United Nations

A/51/350


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

25 September 1996

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


                                                        A/51/350
                                                              

General Assembly
Fifty-first session
Agenda item 96 (d)


        SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION:
                          POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

        Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International
                   Conference on Population and Development

                        Report of the Secretary-General

                                   CONTENTS
                                                              Paragraphs Page

 I.   INTRODUCTION .........................................    1 - 2      3

II.   COORDINATION AND COLLABORATION BY THE UNITED NATIONS
      SYSTEM IN IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ICPD PROGRAMME OF
      ACTION ...............................................    3 - 39     3

      A. Inter-Agency Task Force ..........................     4 - 6      3

      B. ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All ..     7 - 15     4

      C. United Nations system follow-up...................    16 - 39     6

III.  NATIONAL PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ICPD
      PROGRAMME OF ACTION ..................................   40 - 55    14

      A. National initiatives .............................    41 - 48    14

      B. Partnership with non-governmental organizations ..    49 - 55    16

IV.   SOUTH-SOUTH COOPERATION ..............................   56 - 61    18

      A. Partners in Population and Development ...........    58 - 60    18

      B. Centres of excellence for South-South cooperation       61       19

 V.   FLOW OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR ASSISTING THE
      IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ICPD PROGRAMME OF ACTION .......   62 - 81    20

      A. Consultation .....................................    66 - 67    21

      B. Flow of financial resources ......................    68 - 76    21

      C. 20/20 initiative .................................    77 - 81    23

VI.   COMMISSION ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT .............   82 - 87    24

VII.  IMPLEMENTATION BY THE GOVERNING BODY OF THE UNITED
      NATIONS POPULATION FUND ..............................   88 - 92    25


                               I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   The present report has been prepared in response to General
Assembly resolution 50/124, in which the Assembly requested the
Secretary-General to report to it at its fifty-first session, through
the Economic and Social Council, on the implementation of the
resolution.

2.   The report examines many of the themes addressed in Assembly
resolution 50/124.  Section II examines coordination and collaboration
by the United Nations system in implementing the Programme of Action
of the International Conference on Population and Development
(ICPD), 1/ in particular through the Inter-Agency Task Force
established for that purpose and its successor the ACC Task Force on
Basic Social Services for All.  Section III provides a brief overview
of progress made at the national level in implementing the Programme
of Action.  Section IV highlights some important recent developments
in the area of South-South cooperation.  Section V examines the flow
of resources for population assistance from primary sources to
recipient countries.  Section VI examines the outcomes of the work of
the Commission on Population and Development.  Finally, Section VII
briefly reviews actions taken by the governing body of the United
Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) to facilitate the implementation of
both the ICPD Programme of Action and Assembly resolution 50/124.


         II.  COORDINATION AND COLLABORATION BY THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM
              IN IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ICPD PROGRAMME OF ACTION

3.   In keeping with paragraph 18 of General Assembly
resolution 50/124, the relevant organs, organizations and programmes
of the United Nations system and the specialized agencies have
continued and enhanced their cooperation and coordination in the
implementation of the Programme of Action, in particular through the
Inter-Agency Task Force on Implementation of the ICPD Programme of
Action, chaired by the Executive Director of UNFPA.  The present
section highlights the work of the ICPD Task Force and its successor,
the ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All, and describes
(selectively because of space limitations) some of the activities
undertaken by Task Force members in implementing the Programme of
Action.


A.  Inter-Agency Task Force

4.   The Inter-Agency Task Force on the Implementation of the ICPD
Programme of Action established six working groups to address key
areas for action corresponding to the objectives of the Programme of
Action, on (a) basic education, with special attention to gender
disparities, led by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO); (b) policy-related issues, led by
UNFPA; (c) a common approach to national capacity-building in tracking
child and maternal mortality, led by the United Nations Children's
Fund (UNICEF); (d) reproductive health, led by the World Health
Organization (WHO); (e) women's empowerment, led by the United Nations
Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM); and (f) international migration,
led by the International Labour Organization (ILO).  The working
groups functioned in a responsive and coordinated manner with a
commitment to producing results in a timely fashion.  The central
focus of the work of the Task Force has been to enhance United Nations
system-wide collaboration at the country level.  To that end and
cognizant of the need for the specialized agencies and all related
organizations of the system to take into consideration the specific
needs of developing countries, as requested in paragraph 20 of
Assembly resolution 50/124, the Task Force developed and issued
guidelines for the United Nations resident coordinator system in
September 1995, on the occasion of the first anniversary of ICPD.

5.   The guidelines, which are also available electronically on the
Internet, have been widely disseminated and address the following key
areas of the Programme of Action:  reproductive health; women's
empowerment; basic education with special attention to gender
disparities; a common approach to national capacity-building in
tracking child and maternal mortality; and international migration. 
In addition, the Task Force developed and adopted a common advocacy
statement, in which it emphasizes that population is an integral
component of development strategies; the statement was endorsed by ACC
at its second regular session of 1995.

6.   The main objective of the guidelines is to provide the field,
particularly the resident coordinator system, with guidance on
operationalizing the ICPD Programme of Action at the country level. 
The guidelines will facilitate more integrated planning and
coordination of United Nations inputs for achieving ICPD goals within
a national development framework, and will help foster closer dialogue
and collaboration between the United Nations system, Governments and
other development partners, including bilateral agencies,
non-governmental organizations and civil society.  The guidelines
build on arrangements that are already in place, including the country
strategy note process; throughout, their underlying concern is to seek
ways to foster the enabling environment that is called for in the ICPD
Programme of Action.


B.  ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All

7.   In October 1995, ACC established three task forces to galvanize
the United Nations system around priority goals emerging from the
recent global conferences, and to rationalize and strengthen the
system's follow-up mechanisms for delivering coordinated assistance at
the country and regional levels.  The task forces also provide a
useful mechanism for promoting coherent and coordinated action at the
country level on other system-wide initiatives, including the United
Nations Special Initiative on Africa and the Inter-Agency Committee on
Women.

8.   The Inter-Agency Task Force was expanded and reconstituted as the
ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All; chaired by UNFPA. 
The ACC Task Force on Employment and Sustainable Livelihoods is
chaired by the ILO, and the ACC Task Force on an Enabling Environment
for Economic and Social Development is chaired by the World Bank.  The
mandate of the ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All
encompasses the following areas:  (a) population, with an emphasis on
reproductive health and family planning services; (b) basic education;
(c) primary health care; (d) drinking water and sanitation;
(e) shelter; and (f) social services in post-crisis situations.

9.   At its first meeting, on 23 February 1996, the ACC Task Force on
Basic Social Services for All agreed to establish two working groups,
one on basic education (led by UNESCO) and the other on primary health
care (led by WHO and UNICEF), and to continue three of the working
groups mentioned in paragraph 4 above, on reproductive health,
international migration and a common approach to national
capacity-building in tracking child and maternal mortality.  Those
sectoral working groups will take into account six cross-cutting
dimensions:  selection/use of indicators; financing and resource
mobilization; gender perspective; targeting specific groups, including
in post-crisis/emergency situations; policy; and involvement of civil
society.  In addition, the dimensions of nutrition, the environment
and shelter will be taken into consideration, as appropriate.

10.  Using the modality of working groups, the ACC Task Force on Basic
Social Services for All is in the process of producing the following
five end-products: guidelines building on the earlier guidelines for
the United Nations resident coordinator system, ensuring that they are
developed to include the above-mentioned six cross-cutting dimensions;
a wall-chart on social indicators; a publication on lessons
learned/best practices in social sector assistance; selection/use of
indicators; and a pocket-card on advocacy.

