponsored a
training workshop entitled "Crime in southern Africa:  towards the year 2000"
(see para. 13).  The Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division and the
Government of Burkina Faso are co-sponsoring, with the full cooperation and
participation of UNAFRI, a series of training seminars on juvenile justice and
corrective administration, to take place in three towns in Burkina Faso.  The
first seminar was conducted in March 1996.  Subsequent seminars will be
implemented later in 1996.  The International Centre for the Prevention of
Crime (ICPC) and the Institute, in partnership with the Urban Management
Programme (UMP), continued to develop and finalize the project proposal on
"making cities in Africa safer from crime".  The project would involve the
participation of five African cities.  The three cooperating agencies that are
promoting the proposal intensified their efforts towards mobilizing possible
funding for the project.

28.   The United States Department of Justice and Department of State are
cooperating with the Institute on a project on extradition.  The project
consists of two phases:  collecting information on extradition laws,
procedures and practices in all African States; and conducting a training
seminar on extradition, involving participants from all African countries. 
The project will lay the groundwork for future cooperation efforts between the
Government of the United States of America and UNAFRI in responding to crime
problems in the African region.

29.   Following the visit of the Director of the United Nations Asia and Far
East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders
(UNAFEI) to UNAFRI (see para. 51), and in collaboration with a local
representative of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the
Institute submitted to the Government of Japan a five-year technical
assistance proposal for funding, covering annual training courses on the
treatment of offenders.  Furthermore, the Institute contributed to an
intergovernmental expert group meeting on practical recommendations for
further development and promotion of mechanisms for international cooperation,
with respect to United Nations model treaties, development of model
legislation on extradition, and other related forms of international
cooperation.

30.  The Institute continued to cooperate closely with UNICRI in the
international (victim) survey.  The third phase of the survey involved the
undertaking of research in a further three African countries.  The
international (victim) survey is distinct from the African crime,
victimization and criminal justice administration survey.  The former focuses
on victimization as such and is only executed in one large city.  The latter
is a comprehensive survey on a national scale.

31.   The international study of firearms regulations was launched in 1995;
the Institute, as a member of the project team, is cooperating in the global
project.

32.   In addition, the Institute consulted with several institutes of the
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme network on possible joint
cooperation projects with regard to the improvement of prison conditions in
Rwanda, and the reform of laws and prison institutions, to ensure the better
use and application of the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of
Offenders.  Other draft projects have been developed on juvenile justice
reform, the protection of women from becoming victims of crime and practical
strategies to deal with transnational crime in Africa.


                         7.  Conferences and seminars

33.  The Institute participated in a number of international, regional,
subregional and national meetings and seminars, which were held in different
parts of the world, as follows:

     (a)  The tenth coordinating meeting of the United Nations Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme network, held at Courmayeur, Italy
on 17 and 18 October 1995.  The meeting, organized by UNICRI, discussed
modalities for the implementation of the recommendations of the Commission on
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice at its fourth session, concerning the
specific action required by the institutes.  Furthermore, it was decided to
inform the Commission, at its fifth session, on the financial situation of the
institutes comprising the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Programme network;

      (b)  The Director represented the Institute at the fifth plenary session
of the International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council, held at
Courmayeur, Italy from 18 to 20 October 1995;

      (c)  The International Conference on Traumas of Children and Youth in
Armed Conflict, held at the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague,
Netherlands on 20 and 21 November 1995.  The Institute's Research Adviser
presented a paper on the rehabilitation of children in different situations,
based on experiences gained from the Institute's study of the social
rehabilitation and reintegration of street children in Kampala;

      (d)  The International Conference on Urban Justice and Safety, organized
by the Urban Management Programme, the European Forum for Urban Security and
the Municipality of Saint Denis, Reunion, held at Saint Denis from 4 to
8 December 1995.  The Conference discussed the issue of crime and the need for
justice in the context of the crisis of judiciary institutions in the urban
context, innovative practices, and local justice and the role of judiciary
institutions.  The Deputy Director, who represented the Institute, presented a
paper on resistance council courts in Kampala, a case study on local justice
and the role of judiciary institutions;

      (e)  The Institute was represented at the ad hoc expert group meeting on
the international study of firearm regulations, held at the United Nations
Office at Vienna from 18 to 20 December 1995.  The meeting was organized by
the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division of the Secretariat.  The
Institute is a member of the project team and its steering committee.  In its
latter capacity, the Institute was represented at the meeting of the steering
committee of the project, which was held at Vienna on 2 and 3 May 1996; 

