United Nations

A/51/327


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

1 October 1996

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


                                                        A/51/327
                                                              

General Assembly
Fifty-first session
Agenda item 101


                     CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

            Progress made in the implementation of General Assembly
                         resolutions 50/145 and 50/146

                        Report of the Secretary-General


                                   CONTENTS

                                                              Paragraphs Page

 I.   INTRODUCTION ..........................................     1         3

II.   RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE NINTH UNITED NATIONS CONGRESS ON
      THE PREVENTION OF CRIME AND THE TREATMENT OF OFFENDERS     2 - 6      3

III.  THE ROLE OF THE COMMISSION ON CRIME PREVENTION AND
      CRIMINAL JUSTICE ......................................    7 - 12     4

IV.   PROGRAMME ACTIVITIES ..................................   13 - 78     6

      A. Follow-up to the Naples Political Declaration and
         Global Action Plan against Organized Transnational
         Crime .............................................    13 - 31     6

      B. Crime prevention in urban areas, trafficking in
         minors and juvenile justice .......................    32 - 37    10

      C. Elimination of violence against women .............    38 - 40    12

      D. Measures to regulate firearms .....................    41 - 42    12

      E. Statistical and computerized applications in the
         management of the criminal justice system .........    43 - 46    13

      F. United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and
         Operations of Criminal Justice Systems ............       47      14

      G. Implementation of the United Nations standards and
         norms in crime prevention and criminal justice ....    48 - 58    14

      H. Technical cooperation .............................    59 - 73    17

      I. Preparations for the Tenth United Nations Congress
         on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of
         Offenders .........................................    74 - 77    22

      J. Publications ......................................       78      22

 V.   STRENGTHENING PROGRAMME CAPACITY ......................   79 - 100   23

      A. Provision of resources ............................    79 - 85    23

      B. United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal
         Justice Fund ......................................    86 - 88    25

      C. Cooperation and coordination of activities with
         United Nations bodies and other entities ..........    89 - 97    25

      D. Strategic management of the Programme .............    98 - 100   28

VI.   CONCLUDING REMARKS ....................................  101 - 104   28


                               I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   The General Assembly, at its fiftieth session, adopted resolution
50/145 of 21 December 1995 on the Ninth United Nations Congress on the
Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders and resolution
50/146 of the same date on strengthening the United Nations Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme, particularly its technical
cooperation capacity.  The present report is submitted pursuant to
those resolutions.


        II.  RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE NINTH UNITED NATIONS CONGRESS ON THE
             PREVENTION OF CRIME AND THE TREATMENT OF OFFENDERS

2.   In its resolution 1995/27 of 24 July 1995 on the implementation of
the resolutions and recommendations of the Ninth United Nations
Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders,
the Economic and Social Council approved their follow-up in the
context of the priority themes established for the crime prevention
and criminal justice activities.  The General Assembly, in its
resolution 50/145, endorsed the above-mentioned resolutions and
recommendations, invited Governments to be guided by them in
formulating legislation and policy directives and requested the
Secretary-General to submit to the Assembly a report on the measures
taken to implement resolution 50/145.  The activities of the United
Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme carried out in
pursuance of the mandates emanating from the Congress are described in
section IV below.

3.   In response to a note verbale sent by the Secretary-General
requesting information on initial steps taken to give effect to the
resolutions of the Congress, views and observations providing
information on general and specific initiatives have thus far been
received from the Governments of Austria, Bahrain, Greece, Japan,
Jordan, Panama and Saudi Arabia.  They also indicated that they were
already implementing, or planning to implement, the various
recommendations.

4.   The Governments reported that they had taken steps to give effect
to the various recommendations of the Congress on the four substantive
topics.  In respect of international cooperation and practical
technical assistance, the Governments were making efforts to
strengthen the rule of law through international cooperation and
assistance, improving policy development, increasing the use of
bilateral and multilateral agreements and promoting the establishment
of integrated regional policies, programmes, plans and mechanisms to
prevent crime and ensure justice.  Regarding organized crime, a number
of specific measures had been taken that responded to part II of
Congress resolution 1, 1/ dealing with action against transnational
and organized crime, particularly at the regional level, by updating
domestic legislation in the area of money laundering, extradition and
mutual assistance; establishing separate units to deal with organized
crime and improving legislation on environmental protection.  In
response to part III of the same resolution, a series of steps had
been taken or were under way to upgrade the training and development
of law enforcement and criminal justice personnel, increase the use of
non-custodial measures and improve measures against the spread of HIV
and AIDS.  With regard to part IV of the resolution, steps had been
taken to improve strategies and programmes for the prevention and
control of urban crime, juvenile delinquency and violent crime,
including domestic violence; to deal with the problems arising from
migratory flows; to improve measures against racism, xenophobia and
related intolerance; and to improve the regulation of firearms.

