United Nations

A/51/348


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

18 September 1996

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


                                                       A/51/348
                                                              

General Assembly
Fifty-first session
Item 45 of the provisional agenda*

*    A/51/150.


               IMPLEMENTATION OF THE OUTCOME OF THE WORLD SUMMIT
                            FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

                        Report of the Secretary-General


                                   CONTENTS

                                                           Paragraphs  Page

 I.   INTRODUCTION .........................................   1 - 10    3

II.   INITIATIVES OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS ..................  11 - 24    4

III.  ACTIONS TAKEN IN THE UNITED NATIONS ..................  25 - 55    8

      A. Commission for Social Development ................   25 - 32    8

      B. Economic and Social Council ......................   33 - 36   11

      C. Other functional commissions .....................   37 - 43   12

      D. Regional commissions .............................   44 - 49   14

      E. United Nations Secretariat .......................   50 - 55   15

IV.   ACTIVITIES OF FUNDS, PROGRAMMES AND SPECIALIZED
      AGENCIES OF THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM ................  56 - 75   17

      A. Initiatives taken by Administrative Committee on
         Coordination inter-agency task forces on follow-up
         to international conferences .....................   57 - 64   17

      B. United Nations funds and programmes ..............   65 - 69   19

      C. Specialized agencies of the United Nations system    70 - 75   20

 V.   MOBILIZATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES ..................  76 - 94   21

      A. Organization for Economic Cooperation and
         Development:  Development Assistance
         Committee ........................................   77 - 78   22

      B. The 20/20 concept ................................   79 - 81   22

      C. Target for official development assistance .......   82 - 83   23

      D. Trust Fund for the Follow-up to the World Summit
         for Social Development ...........................      84     23

      E. United Nations Development Programme resources ...   85 - 86   24

      F. World Bank/International Development Association
         resources ........................................   87 - 88   24

      G. Debt .............................................   89 - 92   25

      H. New and innovative ideas for generating funds ....   93 - 94   25

VI.   INVOLVEMENT OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND OTHER ACTORS ........  95 - 109  26


                               I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   It will be recalled that on 16 December 1992, the General
Assembly, by its resolution 47/92, decided to convene a World Summit
for Social Development at the level of Heads of State or Government. 
The Summit was held at Copenhagen from 6 to 12 March 1995 and it
adopted the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development and Programme
of Action (A/CONF.166/9, chap. I, resolution 1).

2.   At its fiftieth session, the General Assembly decided to include
in its agenda the item entitled "Implementation of the outcome of the
World Summit for Social Development" and considered in plenary, on 7
and 8 December 1995, the report of the World Summit for Social
Development (A/CONF.166/9), which contained the Declaration and
Programme of Action, and the report of the Secretary-General on the
subject (A/50/670).  The debate on this item reflected a general
agreement that the Summit was an important landmark in the elaboration
of national and international policies on social development through
the United Nations.

3.   In its resolution 50/161 of 22 December 1995, the General Assembly
endorsed the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action and
proclaimed the critical importance of national action and
international cooperation for social development.  The Assembly
stressed the need for a renewed and massive political will at the
national and international levels to invest in people and their
well-being to achieve the objectives of social development.  It
reiterated the call to Governments to define time-bound goals and
targets for reducing overall poverty and eradicating absolute poverty,
expanding employment and reducing unemployment, and enhancing social
integration, within each national context.  The Assembly emphasized
the need to promote an integrated and multidimensional approach to
implement the Declaration and Programme of Action at all levels, and
to develop effective partnership and cooperation between Governments
and the relevant actors of civil society.  

4.   The General Assembly called upon all relevant organs,
organizations and bodies of the United Nations system to be involved
in the follow-up to the Summit, and invited specialized agencies and
related organizations of the United Nations system to strengthen and
adjust their activities, programmes and medium-term strategies, as
appropriate, to take into account the follow-up to the Summit.  

5.   The General Assembly decided that a revitalized Commission for
Social Development, together with the Economic and Social Council and
the Assembly itself, should constitute a "three-tiered
intergovernmental process" in the follow-up to the implementation of
the Declaration and Programme of Action.  The Commission would have
the primary responsibility for the follow-up to and review of the
implementation of the Summit, while the Council would provide overall
guidance and coordination.  The Assembly itself, with its role in
policy formulation, would hold a special session in the year 2000 for
an overall review and appraisal of the implementation of the outcome
of the Summit and to consider further actions and initiatives. 

6.   The General Assembly called upon the Commission to develop a
multi-year programme of work to the year 2000, selecting specific
themes and addressing them from an interrelated and integrated
perspective, in a manner consistent with the functions and
contributions of other relevant organs, organizations and bodies of
the United Nations system, and to present its recommendations to the
Council, which should ensure harmonization between such a multi-year
programme of work and those of other relevant functional commissions
of the Council.

7.   In the same resolution, the General Assembly endorsed Council
resolution 1995/60 of 28 July 1995 and called upon the Commission,
when developing its multi-year programme of work for the follow-up to
the Summit:  (a) to adapt its mandate in order to ensure an integrated
approach to social development; (b) to integrate the current sectoral
issues on its agenda in the multi-year programme; (c) to review and
update its methods of work and to make recommendations to ensure an
effective follow-up to the Summit; (d) to establish the practice of
inviting experts to contribute to its work; and (e) to consider
integrating into its work high-level representatives on social
development issues and policies.

8.   The General Assembly requested the Commission, in view of the
scope of its work, to consider the composition of its membership and
the frequency of its sessions and to make recommendations thereon to
the Council.

9.   The General Assembly also requested the Commission to establish
the practice of involving the relevant actors of civil society in the
field of social development to contribute to its work, and requested
the Secretary-General to present proposals to the Commission and the
Council, taking into account the experience gained in other functional
commissions, the Council and the International Labour Organization
(ILO) and at the Summit.

10.  The General Assembly decided to include in the provisional agenda
of its fifty-first session the item entitled "Implementation of the
outcome of the World Summit for Social Development", and to consider
the implications for a more coherent treatment of related items on its
agenda in the appropriate forums.  The present report describes
actions taken since the adoption of Assembly resolution 50/161. 
Bearing in mind that commitment 2 of the Copenhagen Declaration and
chapter 2 of the Programme of Action provide the framework and general
orientation for United Nations activities for the eradication of
poverty, the present report should be read in conjunction with the
forthcoming report of the Secretary-General on the observance of the
International Year for the Eradication of Poverty and the first United
Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty, also to be submitted to
the Assembly at its fifty-first session in accordance with resolution
50/107 of 20 December 1995.


                   II.  INITIATIVES OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS

11.  At the Social Summit, Heads of State or Government acknowledged
that the primary responsibility to attain the goals set out in the
Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action rested with national
Governments, with the support and contributions of the international
community, the United Nations, the multilateral financial
institutions, all regional organizations and local authorities, and
all actors of civil society, including private citizens.  

12.  In its resolution 50/161, the General Assembly reaffirmed that
social development and the implementation of the Programme of Action
were primarily the responsibility of Governments, while recognizing
that international cooperation and assistance were essential for their
full implementation.  It reiterated the call to Governments to define
time-bound goals and targets for reducing overall poverty and
eradicating absolute poverty, expanding employment and reducing
unemployment, and enhancing social integration, within each national
context; for formulating or strengthening comprehensive cross-sectoral
strategies for implementing the outcome of the Summit and national
strategies for social development, by 1996; and for regularly
assessing national progress towards implementing the outcome of the
Summit.

13.    Since the adoption of the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme
of Action, the Secretary-General has written, on three occasions, in
March, July and December 1995, to Heads of State or Government who had
participated at the Summit, stressing the political significance of
the event and of the commitments taken by them.  He suggested the
designation of a national focal point on the implementation of the
agreements reached and requested that he be informed of national
initiatives and other policy measures relevant to the implementation
of the Summit, in particular, commitment 2 on the eradication of
poverty.  Subsequently, the Under-Secretary-General for Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development sent follow-up letters in
March 1996 to those Governments bringing to their attention the
adoption by the General Assembly of resolution 50/107 on the
observance of the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty in
1996 and the proclamation of the first United Nations Decade for the
Eradication of Poverty (1997-2006), and requested information
concerning the actions taken for the Year and programmes and
activities envisaged in their country in preparation for the Decade.