     (f)  The Institute participated in the expert group meeting on victims of
crime and abuse of power in the international setting, held at Vienna from
18 to 22 December 1995.  The meeting was organized by the Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Division; 

     (g)  The Institute participated and assisted in the organization of the
Eighth Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies in Africa
(HONLEA), held at Kampala from 23 to 27 October 1995;

     (h)  The Pan African Conference on Youth and Development, organized by
the Organization of African Unity, was held at Addis Ababa from
18 to 22 March 1996.  The Research Adviser presented a paper on youth and
crime prevention;

     (i)  The Institute participated in an international conference on crime
and justice in the 1990s, which was held at Pretoria, South Africa from 3 to
5 July 1996.  The conference was organized by the Criminological Society of
Southern Africa as part of the Society's tenth anniversary.  The Deputy
Director presented a keynote paper on crime in African countries; 

     (j)  The Professional staff members of the Institute participated, as
resource persons, in a number of locally held seminars and workshops related
to crime prevention and criminal justice administration and the observance of
human rights.


                        III.  FUNDING AND SUPPORT

                            A.  Funding sources

34.  During the reporting period, the Institute was funded by contributions
from its member States, a grant from the United Nations within its overall
appropriation of its programme budget and rental income received from renting
the Institute's premises and facilities.  The Institute requested the
Administrator of UNDP to reallocate the unspent balance of US$ 144,614 of its
1994 programme support.


      1.  Assessed financial contributions of African member States

35. At the present time, there are 27 African States that are members of the
Institute.  Two African Governments have indicated their desire to accede to
the Statute of the Institute in due course.  In addition, there is clear
evidence that African Governments support the role and mandated activities of
the Institute.  Since the establishment of the Institute, African Governments
have been informed that the Institute is to be funded by its members.  Thus,
its survival depends on the willingness of member States to pay their assessed
financial contributions on a regular basis and on time.  Appeals to African
States to this effect have been made by the General Assembly, the Economic and
Social Council, the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, the
Conference of Ministers of ECA and the Governing Board of the Institute. 
During the reporting period, the management of the Institute, encouraged by
the Chairman of the Governing Board, mounted a vigorous campaign to mobilize
member States to pay their assessed contributions, utilizing every possible
approach and contact.

36. Admittedly, the economies of many African countries are in a precarious
situation.  It is also noteworthy that, in response to the appeals, African
States individually and, depending on circumstances, collectively have made
pledges to honour their obligations, which, in the majority of cases, remain
unfulfilled.  

37.  During the financial year ending December 1995, only one country paid
its assessed contribution, as shown in the 1995 income and expenditure
statement (table 3).  In the period from January to July 1996, the Institute
received further contributions from three member States.  Hence, the
contributions collected during the period from June 1995 to 31 July 1996
amounted to US$ 75,513.19.  The total contributions received from member
States since the inception of the Institute in 1989 amounted to $288,326.19. 
Taking the assessed contributions for the same period into account
($1,765,916), the outstanding balance amounted to $1,477,589.81.  The status
of the assessed contributions of member States and remittances during the
period 1989-1996 is given in table 2.

38.  The Institute's account of income and expenditure for the year 1995 is
given in table 3.  Although the statement shows an operating deficit of
$98,443.43, this deficit is not a budgetary over-expenditure; it is
attributable to inadequate collections from member States during the financial
year, and payment of terminal costs by ECA to the three staff members whose
services were terminated owing to inadequate funding.  The deficit was covered
by prior years' savings on member States contributions and the United Nations
grant, as well as rental income amounting to $22,398.98.  The savings on the
United Nations grant that was used to cover the deficit was the result of the
saving on the Director's salary appropriation, as the post remained vacant
until April 1995.


                             2.  United Nations

39. It will be recalled that, as of the 1992-1993 biennium, the General
Assembly approved a grant of US$ 204,800 to cover the salaries of the Director
and Deputy Director of the Institute, as well as other administrative
expenses, which continued in the subsequent bienniums.  At its forty-ninth
session, the General Assembly approved an additional amount of $119,700 for
the Institute.  These funds provided the Institute with additional resources
to meet its administrative expenses in 1995.