5.   In response to resolution 4 on links between terrorist crime and
transnational organized crime, the Governments were initiating action
at the national level in the areas of legislation, investigation and
law enforcement, in order to ensure the prevention and suppression of
terrorist crimes and transnational organized crime.  The enhancement
of international cooperation, in particular the exchange of technical
information and sharing of experience in the field, was being actively
pursued.

6.   Regarding the implementation of resolutions 5, on the Standard
Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, and 7, on children as
victims and perpetrators of crime, Governments were trying to give
effect to the various requests for action.  As to resolution 8, on
violence against women, efforts were being made with a view to
eliminating violence against women or mitigating the effects of such
violence, inter alia, by updating the legislation on domestic violence
and trafficking in human beings; training and raising of public
awareness, improvement of curricula and working with the media; and
supporting institutions and self-help groups for women subjected to
violence.  In response to resolution 9, on firearms, measures had been
taken to tighten the regulation of certain firearms and improve action
against illicit trafficking in firearms.


             III.  THE ROLE OF THE COMMISSION ON CRIME PREVENTION
                   AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

7.   The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1992/22 of 30
July 1992, recognized the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice as the principal policy-making body of the United Nations in
the field of crime prevention and criminal justice and requested it to
coordinate relevant activities in this field.  In accordance with the
Programme of Action contained in the annex to General Assembly
resolution 46/152, the Commission has been mandated not only to
develop, monitor and review the United Nations Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Programme, but also to mobilize support for the
Programme among Member States and to coordinate the activities of the
United Nations network of institutes for crime prevention and criminal
justice.

8.   The fifth session of the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice was held at Vienna from 21 to 31 May 1996.  It was
attended by almost 600 participants from 36 of the 40 member States of
the Commission, 70 other States as well as representatives of 76
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations.  Within the
broader priority themes of the Programme, the following issues
received particular attention at the fifth session:  organized
transnational crime; action against corruption; the smuggling of
illegal migrants; the prevention of urban crime, proceeds of crime and
money laundering; international cooperation in criminal matters,
including extradition; the role of criminal law in the protection of
the environment; children as victims and perpetrators of crime; the
elimination of violence against women; and the development of the
criminal justice information systems.  In addition, the ongoing United
Nations study of the regulation of firearms was dealt with.  The
question of links between organized transnational crime and terrorist
crimes was discussed in the context of the follow-up to the Naples
Political Declaration and Global Action Plan against Organized
Transnational Crime.

9.   The Commission agreed on the text of the United Nations
Declaration on Crime and Public Security and recommended it to the
General Assembly for adoption.  The Declaration, consisting of 11
articles, affirms the necessity for all Member States to take action
within their jurisdictions and pledge mutual cooperation in order to
prevent and control serious transnational crime, including organized
crime, illicit drug and arms trafficking, smuggling of other illicit
articles, organized trafficking in persons, terrorist crimes and the
laundering of the proceeds from serious crimes.

10.  The Commission also recommended for adoption by the General
Assembly the International Code of Conduct for Public Officials.  The
Code, composed of 11 articles, includes provisions related to general
principles, conflicts of interest and disqualification, disclosure of
assets, acceptance of gifts or other favours, confidential information
and political activity.

11.  Additional highlights of the Commission's work at its fifth
session are the following:

     (a) The formulation of an action plan on the elimination of
violence against women;

     (b) Proposals for safeguards guaranteeing protection of the
rights of those facing the death penalty;

     (c) Proposals for the development of manuals on assistance to
victims;

     (d) Proposals for the establishment of an advisory steering group
and a standing pool of experts on computerization in the
administration of criminal justice, and further improvement of the
Internet-based United Nations Crime and Justice Information Network
and the United Nations Online Crime and Justice Clearinghouse;

     (e) Debate on the feasibility of the establishment of an
international court on the environment;

     (f) Debate on the feasibility of the elaboration of international
instruments on organized transnational crime and on the illicit
traffic in children;

     (g) Debate on further refinement of the work of the Commission,
and further strengthening of the United Nations Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Programme;

     (h) Initiation of preparations for the Tenth United Nations
Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, to
be held in 2000.