11.  Key areas of concern in the ICPD Programme of Action are
encompassed by the ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All,
which, with its strategic focus on poverty eradication, will create a
synergy pivotal to achieving the goals of the Programme of Action. 
ICPD was a watershed event that marked a paradigm shift from a focus
on demographic targets to a focus on people-centred development:  its
Programme of Action emphasizes the numerous linkages between
population and development, and focuses on meeting the needs of
individual women and men.  Poverty eradication, which is the
overarching goal of the ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for
All (and indeed of the whole ACC system-wide initiative), is
intimately linked to the central ICPD theme of the interrelatedness of
population, sustained economic growth and sustainable development. 
The momentum of ICPD follow-up will be enhanced and strengthened by
the synergy generated by the three ACC task forces; in particular, the
focus on providing basic social services for all will help foster the
enabling environment necessary to achieve the goals of the Programme
of Action.

The need for indicators

12.  It is difficult to monitor population and development programmes
in general and measure progress in achieving the goals of recent
United Nations global conferences in the absence of reliable
indicators.  In particular, there is a strong need for the development
of indicators in such areas as gender equality, reproductive health,
women's participation, male involvement in reproductive health and
family planning, and resource mobilization.  In other areas where
several indicators exist, there is a need to select appropriate
indicators that will allow countries and organizations to adopt a more
coherent and unified approach in monitoring progress in achieving
conference goals.

13.  Recognizing that clear need, all three ACC task forces are making
a concerted effort to focus on selecting appropriate indicators for
monitoring progress in achieving priority goals of recent United
Nations conferences, while ensuring that unnecessary duplication is
avoided.  The chairs of the three task forces met in July during the
substantive session of 1996 of the Economic and Social Council to
discuss the issue.  It has been agreed that contact will be maintained
with other United Nations system partners working in the area of
indicators.  The ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All has
accepted UNICEF's offer to make available indicators (in the area of
health and education) used in monitoring the World Summit for
Children.  At the same time, UNESCO, which is the lead agency of the
Working Group on Basic Education of the ACC Task Force on Basic Social
Services for All, is in the process of finalizing the selection of
indicators to monitor progress in achieving conference goals
pertaining to basic education, including special attention to gender
disparities.  Under the aegis of the ACC Task Force, the Population
Division of the Department for Economic and Social Information and
Policy Analysis of the United Nations Secretariat, in collaboration
with UNFPA, is producing a wall-chart on social indicators.  The
wall-chart will illustrate where countries are and where they need to
be in order to reach the goals of conferences pertaining to basic
social services.  The ACC Task Force is also following up on
additional work pertaining to a common data system for tracking
maternal, child and infant mortality, which was initiated under the
Inter-Agency Task Force on ICPD Implementation.

14.  To enable agencies to keep track of the various undertakings in
the area of indicators, UNFPA suggested at the July meeting of the ACC
Task Force on an Enabling Environment for Economic and Social
Development that the Department for Economic and Social Information
and Policy Analysis compile and share with all members of the Task
Force a list of the various initiatives on indicators that are
currently under way.  The meeting agreed that that would be very
useful, and the Department agreed to provide such a list.

15.  The three ACC task forces have also agreed that the Working Group
on Indicators set up by the Task Force on an Enabling Environment for
Economic and Social Development will also function to serve the needs
of the other two task forces, thereby avoiding duplication of effort,
while enabling greater coordination in the key area of developing
indicators to monitor progress in achieving conference goals.


C.  United Nations system follow-up

16.  In paragraph 19 of its resolution 50/124 the General Assembly
emphasizes the need to maintain the momentum of follow-up activities
related to ICPD and its Programme of Action so as to utilize, to the
fullest extent possible, existing capacity within the United Nations
system in the area of population and development, including the
Commission on Population and Development, the Population Division,
UNFPA, and other organizations, funds and programmes of the United
Nations and the specialized agencies whose continued support and
commitment are required for the successful implementation of the full
range of activities outlined in the ICPD Programme of Action, and
invites them to work closely in the preparation of reports for the
Commission on Population and Development.

17.  ICPD provided new impetus to advocacy and programming in such key
areas as reproductive rights and reproductive health, and population
information, education and communication, and United Nations bodies
are adjusting their programmes and activities in line with its
Programme of Action.  All members of the ACC Task Force on Basic
Social Services for All are emphasizing collaboration and coordination
with other United Nations bodies, as well as with other development
partners, particularly non-governmental organizations.  Task Force
members had provided information on their activities in the
implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action for inclusion in the
report of the Inter-Agency Task Force (E/CN.9/1996/4) presented to the
Commission on Population and Development at its twenty-ninth session. 
In addition to the collaborative efforts undertaken in the context of
the Inter-Agency Task Force, several Task Force members have
intensified their activities in key areas of the Programme of Action,
in keeping with their respective mandates.

18.  The Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), which served on the
Inter-Agency Task Force as focal point for all the regional
commissions, has been conducting research on fertility and the family. 
With funding from UNFPA, ECE has initiated a series of activities
leading to the collection and analysis of comparable survey data on
fertility and the family in various ECE member States, including
10 countries with economies in transition.  Although ECE has only a
small demographic research unit working on reproductive health, the
area is of special concern in central and eastern Europe, where there
is a need for much more research on reproductive health issues,
particularly family planning, and on the supervision and supply of
services, including examination of the transition from abortion to the
use of contraception services.  ECE has been collaborating with WHO in
that area and plans to intensify its collaboration with other
international organizations with expertise in reproductive rights and
reproductive health, and in population information, education and
communication.

19.  The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
(ESCAP) organized in November 1995 the first session of the
Inter-organization Subcommittee on Population and Development in Asia
and the Pacific, aimed at implementing the Bali Declaration on
Population and Sustainable Development and the ICPD Programme of
Action.  In addition, various intercountry research projects and
training courses were conducted.  Technical assistance was provided in
such areas as reproductive health and family planning, the family and
the elderly, female migration, demographic analyses and information
development.  Activities of the Asia-Pacific Population Information
Network focused on upgrading members' technical skills in database
development, improving population information management and network,
and enhancing information dissemination.

20.  At the twenty-fifth session of the Economic Commission for Latin
America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) in Cartagena, April 1994, it was
agreed that the inputs generated by ICPD should be incorporated into
the regional plan of action, which was finalized in late 1995 with
full participation of the member countries of ECLAC.  The plan, in
addition to objectives, goals and recommendations for action in the
field of population and development, includes several regional and
subregional activities to be undertaken to facilitate the achievements
of national objectives.  At the twenty-sixth session of ECLAC (San
Jose', April 1996), the Latin American Demographic Centre (CELADE), as
technical secretariat of the regional plan of action and the Inter-
sessional Ad Hoc Committee on Population and Development, reported on
recent sociodemographic trends and developments in Latin America;
specific challenges to be addressed in the near future; the
institutionalization of population policies; regional and subregional
activities carried out in the sphere of the regional plan; and the
possibilities of obtaining extrabudgetary funding for several
activities included in the plan.

21.  At the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), activities undertaken
in the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action have taken a
variety of forms.  ECA has prepared studies related to the
implementation of two population and development frameworks, the
Dakar/Ngor Declaration on Population, Family and Sustainable
Development and the ICPD Programme of Action; convened an
experts/non-governmental organizations workshop on the Dakar/Ngor
Declaration and the ICPD Programme of Action; participated in the
establishment of the African Population Commission and in subsequent
missions undertaken under its auspices by the Joint ECA/Organization
of African Unity (OAU)/African Development Bank (ADB) secretariat to
assess country experiences of some member States, namely Senegal,
South Africa and Zimbabwe, on the implementation of the Dakar/Ngor
Declaration and the ICPD Programme of Action; and convened a senior
policy seminar on the social impact of the human immunodeficiency
virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in households and
family in Africa, held in Addis Ababa from 2 to 4 October 1995.