                      3.  United Nations Development Programme

40. The financial assistance provided by UNDP, which had enabled the
Institute to execute its activities, expired in October 1994, leaving an
unspent balance of $144,614.  Since then, the Institute's Governing Board, the
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, the Conference of
Ministers of ECA, the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly
have all requested the Administrator of UNDP to reallocate the unspent balance
to be used by the Institute, first in 1995 and thereafter in 1996.  The
Director and Deputy Director recently met with the UNDP Assistant
Administrator and Director of the Regional Bureau for Africa and made a
special appeal for reallocation of the unspent balance.  They also appealed to
the Administrator to reconsider his decision regarding continuation of the
funding of the Institute.


                         4.  Sources of other income

41. In accordance with the decision of the Governing Board at its fourth
meeting, held at Kampala on 22 and 23 November 1993, the Institute rented part
of its facilities, which it did not use, to augment the existing sources of
funding.  During the reporting period, the rental income amounted to
$22,398.98.


                        B.  Resources available in 1996

42. The Governing Board, at its fourth ordinary meeting, approved the
programme of work and budget of the Institute for 1995-1996 in the amount of
US$ 606,414.  However, the budget for 1996 was subsequently revised to
$235,505.66 to reflect the assured funds, including the 1996 allotment of
$81,900 from the approved 1996-1997 United Nations grant and the savings of
$153,605.66 from previous contributions of member States and current receipts
from member States.  The revised budget did not include any provision for
substantive activities.

43. The uncertainty regarding the resources available for the operational
budget forced the Institute to terminate the services of the Professional
staff (i.e., Training, Research and Information/Documentation Officers) in
April 1996, and temporarily freeze the three posts, along with other General
Service posts, until the Institute's financial situation improves.  In the
meantime, the Institute has to employ consultants to execute the funded
substantive activities.

44. Since the funding by UNDP terminated in October 1994, the Institute has
had no reliable source of funding.  In addition, the expected collections of
financial contributions from member States continue to be negligible (see
table 2).

45. The lack of funds has impeded the Institute's ability to deliver
services to member States in a timely manner.  In addition, a conditionality
of the Governing Board, at its fourth ordinary meeting, to approve the
Institute's programme of work and budget for 1995-1996 was the anticipated
approval of UNDP to rephase the unspent balance of the 1994 contribution to
1996.


                           C.  Additional funding

46. As has been stated time and time again, the Institute must fulfil its
mandate in order to enjoy recognition and support by member States and
possible donor countries.  To ensure that the momentum of its support is
sustained, the Institute has to be provided with additional funds to implement
the approved substantive activities and administrative expenses.  Moreover,
the General Assembly, in its resolution 50/147, called for continued provision
of adequate funds to cover the expenses of core staff and the basic
requirements for the implementation of the Institute's programme of work. 

47. Funds will be required for the implementation of the following approved
activities:

    (a)  A bilingual training workshop on environmental crime:  sanctioning
strategies and sustainable development (expenses for the activity amount to
$55,000);

    (b)  A ministerial workshop on the development and implementation of
joint strategies and modalities to deal with transnational criminality in
Africa.  The workshop will be organized jointly with the Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Division (see para. 14).  The Institute's input is $30,000;

    (c)  Implementation of the African survey on crime, victimization and
criminal justice administration, to be conducted in several phases; funding
support in the amount of $15,000 is currently needed for one phase, involving
research to be conducted in a further five countries;

    (d)  In addition to the cost of the above activities, the Institute is
seeking funds to cover administrative expenses.

48.  Consequently, the total additional funds required to cover the
Institute's activities during 1997 amount to $218,000.


                           IV.  GOVERNING BOARD

49.  The fourth ordinary meeting of the Governing Board was held at Addis
Ababa in January 1995.  Arrangements are being made for the fifth ordinary
meeting of the Board to be held later in 1996.  In the meantime, the Institute
has continued to implement the decisions of the Governing Board.  In this
connection, the management has mounted a vigorous campaign to mobilize funds
for the Institute.  Rental income charged on rentable facilities of the
Institute amounted to $22,398.98 for the period 1995-1996.  Project proposals
have been prepared and submitted to funding agencies.  African States that
have not yet acceded to the Statute to become member States are being
contacted and there are promising indications that membership will increase
shortly.


