United Nations

A/51/395


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

23 September 1996

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


                                                         A/51/395
                                                              

General Assembly
Fifty-first session
Agenda item 110 (b)


       HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS:  HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS, INCLUDING  
      ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES FOR IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVE ENJOYMENT
                 OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS

                       Note by the Secretary-General


     The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of
the General Assembly the report of the Director-General of the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on
educational activities in the framework of the UNESCO
transdisciplinary project entitled "Towards a culture of peace", in
accordance with General Assembly resolution 50/173 of 22 December
1995.


                                     ANNEX

             Report of the Director-General of the United Nations
             Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization on
             educational activities under the project "Towards a 
                               culture of peace"


                                   CONTENTS

                                                              Paragraphs Page

 I.   INTRODUCTION:  THE CHALLENGE OF A CULTURE OF PEACE ..      2 - 21   3

II.   EDUCATION:  THE LEADING MODALITY TO PROMOTE A CULTURE
      OF PEACE ............................................     22 - 62   6

      A. The basic principles of education for peace and
         human rights ....................................      23 - 28   6

      B. Actions at the global level .....................      29 - 46   8

      C. Education in national culture of peace programmes      47 - 62  12

III.  TOWARDS THE FUTURE ..................................     63 - 72  15

Appendix.  UNESCO publications promoting human rights and a culture of
           peace ....................................................... 19


1.   Pursuant to General Assembly resolution 50/173 of 22 December
1995, the Director-General of UNESCO submits herewith a report on
educational activities in the framework of the UNESCO
transdisciplinary project entitled "Towards a culture of peace".  The
report is set within the framework of United Nations actions for
peace-building, including the United Nations Decade for Human Rights
Education and the United Nations Year for Tolerance.


            I.  INTRODUCTION:  THE CHALLENGE OF A CULTURE OF PEACE

2.   With the end of the cold war, the international community was
challenged to regain the initiative towards the achievement of the
great objectives of the Charter of the United Nations for peace and
security.  In conjunction with the substantial increase in
peacekeeping and peace-building operations of the United Nations, a
new and comprehensive vision of United Nations action for peace was
formulated in the report of the Secretary-General to the Security
Council in 1992 entitled "An Agenda for Peace".

3.   In accordance with its fundamental mission of peace-building as
defined in its Constitution, UNESCO celebrated in July 1989, at
Yamoussoukro, Co^te d'Ivoire, the International Congress on Peace in
the Minds of Men, from which the concept of culture of peace emerged. 
The organization is mandated by its Constitution to promote
"collaboration among the nations through education, science and
culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the
rule of law and for human rights and fundamental freedoms". 1/  In
fact, from the time of its founding, UNESCO has worked to ensure the
free circulation of ideas, the development of understanding and
solidarity among individuals and cultures, respect for human rights,
and the effective exercise of the democratic  principles enshrined in
the Constitution.

4.   In 1992, the Culture of Peace Programme was proposed by UNESCO as
a contribution to peace-building as outlined by "An Agenda for Peace"
and by the Yamoussoukro Congress.  Peace-building, at that time, was
limited to situations following violent conflict when peacekeeping
operations had been undertaken, and was described as "comprehensive
efforts to identify and support structures which will tend to
consolidate peace and advance a sense of confidence and well-being
among people". 2/

5.   The concept of "peace-building" has evolved since its formulation
in the context of peacekeeping operations in post-conflict situations. 
In "An Agenda for Development", presented by the Secretary-General to
the General Assembly in 1994, the scope of peace-building was
expanded.  It was said that "peace-building is a matter for countries
at all stages of development", 3/ including countries emerging from
violent conflict, countries in transition, and countries of wealth and
power which should engage in demobilization and defence conversion. 
Further, in the "Supplement" 4/ to "An Agenda for Peace", published in
1995, peace-building was proposed not only in post-conflict situations
associated with peacekeeping operations but also as preventive action
in situations with the potential for violent conflict.

6.   The Culture of Peace Programme includes specific activities in the
fields of competence of UNESCO in both pre-conflict (prevention) and
post-conflict (national reconciliation) situation.  The first national
culture of peace programmes were developed in post-conflict peace-
building situations.  They were launched in 1993 and 1994 in El
Salvador and Mozambique as a complement to United Nations peacekeeping
operations.  In 1995 and 1996, national programmes and related
activities were initiated in Burundi, Congo, Guatemala, Philippines,
Rwanda and Somalia, among others, in situations that could be
considered as much preventive as post-conflict.

7.   The fundamental principle of a culture of peace was put in
practice in the initial programmes in El Salvador and Mozambique:  the
transformation from conflict to cooperation through a process of
dialogue leading to cooperation for shared goals of human development. 
This principle, although originally employed in post-conflict
situations, is equally valid for conflict prevention.  In fact, it is
a fundamental finding of social psychology, replicated in various
types of contexts, that the most effective means to end or avoid a
conflict is the engagement of the contending parties in collaboration
for a shared higher goal.  The scope of the programme has been
elaborated in a series of international forum and consultative
meetings, including the First International Forum on a Culture of
Peace, hosted by El Salvador in February 1994, and the Second
International Forum, hosted by the Philippines in November 1995.