22.  To harmonize the activities and the resources of the Follow-up
Committee on the Implementation of the Dakar/Ngor Declaration and the
African Population Commission, the second meeting (scheduled
tentatively for the first week in December 1996) of the Follow-up
Committee will be organized as a preparatory forum to the Second
General Assembly of the African Population Commission.  A task force
of the joint ECA/OAU/ADB secretariat has been entrusted with the
responsibility for coordinating all preparatory activities leading up
to the two meetings.

23.  Since July 1995, the follow-up to ICPD by the Economic and Social
Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) has taken two complementary and
mutually supporting directions:  (a) the implementation of a
UNFPA-supported project on population policies in the Arab countries
of ESCWA and North Africa regions to assist interested Governments in
building national capacity for the formulation of policies matching
the ICPD Programme of Action; and (b) the formulation of a project on
follow-up to ICPD and the Second Amman Declaration on Population and
Development.  The project's overall strategy consists of providing an
appropriate framework for continued interaction among the various
actors (government agencies, non-governmental organizations,
international and United Nations bodies) involved in the
implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action.  The overall strategy
encompasses three major components:  creating awareness; developing
national and regional frameworks to monitor the progress made in the
implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action; and establishing
national and regional systems to ensure the continuous flow of
information on such implementation.

24.  The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), in
implementing the ICPD Programme of Action, has integrated issues on
population, health, poverty, patterns of production and consumption,
empowerment of women and the environment into human settlements
development programme activities.  All those issues have been fully
incorporated into the Habitat Agenda 2/ adopted at the second United
Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) (Istanbul,
3-14 June 1996).  The Habitat Women in Human Settlements Development
Programme focuses on the empowerment of women by improving their
status and making the role of women in human settlements development
more effective and visible.  The Programme works to ensure that all
Habitat programmes, projects and activities include a gender
perspective, supports a number of global networks, and has produced,
upon request, country-specific outputs, such as videos, manuals and
posters.  With other partners, Habitat is also collaborating on a
statistical programme that involves the collection, collation and
analysis of statistical data on large cities (with population over
100,000) with a view to identifying their population and
socio-economic attributes and more effective ways of managing them. 
In addition, Habitat has produced a number of research-based
publications on population growth, population distribution and human
settlements.

25.  In its follow-up to ICPD, UNICEF is closely collaborating with
partners in a variety of sectors, with a special focus on girls'
education; women's empowerment; primary health care, including
reproductive health; and the tracking of progress in reducing child
and maternal mortality.  UNICEF support for women's health activities
emphasizes working with women's organizations at the community level
and assisting women's organizations in implementing population
information education and communication efforts and in developing
financing mechanisms for purchasing health care.  UNICEF efforts in
adolescent health care seek to build stronger dialogue and partnership
among young people, parents, educators, health providers and community
leaders on health, including reproductive health.  They also seek to
help ensure that adolescents have access to the information, skills
and services they need to protect and promote their own health and,
eventually, the health of their children.  UNICEF supports school
health programmes that emphasize skills-based health education,
including reproductive health education.  UNICEF works closely with
WHO, UNFPA and non-governmental organizations in strengthening
approaches to the health of youth and women.

26.  UNDP continues to implement the action plan initiated in 1995 for
ICPD follow-up, whose main components include the review of policies
and guidelines to bring them in line with the ICPD Programme of
Action; training and sensitization in terms of the messages emerging
from ICPD; active participation in the ACC Task Force on Basic Social
Services for All, its working groups and other ICPD follow-up
activities; and joint inter-agency initiatives.  UNDP's main role in
ICPD follow-up is to help move the ICPD outcome into mainstream policy
dialogue and to take into account the development implication of
population dynamics.  At the country level, UNDP contributes to ICPD
follow-up primarily through advocacy and support of poverty
eradication and mainstreaming of gender into development programmes
and policies.  In addition, UNDP has direct involvement in certain key
ICPD themes, such as HIV/AIDS, where it has been an active partner in
the development of the Joint and Co-sponsored United Nations Programme
on HIV/AIDS, including in the area of training and human resources. 
Many UNDP country offices continue to report active participation in
national workshops and conferences on ICPD follow-up, and efforts are
being made to use mid-term reviews of country programmes, country
strategy notes and round-table meetings as occasions to include
population concerns in planning exercises.

27.  UNDP is currently involved in supporting education activities in
all regions, often in collaboration with other partners (UNESCO,
UNICEF, the World Bank and UNFPA) in the sponsoring of education for
all.  UNDP priorities and activities for youth and adolescents
primarily stress youth, education, training and employment issues. 
Within the area of basic education, a large number of activities give
special attention to female basic education, which is prioritized in
the ICPD Programme of Action.  In addition, UNDP is an active
supporter of several non-governmental organizations and
non-governmental organizations networks that include the education of
females, population education or reproductive health in their
activities.  Recently, the Joint Consultative Group on Policy (JCGP)
Working Subgroup on Training endorsed the UNDP proposal for a
joint-agency training initiative to build capacity among United
Nations system partners to better assist their national counterparts
to integrate population concerns into national macro-policy
frameworks; work on that initiative has begun.

28.  The World Food Programme (WFP) has clearly recognized the strong
complementarity between its policy orientation and the major themes of
the ICPD Programme of Action:  both aim to enhance the well-being of
the poor and both seek economic growth and the just distribution of
the benefits of such growth in the context of sustainable development. 
There is also consistency in the choice of the key target groups: 
both the ICPD Programme of Action and WFP have a strong focus on the
poor and vulnerable sections of the populations, especially women and
children.  Finally, both emphasize the development of human resources,
with particular emphasis on women.  WFP supports the implementation of
the ICPD Programme of Action in areas that are amenable to food-based
interventions.  It focuses on the development of human resources
through its programmes in the sectors of education, mother and child
health and nutrition, and the empowerment of women, and recognizes
women as a priority beneficiary group pivotal to any development
strategy that seeks to break the vicious circle of population growth,
poverty and degradation of resources.  The firm set of commitments to
women that WFP declared at the Fourth World Conference on Women is
helping to achieve greater effectiveness of WFP activities in support
of women.  In the education sector, WFP has multiple links with the
ICPD Programme of Action.  Reducing gender disparities in education
has been and remains a principal goal of food-assisted projects in the
education sector.  In addition to primary education for girls, WFP
continues to promote technical and vocational training as a means of
contributing to women's self-sufficiency and empowerment, and provides
assistance to activities in the area of health and nutrition of
mothers and children.

29.  WHO has a unique role within the United Nations system with
respect to advocacy, normative functions, research and technical
cooperation in reproductive health.  WHO has developed innovative
methodologies for countries to identify national and district-level
reproductive health needs.  In collaboration with other organizations,
WHO will develop methodologies for assessing reproductive health and
will formulate indicators (both qualitative and quantitative) for
measuring the reproductive health status and behaviour of populations
as well as the effectiveness of programmes and interventions.  WHO
will provide technical support to developing countries and will
strengthen their national capacity for formulation, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation of comprehensive national reproductive
health policies and programmes.  WHO collaborates with a number of
United Nations organizations and non-governmental organizations,
particularly in reproductive health and adolescent health programmes.