14.  The Secretary-General is encouraged to have received responses
from over 100 Governments, all of whom agreed on the importance of the
Summit and the need to maintain the momentum created at Copenhagen. 
The main elements of these responses are summarized in the following
paragraphs.

15.   The majority of the replies stressed that to maintain the
momentum for the implementation of the commitments adopted at
Copenhagen, concrete initiatives at the national level were required
with strong and visible support from the United Nations and the United
Nations system and other multilateral institutions.  International
support and cooperation between nations, including among developed and
developing countries and among developing countries, was equally
important, and should be based on equality, mutual benefit and a
spirit of partnership.

16.  Close to 100 focal points have been designated, most of them in
national ministries.  For many countries, the results of the Summit
provide the basis for the review and reformulation of existing social
policies and laws, based on an integrated approach to social
development.  National strategies and programmes for social
development, short-term, medium-term or long-term, have been
formulated in many countries to address the core issues considered by
the Summit.  Some national committees, established for the preparation
of the Summit, have been maintained for the implementation of the
outcome of the Summit, and new ones are being established.  A few
countries have established special social funds or grants committed to
finance projects for social development, including to fight against
poverty.  Recognizing the importance of mobilizing awareness of the
goals and commitments made in the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme
of Action both at the international and national levels, many
countries have taken the initiative to translate these documents into
their national languages.  Regional meetings and seminars on the
follow-up to the Summit have been held, including the Conference on
Eradication of Poverty and Discrimination held in Chile in January
1996.  The Government of Austria is actively pursuing the offer made
by its Chancellor at the Summit to host a regional meeting at the
European level in Vienna in 1997 to review the progress made towards
fulfilling the outcome of the Summit.

17.  Denmark, host Government of the Social Summit, took the lead
immediately following the Summit to launch two initiatives on its
follow-up.  The first is a statistical project and the second the
organization of a series of seminars for social progress.  The report
from the first initiative analyses the Copenhagen Programme of Action
and attempts to define the components of social development covered;
it describes those statistics already available in some of these areas
and confirms the non-existence or inadequacy of statistics in other
areas.  The Government believes that better statistics are essential
for a meaningful debate on the solutions to social problems.  The
second initiative, the Copenhagen seminars for social progress, aim at
enriching the international debate on some of the issues confronting
contemporary societies and will further clarify the relationship
between international economic trends and the social conditions of
nations and people.  The first of these seminars, entitled "Conditions
for Social Progress:  A World Economy for the Benefit of All", will be
held at Copenhagen in October 1996 and will bring together about 30
prominent personalities from different walks of life and from
different parts of the world.  The four themes to be discussed will
be:  economic integration through partnership; economic justice
through solidarity; self interest and the common good; and elements
for a humane world economy.

18.  On the topic of mobilization of additional resources for social
programmes in developing and least developed countries, Governments
from both developed and developing countries recognize the critical
importance of official development assistance.  Many donor countries
are reviewing their policies on development cooperation such as
allocating a certain percentage of its official development assistance
to basic human needs, focusing on efforts to combat poverty, protect
the environment and resources, and provide education, training and
primary health care.

19.  At the invitation of the Governments of Norway and the
Netherlands, a number of interested countries and multilateral
organizations met at Oslo in April 1996 on the implementation of the
20/20 initiative, which aims at increasing significantly and/or
utilizing more efficiently the resources allocated to social
development in order to achieve the goals of the Summit.   The
question of debt reduction or cancellation is also being stressed by
many developing and least developed countries as one of the main
prerequisites for their implementation of the goals of the Summit.

20.  Many countries agreed on the need to strengthen the role of
non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations and the civil
society, recognizing them as partners of the Government in the
follow-up to the Summit, and steps are being taken to ensure their
participation in the elaboration of social policies and programmes.

21.  In the majority of countries, poverty eradication remains the top
priority. Some Governments have launched initiatives to eradicate
poverty, such as stimulating job creation and growth, maintaining an
effective safety net consisting of a comprehensive social security
system, universal health care and community and education services,
and providing adequate housing; others have adopted national targets
to reduce the level of poverty by a certain year.  Mechanisms have
been set up to elaborate national policy guidelines aimed at enhancing
social integration of the poor, and a number of organizing committees
for the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty have been
established.  Initiatives are also being designed to address the root
causes of poverty and studies and surveys are being carried out to
obtain national data on poverty.

22.  Leaders of the Group of Seven industrialized countries (G7) held
their most recent meeting at Lyon, France, from 27 to 29 June 1996. 
The Secretary-General of the United Nations also attended the meeting. 
The final communique' of the meeting addressed issues relevant to the
follow-up of the Copenhagen Summit, including strengthening economic
and monetary cooperation; promoting strong and mutually beneficial
growth of trade and investment; enhancing the approach to employment
problems; implementing a new global partnership for development;
enhancing the effectiveness of multilateral institutions for the
benefit of development; providing necessary multilateral support for
development; and successful integration into the global economy of
countries with economies in transition.

23.  In particular, with regard to enhancing their approach to
employment problems, the G7 leaders emphasized the need to enhance the
effectiveness of policies aimed at stimulating growth and jobs.  They
agreed to pursue the following policies:

     (a)  Reaffirming that investment in people is as vital as
investment in capital, they called for paying special attention to
sound basic education, skill formation and training, which is a
lifelong undertaking, and improving the transition from school to
work;

     (b)  Determined to prevent and fight against social exclusion,
they stressed the need to define ways to reinforce people's
employability throughout their working lives by facilitating the
transition from one job to another;

     (c)  Pledging to carry out practical reforms, consistent with the
specific situation in each country, they aimed to achieve a high level
of employment and widely shared prosperity, and reforms of the tax and
social system to ensure that "work pays", particularly for the least
well-off; lowering social security charges, which place a burden on
low-skilled jobs, in countries with high indirect labour costs; and
improving public employment agencies;

     (d)  Eager to foster entrepreneurship, they agreed to modernize,
where necessary, regulatory frameworks in the markets for goods and
services, to enhance their economies' ability to respond to rapid
change and to encourage job creation; 

     (e)  Acknowledging the ability of small and medium-sized
businesses to create plentiful, quality jobs, they agreed to
facilitate the dissemination of new technologies.

24.  Finally, it should be noted that the General Assembly, in its
resolution 50/161, reiterated the Summit's call for Governments to
assess national progress towards implementing the outcome of the
Summit, possibly in the form of periodic national reports, outlining
successes, problems and obstacles.  It further stated that such
reports could be considered within the framework of an appropriate
consolidated reporting system, taking into account the different
reporting procedures in the economic, social and environmental fields. 
The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1996/7 of
22 July 1996, also decided that the voluntary submission of national
information, for example national action plans or national reports by
Governments, should be encouraged.


                   III.  ACTIONS TAKEN IN THE UNITED NATIONS

                       A.  Commission for Social Development

25.  In accordance with Economic and Social Council resolution 1995/60,
endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 50/161, the
Commission for Social Development held a special session in New York
from 21 to 31 May 1996.  It had before it the report of the
Secretary-General on the review of the functioning of the Commission
(E/CN.5/1996/2), which contained an overview of the past and present
work of the Commission, recalled intergovernmental decisions adopted
since the Social Summit and put forward points for discussion by the
Commission and decision by the Council on its future work.

26.  The Commission recommended, for adoption by the Council, a
resolution entitled "Follow-up to the World Summit for Social
Development and the future role of the Commission for Social
Development" 1/ that set out a framework for its functioning.  It also
recommended that the Council call upon all relevant organs,
organizations, bodies and specialized agencies and related
organizations of the United Nations system to be involved in the
follow-up of the Summit, including the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP), ILO, the Bretton Woods institutions and the World
Trade Organization (WTO); reiterate the invitation extended by the
General Assembly to the Secretary-General to set up joint meetings,
for consultations with the heads of the International Monetary Fund
(IMF), the World Bank, ILO, the United Nations funds and programmes,
and other relevant agencies for the purpose of enhancing the
cooperation of their respective organizations in the implementation of
the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action; decide that the
task forces established by the Administrative Committee on
Coordination for the follow-up to the Summit and other related United
Nations conferences should inform the Commission and the Council of
the progress made in their work for the purpose of system-wide
coordination; stress the importance of ensuring the participation of
high-level representatives from the field of social development in the
work of the Commission; reaffirm the need to ensure effective
partnership and cooperation between Governments and the relevant
actors of civil society; and decided, in view of the traditional
importance of non-governmental organizations in the promotion of
social development, that such organizations should be encouraged to
participate in the work of the Commission and in the monitoring and
implementation related to the Summit.