8.   The culture of peace addresses the deep roots of conflict.  As
formulated in An Agenda for Development, "pulling up the roots of
conflict goes beyond immediate post-conflict requirements and the
repair of war-torn societies.  The underlying conditions that led to
conflict must be addressed.  As the causes of conflict are varied, so
must be the means of addressing them.  Peace-building means fostering
a culture of peace." 5/

9.   At this moment of history, when it is for the first time possible
to plan and take action towards the general disarmament of nations, so
too it is both feasible and necessary to disarm people's minds. 
People may begin to transform the shared aspects of their cultures
that have been shaped by war and violence to the sharing of a culture
of peace.  This means that in the place of violence, there must be
dialogue and respect for human rights; instead of enemy images,
intercultural understanding and solidarity; instead of secrecy, the
sharing and free flow of information; and instead of male domination,
the full empowerment of women.  This means that resources and
knowledge must be better shared in order to include the excluded -
through life-long education - and to reach the unreached - by means of
learning without frontiers.

10.  As set forth in An Agenda for Development, peace-building is a
vast and comprehensive project to replace the institutions of war and
violence by other alternatives based upon non-violence and respect for
fundamental rights and freedoms.  Therefore, peace-building is linked
intrinsically to development based on justice and the full exercise of
democratic principles.

11.  "Development is the most secure basis for peace", as "without
development, there is no prospect for lasting peace". 6/ 
Sustainability of development is only possible in a framework of
justice and freedom of expression.  It requires the "intellectual and
moral solidarity of mankind", as phrased in the Constitution of
UNESCO.  Reciprocally, peace is a fundamental dimension of development
as there is no development without stability and security. 
Development must preserve the environment in a "true partnership ...
between humanity and nature". 7/

12.  Justice - there is no justice without freedom - is essential to
peace-building.  Injustice lies at the very roots of conflict and
without justice there can be no peace.  Peace-building activities
reduce poverty and disease and provide for skills and education that
facilitate active life, not only in the developing world and countries
in transition but even in the richest countries where many are
excluded from their basic political, economic and social rights.

13.  Peace can only be sustained through democratic participation and
good governance.  This requires not only fair elections but citizen
participation through a continuous process of dialogue, discussion and
agreement on the decisions that affect their lives.  And there is no
participation without citizenship, which includes full empowerment
through education.  "Education for All" is the key for democracy in
everyday life.  For these reasons, it is more important, particularly
in societies in transition, to assist in the solid construction of
justice and democratic values which provide a basis for good
governance and to avoid the imposition of routine democratic models.

14.  In addition to institutions, the minds of men and women must
undergo change.  Their values, attitudes and behaviour must go through
a process of transformation so that instead of supporting and
perpetuating the institutions of war and violence, they create and
sustain the relationships and structures which make up a culture of
peace.  As phrased in the Constitution of UNESCO, "since wars begin in
the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace
must be constructed". 8/

15.  The culture of peace project is dedicated mainly to this
transformation of mind and behaviour.  It is a complex process taking
place on many levels, and linked to learning through collective
action.  Rather than taking place in isolation, it must develop as an
integral part of peace-building activity.

16.  Recognizing the broad and long-term scope of this task, the
General Conference of UNESCO, at its twenty-eighth session in 1995,
expanded the Culture of Peace Programme into a transdisciplinary
project, beginning with the biennium 1996-1997 and involving all of
the programme sectors of the organization both at headquarters and in
the field.  The project is a coordinated effort to contribute to a
global movement from a culture of war and violence to a culture of
peace.  It comprises four units, as follows.

17.  Unit 1 - Education for peace, human rights, democracy,
international understanding and tolerance:  (1) promotes educational
policies, plans and programmes; (2) fosters the elaboration of
manuals, textbooks and teaching aids; and (3) reinforces networks of
institutions active in education for peace, human rights and
democracy.

18.  Unit 2 - Promotion of human rights and democracy; struggle against
discrimination:  (1) contributes to better understanding and
recognition of all human rights; (2) contributes to the prevention and
elimination of all forms of discrimination based on racial, national
or ethnic origin, language, religion or belief, or any other ground;
(3) promotes the effective application of the principle of the
equality of law of men and women; (4) ensures the follow-up to the
United Nations Year for Tolerance; and (5) contributes to the
consolidation of democracy.

19.  Unit 3 - Cultural pluralism and intercultural dialogue:  (1)
consolidates cultural pluralism in multicultural societies; (2)
promotes values that may help to consolidate intercultural dialogue
with a view to peace; and (3) creates, through intercultural projects,
new opportunities for dialogue and exchange between cultural areas.

20.  Unit 4 - Conflict prevention and post-conflict peace-building: 
(1) promotes the search for effective methods of conflict prevention;
(2) provides emergency assistance during conflicts; and (3) supports
post-conflict peace-building.

21.  As requested in General Assembly resolution 50/173, emphasis is
placed in this report on education, which is the leading modality to
promote a culture of peace.  This includes, especially, the long-term
actions of UNESCO for education in peace and human rights, including
those within the framework of the United Nations Decade for Human
Rights Education and actions taken within the framework of national
culture of peace programmes and related projects.  Further, the final
section of this report describes how the transdisciplinary project is
intended to contribute in a coordinated way to peace-building in
cooperation with the entire United Nations system.


              II.  EDUCATION:  THE LEADING MODALITY TO PROMOTE A
                   CULTURE OF PEACE                             

22.  Education, seen broadly, is the most important process by which
people gain the values, attitudes and behaviours of a culture of
peace.  By this is meant learning, formal, informal and non-formal,
not only in schools but also in the family, through the mass media and
in other social institutions, not as an isolated process but as part
of a shared global experience of learning by doing.  The key, as
expressed in the recent report to UNESCO by the International
Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, is "learning to
live together".  It is in this sense that education may be said to be
the leading modality in the struggle to create a culture of peace.