30.  Since ICPD, UNFPA has, with the approval of its Executive Board,
oriented its programme focus and operational strategies to three main
areas:  reproductive health, including family planning and sexual
health; population and development strategies; and advocacy.  UNFPA
support for reproductive health is based on a public-health, pragmatic
and participatory approach.  UNFPA will support all aspects of family
planning at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels.  Support for
other components of reproductive health will be concentrated at the
primary health-care level.  Recognizing the need for strengthening
referral services for the evaluation and treatment of reproductive
health problems that cannot be managed at the primary health-care
level, UNFPA will promote the appropriate strengthening of
reproductive health services at the secondary and tertiary levels.  In
order to position itself better to play a lead role in the follow-up
to ICPD UNFPA has reviewed and adjusted all its operational guidelines
to align them with the recommendations of the ICPD Programme of
Action.  In 1995, UNFPA also held a series of regional follow-up
consultations that yielded valuable insights into the differing needs
of various countries and regions.  As a result, country programmes are
being designed or reoriented to reflect the priorities and commitments
emerging from ICPD.  Thus, increased emphasis is being placed on the
following themes and issues:  adopting a reproductive health approach;
increasing the role and responsibility of men in reproductive health
and family life; expanding reproductive health services and
information for youth and adolescents; ensuring women's empowerment
and the gender perspective; and expanding partnerships with
non-governmental organizations.

31.  As one of the first United Nations organizations to use
non-governmental organizations for project execution, UNFPA has had a
long tradition of collaborating with non-governmental organizations. 
Following ICPD, new efforts are under way to increase interaction with
non-governmental organizations, both for programme implementation and
for monitoring and evaluation.  To that end, UNFPA established a
non-governmental organization advisory committee in 1995.  Composed of
representatives from international, regional and national
non-governmental organizations, the advisory committee advises UNFPA
on its proposed policies, programmes and strategies.  In addition,
such topics as enhanced government-non-governmental organization
collaboration and non-governmental organization sustainability have
also been explored and discussed by the advisory committee.  Other
United Nations bodies are also actively seeking to expand their
collaboration with non-governmental organizations and the private
sector. 

32.  The ICPD Programme of Action underscored the need for actions to
prevent, reduce the spread of and minimize the impact of HIV/AIDS, and
called for special programmes to be devised to provide care and the
necessary emotional support to men and women affected by AIDS and to
counsel their families and near relations.  Six members of the Task
Force (UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA, UNESCO, WHO and the World Bank) are also
the co-sponsors of the Joint and Co-sponsored United Nations Programme
on HIV/AIDS. Recognizing that inter-agency cooperation is vital for
ensuring the mobilization of resources and effective implementation of
a coordinated programme of activities throughout the United Nations
system, the Programme draws upon the experience and strengths of the
six co-sponsors and builds on their comparative advantages to develop
its strategies and policies, which in turn are incorporated into their
programmes and activities.  At the country level, the Programme pools
the joint action and collective resources of the six co-sponsors, with
support provided through the Programme secretariat.

33.  Another important area highlighted in the ICPD Programme of Action
is the issue of the reproductive health-care needs of migrants and
displaced persons.  Arising from the recognition that the provision of
reproductive health services is as important as providing food, clean
water, shelter, sanitation and primary health care in refugee and
emergency situations, a new impetus has been given to reproductive
health concerns in refugee and emergency situations, including the
convening of an inter-agency symposium on reproductive health in
refugee situations.  Organized by UNHCR and UNFPA in collaboration
with UNICEF and WHO, the symposium took place from 28 to 30 June 1995
at Geneva, and was attended by representatives of 50 governmental,
non-governmental and private organizations.  The symposium identified
the main reasons for the lack of a systematic strategy for the
provision of comprehensive health care in refugee situations and
offered recommendations on how to overcome those limitations.  One of
the outcomes of the symposium was the development and dissemination of
an inter-agency field manual on reproductive health in refugee
situations.  In conjunction with the above-mentioned symposium, UNHCR
and UNFPA signed a memorandum of understanding establishing a
framework for collaboration for the benefit of persons in refugee
situations.  UNHCR and UNFPA will jointly develop strategies and
programmes of advocacy for reproductive health information and service
needs and for combating sexual violence; develop strategies to promote
reproductive health among adolescents and young people; and organize
joint assessment, monitoring and evaluation missions relating to
reproductive health information and services.

34.  The ICPD Programme of Action notes, in paragraph 11.22, that the
tremendous potential of print, audiovisual and electronic media,
including databases and networks, such as the Global Population
Information Network (POPIN), should be harnessed to disseminate
technical information and to promote and strengthen understanding of
the relationships among population, consumption, production and
sustainable development.  In addition, in paragraph 7 of its
resolution 50/124, the General Assembly calls on all Governments, the
United Nations system and other intergovernmental and nongovernmental
organizations to widely disseminate the ICPD Programme of Action,
including via electronic data networks.  Within a week of their
release, the guidelines for the United Nations resident coordinator
system were placed on POPIN, the global headquarters of which is the
Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat.  With both
global and regional support from UNFPA, POPIN is a decentralized
information and communication network for regional, national and
non-governmental organization population information activities,
including those addressing reproductive health and gender issues.  The
guidelines can also be accessed on the Internet, and the ACC Task
Force on Basic Social Services for All continues, as appropriate, to
electronically disseminate pertinent information that it develops on
reproductive rights and reproductive health, population information,
education and communication, and other key areas of interest.  ICPD
News, a quarterly newsletter of UNFPA's internal task force on ICPD
implementation, is also available on the Internet; it highlights
global, regional and national activities on ICPD follow-up undertaken
around the world.

35.  In another instance of inter-agency collaboration, the World Bank,
WHO and UNFPA, together with an international non-governmental
organization, have produced an information card on reproductive
health.  In succinct form, the card spells out ICPD commitments to
reproductive rights and reproductive health, and highlights,
inter alia, the goals for the year 2015; special needs; rights and
principles; actions; and the importance of working together in
implementing the ICPD Programme of Action.  The card has been widely
distributed and is proving to be a useful information, education and
communication tool.

International migration

36.  International migration is a key issue with important implications
for both developed and developing countries.  Migration processes
impact and interact with economic growth and sustainable development. 
More and more countries are becoming involved as senders, receivers,
or both simultaneously, of migrants and refugees.  Consequently, there
has been a surge of interest in international migration on the part of
the international community, manifested most recently in chapter X
(International migration) of the ICPD Programme of Action; the many
references to migrants and refugees contained in the Copenhagen
Declaration and Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social
Development; the attention drawn to women migrants at the Fourth World
Conference on Women, General Assembly resolution 49/166 on traffic in
women and girls; and the discussion of international migration by the
Economic and Social Council during the general segment of its
substantive session of 1996.

37.  In response to a request of the Commission on Population and
Development, the Inter-Agency Task Force on Implementation established
the Working Group on International Migration, with the ILO as the lead
agency.  The Working Group held its first meeting in October 1995, and
agreed to produce a guidance note for use by the United Nations
resident coordinator system on issues in international migration and
development, which was widely distributed in February 1996 and is also
available on the Internet, along with the guidelines for the United
Nations resident coordinator system.  It examines major issues and
trends; the root causes of emigration; and protection of documented
and undocumented migrants, and refugees.  Appendices are included on
the involvement of the United Nations and other organizations with
international migration and refugee questions; terminology; selected
bibliography; data collection; and chapter X of the ICPD Programme of
Action.  The Working Group on International Migration plans to hold
its next meeting in September 1996.

38.  The International Organization on Migration (IOM), although it is
not a United Nations body, is a member of the Working Group on
International Migration and participated in the meeting that led to
the preparation of the above-mentioned guidance note on issues in
international migration and development.  As a member of the Working
Group, IOM is playing a role in the follow-up to the ICPD and a key
role in the preparations for the next session of the Commission on
Population and Development.  IOM also continues to take an active part
in the various mechanisms established by the United Nations to deal
with humanitarian and development programmes.