               V.  FIFTH SESSION OF THE COMMISSION ON CRIME
                   PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE     

50.  The Director participated in the fifth session of the Commission on
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, held at Vienna from 21 to 31 May 1996. 
In his address, the Director outlined the financial difficulties facing the
Institute, which constrained its capability to fulfil its mandated services
and made its survival uncertain.  He pointed out that the Institute was
obliged to take cost-cutting measures, including temporarily freezing some
posts and laying off some staff.  He assured the Commission that the Institute
was determined not to let its substantive programme be crippled under the
current circumstances.  In that respect, he outlined the practical steps that
were being taken in response to the situation.  In addition, he stated that
UNAFRI had launched a campaign to broaden its base of support and to collect
contributions and arrears from its members States, which were basically the
Institute's main financiers.  At the same session, the Director of UNICRI
spoke on behalf of the institutes and centres constituting the United Nations
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme network, pointing out that
progress had been made in ensuring that members of the network cooperated more
efficiently.  He stressed that the institutes relied almost exclusively on
extrabudgetary funds provided primarily by the host countries.  Supplementary
funding from other countries and agencies tended to be earmarked for specific
projects, and did not address the institutes' core needs.  He noted that only
one institute, namely UNAFRI, had received, on an exceptional basis, some
support from the regular budget of the United Nations.  While the institutes
were at the service of the Commission, necessary resources needed to be
identified for such activities.


                VI.  COLLABORATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTES

51.  As mentioned above (see para. 25), the Institute placed high emphasis on
close collaboration with the other institutes comprising the United Nations
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme network.  As a particular
gesture for further cooperation, the Director of UNAFEI visited UNAFRI in
December 1995.  The Director acquainted himself with the organizational set-up
of UNAFRI and its programme of activities, and discussed possible avenues for
further strengthening cooperation between the two Institutes.  The Director of
UNAFEI observed closely the activities of UNAFRI in the area of rehabilitation
of ex-offenders and the reintegration of street children into society.  In
addition, he met with the Principal Judge of Uganda and the Commissioner
General of Prisons and visited the main prison in Kampala, the High Court, the
Police Training School, the Law Development Centre and the office of JICA.


               VII.  CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR ACTION

52.  The Institute became operational at the beginning of 1991.  Evidence
abounds as to its recognition by all concerned parties, including the African
States and the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme
network, as an important and relevant Institute for promoting cooperation and
collaboration of efforts in the fight against crime in the African region.

53.  The Institute has continued its efforts towards strengthening and
maintaining a viable structure for training and research and a more reliable
database on criminal justice in the African region, mainly owing to the
assistance provided by UNDP, the United Nations grant and the technical
back-up of ECA.  The performance of the Institute in fulfilling its mandated
activities, which were increasing, has been acknowledged by its Governing
Board, the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, ECA and the
General Assembly, as well as by African countries, which are the beneficiaries
of the services of the Institute.

54.  Since the Institute's inception, the host Government has continued to
honour its commitment and fulfil its considerable obligations to the
Institute.  In addition, the host Government has readily offered support to
the Institute in situations of acute difficulty.

55.  The African States have continued to present a bold front in their
political support for the Institute, as evidenced by their decisions at the
various forums in which matters relating to UNAFRI have been discussed. 
Furthermore, certain African Governments that have not yet acceded to the
Statute have officially informed the Institute that arrangements were under
way to become members of the Institute.

56.  Despite all these efforts, however, the Institute has been confronted
from the very beginning with a dire shortage of funds, and it is now faced
with a financial crisis, which has forced the management of the Institute, as
a first step, to lay off core Professional staff and to freeze those posts. 
It is evident that if no immediate action is taken to reverse this crisis, the
financial situation will force the cessation of the operations of the
Institute as well as the implementation of other approved activities.

57.  Since March 1996, the Institute has been exploring every possible avenue
to mobilize funds, including ways and means of prompting member States to make
their long overdue assessed financial contributions.  The concrete commitment
by member States to pay their assessed contributions will demonstrate to
potential funding agencies the actual support of the Institute.

58.  In the previous reports of the Secretary-General on UNAFRI, it has been
repeatedly stated that the political commitment of member States to the
Institute has not been matched by the payment to the Institute of their
assessed contributions.  Yet, in all the resolutions on UNAFRI that have been
adopted by the various legislative bodies of the United Nations, member States
have been urged to pay their assessed contributions.  Therefore, it remains a
point of great significance and priority that member States demonstrate their
readiness to honour their commitment by paying their assessed contributions,
including the outstanding arrears.  The funding of the Institute is primarily
the responsibility of member States.

59.  Recognizing the magnitude of the crime problem in African countries and
the practical measures envisioned by the Ninth United Nations Congress on the
Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, as endorsed by the General
Assembly, the Institute has a strategic role to play towards further
strengthening the capacity of the national machineries for crime prevention
and control in the African countries by providing advisory services and
training programmes and promoting projects on a number of issues.  In
particular, the Institute has to implement the approved activities of its
programme of work in addition to participating fully in the global follow-up,
monitoring and evaluation of the implementation within the African region of
the United Nations standards and norms.