12.  The Economic and Social Council, having considered the report of
the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice 2/ at its
substantive session of 1996, approved all draft resolutions, as
submitted to it (see Council resolutions 1996/8 to 1996/16 of 23 July
1996 and 1996/26 to 1996/28 of 24 July 1996).


                           IV.  PROGRAMME ACTIVITIES

         A.  Follow-up to the Naples Political Declaration and Global
             Action Plan against Organized Transnational Crime

13.  The General Assembly, in its resolution 49/159 of 23 December
1994, approved the Naples Political Declaration and Global Action Plan
against Organized Transnational Crime (see A/49/748, annex, sect.
I.A), adopted by the World Ministerial Conference on Organized
Transnational Crime, held at Naples, Italy, from 21 to 23 November
1994, and urged States to implement them as a matter of urgency.  The
Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1995/11 of 24 July
1995, requested the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice to ensure and monitor their full implementation.


         1.  Regional Ministerial Workshop on the Follow-up to the
             Naples Political Declaration and Global Action Plan
             against Organized Transnational Crime

14.  Pursuant to the above-mentioned resolutions, the Regional
Ministerial Workshop on the Follow-up to the Naples Political
Declaration and Global Action Plan against Organized Transnational
Crime was convened at Buenos Aires from 27 to 30 November 1995.  The
Workshop also followed up the Ninth United Nations Congress on the
Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.  It examined ways
to strengthen and improve the capacity of the countries of Latin
America and the Caribbean to respond to organized transnational crime
and to improve the mechanisms of regional and multilateral cooperation
to combat it.

15.  The Workshop called for increased technical cooperation, strategic
coordination, legislative action and other measures to combat
organized transnational crime in all its manifestations.  With a view
to promoting action at both the national and the regional levels to
achieve these aims, the Workshop adopted the Buenos Aires Declaration
on the Prevention and Control of Organized Transnational Crime. 3/

16.  In its resolution 1996/27, adopted on 24 July 1996, on the
recommendation of the fifth session of the Commission, the Economic
and Social Council took note of the Buenos Aires Declaration on
Prevention and Control of Organized Transnational Crime.  It also
requested the Secretary-General to assist Member States in the
implementation of the Naples Political Declaration and Global Action
Plan; to establish a central repository for specific information and
instruments on organized transnational crime; to continue his
consultations with Governments on the possibility of elaborating a
convention or conventions against organized transnational crime; to
provide advisory services and technical assistance to requesting
Member States; and, for the purpose of providing such assistance, to
develop training manuals for specialized law enforcement and
investigative personnel on action against organized transnational
crime.


                  2.  Prevention and control of the laundering
                      of the proceeds of crime

17.  The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1994/13 of 25
July 1994, requested the Secretary-General to establish and maintain
close cooperation with Member States, intergovernmental organizations
and other entities active in the field of controlling the proceeds of
crime, including the regular exchange of information.  The Council
also requested the Secretary-General to report to the Commission on
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice at its fifth session on
international, regional and other initiatives for the prevention and
control of the laundering of the proceeds of crime, including
recommendations for further concerted action at the global level, and
on the implementation of Council resolution 1993/30 of 27 July 1993 on
the control of the proceeds of crime.  The Council, in its resolution
1995/11 of 24 July 1995, requested the Secretary-General to seek
cooperation and to join efforts with other international, global and
regional organizations and mechanisms that have played an active role
in combating money laundering in order to reinforce common regulatory
and enforcement strategies in that area.

18.  Pursuant to the above-mentioned resolutions, the Secretary-General
invited Governments to provide the Secretariat with information on,
inter alia, initiatives for the prevention and control of the
laundering of the proceeds of crime and the control of such proceeds.