       A.  The basic principles of education for peace and human rights

23.  Since its inception, UNESCO has taught and promoted the basic principles
of peace and human rights and disseminated the international conventions of
human rights in order to make their provisions known to the widest possible
audience.  The organization continues to work in accordance with the
principles adopted in its 1974 Recommendation concerning Education for
International Understanding, Cooperation and Peace, and Education relating to
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.  These principles include, among
others:

     (a) Understanding and respect for all peoples, their cultures,
civilizations, values and ways of life, including domestic ethnic cultures and
cultures of other nations;

     (b) Awareness not only of the rights but also of the duties incumbent
upon individuals, social groups and nations towards each other;

     (c) Readiness on the part of the individual to participate in solving
the problems of his community, his country and the world at large.

24.  The 1974 Recommendation was recently reviewed and its principles
confirmed by the International Conference on Education at its forty-fourth
session, held at Geneva in October 1994.  At the Conference, education
ministers from around the world committed themselves to a Declaration and
Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and
Democracy.

25.  The education ministers stressed their intention to strive resolutely
"to take suitable steps to establish in educational institutions an atmosphere
contributing to the success of education for international understanding, so
that they become ideal places for the exercise of tolerance, respect for human
rights, the practice of democracy and learning about the diversity and wealth
of cultural identities".  They also pledged to give special attention to
improving curricula, the content of textbooks, and other educational
materials, including new technologies with a view to educating caring and
responsible citizens, open to other cultures, able to appreciate the value of
freedom, respectful of human dignity and differences, and able to prevent
conflicts or resolve them by non-violent means.  The recommendations of that
Conference were adopted by the twenty-eighth General Conference of UNESCO,
meeting in Paris in October-November 1995.

26.  In 1993-1995, the international community adopted a number of other
plans and programmes which are the basis of UNESCO activities in education for
peace, human rights and democracy:  the World Plan of Action on Education for
Human Rights and Democracy (Montreal, 1993); the Declaration and Programme of
Action of the World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna, 1993); and the Plan of
Action for the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education, 1995-2004.

27.  The World Plan of Action conceives human rights in their broadest senses
to include, inter alia, learning about tolerance and acceptance of others,
solidarity, participatory citizenship and the importance of building mutual
respect and understanding.  Accordingly, the Plan calls for the global
mobilization of energies and resources to educate individuals and groups about
human rights.  The Plan has been disseminated widely by UNESCO particularly
through the bulletin Human Rights Teaching.  In its follow-up to the Plan,
UNESCO is aided by an Advisory Committee on Education for Peace, Human Rights
and Democracy.

28.  The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action requests States to
develop specific programmes and strategies for ensuring the widest human
rights education, taking into account the Montreal World Plan of Action. 
UNESCO and its member States are committed to its implementation, with an
emphasis of provisions for fostering mutual understanding, tolerance and
peace, full development of human personality and promotion of values related
to peace, democracy, development and social justice.  This commitment has been
strengthened through an exchange of letters between the Director-General of
UNESCO and the Secretary-General of the United Nations and by UNESCO Executive
Board decision 144 EX/5.1.2, inviting the Director-General to ensure the
highest possible standard of UNESCO activities to implement the Vienna
Declaration and Programme of Action.


                        B.  Actions at the global level

29.  To put these principles into practice, UNESCO engages in a variety of
activities, including the publication and dissemination of educational
materials in many languages.  A list of these materials which present and
explain the various normative instruments and declarations promoting human
rights and a culture of peace is provided in the appendix to the present
report.

30.  Emphasis is placed on textbook research and revision with a view to the
improvement of textbooks as instruments of peace, human rights, democracy,
tolerance, international and intercultural understanding.  UNESCO works with
the Georg-Eckert Institute on Textbook Research of Germany within the
framework of the International Textbook Research Network and in bilateral and
multilateral consultations with member States, including the preparation of
guidelines on the most effective procedures and methodologies for textbook
writing and revision.

31.  The teaching of peace, justice, solidarity and intercultural cooperation
is the priority of the UNESCO Associated Schools Project (ASP), which links
over 3,700 schools and teacher training institutions in 129 countries. 
Students and teachers take part in the production of ASP materials; thus, the
new brochure "No to violence" is composed of contributions from ASP schools in
Brazil, Estonia, Germany, Haiti, Sri Lanka and Zaire.  Materials promoting a
culture of peace are also being produced by the students and teachers who
participated in the regional culture of peace festivals which took place in
Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Greece, Grenada, Jordan, Thailand and Zimbabwe.  The
festivals were organized in 1995 by ASP and the UNESCO Culture of Peace
Programme to mark the fiftieth anniversary of UNESCO and the United Nations. 
Among the initiatives of ASP taking place in 1996 are the "Global Teach-in"
workshops in 11 countries, the International Conference on Peace and Tolerance
at the Jewish Arab Institute in Israel, and the International Forum for
Solidarity against Intolerance, for a Dialogue of Cultures, in Georgia. 
Solidarity is an important aspect of ASP activities.  As an example, the
German ASP network has campaigned since 1994 to raise support for schools in
Bosnia and Herzegovina.

32.  The UNESCO LINGUAPAX project is designed to promote peace, human rights,
democracy, tolerance and humanistic values through the teaching of mother and
foreign languages, with special attention to the linguistic and cultural
rights of minorities.  In addition to the publication and dissemination of
materials, the project will hold regional seminars in Bolivia, Burkina Faso,
Japan, Luxembourg and Spain in 1996-1997.