60.  In its resolution 50/147, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-
General to ensure that the Institute is provided with adequate funds within
the overall appropriation of the programme budget and from extrabudgetary
resources.  The Institute is now in the position where it desperately needs
funds for its survival and sustenance in order to continue to render its
services to African countries.  Pursuant to the decisions of the Ninth
Congress, UNAFRI, like the other regional institutes, is exploring concrete
practical measures to intensify its role towards promoting regional
cooperation.  The Institute is giving priority attention to develop, elaborate
and subsequently implement appropriate arrangements to augment regional and
subregional cooperation in combating crime, which is increasingly becoming a
transnational phenomenon.  In addition, UNAFRI is preparing itself to
participate fully in the institution of such global measures and efforts. 
Furthermore, as an entity of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Programme network, the Institute is expected to facilitate the efforts
of the Secretary-General towards following up, monitoring and evaluating the
implementation of the operational aspects of the decisions of the Ninth
Congress within the African countries.  These demands call for urgent action
to strengthen the capacity and capability of UNAFRI.  It would be a step in
the wrong direction for UNAFRI to cease to exist or to become unable to fulfil
the role for which it was established.

61.  Considering the priority that African Governments are giving to achieve
economic growth and sustainable development, considering also the challenge of
growing criminality, both national and transnational, it is imperative that
all measures that are being taken to achieve sustainable development are
linked with crime prevention and criminal justice.  Consequently, as part of
its contribution to sustainable development and in pursuance of the United
Nations New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s, the
international community is being requested to give support to the Institute to
ensure its survival.


                                   Table 1

                              Staffing situation

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    Number
Post designation/level a/          of posts             Status
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Professional posts

   (a)  Managerial
        Director (D-1)                 1        Filled (since April 1995)
        Deputy Director (P-5)          1

   (b)  Technical/administrative
        Training Officer (P-4)         1        Frozen (since April 1996)
        Research Officer (P-4)         1        Frozen (since April 1996)
        Information/Documentation
          Officer (P-3)                1        Frozen (since April 1996)
        Acting Finance Office (P-2)    1
        Systems Analyst (P-2)          1        Frozen (since December 1994)

2. General Service

   Secretary                           3        1 post frozen
   Administrative Assistant            1
   Financial Assistant                 1
   Messenger/cleaner                   3        1 post frozen
   Driver                              2        1 post frozen
   Gardener/maintenance                1
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

a/  All post designations are based on UNAFRI salary scale classifications
stipulated in the Staff Rules and Regulations of the Institute.

                                                                              

                                   Table 2

             Status of assessed contributions as at 30 June 1996

                            (United States dollars)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Assessed        Assessed       Assessed
                               contribution    contribution   contribution
Member States                    1989-1991       1992-1995        1996
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Burundi                             9 150         16 600           4 150
Congo                               9 150         16 600           4 150
Egypt                              57 100        114 800          28 700
Equatorial Guinea                   9 150         16 600           4 150
Gambia                              9 150         16 600           4 150
Ghana                               9 150         16 600           4 150
Guinea                              9 150         16 600           4 150
Kenya                                              8 300           4 150
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya             97 450        197 800          49 450
Malawi                              7 483         16 600           4 150
Morocco                            41 500         82 000          20 500
Mozambique                          9 150         16 600           4 150
Niger                               9 150         16 600           4 150
Nigeria                            83 750        191 400          47 850
Rwanda                              9 150         16 600           4 150
Senegal                             9 150         16 600           4 150
Seychelles                          9 150         16 600           4 150
Sierra Leone                        9 150         16 600           4 150
Somalia                             9 150         16 600           4 150
Sudan                               9 150         16 600           4 150
Togo                                7 483         16 600           4 150
Tunisia                            25 800         49 200          12 300
Uganda                              9 150         16 600           4 150
United Republic of Tanzania         9 150         16 600           4 150
Zaire                               9 150         16 600           4 150
Zambia                              9 150         16 600           4 150
Zimbabwe                           18 200         32 800           8 200
                              ---------------------------------------------
     Total                        503 466      1 008 300         254 150
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Total assessed                 Balance
                                  contribution   Collections to   as at
Member States                       1989-1996         date       30 June 1996
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Burundi                             29 900             -            29 900
Congo                               29 900             -            29 900
Egypt                              200 600            85 800       114 800
Equatorial Guinea                   29 900             -            29 900
Gambia                              29 900             4 128        25 772
Ghana                               29 900             -            29 900
Guinea                              29 900            29 939.19     (39.19)
Kenya                               12 450             2 000        10 450
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya             344 700             -           344 700
Malawi                              28 233             4 676        23 557
Morocco                            144 000             -           144 000
Mozambique                          29 900            17 450        12 450
Niger                               29 900             -            29 900
Nigeria                            323 000            28 709       294 291
Rwanda                              29 900             -            29 900
Senegal                             29 900            26 024         3 876
Seychelles                          29 900             -            29 900
Sierra Leone                        29 900             -            29 900
Somalia                             29 900             -            29 900
Sudan                               29 900             -            29 900
Togo                                28 233             -            28 233
Tunisia                             87 300            38 100        49 200
Uganda                              29 900            29 900             0
United Republic of Tanzania         29 900            21 600         8 300
Zaire                               29 900             -            29 900
Zambia                              29 900             -            29 900
Zimbabwe                            59 200             -            59 200
                                ---------------------------------------------
     Total                       1 765 916           288 326.19  1 477 589.81
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                       Table 3