39.  At its twenty-eighth session, the Commission on Population and
Development adopted a topic-oriented and prioritized multi-year work
programme.  The theme of the Commission's 1997 session is
"International migration, with a special emphasis on the linkages
between migration and development, and on gender issues and the
family".


               III.  NATIONAL PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ICPD
                     PROGRAMME OF ACTION

40.  In paragraph 1 of its resolution 50/124, the General Assembly
notes the action taken so far by Governments and the international
community to implement the ICPD Programme of Action and encourages
them to strengthen their efforts in that regard.  In paragraph 2 of
the same resolution, the Assembly reaffirms that Governments should
continue to commit themselves at the highest political level to
achieving the goals and objectives of the ICPD Programme of Action,
which reflect a new integrated approach to population and development,
and should also continue to take a lead in coordinating the
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of follow-up actions.  The
present section of the report will provide a brief overview of
national progress in implementation of the Programme of Action,
including the role of non-governmental organizations.  Over the past
year, a number of inquiries have been conducted, including one
undertaken by UNFPA in preparing the report of the Secretary-General
on the monitoring of population programmes (E/CN.9/1996/3), which was
presented to the Commission on Population and Development at its
twenty-ninth session).


                           A.  National initiatives

41.  Many countries are already reorienting their family planning
programmes to correspond with the broader reproductive rights and
reproductive health framework of the ICPD Programme of Action.  The
Governments of many developing countries and countries with economies
in transition have taken significant steps in responding to the ICPD
call for action in the area of population and development.  Clearly,
ICPD has served as a catalyst and has helped to crystallize issues. 
In particular, countries are focusing greater attention on programming
in the following key areas:  reproductive health, including family
planning and sexual health; women's empowerment and gender equity and
equality; information and services for youth and adolescents; the role
and involvement of men in reproductive health; and the quality of care
and services.  Several Governments have taken steps to decentralize
public health services to lower levels of administration as a means of
enlarging community participation, and in many countries activities
are under way to strengthen and expand partnerships with
non-governmental organizations and the private sector.  

42.  To broaden family planning information and services to include
other reproductive health elements in their programmes, several
countries organized workshops and seminars to examine policy issues
and programmatic concerns and to identify modalities for implementing
a reproductive health framework congruent with their own situation,
particularly in view of infrastructure, human and financial
constraints.  Since ICPD, UNFPA has worked extensively with countries
to facilitate and accelerate the transition to a reproductive health
approach.  It has supported efforts to train medical and paramedical
staff in reproductive health; improve infrastructure; to develop
medical standards for reproductive health and family planning
services; and increase the availability of reproductive health
services and information.  In such efforts, UNFPA has drawn on WHO
technical and norm-setting protocols.
            
43.  The emphasis on a comprehensive reproductive health approach in
population programmes has led to increased attention to the quality of
care provided to clients.  The ICPD Programme of Action stresses the
need to improve the quality of care of reproductive health and
family-planning programmes as an effective way to address existing
unmet demands for reproductive health information and services. 
Activities undertaken by countries to improve the quality of
reproductive health services include developing human resources,
including training of medical and/or paramedical staff in reproductive
health; improving infrastructure; developing medical protocols for
reproductive health and family planning services; and increasing the
availability of reproductive health services.  Many Governments are
also taking steps to address the special needs of adolescents,
including their need for information and services in the area of
reproductive health and the prevention of sexually transmitted
diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS.   

44.  Women's empowerment and their participation in decision-making
processes is crucial for the introduction of a reproductive health
approach in any country.  Although the level of their activity varies
from country to country, gender concerns are increasingly being taken
into account in programme design and implementation.  In a large
number of countries, gender training has become a standard component
in many projects, and more women are participating in project
formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.  One of the
more visible signs of women's involvement in the planning, formulation
and implementation of reproductive health programmes is the rapidly
growing number of non-governmental organizations (often headed by
women) dealing with reproductive health care, which points to a
related result of ICPD, namely that Governments have become
increasingly inclined to collaborate with national and/or local
non-governmental organizations and other grass-roots or
community-based organizations (see also sect. III B below). 

45.  However, despite encouraging signs of commitment and dedication to
implement or strengthen reproductive health programmes, the
socio-economic and cultural environment is not always conducive to
change.  Often, poverty and the lack of infrastructure, resources and
trained personnel hamper the abilities of Governments to fully
implement the ICPD Programme of Action.  To overcome many of those
obstacles, countries need assistance from the international community
in terms of both human and financial resources.   

46.  The overall impetus is for the United Nations system to provide a
coordinated and collaborative response in meeting the needs of
countries.  Consultations and the sharing of information and ideas is
already under way among United Nations partners and between the United
Nations and Governments, through existing mechanisms of the resident
coordinator system, such as inter-agency theme groups and task forces. 
A primary concern in that process is to harmonize the different
country strategy frameworks of the various United Nations bodies and
fit them within national priorities as set forth in such mechanisms as
national development plans and the country strategy note, where they
are in place.

47.  The country-level theme groups not only address substantive
issues, such as HIV/AIDS prevention, women's empowerment and gender
issues, and reproductive health, but also focus on strengthening and
enhancing national capacity in programme delivery.  National
capacity-building is a key component of the United Nations resident
coordinator system's effort to translate United Nations conference
recommendations into concrete action and tangible results.  The
country strategy note process and country-level theme groups are
facilitating and fostering enhanced dialogue with non-governmental
organizations, the private sector and civil society.

48.  The guidelines for the United Nations resident coordinator system
were well received by the field and reports from resident coordinators
indicate that they provide a good basis for cooperation within the
United Nations system at the country level on such key issues as
reproductive health, women's empowerment, basic education, and
national capacity-building in tracking child and maternal mortality. 
The guidelines have also been welcomed for being pragmatic and
broad-based in addressing key development issues.   


              B.  Partnership with non-governmental organizations

49.  In paragraph 7 of its resolution 50/124, the General Assembly
makes a renewed call to, inter alia, maintain and enhance partnership
between Governments and non-governmental organizations so as to ensure
their continued contributions and cooperation concerning all aspects
of population and development.  In paragraph 8, the Assembly urges
Governments that have not yet done so to establish appropriate
national follow-up mechanisms, in partnership with non-governmental
organizations, community groups and representatives of the media and
the academic community, to seek the support of parliamentarians so as
to ensure the full implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action.

50.  Traditionally, non-governmental organizations have played a key
role in complementing and supplementing the services provided by
Governments.  In many countries, non-governmental organizations have
been central in providing services, including reproductive health and
family planning services, to marginalized and socially excluded
groups, including the rural and urban poor, women, adolescents and
population groups in remote and inaccessible areas.  The extent and
volume of those services and the level of collaboration between
non-governmental organizations and Governments vary from country to
country.  Nonetheless, the Programme of Action has had a positive
impact in expanding and strengthening relationships between
Governments and non-governmental organizations.  The evidence
indicates that where non-governmental organizations are clearly able
to complement the role of Governments in providing services, the
results are promising, and plans for further collaborative activities
are under way.  In the majority of cases, collaborative relationships
are forged after a long history of informal and formal contacts
between both institutions.  Experience also demonstrates that the
existence of a network of non-governmental organizations tends to
facilitate their collaborative activities with Governments. 
Collaborative activities are very important in a number of ways,
including promoting the joint development of strategies to implement
the ICPD Programme of Action, increasing mutual technical assistance
in new areas of programme development, and enhancing the joint
evaluation and monitoring of progress in the implementation of the
ICPD Programme of Action.

51.  As a result of the emphasis placed by ICPD on a holistic and
comprehensive approach to reproductive health, non-governmental
organizations of the traditional family planning type are increasingly
broadening their services to include other reproductive health
services in their clinics, and their staff are being trained in the
implications of the new concept of reproductive health.  In
particular, following ICPD non-governmental organizations are
emphasizing the provision of information and health services to
prevent and treat reproductive tract infections and STDs.