33.  UNESCO cooperates closely with the academic community in the promotion
of human rights education.  Annual meetings of directors of human rights
institutes provide an opportunity for discussing new modalities of action for
human rights education at institutional levels.  UNESCO Chairs in human
rights, democracy and peace promote an integrated system of research, training
and information activities and facilitate subregional and regional cooperation
between university researchers and teachers.  In addition to Chairs already
established in 19 countries of Africa, Europe, the Arab States and Latin
America, new Chairs are being established in 1996 in Madagascar, Mexico,
Morocco and South Africa.  A regional Culture of Peace Chair is being set up
in the Latin America and the Caribbean region, embracing various universities
and academic institutions, to mobilize and renew curricula dealing with
preventive diplomacy and peace-building.  With the College of Mexico, a
"virtual" Culture of Peace Chair has been established beginning in 1996.

34.  Exemplary actions for the teaching of human rights and peace are
recognized through the biennial UNESCO Prize for the Teaching of Human Rights
and the annual UNESCO Prize for Peace Education.  The Prize for the Teaching
of Human Rights was awarded in 1994 to the Philippine Commission on Human
Rights for its training of Filipino armed forces and police, and to Mr. Jose
Zalaquett Daher of Chile for his teaching of human rights in the context of
Amnesty International.  The Prize for Peace Education was awarded in 1995 to
the Austrian Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution Studies and the European
University Centre for Peace Studies.  In addition, UNESCO launched a prize of
Mayors for Peace at the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements
(Habitat II), held at Istanbul in June 1996.  The prize will recognize cities
which have contributed to peace by means of various activities, including
exemplary actions in education, particularly civics education, and to combat
exclusion and promote intercommunity dialogue.  The establishment of a data
bank of "best practices" is foreseen.

35.  An Ibero-American meeting of Human Rights Ombudsmen was held recently in
Antigua, Guatemala.  The participants signed a declaration committing
themselves to promote justice and respect for human rights and established a
network of Human Rights Ombudsmen for a culture of peace.

36.  The main objective of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights
Education, 1995-2004 is to make an assessment of needs and the formulation of
effective strategies for the furtherance of human rights education.  The
Executive Board of UNESCO, recognizing the organization's role and
responsibility in the Decade, urged member States and National Commissions to
participate actively in developing national plans of action for human rights
education as foreseen in the Plan of Action for the Decade.  The Plan of
Action stipulates UNESCO cooperation with the United Nations Centre for Human
Rights to assist the High Commissioner for Human Rights in a preliminary
survey and evaluation of existing human rights education programmes and
initiatives.  A memorandum of cooperation, signed between the High
Commissioner for Human Rights and the Director-General of UNESCO in October
1995, provides the framework for further developing and strengthening
cooperation to that effect.

37.  With the framework of the Plan of Action for the Decade, UNESCO
conducted in 1995 a preliminary country survey and evaluation of human rights
education in nine countries in different regions of the world.  A prototype
was developed by means of a workshop in collaboration with the Indian
Institute of Advanced Study, which surveyed the Indian national experience. 
The final report includes:  (a) the legal and policy framework of human rights
education; (b) human rights at different levels of education - primary,
secondary and higher education; (c) minorities and human rights education;
(d) the role of the media in education for human rights and democracy; and (e)
education for democracy.

38.  A separate report has been submitted by UNESCO in its capacity as lead
agency for the United Nations Year for Tolerance (in response to General
Assembly resolution 49/213 of 23 December 1994, and before the General
Assembly under item 110 (b) of its agenda in document A/51/201).  However,
note should be taken here of the significant contribution of these activities
to education for peace, democracy and human rights.  Taking into consideration
the many regional conferences and local meetings held within the framework of
the United Nations Year for Tolerance, the General Conference of UNESCO, at
its twenty-eighth session adopted the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance. 
The Declaration defined tolerance as "an active attitude" and a
"responsibility that upholds human rights, pluralism (including cultural
pluralism), democracy and the rule of law".  It commits the member States to
"support and implement programmes of social science research and education for
tolerance, human rights and non-violence".  They commit themselves to putting
this into practice by "devoting special attention to improving teacher
training, curricula, the content of textbooks and lessons, and other
educational materials, including new educational technologies, with a view to
educating caring and responsible citizens open to other cultures, able to
appreciate the value of freedom, respectful of human dignity and differences,
and able to prevent conflicts or resolve them by non-violent means". 9/

39.  In the recent report to UNESCO by the International Commission on
Education for the Twenty-first Century, four pillars of education are proposed
- learning to know, to do, to be and to live together - with the greatest
weight placed on the fourth.  This represents the management of conflict by
working together on common projects.  As elaborated by the Chairman of the
Commission, Mr. Jacques Delors, in his introduction, people may learn to live
together "by developing an understanding of others and their history,
traditions and spiritual values and, on this basis, creating a new spirit
which, guided by recognition of our growing interdependence and a common
analysis of the risks and challenges of the future, would induce people to
implement common projects or to manage the inevitable conflicts in an
intelligent and peaceful way. 10/

40.  Under the specific circumstances prevailing for many people today, it is
not enough to confine learning to the traditional schooling situation. 
Therefore, taking full advantage of modern technology, UNESCO has expanded its
educational activities, through its new programme "Learning without
frontiers", in order to meet the learning needs of the unreached and to
respond to the challenge of lifelong learning.  Through programmes of
training, professional exchange, policy development, development and promotion
of affordable technology use, and the organization of partnerships and
networks, both academic and vocational education is made increasingly
available to everyone.  Designed to eliminate the barriers of space, time, age
and circumstance which have prevented access to education, the programme is
considered by the organization to be a vital contribution to the establishment
of a culture of peace.  It includes intensive audiovisual learning of basic
skills for illiterates in their mother tongue as an essential first step for
those who have been demobilized from war, who live in dispersed human
settlements, or who for other reasons have not had access to the educational
mainstream.