                     Income and expenditure as at December 1995

                               (United States dollars)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Income                                            

Assessed contributions for 1995 a/                               12 489.19
Grant from United Nations b/                                    222 100.00
Interest and other income                                        22 398.98
                                                              ------------
     Total income                                               256 988.17


Expenditure against member States' contributions

Administrative support personnel                  5 428.63
Research
Audit expenses
Secretariat services                              1 482.00
Postage and communication                        20 900.04
Operations and maintenance                       22 215.54
Transportation                                    9 573.18
Hospitality                                         137.02
Miscellaneous                                     4 941.33
Official travel                                   4 571.41
Expendable equipment                              1 437.70
Production of reports                               418.48
                                               -----------
     Total expenditure against member States     71 105.33


Expenditure against United Nations grant

Director's salary                                21 214.49
Deputy Director's salary                         26 932.00
Other Professional staff salary                  97 846.62
General Service staff salary                     55 603.96
General operating expenses c/                    82 729.20
                                               -----------
     Total expenditure against
       United Nations grant                     284 326.27

Total combined expenditure                                      355 431.60
Excess of income over expenditure transferable to
  balance sheet                                                 (98 443.43)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

a/  Although the expected annual assessed contribution amounts to $250,000,
only $12,489.19 was received during 1995.

b/  The United Nations grant includes:  $102,400 for 1995 and an additional
amount of $119,700.

c/  General operating expenses include the amount paid to Professional staff
on separation, the general operating expenses, 1994 accrued administrative
expenses and the Director's installation allowance.


                                    Table 4

                      Revised programme budget for 1996 a/

                            (United States dollars)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                     United
Budget                                  Member       Nations
line          Description               States        grant         Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.01   Director                                    33 382.00     33 382.00
10.02   Deputy Director                             28 279.00     28 279.00
11.02   Research Officer               9 833.33                    9 833.33
11.03   Training Officer              10 433.33                   10 433.33
11.04   Information/Documentation
          Officer                      6 900.00                    6 900.00
11.05   Administrative/Finance
          Officer                                   16 678.00     16 678.00
11.50   Consultants                                                    0.00
13.00   Administrative support        50 439.00      3 561.00     54 000.00
14.00   Systems analyst                                                0.00
15.00   Official travel               10 000.00                   10 000.00
16.00   Mission cost                                                   0.00
32.00   Group training/meetings                                        0.00
33.00   Research                                                       0.00
34.00   Information/documentation                                      0.00
41.00   Expendable equipment          10 000.00                   10 000.00
42.00   Non-expendable equipment                                       0.00
52.00   Reporting cost                 5 000.00                    5 000.00
53.00   Miscellaneous/contingency                                      0.00
53.02   Communication                 15 000.00                   15 000.00
53.03   Maintenance/operations        15 000.00                   15 000.00
53.04   Fuel and transport             8 000.00                    8 000.00
53.05   Hospitality                    3 000.00                    3 000.00
53.06   Auditing and Governing Board  10 000.00                   10 000.00
                                    ----------------------------------------
     Total                           153 605.66     81 900.00    235 505.66
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

a/  This is a revision of the programme budget for 1996 as contained in the
report of the Secretary-General (A/50/375).


                                       -----
 

This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

Date last posted: 28 December 1999 17:35:10
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org