27.  The Commission, after reviewing its terms of reference, proposed
that its existing mandate be reaffirmed.  In fulfilling its mandate,
it should assist the Council in monitoring, reviewing and appraising
the progress achieved and problems encountered in the implementation
of the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action and advise the
Council accordingly.  To that end, the Commission should:  (a) improve
international understanding on social development through, inter alia,
the exchange of information and experience; (b) integrate, within the
framework of the follow-up to the Summit, consideration of issues
relating to the situation of social groups, including review of
relevant United Nations programmes of action related to such groups,
and consideration of other sectoral issues; (c) identify emerging
issues affecting social development that require urgent consideration,
and make substantive recommendations thereon; (d) make recommendations
regarding social development to the Council; (e) elaborate practical
measures aimed at furthering Summit recommendations; (f) identify
issues requiring improved system-wide coordination, taking into
account substantive inputs from different organizations of the United
Nations system, as well as the contributions of other functional
commissions concerned, in order to assist the Council in its
coordination functions; and (g) maintain and enhance public awareness
and support for the implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration and
Programme of Action.

28.  With regard to the structure of its agenda and its work programme
for the years 1997 to 2000, the Commission proposed that they should
be built around the follow-up to and review of the implementation of
the Copenhagen Declaration and the Programme of Action, incorporating
also the review of relevant United Nations plans and programmes of
action pertaining to the situation of social groups.  The substantive
item would be "Follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development",
including three sub-items:  (a) subjects identified in the multi-year
programme of work, including the situation of social groups;
(b) review of relevant United Nations plans and programmes of action
pertaining to the situation of social groups, as necessary; and (c)
emerging issues, trends and new approaches to issues affecting social
development, as necessary.

29.  Concerning its multi-year programme of work for the years
1997-2000, the Commission recognized that the core issues of the
Summit were interrelated and interdependent, and that issues relating
to the enabling environment for social development, the special
situation of Africa and the least developed countries, enhancement of
social development goals in structural adjustment, the mobilization of
domestic and international resources for social development, and the
framework for international, regional and subregional cooperation for
social development, should be considered every year; and that the
Commission should apply a gender perspective when discussing the
different topics.  The Commission proposed the following programme of
work:

1997:  Follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development

     Theme:  "Productive employment and sustainable livelihoods":  (a)
the centrality of employment in policy formulation, including a
broader recognition of work and employment; (b) improving access to
productive resources and infrastructure; and (c) enhanced quality of
work and employment.

1998:  Follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development

     Theme:  "Promoting social integration and participation of all
people, including disadvantaged and vulnerable groups and persons": 
(a) promoting social integration through responsive government, full
participation in society, non-discrimination, tolerance, equality and
social justice; (b) enhancing social protection, reducing
vulnerability and enhancing employment opportunities for groups with
specific needs; and (c) violence, crime and the problem of illicit
drugs and substance abuse as factors of social disintegration.

1999:  Follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development

     Theme 1:  "Social services for all" and theme 2:  "Initiation of
the overall review of the implementation of the outcome of the
Summit".

2000:  Follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development

     Theme:  "Contribution of the Commission to the overall review of
the implementation of the outcome of the Summit".

30.  Regarding the question of membership, frequency and duration of
sessions, the Commission recommended an increase in its membership
from 32 to 46, to be elected from among the States Members of the
United Nations or members of the specialized agencies (12 seats for
African States, 10 seats for Asian States, 9 seats for Latin American
and Caribbean States, 5 seats for Eastern European States, and 10
seats for Western European and other States).  It also recommended
that it should meet annually in New York, beginning in 1997, for a
period of eight working days.

31.  Concerning its methods of work, the Commission proposed that
panels of experts should be formed, including experts appointed by the
Secretary-General, experts working within the United Nations system
and experts from Governments and civil society; that those experts
should be chosen from the fields of study addressed under the critical
areas of concern, taking into account equitable geographical
distribution and the involvement of non-governmental organizations;
that the selection of experts, the composition of the panels and the
allocation of time to dialogues should be decided inter-sessionally by
the Bureau of the Commission; and the meetings should be allotted for
dialogue within the United Nations system and civil society and among
governmental delegations.  

32.  Pursuant to Economic and Social Council decision 1995/324 of
12 December 1995, the Commission, at its special session in 1996,
considered as its substantive theme:  "Strategies and actions for the
eradication of poverty:  (a) formulation of integrated strategies; (b)
meeting the basic human needs of all; and (c) promotion of
self-reliance and community-based initiatives".  The Commission had
before it the report of the Secretary-General on the subject
(E/CN.5/1996/3), which recalled the main recommendations adopted by
the Social Summit, indicated key areas that called for further policy
development to assist implementation, and outlined various options for
consideration by public authorities and other social actors.  The
Commission held three panel meetings with invited experts, as well as
a dialogue with the chairpersons of the inter-agency task forces on
follow-up to recent major international conferences established by the
Administrative Committee on Coordination on issues related to this
item.  The Commission subsequently adopted resolution S-1996/1 2/
calling for the implementation of agreed measures to eradicate poverty
and for strengthened international cooperation.  It stressed the need
to implement sound and stable macroeconomic, microeconomic and
sectoral policies that encouraged broad-based, sustained economic
growth and development, and called upon the international community to
seek to mobilize additional financial resources that were both
adequate and predictable to contribute to poverty eradication.


                          B.  Economic and Social Council

33.  The General Assembly, in its resolution 50/161, reaffirmed that
the Economic and Social Council would provide overall guidance and
oversee system-wide coordination in the implementation of the outcome
of the Summit and make recommendations in that regard.  It requested
the Council to continue examining ways to strengthen its role,
authority, structures, resources and processes, bringing specialized
agencies into a closer working relationship with it, and invited the
Council to review the reporting system in the area of social
development with a view to establishing a coherent system that could
result in clear policy recommendations for Governments and
international actors.

34.  The coordination segment of the Council was devoted to the theme
"Coordination of the activities of the United Nations system for the
eradication of poverty".  A set of agreed conclusions was adopted
(agreed conclusions 1996/1), in which the Council stressed the
important role played by the United Nations system in the overall
effort for poverty eradication and in assisting Member States in
translating the global goals and commitments of the international
conferences and the statutory mandates of each organization into
concrete actions and activities at all levels.  The Council expressed
concern at the decline in concessional resources for multilateral
development institutions, which makes it more difficult for them to
respond to the massive challenge of assisting countries in poverty
eradication.  It urged that high priority be devoted to strengthening
the collaboration between the United Nations system and the Bretton
Woods institutions in the areas of social and economic development at
all levels.  It called for mainstreaming the gender perspective in
United Nations activities for poverty eradication and a harmonized and
integrated approach to intergovernmental consideration of poverty
eradication.  The Council will focus on the provision of comprehensive
guidelines and coordination of the work of other organs to ensure a
multidimensional, integrated and gender-sensitive approach to poverty
eradication in accordance with, inter alia, the provisions of the
Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development.  

35.  The Council adopted resolution 1996/7 on "Follow-up to the World
Summit for Social Development and the future role of the Commission
for Social Development", as outlined in paragraphs 26 to 31 above. 

36.  The Council also adopted resolution 1996/31 of 25 July 1996 on
consultative relationship between the United Nations and
non-governmental organizations, updating and revising arrangements
that had been in place since the adoption of Council resolution 1296
(XLIV) of 1968.  In that resolution, the Council, inter alia,
recognized the importance of the participation of non-governmental
organizations without consultative status that participated in
international conferences in the follow-up process and decided that
their application for consultative status should be reviewed as
expeditiously as possible so as to allow their participation in the
implementation phase of the conference.  It also decided that in the
interim, the Council should decide on the participation of
non-governmental organizations accredited to an international
conference in the work of the relevant functional commission on the
follow-up to and implementation of that conference.  Those revised
procedures would apply to all non-governmental organizations
accredited to the Social Summit and its preparatory process.   