52.  Although many non-governmental organizations have incorporated new
reproductive health components as a consequence of the ICPD Programme
of Action, others have stated that they had adopted a comprehensive
approach to reproductive health many years prior to ICPD.  However,
non-governmental organizations point out that ICPD has been
instrumental in legitimizing their own reproductive health work
programmes and in strengthening the focus on reproductive health.

53.  Sustainability has always been an area of key concern to
non-governmental organizations.  The long-term existence of
non-governmental organization programmes is dependent upon their
ability to achieve greater self-sufficiency.   Some countries have
reported that as a result of worsening economic conditions, the
services provided by non-governmental organizations have been
negatively affected.  Due to financial constraints, non-governmental
organizations have been unable to reach large segments of society,
particularly in rural areas; in other countries, non-governmental
organizations have had to shift their focus from low- to middle-income
target groups in order to survive.  However, in some countries,
non-governmental organizations have countered financial limitations by
charging fees to those segments of the population that can afford to
pay for services and then using that income to provide free services
to the poorest segments of society.   

54.  While a number of impressive initiatives are under way, it is also
clear that many countries still face formidable challenges in fully
implementing the ICPD Programme of Action.  By forging development
partnerships with non-governmental organizations, the private sector
and civil society, Governments can speed up the task of meeting those
challenges.

55.  In its resolution 1996/31, the Economic and Social Council
recognizes the need to take into account the full diversity and
expertise of non-governmental organizations at the national,
subregional, regional and international levels.  In so doing, the
Council provides a strong impetus for Governments to enhance
consultations between the United Nations and non-governmental
organizations from all regions and areas of the world.  The Council,
in its decision 1996/225, also recommended that the General Assembly
examine, at its fifty-first session, the question of the participation
of non-governmental organizations in all areas of the work of the
United Nations, in the light of the experience gained through the
arrangements for consultation between non-governmental organizations
and the Council.


                         IV.  SOUTH-SOUTH COOPERATION

56.  In paragraph 11 of its resolution 50/124, the General Assembly
reiterates the importance of South-South cooperation for the
successful implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action, in line
with the Programme of Action itself, which established the objective
of increasing international financial assistance to direct South-South
cooperation and facilitating financing procedures for direct
South-South cooperation (para. 14.10 (c)), and accordingly recommends
that in devising the appropriate balance between funding sources, more
attention be given to South-South cooperation, as well as to new ways
of mobilizing private contributions, particularly in partnership with
non-governmental organizations, and that the international community
urge donor agencies to improve and modify their funding procedures in
order to facilitate and give higher priority to supporting direct
South-South collaborative arrangements (para. 14.16).

57.  In its efforts to help implement that aspect of the Programme of
Action, UNFPA is pursuing initiatives on two fronts:  providing
assistance to Partners in Population and Development, an
intergovernmental organization established to promote South-South
cooperation in the field of reproductive health; and supporting
selected centres of excellence.  Activities to promote technical
cooperation among developing countries (TCDC) have long been an
essential component of UNFPA programmes at the country, regional and
international levels.  In line with that policy, UNFPA has supported a
global programme of training in population and development, which
provides post-graduate training at five institutions in developing
countries.  During 1995, the programme trained 101 middle-level
professionals - of whom 34 were women - from 71 developing countries.


                  A.  Partners in Population and Development

58.  With the active participation of UNFPA, Partners in Population and
Development was launched in Cairo on the occasion of ICPD as an
independent intergovernmental organization.  The 10 founding partner
countries are Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico,
Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia and Zimbabwe.  Representatives of those
countries met in Harare in April 1995 at the organization's first
Board meeting to approve the 1996 work programme.  The primary focus
of the work programme is on strengthening the capacity of developing
countries for South-South cooperation, the promotion of twinning
modalities to facilitate the two-way exchange of experiences, and the
development of regional training institutions.  Partners in Population
and Development also decided to establish a small secretariat in
Dhaka, Bangladesh, to provide substantive and logistical support to
Partner countries in carrying out their work programme.  A memorandum
of understanding has been approved by the Government of Bangladesh to
host the secretariat, which is expected to initiate activities in
Dhaka in September 1996.

59.  UNFPA is clearly associated with this initiative both
substantively and administratively.  For example, to help Partners in
Population and Development implement the initial work programme, UNFPA
provides technical support to Partner countries and cooperates with
the secretariat.  On the administrative side, at the request of
Partners in Population and Development and as approved by the
UNDP/UNFPA Executive Board in decision 96/06, the personnel of the
secretariat are being recruited and assigned as UNFPA project staff. 
Also at the request of Partners in Population and Development, a UNFPA
trust fund has been established for the operation of the secretariat,
with contributions amounting to $1.2 million from the Rockefeller
Foundation, the World Bank and UNFPA.  Funding for the South-South
activities of specific Partner countries or other developing countries
is to be channelled through other bilateral and multilateral
mechanisms, including other UNFPA trust funds, as appropriate.

60.  The Board of Partners in Population and Development met for the
second time at Mexico City in July 1996, and approved the 1997 work
programme and budget.  Also approved was the $20,000 annual mandatory
contribution from Partner members.  In response to the interest shown
by a number of observer developing countries, the Partner Executive
Committee received a mandate to process applications for membership. 
Several donor countries and agencies attending the meeting confirmed
their interest in considering proposals to fund South-South activities
at the field level.  Representatives of Partners in Population and
Development met officially with the President of Mexico, who confirmed
the commitment of his country to South-South initiatives.


             B.  Centres of excellence for South-South cooperation

61.  Two basic criteria have been applied by UNFPA to support selected
developing countries as centres of excellence for South-South
cooperation in the field of reproductive health:  (a) success in the
implementation of their national reproductive health programmes, and
(b) experience in sharing such success with other developing
countries.  On the basis of those criteria and as part of the UNFPA
intercountry programme for 1996-1999, which was approved by the
UNDP/UNFPA Executive Board, UNFPA is funding four interregional
projects for such centres of excellence in Indonesia, Mexico, Thailand
and Tunisia.  Approximately $6 million has been programmed to support
activities at those centres to train participants from other
developing countries.    The four projects have the following
characteristics in common:

     (a) Training programmes are implemented by national institutions,
including national non-governmental organizations, that have been
successful in implementing reproductive health policies and
programmes;

     (b) Training programmes are based on the country's experience
rather than on conventional academic teaching.  The training
modalities are short term and combine theory and practice;

     (c) Countries selected to serve as centres of excellence have
expressed their commitment to and have put into practice the holistic
concept of reproductive health adopted at ICPD.  As those countries
gradually acquire new areas of strength in implementing that concept,
the training content of the centres will be refined and expanded;

     (d) Bilateral development agencies are supporting their efforts. 
The newly approved project in Indonesia, for example, will build upon
South-South initiatives that have been supported since 1994 by Japan,
Australia and the Netherlands.  Moreover, funding from the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and from the European
Community is envisaged for the South-South activities of the centre in
Mexico.


               V.  FLOW OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR ASSISTING THE
                   IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ICPD PROGRAMME OF ACTION

62.  Despite the encouraging signs of commitment to and progress made
in the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action described above,
financial constraints remain one of the chief obstacles to the
realization of the goals and objectives of ICPD.  Substantial
resources are needed to implement the ICPD Programme of Action at the
community, national and international levels.  It is estimated that
the implementation of programmes in the area of reproductive health,
including those related to family planning, maternal health and the
prevention of STDs, as well as related programmes to collect and
analyse population data, will cost $17 billion by the year 2000.