41.  In any society with the phenomenon of street children, one finds either
open or latent violence.  Urgent measures must be adopted worldwide to
eradicate this shameful effect of social injustice.  For its part, UNESCO is
developing the capacity of the member States to provide education to street
children in the context of its programme "Education for All", thus promoting
their reinsertion into society.

42.  Under the leadership of the United Nations Drug Control Programme
(UNDCP), UNESCO participates fully in education to prevent drug addiction,
which affects the lives of young people so severely and even irreversibly. 
The Culture of Peace Programme contributes to a better understanding of the
reasons underlying the problem of drug addiction and to providing the values
and hope required to overcome it.  It is indispensable to prevent not only
demand but also trafficking, which involves money-laundering and the financial
interests of hundreds of billions of dollars.

43.  Specific educational content for peace is encouraged and disseminated by
UNESCO in special messages from opinion leaders and authorities, such as
religious representatives, scientists and women leaders.

44.  Representatives of different religious traditions adopted the
Declaration on the Role of Religions in the Promotion of a Culture of Peace at
a meeting sponsored by UNESCO in Barcelona, Spain, in 1994.  In that
Declaration, the participants committed themselves to resolve or transform
conflicts without using violence, and to prevent them through education and
pursuit of justice.  They placed emphasis on education for peace, freedom and
human rights, and religious education to promote openness and tolerance.

45.  Scientists, too, have spoken out from their expert knowledge on the
bases for education for a culture of peace.  Meeting in Seville, Spain, in
1986, at the request of the Spanish National Commission for UNESCO, an
international team of scientists issued a Statement on Violence countering the
commonly believed myth that war is inherent in human nature.  The Statement
was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in 1989.  Speaking from the
relevant disciplines of animal behaviour, psychology, brain research, genetics
and anthropology, the scientists rejected the idea that war is genetically
programmed into human nature or inherited from animal ancestors.  They
concluded that "the same species who invented war is capable of inventing
peace.  The responsibility lies with each of us." 11/

46.  Education for a culture of peace was taken up by participants in the
Fourth World Conference on Women, convened by the United Nations in Beijing in
September 1995, and integrated into the Platform for Action.  The UNESCO
Statement on Women's Contribution to a Culture of Peace, emphasizing that
"efforts to move towards a culture of peace must be founded in education", was
signed by eminent participants at the Beijing Conference.  Keeping in mind
that "girls and women constitute a large majority of the world's educationally
excluded and unreached", it called for equality in education as the key to
meeting other requirements for a culture of peace.  It is important to tap the
full capacity of women for leadership, as they can be the "source of
innovative and much-needed approaches to peace-building". 12/  Specific
recommendations for education towards a culture of peace, as a follow-up to
the Beijing Conference, have been set forth in the report of the Commission on
the Status of Women, at its fortieth session in March 1996 (se E/CN.6/1996/6).


             C.  Education in national culture of peace programmes

47.  Education is key to the task of reconciliation and reconstruction
undertaken by national culture of peace programmes.  This incudes non-formal
and informal education by means of the mass media and other systems of
communication as well as formal systems of schooling.

48.  In keeping with the basic principle of national culture of peace
programmes, projects are planned and implemented through a process involving
all sides of the conflicts from which the country is recovering.  National
forums and dialogues to launch such programmes have been held in a number of
countries, including El Salvador (1993), Burundi (1994), Congo (1994), Somalia
(1995) and Sudan (1995, 1996).

49.  In the El Salvador programme, the first major project to be carried out
is the production of daily radio broadcasts and non-formal education campaigns
for the most needy and neglected women in the country.  Not only was the
project planned by representatives of the Government, the Farabundi Marti
National Liberation Front (FMLN) opposition and the radio stations, but even
the technical committee which does the day-to-day work of the project is
composed of representatives from all three.

50.  The radio programmes, broadcast daily by 24 stations by the beginning of
1996, deal with the legal rights of women, violence against women, sharing of
domestic work and women's values and self-esteem.  The radio programmes are
participatory; their contents are gathered by a network of community
correspondents coming from diverse sectors of Salvadorian society.  A second
stage of the project will launch non-formal educational campaigns on related
themes for women, beginning with visits to radio listeners by one of 1,500
female and male campaign promoters.

51.  Similar involvement of both formal educational systems and non-formal
education through the mass media have characterized the development of
national culture of peace programmes in Burundi, Mozambique and Rwanda.  In
each case, the guidelines are set forth in a national forum or by a national
steering committee, and the projects involve all sides to the conflict in
their planning and implementation.  In Mozambique, the programme sponsored the
First National Conference on Culture of Peace and Human Rights, at Maputo in
January 1996; the participants included high-level government officials,
leaders of opposition parties, non-governmental organizations, media
representatives and parliamentarians who debated on the legal system,
education for peace, social communication, women's issues and traditional
culture.  The Conference was covered extensively by television, radio and the
printed press.