                         C.  Other functional commissions

37.  By its resolution 50/227 of 24 May 1996 on further measures for
the restructuring and revitalization of the United Nations in the
economic, social and related fields, the General Assembly decided that
in the case of functional commissions with the primary responsibility
for the follow-up and review of the implementation of major
conferences, the Council should ensure the coordination of their
multi-year programmes, in accordance with the agreed conclusions
adopted by the Council at its substantive session of 1995 on the
coordinated follow-up of the results of major international
conferences. 

38.  At its substantive session in 1996, the Council adopted resolution
1996/36 of 26 July 1996 on follow-up to the major international United
Nations conferences and summits, including the implementation of their
respective programmes of action, and decided that it should continue
to ensure, on a regular basis, the harmonization and coordination of
the multi-year work programmes of relevant functional commissions by
promoting a clear division of labour among them and providing clear
policy guidance to them.  At the same session, the Council also
adopted resolution 1996/41 of 26 July 1996 on the follow-up to General
Assembly resolution 50/227:  initiation of reviews, in which it
requested the Secretary-General to prepare a comprehensive document
compiling information on the mandates, composition, functions and
working methods of the functional commissions and expert groups and
bodies and to submit it to the Council not later than February 1997;
and decided to consider further the review of the functional
commissions and expert groups and bodies comprehensively during a
resumed substantive session in the autumn of 1997 and to take
decisions at that time.  

39.       In its decision 4/2, adopted at its fourth session, 3/ the
Commission on Sustainable Development took note of the report of the
Secretary-General on combating poverty (E/CN.17/1996/9), and
reiterated the decisions made at its third session on the issue of
combating poverty.  In accordance with commitment 2 of the Copenhagen
Declaration on Social Development, the Commission urged Governments to
formulate or strengthen, as a matter of urgency, national strategies
to eradicate absolute poverty and reduce overall poverty.  In
addition, the Commission recommended that Governments integrate
environmental issues in such strategies and ensure that they were
related to national sustainable development strategies.  Such
strategies should be supported by the international community, which
should assist developing countries, including through international
organizations, in their efforts to achieve the overall goal of
eradicating poverty and ensuring basic social protection.  The
Commission recognized that meeting the basic human needs of all and
eradicating absolute poverty was an objective of the highest priority
that had been regarded as such in all the recent United Nations
conferences convened since the World Summit for Children in 1990.

40.       In its resolution 40/9, on the implementation of strategic
objectives and action in the critical area of concern:  poverty, 4/
the Commission on the Status of Women reaffirmed the importance of the
outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women as well as the major
United Nations conferences and summits organized since 1990, in
particular the World Summit for Social Development. Recognizing that
the eradication of poverty would require the implementation and
integration of strategies at the national and international levels in
all the critical areas of concern in the Platform for Action adopted
by the Fourth World Conference on Women, the Commission emphasized,
among other things, that empowering women was a critical factor in the
eradication of poverty and giving particular priority to the situation
of women living in poverty, recognizing the need to improve their
access to income, education, health care and other resources.

41.  It will be recalled that the General Assembly, in its resolution
50/161, requested the Secretary-General and the United Nations bodies
to take appropriate measures, in a coordinated manner, to strengthen
the United Nations capacity for gathering and analysing information
and developing indicators of social development, taking into account
the work carried out by different countries, in particular by
developing countries, as well as for providing policy and technical
support and advice, upon request, to improve national capacities in
this regard.

42.  At its twenty-eighth session, the Statistical Commission requested
its Working Group on International Statistical Programmes and
Coordination to consider further the statistical implications of the
follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development.  The Commission
also established the Expert Group on the Statistical Implications of
Recent Major United Nations Conferences to draw up a work programme
reflecting the major action areas identified by the Summit and
indicators where international statistical work in the social field
should be concentrated.  The Expert Group reached agreement on a core
list of 15 specific indicators comprising a minimum special data set
to be collected by each country.  The Bureau of the Commission agreed
to recommend the indicators to the Commission for its endorsement.

43.       Other functional commissions, such as the Commission on
Population and Development, the Commission on Human Rights, the
Commission on Narcotic Drugs  and the Commission on Crime Prevention
and Criminal Justice, also discussed issues related to the Summit and
presented appropriate recommendations for adoption by the Economic and
Social Council.


                           D.  Regional commissions

44.  In its resolution 50/161, the General Assembly invited the
regional commissions, within their mandates and in cooperation with
the regional intergovernmental organizations and banks, to consider
convening, on a biennial basis, a meeting at a high political level to
review progress made towards implementing the outcome of the Summit,
to exchange views on their respective experiences and to adopt the
appropriate measures.  In response to the Summit's call for increased
cooperation at all levels, the regional commissions are expected to
play a major role in supporting the implementation of the objectives
set out in the Copenhagen Declaration and the Programme of Action, in
particular to assist developing countries, Africa and the least
developed countries, and the countries with economies in transition.

45.  As follow-up to the Summit, the Economic Commission for Europe
(ECE) planned two workshops to be held in 1996; the first, on managing
the social consequences of structural change in transition economies
(Paris, 1 and 2 July 1996), provided a forum for joint reflection and
exchange of experiences between experts and senior officials in charge
of economic and social policies in both transition and developed
market economies.  The second, scheduled for Geneva, is devoted to
defining strategies for providing income security in old age with an
emphasis on eradication of poverty among the most vulnerable groups of
older persons.

46.  The Executive Secretary of the Economic and Social Commission for
Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) has been requested by the Commission to
convene a regional ministerial conference on social development in
1997 to review and assess the progress achieved towards attaining the
goals and targets of the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of
Action, and the Agenda for Action on Social Development adopted by the
Asian and Pacific Ministerial Conference at Manila in October 1994,
and to consider means of enhancing regional cooperation.  ESCAP has
prepared and disseminated a publication on enhancing the role of
non-governmental organizations in implementing the regional Agenda for
Action; convened a regional workshop on guidelines for implementing
the Agenda; held an expert group meeting on the enhancement of social
security for the poor; and a meeting of senior officials on a policy
framework for lifelong preparation for old age.  

47.  The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
(ECLAC) participated in two Summit follow-up meetings:  the Summit
Meeting of Social Welfare Ministers from the Rio Group (Buenos Aires,
4-6 May 1995) and the regional technical follow-up meeting on the
agreements reached at the Social Summit (Quito, 15-17 November 1995). 
ECLAC also collaborated with the Government of Chile in organizing the
Hemispheric Conference on the Eradication of Poverty and
Discrimination, held at Santiago on 18 and 19 January 1996.  In
response to the call by the Social Summit and General Assembly
resolution 50/161, the Government of Brazil has offered to host a
meeting at a high political level to evaluate progress made towards
fulfilling the outcome of the Summit, in cooperation with regional
organizations and banks, in So Paulo in March 1997.

48.  The Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) uses its report, Human
Development in Africa, as the main vehicle for reporting on the trends
and developments relating to social and human development in Africa. 
The first issue focused on the themes "Goals for the child", "Health
for all" and "Basic education for all".  The next issue will include
indicators to assess the progress made in advancing social development
at the country level, focusing on the commitments made at the Social
Summit and other major United Nations conferences in the areas of
social development, with a view to analysing the extent to which the
commitments have been met.  The report will also serve as a tool for
inter-agency monitoring at the regional level.

49.  The Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)
undertook several activities, including the publication of seven
studies on poverty - concepts, measurement and determinants, and
policies.  Three of these studies entail poverty profiles for selected
countries of the region, while another study proposes a
region-specific model for poverty measurement and a social perspective
of poverty for the region.  ESCWA is also coordinating with ILO to
design profiles for poverty alleviation policies in four specific
sectors in Lebanon - health, education, employment and fiscal policy. 
In the area of social integration, ESCWA established the first Arab
regional computer training centre for blind women/girls, located at
Amman.


                        E.  United Nations Secretariat

50.  In its resolution 50/161, the General Assembly requested the
Secretary-General to ensure an effectively functioning secretariat,
within which clear responsibility was assigned to assist with the
implementation of and follow-up to the Summit and the servicing of the
intergovernmental bodies involved. 