19.  On the basis of the information received, the Secretary-General
indicated in his report to the fifth session of the Commission that an
increasing amount of illicit proceeds would be directed at the world's
financial systems:

         "The problems facing policy makers, regulators and criminal
     justice systems are bound to be compounded by the increasing use
     of very sophisticated new technologies which provide an array of
     new opportunities for concealing and laundering criminal proceeds. 
     In view of those trends, the particular needs of developing
     countries and of countries in transition will multiply and grow
     exponentially.  The Division has already had an indication of
     this, in the form of a growing number of requests for assistance
     in the field of prevention and control of the laundering of the
     proceeds of crime." 4/

20.  The Council, in its resolution 1996/27, stressed the importance of
the activities carried out by the United Nations to strengthen
international efforts against money laundering, including, where
possible, money laundering involving the proceeds of serious crimes
other than drug-related crimes, and, for that purpose, requested the
Secretary-General to increase and intensify the cooperation between
the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division of the Secretariat
and the United Nations International Drug Control Programme and to
continue to work with the Financial Action Task Force and other
relevant multilateral and regional institutions against money
laundering.  The Commission, in its resolution 5/2, also requested the
Secretary-General to consider the establishment of a joint unit
between the United Nations International Drug Control Programme
(UNDCP) and the Division for providing technical assistance for the
control of proceeds of crime, including the prevention of money
laundering.


             3.  Measures to combat smuggling of illegal migrants

21.  In its resolution 1995/10 of 24 July 1995, the Economic and Social
Council expressed its concern that a significant number of States had
not yet enacted criminal legislation to combat all aspects of the
smuggling of illegal migrants.  At its fifth session, the Commission
considered the report of the Secretary-General on the developments in
respect of criminal law and other measures taken by Governments to
combat the smuggling of illegal migrants. 5/  It was the third in a
series of reports on the matter.  The first report (A/49/350 and
Add.1), submitted to the General Assembly at its forty-ninth session,
had provided a comprehensive overview of the background and scope of
the problem of alien smuggling and information regarding measures to
combat it.  The second report, 6/ submitted to the Commission at its
fourth session, had provided additional information on measures to
combat alien smuggling.

22.  The above-mentioned reports contained information provided by
53 Governments concerning criminal law and other measures adopted, as
well as the information provided by five organizations on activities
undertaken to combat the smuggling of illegal migrants.  The
Secretary-General concluded that, given the complexity of the issues
involved and the substantial role played by transnational organized
crime in global criminal activity, international cooperation,
particularly in trans-border law enforcement, was crucial, and
measures needed to be specified and applied by all concerned. 
Moreover, a better common understanding of the problem to be tackled
would need to be reached, and a precise, well-defined course of action
pursued.  To that end, and bearing in mind the increasing attention
being paid and the growing importance being attached to the matter by
States, more dialogue and joint action between source, transit and
recipient States might be fostered, particularly across regions and in
international forums, including consideration of the elaboration of a
new international instrument. 7/  The Secretary-General also
emphasized the importance of integrated action in this field involving
other programmes and bodies within the United Nations system that deal
with related issues.


                         4.  Action against corruption

23.  As mentioned in paragraph 10 above, the Commission on Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice approved the text of the International
Code of Conduct for Public Officials.  The Economic and Social
Council, in its resolution 1996/8, recommended that the General
Assembly adopt the Code and requested the Secretary-General to
elaborate an implementation plan and, subject to the availability of
extrabudgetary resources, to provide increased advisory services and
technical assistance to requesting Member States.


                 5.  Links between transnational organized crime
                     and terrorist criminal activities

24.  In its resolution 1995/27, section II, the Economic and Social
Council decided to establish an open-ended intergovernmental working
group, within the framework of the Commission, to consider, at the
fifth session, the views of Member States sought by the
Secretary-General on the implementation of paragraph 1 of resolution 3
of the Ninth Congress, 1/ and to consider measures for combating
transnational organized crime, including the drafting of a code of
conduct or other legal instrument, with due regard to the growing
danger of links between transnational organized crime and terrorist
criminal activities.

25.  The Secretary-General submitted to the Commission a report that
provided an overview of the differences and similarities between
transnational organized crime and terrorist crimes, as well as a
summary of the responses received from States. 8/  The report
concluded that, while the links between transnational organized crime
and terrorist crimes are usually more circumstantial than
institutional, both forms of crime present formidable challenges to
the international community and require improved international
cooperation.

26.  The open-ended working group established at the fifth session of
the Commission carried out a comprehensive discussion of the subject. 
For several participants, the links between transnational organized
crime and terrorist crimes were evident and well established, while
many others expressed the view that there was not sufficient evidence
on the existence of such links.  Whereas some participants suggested
that the issue should be further dealt with by the Commission, no
consensus was reached in that regard.