52.  In Rwanda, a UNESCO plan of action was signed by the Director-General of
UNESCO and the Minister of High Education, Research and culture involving a
total value of US$ 2.6 million.  A wide range of actions are foreseen,
following recommendations from the National Consultation on a Culture of Peace
held at Kigali in January 1996.  These include a contribution to reform the
educational system, rehabilitation and reorganization of the judicial system,
and training of media professionals.

53.  In Burundi, the programme is run from the "House of the Culture of
Peace" established by UNESCO in conjunction with other United Nations and
international agencies and staffed with national specialists in education,
communication, culture and human rights for peace.  The first action was the
National Forum in December 1994, which brought together the full range of
government and non-governmental actors to make recommendations for activities
to facilitate the process of peace and reconciliation.  On the basis of these
recommendations, there have been a series of seminars and educational
initiatives.  In July and September 1995, in collaboration with UNDP, the
United Nations Centre for Human Rights, government organizations and the
Burundian Association of Journalists, UNESCO organized two seminars on the
role of the media in promoting peace in Burundi.  In collaboration with the
Ligue ITEKA, a local non-governmental organization for human rights, UNESCO
provided training for the teaching of human rights and democracy in secondary
schools, in which about 60 teachers from 13 secondary schools participated. 
Two workshops on peace and human rights were organized in October 1995 in
collaboration with the Ministry of Youth, with the support of the delegation
of the European Union; the workshops were attended by 111 youth counsellors. 
In December 1995, training seminars on human rights for local government
officials were held in two provinces, organized in collaboration with UNDP and
the Ministry of Interior.

54.  A million-dollar, multidisciplinary UNESCO Plan of Action for Burundi,
1996-1997, was announced by the Director-General of UNESCO in March 1996.  The
plan includes, among its many provisions, rehabilitation of school
infrastructure damaged during the conflict, support to the creation of a
research and training centre for peace education and conflict resolution,
programmes of culture of peace training for women, support to youth
associations for peace, and training of media professionals.

55.  Education and communication are central to the activities being carried
out in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia within the
framework of the International Forum for Solidarity against Intolerance, for a
Dialogue of Cultures, held at Tbilisi, Georgia, in 1995.  Among these
initiatives are the foundation of a UNESCO Culture of Peace Teachers
Association, which is engaging in teacher training in the context of a
multinational society, and a series of television broadcasts on education for
tolerance and peace by the Russian Federation television programme "Obvious
yet Incredible", with more than 10 million viewers in the region.

56.  An important contribution to the reconciliation has been made through
UNESCO support for the independent media in a number of regions.  In the
former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, where radio had been used in some cases to
promote enemy images of other ethnic groups, UNESCO, in collaboration with
non-governmental organizations and other international organizations, has
supported the development and sustainability of the independent media which
bridge ethnic divisions and promote reconciliation.  Similarly, UNESCO support
for independent and community radio is making possible the use of the media by
the people themselves for peace and reconciliation in Haiti and the
Palestinian autonomous territories.

57.  In recognition of the many UNESCO programmes to support the independent
media in the region, the United Nations, in its revised consolidated
Inter-agency Appeal for former Yugoslavia (January-December 1996), decided
that UNESCO would be the lead agency for assistance to the independent media,
indispensable for the establishment of democratic society.  In this respect,
UNESCO and the authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina have agreed on the
following priority projects:  creation of a private network of independent
radio and television broadcasters, rehabilitation of RTV Bilt and RTV Pale as
public service broadcasters; training for media professionals; and drafting of
new media legislation.

58.  School programmes, which include education for peace, conflict
resolution and multiculturalism, have been elaborated by UNESCO for Bosnia and
Herzegovina, in coordination with other international agencies.  It is planned
to train teachers and students in the needed skills, to reach all schools in
the country with materials on tolerance and international understanding and to
stimulate exchanges of experiences in conflict resolution at faculties of
philosophy in other countries of the region, including Croatia, the former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

59.  In Rwanda, where radio was used to broadcast the propaganda of violence
during the genocide in 1994, UNESCO, in cooperation with a French
non-governmental organization, supported the establishment of Radio Gatashya
(literally, "the swallow that brings good news") to provide independent
information to Rwandan refugees in nearby countries.  With the help of another
non-governmental organization, over 3,000 portable radios were dispatched to
refugees so that they could listen to the station.  Within Rwanda, assistance
is being given for the development of the independent media, including
transformation of the national radio-television into a public service station
with an editorial policy independent from political and ethnic powers.

60.  A similar programme of information for a culture of peace to be
broadcast by radio is being planned as a key part of a new programme in
Somalia.  This is based on the recommendations of a UNESCO-sponsored symposium
held at San'a, Yemen, in 1995 on the culture of peace, which brought together
Somali intellectuals from all sides of the conflict in that country.

61.  The education of demobilized soldiers receives special emphasis in
national culture of peace programmes.  The demobilized, in many cases, have
missed out on basic education as a result of being forced into military
service.  Their reinsertion into civil society can be a key component of the
process of post-conflict reconciliation and reconstruction, and with
education, rather than being a liability, they can serve as important actors
in the peace process.  In this regard, UNESCO is sponsoring an international
conference of demobilized soldiers' organizations at Maputo in December 1996.

62.  Training is a key component of national culture of peace programmes.  In
order to facilitate the process of cooperation in the development process
between former enemies, a priority is placed on the training of "peace
promoters", who help them jointly design and implement projects of human
development which can produce results of benefit to all.  These peace
promoters, who may be teachers, journalists, social workers or development
workers, are trained to use local as well as universal methods of mediation
and conflict resolution.  They function for a culture of peace in the same way
that literacy promoters are at the heart of literacy campaigns.