51.  The Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
is responsible for the provision of technical and substantive services
of the relevant intergovernmental bodies that review and appraise the
implementation of the outcome of the Summit, in particular the
Commission for Social Development, the Economic and Social Council and
the General Assembly.  It prepares documentation and policy
recommendations on social development issues for consideration by
these bodies; keeps abreast of activities and actions taken by
national governments, the United Nations system, and all actors of the
civil society; and serves as a link with non-governmental
organizations on the monitoring and implementation of the objectives
of the Summit.  The Department published a special issue of the review
"Social Policy and Social Progress" devoted to the Social Summit, as
well as a newsletter entitled "Summit Plus One" (three issues in
1996), and two issues of the "Bulletin on the Eradication of Poverty".

52.   The Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy
Analysis produces global economic, social, environmental and
demographic data, as well as policy analyses relevant to assessing
progress made since the Summit and evaluating policy initiatives taken
to implement the Copenhagen Programme of Action.  For example, the
1996 edition of the annual World Economic and Social Survey not only
reviews the current situation in the world economy, it also addresses
issues that are pertinent to the follow-up of the Summit.  The 1997
edition of the quadrennial Report on the World Social Situation will
focus on trends and policies related to the three core issues of the
Summit, as well as the role of economic and social institutions and
policy instruments in efforts to eradicate poverty, expand employment
opportunities and promote social integration.  The Department's work
in the areas of statistics, social indicators, demographic trends,
including assistance in the definition of a minimum national social
data set, further supports national and international follow-up of the
Summit and evaluation of the effectiveness of measures to implement
the Programme of Action.

53.  The Department for Development Support and Management Services
provides technical assistance in the formulation of national social
development strategies in the framework of the Copenhagen Declaration
and Programme of Action.  In cooperation with UNDP, the Department is
responsible for a number of projects in the field of poverty analysis
and poverty alleviation.  With the support of the Government of
Sweden, an international conference on Public Administration and
Social Development was held in Stockholm in October 1995, in
preparation for the resumed session of the General Assembly on public
administration and development (April 1996).  The Assembly, in its
resolution 50/225 of 19 April 1996 urged the development of the
necessary capabilities in public administrations to enable them to
help implement the commitments agreed upon in major conferences,
including the World Summit for Social Development.

54.  The Department of Public Information, in response to resolution
50/161, in which the General Assembly, inter alia, called upon the
Secretary-General to disseminate as widely as possible the Copenhagen
Declaration and Programme of Action, developed media initiatives and
disseminated information material, including press releases, press
kits and posters.  The Department published in booklet form the
Declaration and Programme of Action (DPI/1707) in English and French
which has been disseminated to media, non-governmental organizations
and other interested members of civil society, and is planning a
Spanish language version.  In cooperation with the Government of
Denmark, the Department undertook an analysis of the press coverage of
the Summit.  Thousands of articles and commentaries about the Summit
published in newspapers and magazines around the world were analysed. 
A representative sample from 39 countries has been published in a
booklet entitled "World Summit for Social Development:  Press
Analysis".  An information kit on the eradication of poverty is being
distributed in English, French and Spanish in time for the observance
of the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, 17 October. 
The Department's worldwide network of 78 information offices will use
this kit as part of their activities for the International Day and
Year, and to follow-up the Summit.

55.  Members of the Joint United Nations Information Committee, at its
twenty-second session (Geneva, 3-5 July 1996), exchanged views on how
best to coordinate their planned public information activities on
issues related to the follow-up to the Social Summit and to the cycle
of international conferences on development issues, as well as on the
International Year for the Eradication of Poverty.  To this end, an
open-ended Working Group of the Committee was established in New York
and was entrusted with the task of coordinating the follow-up
activities of Committee members on all major themes of recent United
Nations-sponsored conferences in order to take full advantage of the
momentum of public and media interest on issues such as poverty
eradication, sustainable development, population, women and others.


           IV.  ACTIVITIES BY FUNDS, PROGRAMMES AND SPECIALIZED AGENCIES
                OF THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

56.  The Programme of Action of the Social Summit calls for expanded
and improved cooperation of the United Nations system, including the
technical and sectoral agencies and the Bretton Woods institutions, in
the field of social development to ensure complementarity of actions. 
At its substantive session of 1995, the Economic and Social Council
approved its agreed conclusions (1995/1) on coordinated follow-up by
the United Nations system and the implementation of the results of the
major international conferences organized by the United Nations in the
economic, social and related fields.


           A.  Initiatives taken by the Administrative Committee on 
               Coordination inter-agency task forces on follow-up to
               international conferences                            

57.  The Administrative Committee on Coordination, at its October 1995
session, in order to ensure that the United Nations system effectively
provides support for the integrated implementation at the country
level of the action programmes that emerged from the World Summit for
Social Development and other recent United Nations conferences,
established inter-agency task forces, respectively, on basic social
services for all, chaired by UNFPA; employment and sustainable
livelihoods, chaired by ILO; and the enabling environment for economic
and social development, chaired by the World Bank.  

58.  The prime objective of the inter-agency task forces is to support,
from Headquarters, in a coordinated manner, Resident Coordinators and
the United Nations system country team in providing assistance to
Governments and national institutions in implementing Summit and other
conference goals and commitments.  

59.  At its first meeting (25 and 26 January 1996), the Task Force on
Employment and Sustainable Livelihoods agreed on its terms of
reference and that the main activity should be the organization of
country reviews covering a representative sample of countries in
order:  (a) to assess current policies affecting employment and
sustainable livelihoods; (b) to provide lessons of country experience
based largely on these country reviews; and (c) to demonstrate the
possibility of the United Nations system working together at the
country level in order to provide support to the individual country in
designing and implementing policy alternatives to achieve full
employment and reduce poverty.  In addition, three specific topics
were identified where it was felt that work could augment the country
review activity.  These were:  (a) the impact of globalization and
technological change on employment and sustainable livelihoods; (b)
the relationship between employment and sustainable livelihoods; and
(c) indicators for employment and sustainable livelihoods. 

60.  At its second meeting (17 April 1996), the Task Force discussed a
proposed framework for country reviews, prepared by ILO, stressing the
issues to be covered by the final reports, the data necessary for the
reports and the outline of the reports.  The modalities of country
reviews and financing and organizing country activities were also
discussed.  An amended and revised version of the framework paper was
discussed in the third meeting of the Task Force (9 July 1996).  It
was decided that a synthesis report will be prepared by the lead
agency, ILO, drawing largely on the country reviews in order to
provide the main lessons of experience and the best practices that
could be followed in pursuing the objectives of full employment and
sustainable livelihoods.

61.  The Task Force on Basic Social Services for All chaired by UNFPA
met in February 1996.  It set up two working groups:  on primary
health care, with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United
Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) as joint lead agencies; and on basic
education, with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as the lead agency.  The Task Force
decided to produce:  (a) guidelines for the United Nations Resident
Coordinator System; (b) a wall-chart with indicators for social
services, delineating current levels attained and establishing goals;
(c) best practices/lessons learned; (d) a pocket-card on advocacy; and
(e) a set of indicators to measure the implementation of
recommendations emanating from recent United Nations conferences in
the social sector.

62.  The guidelines address sectoral issues by taking into account,
inter alia, use of indicators to measure and monitor progress;
financing and resource mobilization; gender perspective; focus on
specific groups, particularly those in post-crisis situations; policy
consideration; and the involvement of civil society.  Nutrition,
environment and shelter will also be taken into consideration as
appropriate.  The Chairperson of the Task Force wrote to United
Nations Resident Coordinators, outlining the proposed terms of
reference of the Task Force and inviting their inputs, comments and
views on the applicability of the end products/outcome expected from
the work of the Task Force.

63.  The mandate of the Task Force on the Enabling Environment for
Economic and Social Development chaired by the World Bank derives in
major part from commitments 1, 8 and 9 of the Copenhagen Declaration. 
At its organizational meeting (22 March 1996), the Task Force decided
to establish a synthesis of best practices or lessons learned with an
aim:  (a) to clarify the elements of an enabling environment for
economic and social development; (b) to establish mechanisms for
improving inter-agency coordination in support of such an environment;
and (c) to provide respective constituents with standardized
inter-agency performance indicators of social and economic progress
that represent the development agenda reflected in the outcome of the
major conferences.  The Task Force agreed to establish three
sub-groups to address the major issues within its purview:  (a)
capacity-building for governance (chaired by UNDP); (b) macroeconomic
and social framework (chaired by World Bank); and (c) indicators
(chaired by the Department for Economic and Social Information and
Policy Analysis of the Secretariat).  Task Force participants
suggested that globalization, science, and the importance of
technology transfer in economic and social development were possible
subjects for further, in-depth examination.  