       6.  The role of criminal law in the protection of the environment

27.  The Economic and Social Council, in section II of its resolution
1995/27 of 24 July 1995, called upon the Secretary-General, assisted
by the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research
Institute (UNICRI) and the regional institutes for the prevention of
crime and the treatment of offenders, to continue research, exchange
of information, training and technical cooperation facilitating the
development of preventive, regulatory and other strategies on the role
of criminal law in the protection of the environment, with an emphasis
on needs assessment and advisory services; assistance in the review or
redrafting of legislation and the development of effective
infrastructure; as well as training of criminal justice and regulatory
agency personnel.  The Secretary-General submitted to the fifth
session of the Commission a short summary of recent developments and
activities undertaken in implementing this mandate, as contained in
his report, 9/ including the elaboration, in cooperation with the
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and UNICRI, of a monograph
on capacity-building in criminal enforcement of environmental law. 
The monograph identifies areas where concrete projects could be
developed.  It proposes elements on which technical assistance
activities may focus, such as legislation, institution-building,
enforcement tools, training and education.

28.  In order to maintain and regulate exchange of information in the
area of environmental protection, a roster of experts was established,
including 180 experts in 52 countries who provide feedback regarding
the role of criminal law in the protection of the environment and the
viability of the measures adopted in their respective countries and
regions.

29.  On 23 July 1993, on the recommendation of the Commission, the
Economic and Social Council adopted resolution 1996/10 on the role of
criminal law in the protection of the environment, in which it
requested the Secretary-General to seek the views of Member States in
order to determine the feasibility of establishing appropriate
machinery for applying criminal law for the protection of the
environment.  It also called upon Member States to cooperate with each
other and with international organizations in their efforts to prevent
crimes against the environment, to include appropriate penal
provisions in their laws and ensure their enforcement, and to support
technical cooperation activities in environmental matters.


         7.  Development and promotion of mechanisms of international
             cooperation in the fight against organized transnational
             crime

30.  In section I of its resolution 1995/27 on the implementation of
the resolutions and recommendations of the Ninth United Nations
Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders,
the Economic and Social Council requested the Secretary-General to
convene, utilizing extrabudgetary resources, a meeting of an
intergovernmental expert group to examine practical recommendations
for the further development and promotion of mechanisms of
international cooperation, including the United Nations model treaties
on international cooperation in criminal matters, as well as for the
development of model legislation on extradition and related forms of
international cooperation in criminal matters.

31.  The Secretary-General submitted to the fifth session of the
Commission a note on the outcome of consultations undertaken and
arrangements made for convening the intergovernmental expert group to
be convened prior to the sixth session of the Commission, with a view
to preparing relevant recommendations. 10/


                B.  Crime prevention in urban areas, trafficking
                    in minors and juvenile justice

32.  In its resolution 1995/9 of 24 July 1995, the Economic and Social
Council adopted the guidelines for cooperation and technical
assistance in the field of urban crime prevention and requested the
Commission to ensure the publication of the guidelines in the most
proper form.  At its fifth session, the Commission considered the
issue of the prevention of urban crime.  During the debate on the
issue, the guidelines for cooperation and technical assistance in the
field of crime prevention were welcomed as a model for national
guidelines.

33.  The Ninth Congress, in its resolution 7, 1/ invited the Commission
to initiate the process of requesting the views of States regarding
the process of elaborating an international convention on the illicit
traffic in children, which might embody necessary elements to
efficiently combat that form of transnational organized crime. 
Subsequently, the Economic and Social Council, in section IV of its
resolution 1995/27, requested the Secretary-General to initiate that
process.  In their responses, 17 States supported the elaboration of
such a convention, while one considered the exercise not to be
fruitful.  It was noted that a comprehensive global approach against
trafficking in children required more information on this phenomenon,
such as the approximate number of victimized children and the routes
being used for such trafficking. 11/

34.  At its fifth session, the Commission recommended to the Economic
and Social Council a draft resolution on measures to prevent illicit
international trafficking in children and to establish penalties
appropriate to such offences.  In its resolution 1996/26 of 24 July
1996 on the subject, the Council invited Governments to adopt the
necessary measures, in accordance with their legislation, to ensure
that all persons involved in illicit trafficking in children are
subject to prosecution in a manner commensurate with the seriousness
of the crime.  It also requested the Secretary-General to continue to
gather the opinions of Governments on the elaboration of an
international convention or conventions on the illicit traffic in
children and to conduct a survey on the extent to which children are
protected from becoming victims of illicit international trafficking. 
It also decided that the Commission should include in the provisional
agenda of its sixth session an item on the possible elaboration of a
legally binding international instrument on the illicit traffic in
children.