                           III.  TOWARDS THE FUTURE

63.  In establishing the transdisciplinary project "Towards a culture of
peace", the General Conference of UNESCO, meeting in October/November 1995,
placed it at the heart of the organization's Medium-term Strategy for 1996-
2001, which emphasizes the "two objectives common to the United Nations system
as a whole, namely, development and peace".  Seeing these objectives as
inseparable, UNESCO member States called for renewed approaches and
determination to achieve them through the promotion of a culture of peace. 
With education as the key modality in this enterprise, the General Conference
set a long-term goal of "a comprehensive system of education and training for
peace, human rights and democracy ... that is intended for all groups of
people and embraces all levels of education, whether formal or non-
formal". 13/

64.  The General Conference formulated a strategy of broad and extensive
partnerships for the realization of the project:  "the organization's strategy
will consist in mobilizing both individuals and institutions (Governments,
educators, the media, families, parliaments, businesses, trade unions,
non-governmental organizations, etc.) so that everyone may receive an
education and appropriate training". 14/  Hence, much of the initial emphasis
of the project has been to contact and engage potential partners from all of
these sectors in common action for a culture of peace.  For example, in June
1996 the new educational programmes for a culture of peace were shared with
mayors meeting at the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat
II) at Istanbul and with parliamentarians at the Inter-parliamentary Union
Conference on Education, Science, Culture and Communication on the eve of the
Twenty-first Century held at UNESCO headquarters in Paris.

65.  Within this framework, UNESCO plans to launch an interregional project
for culture of peace and non-violence in educational institutions.  The
guidelines for the project were developed in Sintra, Portugal, in May 1996, at
an international forum of educational experts from around the world, many of
them coming from schools located in areas of urban violence and war-torn
societies.  The project will establish a network to facilitate exchange of
experiences and to provide recognition and resources to those working for a
culture of peace and non-violence in schools, with an emphasis on regions of
the world that suffer from violent conflict.  Pilot projects are expected to
have a multiplier effect through training, curriculum development, research
and wide dissemination of results.  The project will be linked closely to the
work of the UNESCO Associated Schools Project.

66.  These new educational initiatives for a culture of peace are linked to
and extend those of national culture of peace programmes in Africa and Central
America.  They extend to a global level the principle developed in these
programmes, which is to transform conflict into cooperation for human
development.  Therefore, they are characterized by the participation of the
entire educational community.  Educational institutions located in areas of
conflict, rather than being avoided, are the first choice of pilot projects
and for attention.

67.  It is essential that educational activities for a culture of peace be
integrally linked to peace-building activities of the society as a whole.  In
order to build a culture of peace in the next generation, young people need to
be involved in the full range of peace-building activities, including
sustainable development, justice and democracy.  Schools should nurture,
through organization and practice, tomorrow's citizens capable of democratic
participation.  They should be centres where the community, including
students, plan and implement actions for human development.

68.  The process must not be limited to schools, but extended to the full
range of non-formal educational activities.  As seen in national culture of
peace programmes, the mass media and other non-formal communication make
possible the full participation of the community, including all sides of
conflicts, in peace-building.  In this regard, a meeting of Latin American
journalists, for a culture of peace will take place in December 1996.  It is
hoped that this will contribute to a process by which the media become fully
involved in peace-building actions.

69.  Special emphasis is being placed on the involvement of the miliary and
its educational institutions.  The end of the East-West confrontation, the
shift from violence between nations to violence within nations, the increase
in United Nations peacekeeping operations - all these dramatic changes lead to
a new concept of security, prompting the military to reconceptualize its role
and retrain its personnel.  Training in human rights and non-violent conflict
resolution, the fundamentals of a culture of peace, is becoming part of the
order of the day.  At the same time, it is increasingly appreciated that the
skills and resources of the military, with appropriate coordination,
transparency and education, can make great contributions to peaceful social
change.  A number of recent meetings have unanimously supported the
contribution of the military to peace-building and conflict resolution:  the
seminar "Security for Peace:  Peace-building and Peacekeeping" held at the
Inter-American Defence College in Washington D.C., in April 1995; the Central
American Military Forum for a Culture of Peace, held in El Salvador in
June 1996; and the international symposium "From Partial Insecurity to Global
Security" organized jointly by UNESCO and the Institute of Advanced Studies of
National Defence of France, in Paris, in June 1996.  The symposium involved
the directors of defence institutes and high-level representatives of the
armies of more than 40 countries.

70.  What is needed today is a global training effort for non-violent social
change that transforms conflict into cooperation for human development. 
Through both formal schooling and the popular media, people need to learn the
skills of dialogue, negotiation and consensus.  These skills might be called
the "second literacy" which, in its own way, is as important for future
generations as reading and writing.  While the contents of the educational
messages must be based on universal principles, they must at the same time
develop out of the traditions and experiences of the people concerned as they
struggle to make development democratic and participatory.  UNESCO is prepared
to take the lead in coordinating such a global training effort, fulfilling its
mandate to construct the defences of peace in the minds of men and women.  In
the past it has contributed to make available at the global level the
universal principles of justice that have been elaborated in the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights and many subsequent standard-setting instruments. 
Now it is prepared to extend the process of training in conflict
transformation to everyone through the linkage of educational and media
systems to the process of participatory development.