64.  At its first regular session for 1996, the Administrative
Committee on Coordination decided to establish an Inter-Agency
Committee on Women, with the responsibility of addressing on a
system-wide basis all aspects of the implementation of the Platform of
Action of the World Conference on Women that come within the purview
of the system, as well as questions on the improvement of the status
of women within the United Nations system.  The Administrative
Committee on Coordination agreed that the Committee should interact
closely with the task forces on the coordinated follow-up to
conferences.


                    B.  United Nations funds and programmes

65.   The General Assembly, in its resolution 50/161, inter alia,
requested the UNDP to facilitate the efforts of the United Nations
system towards capacity-building at the local, national and regional
levels and to support the coordinated implementation of social
development programmes through the resident coordinator system.

66.  UNDP is assisting national efforts to follow up the Copenhagen
Declaration and Programme of Action.  In March 1996, the Administrator
launched the Poverty Strategies Initiative, releasing immediate
assistance to programme countries to foster an enabling environment
for poverty eradication, complete and implement national poverty
eradication plans and strategies during 1996, and define and measure
indicators of poverty.  There are three important elements of UNDP
work towards these objectives:  sustainable livelihoods policies and
programmes; enhanced civil participation; and gender concerns.  To
date 42 proposals have been approved for funding under the Poverty
Strategies Initiative:  16 from Africa (amounting to $2.1 million); 4
from the Arab States ($600,000); 8 from Asia and the Pacific
($1.1 million); 8 from Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent
States ($925,000); and 6 from Latin America and the Caribbean
($895,000).  All the proposals have been focused on providing upstream
support in the areas of poverty analysis, policy review and strategy
formulation.  This often involves undertaking poverty surveys and
assessments to supplement existing information where gaps exist;
engaging national partners in a review of the policy and institutional
framework for poverty reduction; assessing the impact of current
social policy and poverty programmes on vulnerable groups; mapping
alternative policy choices for poverty reduction; building consensus
and validation among national actors on the nature and causes of
poverty as well as the most effective strategies to combat it; and
strengthening national capacity for poverty and social analysis,
monitoring and evaluation.

67.  At the country level, the UNDP Resident Coordinator system is
encouraging collaborative follow-up to the Social Summit.  The
Resident Coordinators, in close cooperation with agency
representatives, are charged with establishing thematic groups that
will draw on, but not necessarily be identical to, the inter-agency
task forces.  Most of the UNDP country offices have decided to use
existing inter-agency working groups to undertake the work, rather
than establish new mechanisms.  UNDP, UNICEF, ILO, the International
Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Bank had also
initiated collaboration on poverty indicators and monitoring which has
as its objectives to strengthen capacity to gather and analyse
information on and develop indicators of social development.

68.  The programmes of action of both the International Conference on
Population and Development and the Social Summit emphasize a broad
range of issues that encompass key aspects of the challenge of
"meeting basic human needs" and eradicating poverty.  The approach of
the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is empowering women and
providing them with more choices through expanded access to education
and health services, including reproductive health with family
planning, and through promoting skill development and employment.  The
programme includes goals with regard to the provision of reproductive
health services; education, especially for girls, and also goals for
the further reduction of infant, child and maternal mortality. 
UNFPA-supported activities are oriented towards low-income groups in
both rural and urban areas of developing countries with special
emphasis on women's reproductive age.

69.  Provision of basic social services is of particular importance to
the implementation of the outcome of both the World Summit for
Children and the Copenhagen Summit.  UNICEF strongly argues in favour
of sustained investment in basic social services as part of the
strategy of "growth through poverty reduction".  Its strategy for
promoting universal access to basic social services is threefold:  (a)
direct support to service delivery; (b) capacity- building and social
mobilization; and (c) advocacy.  UNICEF emphasizes the need to sustain
investment in children in good times and in bad, and in times of
fiscal restraint and economic liberalization.  UNICEF's review of
country experiences where remarkable social progress has been achieved
shows that their common features include strong political commitment
to the well-being of children, widespread community participation in
the delivery of basic social services and the allocation of adequate
resources to the cause of children.  The adoption of national goals
and targets have facilitated the mobilization of commitments,
resources and community efforts.


             C.  Specialized agencies of the United Nations system

70.  The specialized agencies participated actively in preparations for
the Summit and at the Summit itself.  Follow-up activities have been
initiated or are being considered by the respective governing bodies. 
Country-level initiatives under way are briefly summarized in the
section on the activities of the Administrative Committee on
Coordination task forces (paras. 57-64 above).  Additional information
on individual agency initiatives is set out in the following
paragraphs.

71.  The conclusions on "employment policies in a global context"
adopted by the International Labour Conference at its eighty-third
session in June 1996 confirmed and expanded on the Copenhagen
consensus about the centrality of full employment as a major goal of
economic and social policies.  It emphasized that high and productive
levels of employment through enterprise development are fundamental
means of combating poverty, of ensuring equity, of meeting people's
aspirations for participation in economic and social life, and of
preserving social cohesion.  Conversely, the Conference stressed that
high unemployment breeds exclusion and other social ills, increases
poverty and inequality, and inflicts a high human cost on the
unemployed in terms of reduced well-being and loss of dignity. 

72.  The follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development was among
the main topics considered in 1995 by the Development Committee of the
World Bank and the Interim Committee of IMF.  In pursuance of the
Summit recommendations, the Bank and the Fund are devoting more
attention to the composition of public expenditure in their
discussions with Governments.  The Summit has reinforced and expanded
the Bank's work in the area of social development.  Social development
and human resource development are two of the areas in which
cooperation also between the Bank and the Fund is expanding.

73.  The World Bank currently provides new external finance for the
social sectors amounting annually to $2 billion for education, $1
billion for health, $150 million for population programmes and $180
million for nutrition.  The composition of lending has changed to give
more emphasis to primary education, girls' education and primary
health care.  Social sector spending also includes new activities,
such as support to pension systems, unemployment compensation and
gender equity programmes.

74.  In view of the IMF mandate, its contribution focuses mainly on
helping to establish the macroeconomic framework needed to underpin
the implementation of social and sectoral programmes.  Nevertheless,
IMF has sought to incorporate, where possible, the major
recommendations of United Nations global conferences into its policy
dialogue with each country.  For example, in the social sector, IMF is
increasing its attention to devising measures to protect the most
vulnerable segments of society.  Some of these measures have included
social safety nets and targeted protection mechanisms.  IMF has
encouraged Governments to protect funding for basic social and
infrastructural services.  As a follow-up to the Summit, IMF is
strengthening - in collaboration with the World Bank - its attention
to the efficiency of public expenditure (including basic social
spending) as well as its coordination efforts with ILO in search of
more efficient labour market policies and cost-effective social
protection instruments.

75.  The Social Summit called for accelerating the economic, social and
human resources development of Africa and the least developed
countries.  On 15 March 1996, the Secretary-General, the President of
the World Bank, and heads of United Nations agencies at Geneva,
Nairobi, New York, Paris and Rome, launched the United Nations
System-wide Special Initiative on Africa, a programme of concrete
actions to accelerate African development.  The Special Initiative
aims over a 10-year period to expand greatly basic education and
health care, promote peace and better governance, and improve water
and food security.  It also involves a year-long mobilization of
political commitment and support for Africa. 


                    V.  MOBILIZATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES

76.  In its resolution 50/161, the General Assembly recognized that the
implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action
would require the mobilization of financial resources at the national
and international levels.  


            A.  Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development:
                Development Assistance Committee

77.  The Copenhagen Programme of Action addressed the need to meet the
basic human needs of all in its chapter on the eradication of poverty. 
Governments reiterated many commitments that had previously been made
to meet basic human needs, particularly in the areas of basic
education and primary health care.  Assistance from the international
community will contribute greatly to meeting these commitments.