63.  The ICPD Programme of Action estimated that approximately two
thirds of the projected costs in developing countries would have to
come from domestic resources and one third, or $5.7 billion in the
year 2000, from the international donor community.  However, many
countries will not be able to bear two thirds of the costs of their
own national population programmes and will require significant
external assistance to implement the goals of ICPD.  ICPD therefore
called on the international community to strive to fulfil the agreed
target of 0.7 per cent of gross national product for overall official
development assistance (ODA) and to endeavour to increase the share of
funding for population and development programmes to achieve the goals
and objectives of the ICPD Programme of Action.
     
64.  In paragraph 10 of its resolution 50/124, the Assembly urges all
countries to consider their current spending priorities with a view to
making additional contributions for the implementation of the ICPD
Programme of Action, taking into account the provisions of chapters
XIII and XIV thereof and the economic constraints faced by developing
countries, in particular the least developed among them, and
emphasizes that international cooperation in the field of population
and development is essential for the implementation of the
recommendations adopted at the Conference.  In that context, it calls
upon the international community to continue to provide, both
bilaterally and multilaterally, adequate and substantial support and
assistance for population and development activities.

65.  In paragraph 12 of the same resolution, the Assembly reaffirms
that the effective implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action will
require an increased commitment of financial resources, both
domestically and externally, and calls upon developed countries to
complement the national financial efforts of developing countries on
population and development and to intensify their efforts to transfer
new and additional resources to the developing countries, in
accordance with the relevant provisions of the ICPD Programme of
Action, in order to ensure that population and development objectives
and goals are met.


                               A.  Consultation

66.  On 28 February 1996, the Executive Director of UNFPA convened a
second consultation on resource mobilization for the implementation of
the ICPD Programme of Action.  The purpose of the consultation was to
exchange ideas on how to generate additional resources for population
programmes and to explore ways and means of facilitating the exchange
of information among donors and improving collaboration at the country
level so as to ensure that effective programmes are fully funded. 
Representatives of various multilateral and bilateral donor
organizations participated in the consultation, as did representatives
from the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

67.  Participants informally discussed a wide range of issues,
including the setting of targets for funding population activities,
the recognition of country efforts to increase domestic spending, the
involvement of the private sector and the importance of advocacy in
sustaining the momentum of resource-mobilization efforts.  The
discussion on the setting of targets focused primarily on the
difficulty of defining what constituted population assistance and how
that affected the calculation of the percentage of ODA earmarked for
such assistance.  Participants stressed the importance of involving
the private sector in the field of population and development and
welcomed the proposal of the Executive Director to convene a
brainstorming session on that topic with business leaders from
different regions.  Participants also emphasized the importance of
programme performance, impact evaluations and effective system-wide
collaboration as key factors in sustaining momentum in resource
mobilization.


                        B.  Flow of financial resources

68.  In  paragraph 4 (a) of its resolution 50/124, the General Assembly
took note of the proposal of UNFPA to replace its biennial report to
the Commission on Population and Development on multilateral
population assistance with an annual report on the amount of resources
allocated for the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action at
the national and international levels.  UNFPA submitted the first such
annual report to the Commission at its twenty-ninth session
(E/CN.9/1996/6), providing financial data on international resource
flows for the year 1993.  The report also reviewed the changes in
resource priorities towards the implementation of the ICPD Programme
of Action that had taken place in selected countries.

69.  Subsequently, UNFPA prepared the eighth edition of its Global
Population Assistance Report 1994, which provides financial data on
international resource flows for the year 1994.  The report traces the
flow of population assistance from primary sources to recipient
countries through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental
channels.  The report calculates international population assistance
by using two categories of financial reporting:  primary funds, which
are those funds originating from primary donors, and final
expenditures, which are the funds provided to the final recipient,
either by a primary donor or by an intermediate donor.

Primary funds
  
70.  According to the Report, primary funds for international
population assistance totalled $1,201 million in 1994, an increase of
24 per cent over the 1993 total of $966 million.  If loans from
development banks are added, the primary funds for population
assistance in 1994 totalled $1,637 million, a 25 per cent increase
over the 1993 total of $1,310 million.  Developed countries are the
largest source of primary funds, contributing 81 per cent of the
$1,201 million.  Private sources contributed just under 10 per cent,
and multilateral organizations and agencies contributed almost
9 per cent.

71.  In current (1994) dollars, total population assistance grew at an
average annual rate of 9 per cent between 1985 and 1994.  The average
annual growth in constant 1985 dollars during the same period was
5 per cent, increasing from $540 million in 1985 to $873 million in
1994.

72.  In 1994, primary funds from 21 developed countries and the
European Community totalled $977 million, of which 59 per cent was
provided by two countries and approximately 96 per cent was
contributed by 11 countries.  Only 9 of the 21 donor countries
increased their 1994 primary funds over 1993 levels.  Of the remaining
12 major donor countries, 7 reported declines in expenditures for
population assistance in 1994 from their 1993 contributions.

73.  Population assistance from all donor countries constituted
1.65 per cent of ODA in 1994, the highest percentage in the 10 years
covered by the Report.  However, the proportion of ODA varied widely
from donor to donor.  For example, of the 21 major donors, 10
earmarked 1 per cent or more of their ODA for population assistance. 
Of those 10 donors, only 2 earmarked more than 3 per cent of ODA for
population assistance (one at 4.7 per cent, the other at
3.6 per cent).  Three others were in the 2-per-cent range
(2.7 per cent, 2.5 per cent and 2.2 per cent) and 5 ranged from
1 per cent to 1.8 per cent of ODA.  The proportion of ODA earmarked
for population assistance by the remaining 11 major donors ranged from
0.02 per cent to 0.8 per cent.

Final expenditures

74.  A total of 158 countries benefited from international assistance
for population activities in 1994.  Final expenditures for population
assistance rose from $610 million in 1993 to $991 million in 1994, an
increase of 62 per cent.  Of the total amount spent in 1994,
27 per cent was channelled through bilateral programmes.  Multilateral
organizations and agencies spent 29 per cent, and international
non-governmental organizations spent 44 per cent.

75.  Final expenditures for 1994, by region, were as follows: 
sub-Saharan Africa, $252 million (an increase of 56 per cent over the
1993 level of $162 million); Asia and the Pacific, $338 million (an
increase of 104 per cent over the 1993 level of $166 million); Latin
America and the Caribbean, $190 million (an increase of 71 per cent
over the 1993 level of $111 million); the Middle East and North
Africa, $51 million (a decrease of 4 per cent over the 1993 level of
$53 million); and Europe, $18 million (an increase of 260 per cent
over the 1993 level of $5 million).

Functional categories

76.  The bulk of the final expenditures (96 per cent) were distributed
for core activities, i.e., those that influence population growth
rates and related variables.  Only 4 per cent were spent on support
activities.  Of the core activities, reproductive health (including
family planning, which includes contraceptive research and
commodities) received 56 per cent of the final expenditures,
population education and communication 20 per cent, population policy
and population dynamics 16 per cent, and data collection and analysis
8 per cent.


                             C.  20/20 initiative

77.  As a follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development and in
keeping with paragraph 10 of General Assembly resolution 50/124, in
which the Assembly urges all countries to consider their spending
priorities with a view to making additional contributions for the
implementation of the Programme of Action, the Governments of Norway
and the Netherlands co-sponsored an international meeting on the
implementation of the 20/20 initiative.  The meeting, which was held
at Oslo from 23 to 25 April 1996, involved participants from 22
developing and 16 donor countries, as well as representatives of IMF,
the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the
World Bank, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO and UNFPA.