71.  The linkage of actions for a culture of peace to the process of
development ensures that they will contribute to the drastic reduction of
poverty and exclusion which most often lie at the roots of violent conflict. 
Through imaginative new modalities of action, such as micro-credits, the
promotion of women's handicrafts and other productive activities, the economic
situation of the poor and the quality of rural life can be improved, thus
decreasing migration to urban slums.

72.  By promoting a culture of peace, the process launched by An Agenda for
Peace can be extended from peacekeeping to the prevention of violent
conflicts.  Prevention is the key, as problems are more difficult to solve
after they have reached a stage of crisis.  Although action taken to prevent
conflict is often invisible and unrecognized, in the long term it is more
economical and sustainable, and it is a necessary condition for the advances
in human development, justice and democracy on which our common future
depends.


                                     Notes

     1/  Preamble of the Constitution of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization.

     2/  An Agenda for Peace (A/47/277-S/24111), chap. VI.

     3/  Development and international economic cooperation:  An Agenda for
Development (A/48/935), chap. II.A, para. 23.

     4/  A/50/60-S/1995/1.

     5/  A/48/935, chap. II.A, para. 30.

     6/  Ibid., chap. I, paras. 3 and 11.

     7/  Ibid., chap. II.C, para. 93.

     8/  Preamble of the Constitution of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization.

     9/  Records of the Twenty-eighth General Conference of the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, vol. 1, Resolutions
5.6, Declaration of Principles on Tolerance and Follow-Up Plan of Action for
the United Nations Year for Tolerance, arts. 1 and 4.

     10/ Learning:  The Treasure Within, Report to UNESCO of the
International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, UNESCO,
1996. 

     11/ Seville Statement on Violence, UNESCO.

     12/ "Women's Contribution to a Culture of Peace", statement by the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization at the Fourth
World Conference on Women, Beijing, September 1995.

     13/ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,
Medium-term Strategy, 1996-2001 (28C/4), paras, 52 and 157.

     14/ Ibid., para. 157.


                                   APPENDIX

                  UNESCO publications promoting human rights
                            and a culture of peace


Becoming Aware:  Human Rights and the Family

Biomedical Technology and Human Rights

Bulletin on Human Rights Teaching (vol. IX in preparation for 1996-1997)

The Culture of Democracy:  a Challenge for Schools (1995) (E,F,S)

Culture et de'mocratie (F,S)

Declaration and Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human 
Rights and Democracy (1993, E,F)

Declaration on the Role of Religions in the Promotion of a Culture of Peace 
(1994)

Declaration of Principles on Tolerance (1995, E,F,S,A,R,C)

Declaration on Women and a Culture of Peace (1995, E,F,S)

Democratic Culture and Governance:  Latin America on the Threshold of the
Third Millennium

Democracy:  An Analytical Survey (E,F,S)

Democracy:  Questions and Answers (E,F,S,A, and other languages)

A document on teaching and research of human rights in higher education in
French-speaking countries (in preparation)

Education for Human Rights:  An International Perspective

A guide on tolerance (in preparation; E,F,S)

Guidelines for Curriculum and Textbook Development in International Education
(E,F,S)

Handbook/Resource and Teaching Material on Conflict Resolution, Education for
Human Rights, Peace and Democracy (A,E,F)

Human Rights in Urban Areas

Human Rights:  Questions and Answers (E,F, other languages in preparation)

The International Dimensions of Human Rights (E,S)

International Dimensions of Humanitarian Law (E,S)

International Law:  Achievements and Prospects (E,F) 

International Practical Guide on the Implementation of the 1974 Recommendation

Introducing Democracy:  80 Questions and Answers

Learning:  The Treasure Within.  The Report of the International Commission on
Education for the Twenty-First Century (1995, E,F)

The Life of Mahatma Gandhi (a colouring book for children) (E,F,S)

Major International Human Rights Instruments (in preparation)

A manual on human rights education for universities (in preparation; E,F,S,R)

A manual on human rights education for primary and secondary schools (in 
preparation)

Memory of the Future (E,F,S)

The New Page (E,F,S,A)

Non-Military Aspects of International Security

Peace:  A New Beginning - special issue of UNESCO Courier, November 1995, 
published in 30 languages

Peace!  An Anthology by the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates

Peace and Conflict Issues (biennial)

Privacy and Human Rights:  An International and Comparative Study, with
Special  Reference to Developments in Information Technology

Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding,
Cooperation and Peace, and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental
Freedoms (1974)

A Richer Vision:  The Development of Ethnic Minority Media in Western 
Democracies

A Sense of Belonging:  Guidelines for Values for the Humanistic and 
International Dimension of Education (E,F,S,R)

The Seville Statement on Violence (1991) (E,F,S,A,R)

Ten Ideas for Observing the International Day for Tolerance

Tolerance in films (E,F)

Tolerance:  the Threshold of Peace.  A teaching/learning guide for education
for  peace, human rights and democracy (E,F,S,R)

UNESCO and a Culture of Peace:  Promoting a Global Movement (1995, E; F and S
in  preparation)

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 45th Anniversary (1948-1993,
E,F,A,R, and other languages)

UNESCO Yearbook on Peace and Conflict Studies (1980-1988)

Violations of Human Rights:  Possible Rights of Recourse and Forms of
Resistance

World Directory of Human Rights Research and Training Institutions (annual)

World Directory of Peace Research and Training Institutions (biennial)

World Directory of Research and Training Institutions in International Law 
(biennial)


                                     -----


     Note.  The above publications are in English, unless otherwise
indicated.
 

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Date last posted: 28 December 1999 17:35:10
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