78.  At its recent (thirty-fourth) session in Paris, the high-level
meeting of the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) proposed a global
development partnership effort to achieve many of these goals,
including:

     (a)  A reduction by one half in the proportion of people living in
extreme poverty by 2015;

     (b)  Universal primary education in all countries by 2015;

     (c)  Demonstrated progress toward gender equality and the
empowerment of women by eliminating gender disparity in primary and
secondary education by 2005;

     (d)  A reduction by two thirds in the mortality rates for infants
and children under five years of age and a reduction by three fourths
in maternal mortality, all by 2015;

     (e)  Access through the primary health-care system to reproductive
health services for all individuals of appropriate ages as soon as
possible and no later than the year 2015;

     (f)  The current implementation of national strategies for
sustainable development in all countries by 2005, so as to ensure that
current trends in the loss of environmental resources are effectively
reversed at both global and national levels by 2015.


                             B.  The 20/20 concept

79.  In its resolution 50/161, the General Assembly reaffirmed the
importance of agreeing on a mutual commitment between interested
developed and developing countries to allocate, on average, 20 per
cent of official development assistance and 20 per cent of the
national budget, respectively, to basic social programmes.

80.  In follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development, the
Governments of Norway and the Netherlands invited a number of
interested countries and multilateral organizations to meet at Oslo
from 23 to 25 April 1996 to review the implementation of the 20/20
initiative.  The meeting was convened to express a mutual commitment
and pursue a common ambition to achieve universal access to basic
social services by reorienting existing and mobilizing additional
resources as well as increasing cost-effectiveness, efficiency and
quality in service delivery.     Among the conclusions reached at the
meeting were:

     (a)  The objective of eradicating absolute poverty required a
broad range of policies and actions at all levels:  an appropriate
economic framework based on sound macroeconomic policies; a
well-developed infrastructure; strengthened institutions and capacity;
as well as programmes designed to meet basic human needs;

     (b)  Within that framework, development of basic social services
was particularly important in reducing the worst aspects of poverty
and was key in breaking the poverty cycle;

     (c)  Developing countries should take the lead and set the
priorities, and Governments were encouraged to prepare basic social
programmes as part of the poverty reduction strategy suggested by the
Social Summit, with the aim of achieving universal access to basic
social services over an ambitious but realistic time period;

     (d)  Support was invited from donor countries and multilateral
agencies in the preparation and implementation of such programmes.

81.  In that context, the 20/20 concept was considered useful for
giving higher priority to basic social services.  The main focus
should be the effective and efficient delivery of basic social
services to poor and vulnerable segments of the populations.  Basic
social services were understood to include basic education and primary
health care, including reproductive health and population programmes,
nutrition programmes and safe drinking water and sanitation, as well
as the institutional capacity for delivering those services.


                C.  Target for official development assistance

82.  Commitment 9 of the Copenhagen Declaration includes a pledge by
donor Governments to strive for the fulfilment of the agreed target of
0.7 per cent of gross national product for overall official
development assistance as soon as possible, and to increase the share
of funding for social development programmes, commensurate with the
scope and scale of activities required to achieve the objectives and
goals of the Copenhagen Declaration and the Programme of Action.

83.  The countries members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee
spend about $60 billion each year for official development assistance. 
For the donor group as a whole, this represents about 0.3 per cent of
gross national product.


               D.  Trust Fund for the Follow-up to the World Summit
                   for Social Development

84.  In paragraph 44 of resolution 50/161, the General Assembly decided
that the former Trust Fund for the World Summit for Social Development
should be continued and renamed the Trust Fund for the Follow-up to
the World Summit for Social Development, with the aim of supporting
programmes, seminars and activities for the promotion of social
development in implementation of the Declaration and Programme of
Action, including activities of the United Nations Decade for the
Eradication of Poverty.  The Secretary-General has taken action in
revising the terms of reference and the title of the Trust Fund, and
invites all interested States to contribute to the Fund.


              E.  United Nations Development Programme resources

85.       Overall new income of UNDP in 1995 amounted to $1.6 billion,
as against $1.2 billion in 1991.  Voluntary contributions accounted
for $900 million of total income (as against $950 million in 1991),
while cost-sharing income accounted for $600 million (as against some
$200 million in 1991).

86.  Expenditure in 1995 totalled $1.4 billion (as against $1.5 billion
in 1991).  Programme expenditure was around $1 billion in 1995, of
which just under one half represented IPF expenditure and over one
half cost-sharing related to programmes and projects financed under
indicative planning figures.  Of the total amount devoted to programme
expenditures, $179 million was spent in Africa; $59 million in Arab
countries; $189 million in Asia and the Pacific; $20 million in
Europe; and $452 million in Latin America and the Caribbean.  Support
was provided to 565 different projects that might be considered to be
follow-up to the World Summit.  A total of $345 million was allocated
to projects in the area of poverty eradication and $31 million was
allocated to projects in the area of employment and sustainable
livelihoods.


                     F.  World Bank/International Development
                         Association resources

87.  Representatives of more than 30 donor countries agreed at Tokyo in
March 1996 on new funding for the International Development
Association (IDA).  They endorsed a package that will allow
concessional lending of $22 billion to low income developing countries
over the next three years (fiscal years 1997-1999).  New contributions
from donor countries to this package should total about $11 billion,
with the remainder of the funds coming mainly from past donor
contributions, repayments of IDA credits and contributions from the
World Bank itself.

88.  Since 1960, IDA has provided almost $90 billion to some 90
countries.  IDA lends only to those countries with a per capita income
of less than $835 and lack the financial ability to borrow from the
World Bank on market terms; it approves on average about $6 billion a
year in funding different types of development projects, with a
concentration on projects that help the poorest nations with their
basic needs, such as food, clean water, health, family planning and
education.  IDA also funds projects which protect the environment,
strengthen the private sector and supports economic reforms.  During
the IDA-10 period (1994-1996), between 45 and 50 per cent of funds are
expected to go to countries in sub-Saharan Africa and a large amount
will also support projects in low income countries in Asia.


                                   G.  Debt

89.  IMF and the World Bank are working to provide special assistance
to heavily indebted poor countries.  The objective is to reduce to
sustainable levels the external debt burden of a number of countries
which have adopted reform and adjustment policies.  The initiative
would entail the participation of other international financial
institutions, and the Paris Club and other bilateral creditors.  

90.  The criteria for determining whether a country's debt burden was
sustainable were a debt-service ratio (debt-service payments as a
percentage of export earnings) in the range of 20 to 25 per cent, and
a present value of all claims on the country not exceeding 200 to 250
per cent of export earnings.  To these criteria a third was added:  a
set of vulnerability factors by which to determine whether to target
the lower or the upper end of the two ranges.  Vulnerability factors
include the country's reserve position, its vulnerability to shocks,
its dependence on a single or a small number of commodity exports and
the impact of debt service on its fiscal position.

91.  Debt service relief could take various forms.  The IMF Executive
Board has agreed that it should provide resources on a more
concessional basis than under the enhanced structural adjustment
facility.  The maturities of IMF claims on some countries could be
extended.  Another possibility is to provide grants to countries to
help them service their obligations to IMF.

92.  The initiative builds on existing mechanisms to a large extent. 
For a number of countries, one of the primary debt-relief mechanisms
has been the application of the Naples terms.  In applying such terms,
the Paris Club provides rescheduling that reduces the annual
debt-service burden of the country in the context of a three-year
adjustment programme.  At the end of that process, if the reform
programme has performed well, the Paris Club provides stock-of-debt
reduction.  Under the new initiative it would be determined after the
initial three-year period whether Naples terms, together with
comparable relief by non-Paris Club bilateral donors and commercial
creditors, would be sufficient to put the country in a sustainable
debt-service position.  If so, the Naples terms would be applied; if
not, the adjustment process would continue, supported by additional
IMF enhanced structural adjustment facility arrangements and
programmes of the World Bank.  The Paris Club would continue
rescheduling, but they would increase the amount of debt relief they
provide up to a net present value of 90 per cent.


               H.  New and innovative ideas for generating funds

93.  The General Assembly, in its resolution 50/161, requested the
Economic and Social Council to consider new and innovative ideas for
generating funds and to offer for that purpose any useful suggestions. 
The Council considered the question at its substantive session of 1996
and adopted resolution 1996/48 of 26 July 1996, which, inter alia,
sets out the following principles:

     (a)  Funds generated by new and innovative ideas should not
substitute official development assistance;

     (b)  New and innovative funding should be distinct from funding
the regular budget and the peacekeeping budgets of the United Nations;

     (c)  The role of private investment in financing development
should be stressed.