78.  The meeting reaffirmed the importance of the 20/20 initiative as a
useful mechanism for mobilizing the resources needed to accelerate
action towards providing universal access to basic social services,
which were understood under the initiative to comprise basic education
and primary health care, including reproductive health and population
programmes; nutrition programmes; and safe drinking water and
sanitation.  It also agreed that the main focus of the initiative
should be the effective and efficient delivery of basic social
services to poor and vulnerable segments of the populations.  

79.  The developing and developed countries attending the meeting
committed themselves to a dialogue at the country level on the
implementation of the initiative.  The multilateral organizations
expressed their readiness to support developing countries in
formulating and implementing social-sector programmes aimed at the
poor and in monitoring and analysing budget expenditures on basic
social services, their cost-effectiveness and their impact on social
indicators.

80.  Following the meeting, the executive heads of UNICEF, UNDP and
UNFPA sent a joint letter to all their country offices to encourage
their creative support for the initiative.  The letter envisaged
several practical steps that the country offices could take to
encourage or reinforce national commitment to the 20/20 objective of
greater support to basic social services.  For example, country
offices could offer to help interested Governments in preparing basic
documentation and statistical information on budgetary and aid
allocations to basic social services; reviewing options for budget
restructuring; and identifying more cost-efficient delivery
mechanisms.  They could also explore ways and means, both individually
and collectively, to further strengthen advocacy and operational
activities in favour of providing universal access to basic social
services.

81.  The joint letter noted that the ACC Task Force on Basic Social
Services for All would take the conclusions of the Oslo meeting into
consideration in carrying out its work programme and concluded by
soliciting reports from country offices on the progress of the 20/20
initiative in their country of assignment.


                 VI.  COMMISSION ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

82.  The Commission on Population and Development is the first tier of
the three-tiered system established for monitoring implementation of
the ICPD Programme of Action.  The Commission, inter alia, has primary
responsibility for reviewing the follow-up and implementation of the
Programme of Action.

83.  The Commission held its twenty-ninth session from 26 February to
1 March 1996.  The five-day session was the first since its membership
was increased from 27 to 47 by the Economic and Social Council in its
decision 1995/320, and the first under the new terms of reference and
the topic-oriented, multi-year work programme endorsed by the Council
in its resolution 1995/55.

84.  The central theme of the twenty-ninth session was "Reproductive
rights and reproductive health", in relation to chapter VII of the
ICPD Programme of Action.  The major substantive report before the
Commission was a report by the Secretary-General on world population
monitoring (E/CN.9/1996/3), focusing on that theme.  The report
provided a summary of recent information on a number of topics, such
as entry into reproductive life; reproductive behaviour;
contraception; abortion; maternal mortality and morbidity; sexually
transmitted diseases; HIV/AIDS; reproductive rights; and population
information, education and communication.  Other reports submitted to
the Commission covered the monitoring of population programmes;
activities of the Inter-Agency Task Force for the Implementation of
the Programme of Action; activities of intergovernmental and
non-governmental organizations dealing with reproductive rights and
reproductive health; flows of financial resources; and programme
implementation in 1995 and the programme of work of the Commission for
the biennium 1996-1997.

85.  The Commission considered follow-up actions to the recommendations
of the Conference, and approved a draft resolution that was
subsequently adopted by the Economic and Social Council as its
resolution 1996/2, in which the Council seeks to enhance the role of
the Commission in monitoring the ICPD Programme of Action through both
improved and increased reporting.  The Council requests improved
annual reporting on financial flows; proposes that a new report
covering main demographic trends, prepared by the Population Division,
be submitted to the Commission biennially; encourages the widest
possible dissemination of reports on progress in the implementation of
the Programme of Action; and, lastly, requests that evidence of
further progress in achieving the goals of the ICPD Programme of
Action be communicated to the Commission.

86.  In reviewing programme implementation in 1995 and examining the
work programme for 1996-1997, the Commission adopted resolution 1996/1
on the work programme in the field of population, in which it noted
that the work of the Population Division serves the crucial need of
the United Nations system and the international community for
scientifically sound inputs to analysis, debate, planning and policy
in the area of population and development.  The Commission fully
supported the need to protect the long-term work programme of the
Population Division, including both traditional demographic work and
the development of innovative approaches to meeting new demands,
following the outcomes of ICPD and other recent major United Nations
conferences.

87.  In preparation for the thirtieth session of the Commission, the
Population Division is currently preparing the monitoring report on
the state of knowledge in the area of international migration and
development.  The report will cover the most important substantive
issues in the area, including population dynamics, national migration
policies with respect to documented and undocumented migrants,
refugees and asylum seekers; labour migration; gender perspectives;
and international migration and development.  The report will follow
the outline and substantive issues presented in chapter XII of the
ICPD Programme of Action.  In addition, the work programme of the
Population Division, both with respect to its traditional activities
and its new undertakings, is geared towards providing the scientific
basis for monitoring the implementation of the ICPD Programme of
Action.


                 VII.  IMPLEMENTATION BY THE GOVERNING BODY OF THE
                       UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND

88.  The present section highlights two important areas in which the
Executive Board of UNDP and UNFPA took decisions that had a direct
impact on the programme directions and resource allocations of UNFPA
and its implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action.  

89.  At its annual session in June 1995, the Executive Board considered
a UNFPA report on programme priorities and future directions of UNFPA
in the light of ICPD (DP/1995/25), which was the culmination of an
intensive process of internal and external reviews of the UNFPA
programme.  Following extensive discussion of the report, the Board
adopted decision 95/15, in which it supported the broad outline of the
future programme of assistance of UNFPA, which must be implemented in
full accordance with the ICPD Programme of Action, and endorsed the
core programme areas of reproductive health, including family planning
and sexual health; population and development strategies; and
advocacy.  The aim of such a selection was to enable UNFPA to sharpen
the focus of its programming and capitalize on its comparative
advantage.  

90.  The above-mentioned report also contained a proposal for a new
approach for resource allocation based on the goals and objectives of
the ICPD Programme of Action, which was subsequently revised at the
request of the Executive Board (see DP/FPA/1996/15) and endorsed by
the Board in its decision 96/15.  The approach is based on a country's
level of achievement of ICPD goals, and it recognizes that there is a
continuum of needs from countries that have made little progress
towards achieving ICPD goals to countries that have already reached or
surpassed all of those goals.

91.  The new approach pays special attention to low-income countries,
least developed countries and Africa, as called for in the Programme
of Action and in various General Assembly and Economic and Social
Council resolutions.  The new approach particularly emphasizes
providing support to least developed countries by including all of
them in the group of countries that are in greatest need and thus will
receive the largest share of UNFPA resources.  It recognizes the
urgent need for providing temporary assistance to countries with
economies in transition, as called for in the ICPD Programme of Action
and in paragraph 13 of General Assembly resolution 50/124.  It further
recognizes the importance of promoting South-South cooperation.  

92.  By its decision 96/15, the UNFPA Executive Board, inter alia,
reaffirmed that in order to achieve the goals of ICPD there is a need
for adequate mobilization of resources at the national and
international levels as well as of new and additional resources to
developing countries from all sources, including multilateral,
bilateral and private sources.  The Board also decided that the
allocation of resources should be based on a comprehensive assessment
of the actual needs and requirements of countries, and should take
fully into consideration coherent national programmes, plans and
strategies on population and development and the need for external
resources to complement national financial efforts in the area of
population and development. 


                                     Notes

     1/  Report of the International Conference on Population and
Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994 (United Nations publication,
Sales No. E.95.XIII.18), chap. I, resolution 1, annex.

     2/  Report of the second United Nations Conference on Human
Settlements, Istanbul, 3-14 June 1996 (A/CONF.165/14), chap. I,
resolution 1, annex II.


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