94.  The Council requested the Secretary-General to prepare a report,
in cooperation with UNDP, on all aspects of new and innovative ideas
for generating funds for globally agreed commitments and priorities,
in particular those established at recent United Nations conferences
and summits.  The report should include a review of their feasibility
and possible modalities, as well as the costs and benefits of their
implementation, and should be submitted to the Council at its
substantive session of 1997.  Governments were also invited to submit
their views on the subject to the Secretary-General, who would
communicate those views in a supplement to his report.


              VI.  INVOLVEMENT OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND OTHER ACTORS

95.  In its resolution 50/161, the General Assembly reaffirmed the need
for effective partnership and cooperation between Governments and the
relevant actors of civil society, the social partners, the major
groups as defined in Agenda 21, including non-governmental
organizations and the private sector, in the implementation of and
follow-up to the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action, and
for ensuring their involvement in the planning, elaboration,
implementation and evaluation of social policies at the national
level.

96.  The Economic and Social Council, in its decision 1996/208 of
9 February 1996, decided to invite, on an exceptional basis, all
non-governmental organizations that had been accredited to participate
in the Social Summit to participate at the special session of the
Commission for Social Development held in May 1996.  Consequently, 50
non-governmental organizations with close to 100 individuals attended
the special session of the Commission, which represented the largest
number of non-governmental organization participation in the history
of the Commission.

97.  In its recommendation to the Economic and Social Council,
subsequently endorsed in Council resolution 1996/7, the Commission, at
its special session, emphasized the need to ensure the involvement of
those organizations in the planning, elaboration, implementation and
evaluation of social policies at the national level.  In view of the
traditional importance of these organizations in the promotion of
social development, the Commission further recommended that such
organizations should be encouraged to participate in its work and in
the monitoring and implementation process related to the Summit, to
the maximum extent possible. 

98.  As indicated in paragraph 36 above, in its resolution 1996/31 on
consultative relationship between the United Nations and
non-governmental organizations, the Council recognized the importance
of the participation of non-governmental organizations without
consultative status that participated in international conferences in
the follow-up process and decided that their application for
consultative status should be reviewed as expeditiously as possible to
allow their participation in the implementation phase of the
conferences.  With regard to their participation in the work of the
relevant functional commissions on the follow-up to and implementation
of the international conferences, the Council is to take interim
decisions on the participation of these non-governmental
organizations.

99.  Non-governmental organizations have been actively involved in
increasing the awareness of the public on the Summit and its
follow-up, by undertaking a range of follow-up activities, including
conferences, seminars, policy dialogues with Governments at the
national level, and follow-up within the United Nations.  A few
examples of these are cited in the following paragraphs.

100.      The International Council on Social Welfare, made up of a
wide range of local, national and international organizations with
special interests on issues related to social welfare and social
development, adopted Summit follow-up as its top priority and held
regional follow-up seminars for non-governmental organizations in
Africa, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Europe.  In July 1996, the
International Council organized two important events at Hong Kong:  an
international symposium on the theme "Social Development for Justice,
Equality and Peace", as well as an International Conference on Social
Welfare.  It also launched a new quarterly journal, the Social
Development Review, which provides information, ideas and debate on
follow-up activities to the Summit.

101.      "Social Watch" is an initiative launched by a number of
non-governmental organizations that participated at the Development
Caucus during the Summit; they are from both the developed and the
developing world.  Among them are Novib, the Third World Institute,
the Third World Network-Africa, the Latin American Women's Network and
the Freedom from Debt Coalition.  This watchdog system was established
to monitor not only the implementation of the commitments made at the
Social Summit, but also of those made at the Fourth World Conference
on Women as well, and the aim is to ensure that national Governments
and international organizations, implement the commitments entered
into in Copenhagen and Beijing.  The first of a series of "Social
Watch" reports, entitled "The Starting Point", contains reports from
non-governmental organizations already engaged in the follow-up
process in different countries and regions, with emphasis on
employment, health, women issues and education.  These reports will be
published on an annual basis.

102.      The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) has contributed to major
conferences and meetings of the United Nations by mobilizing
parliamentary support at the national level.  As a follow-up to the
Summit, IPU organized a Tri-Partite Meeting of Parliamentary,
Governmental and Inter-governmental Representatives to Follow Up on
the World Summit for Social Development with the aim of enhancing
cooperation among parliaments, Governments and intergovernmental
organizations for the effective implementation of the results of the
Summit.  The ultimate objective of the meeting was to suggest concrete
actions to be taken directly and indirectly by national parliaments
and their members to follow-up and implement the result of the Summit. 
The meeting, held in conjunction with the United Nations Secretariat
and UNDP, took place in New York on 5 and 6 September 1996.

103.      The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU),
whose main purpose is to promote the interests of working people
throughout the world,  participated actively during the Summit and its
preparatory process.  In following up the Summit, ICFTU has been
active in pressing Governments and the United Nations system to
translate the Copenhagen commitments into specific targets and
policies.  At the international level, attention has been focused on
encouraging Governments to set up Summit action groups comprised of
Government, social partners and non-governmental organizations to
ensure that national targets are set.  It also published a user's
guide to the Social Summit.  In March 1996, on the occasion of the
first anniversary of the Summit, ICFTU, in cooperation with ILO, UNDP
and the United Nations Information Centre at Brussels, organized a
seminar on the follow-up to the Summit in Brussels.  The two central
themes of this seminar were:  the evaluation of action undertaken to
implement the Commitments made at Copenhagen, and a look at areas
which require further attention to boost the impact of the Summit.

104.      The International Movement ATD Fourth World has, since 1993,
observed the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty on 17
October worldwide by a commemoration in honour of the victims of
extreme poverty.  As a follow-up to the Social Summit, in particular
commitment 2 on the eradication of poverty, and in observance of the
International Year for the Eradication of Poverty, a series of events
are being organized by the Movement during 1996, including a two-day
workshop held at Geneva from 24 to 26 June 1996, which was addressed
by the Secretary-General.  On 26 June, a "Dialogue on Poverty" between
the Secretary-General and the Movement took place, during which the
Secretary-General talked with 35 extremely poor men and women, who had
been brought from countries around the globe to Geneva for the event. 

105.      The German non-governmental organization forum "World Social
Summit" continues to monitor the implementation of the 20/20
initiative.  It published a study entitled "Social Priorities in
Development Cooperation", which traces the extent to which the 20/20
initiative is being implemented, particularly by the aid programme of
the Government of Germany.

106.      An alliance of a number of non-governmental organizations,
known as the United Kingdom Coalition for the International Year for
the Eradication of Poverty, actively campaigned to raise awareness
about poverty and the problems caused by social exclusion in the
United Kingdom.

107.      In the Philippines, the National Council of Social
Development Foundation (NCSD) published a country report on the Summit
follow-up, entitled "Taking the Challenge of ESCAP's Agenda for Action
on Social Development and the Ten Commitments of the Copenhagen
Summit:  The NCSD Experience".  The report outlined NCSD activities
related to the 10 commitments and made recommendations on ways and
means of improving networking among non-governmental organizations and
governmental organizations, as well as ways to further improve the
implementation of the commitments made by the Philippines at the
Summit.

108.      In Australia, the Australian Council of Social Service and
the Australian Council for Overseas Aid are jointly coordinating
national non-governmental organization activities for the
International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. 

109.      Finally, in its resolution 1996/7, the Economic and Social
Council requested the Secretary-General to make appropriate
arrangements to ensure the full utilization of existing channels of
communication with non-governmental organizations in order to
facilitate broad-based participation and dissemination of information. 
In this context, the Secretary-General welcomes initiatives undertaken
by non-governmental organizations, including those of the private
sector, in the monitoring and implementation process related to the
Summit, and encourages these organizations to report their activities
to the Commission for Social Development through the Secretariat. 


                                     Notes

     1/   Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1996,
Supplement No. 9 (E/1996/29), chap. I, sect. A, para. 1.

     2/   Ibid., para. 3.

     3/   Ibid., Supplement No. 8 (E/1996/28), chap. I, sect. C.

     4/   Ibid., Supplement No. 6 (E/1996/26), chap. I, sect. C.2.


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Date last posted: 28 December 1999 17:35:10
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