35.  In its resolution 7, the Ninth Congress recommended that the
Commission should invite the Secretary-General to consider ways of
elaborating a programme of action aimed at promoting the effective use
and application of all relevant United Nations human rights
instruments on the administration of justice, in particular with
regard to children, and United Nations standards and norms in juvenile
justice.

36.  A preparatory meeting aimed at moving towards an integrated
international strategy in this respect was held at Vienna in January
1996.  It recommended that the programme of action should consist of
the elaboration of an integrated international strategy on juvenile
justice, to be accompanied by the development and implementation of
technical assistance projects for countries facing the challenge of
complying with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in
particular with respect to the application of juvenile justice
instruments.  It also recommended the holding of an expert group
meeting to finalize the draft programme of action for consideration by
the Commission at its sixth session.  In addition, the expert group
should discuss pilot projects on juvenile justice reform designed to
ensure that the draft programme of action meets the actual needs and
requirements of Member States requesting assistance in establishing or
improving their juvenile justice systems.  The Government of Austria
offered to host such a meeting.

37.  The Council, in its resolution 1996/13 of 23 July 1996 on the
administration of juvenile justice, welcomed the progress made with
regard to elaborating a programme of action to promote the effective
use and application of international standards and norms in juvenile
justice.  It also invited the Secretary-General to strengthen
system-wide coordination of technical assistance projects in the field
of juvenile delinquency prevention and the establishment or
improvement of juvenile justice systems.  In addition, it requested
him to organize, in cooperation with the Government of Austria and
using extrabudgetary resources, a meeting of an expert group on the
elaboration of a programme of action on juvenile justice.  It also
decided that the Commission at its sixth session should consider the
draft programme of action.


                   C.  Elimination of violence against women

38.  The Economic and Social Council, in section IV.C of its resolution
1995/27 requested the Secretary-General to prepare a draft plan of
action, in the context of crime prevention and criminal justice, on
the elimination of violence against women that would provide
practical, action-oriented suggestions on how to address the issue by
means of, inter alia, legislative action, research and evaluation,
technical cooperation, training and the exchange of information.

39.  The draft plan of action was prepared, drawing on the inputs from
Governments and the work of the United Nations in related areas,
particularly the Fourth World Conference on Women, the Ninth United
Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of
Offenders and the preliminary report submitted by the Special
Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. 12/ 
The draft plan of action proposed a set of measures designed to bring
about reform to upgrade and ensure an appropriate "fair treatment"
response on the part of criminal justice systems to all forms of
violence perpetrated against women and the girl child. 13/

40.  On 23 July 1996, on the recommendation of the Commission, the
Economic and Social Council adopted resolution 1996/12, in which it
took note of the revised document produced by the Commission at its
fifth session, entitled "Practical measures, strategies and activities
in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice for the
elimination of violence against women", 14/ and requested the
Secretary-General to seek the views of Member States, institutes
comprising the Programme network, relevant United Nations entities and
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations on the draft
practical measures, strategies and activities in the field of crime
prevention and criminal justice for the elimination of violence
against women and to submit a report containing the text of draft
practical measures, strategies and activities, as well as a report on
the views received to the Commission at its sixth session.


                       D.  Measures to regulate firearms

41.  The project on measures to regulate firearms was originally
proposed by the Ninth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of
Crime and the Treatment of Offenders in its resolution 9, entitled
"Firearms regulation for purposes of crime prevention and public
safety". 1/  The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution
1995/27, requested the Secretary-General to start implementing the
firearms regulation project, initiated with funds generously provided
by the Government of Japan, while the Government of Canada contributed
substantive expertise to design a survey questionnaire on firearms
regulation in a selected group of countries.  A progress report of the
Secretary-General was submitted to the Commission at its fifth
session, 15/ in which the Secretary-General, having reviewed the
replies of Member States to the note verbale covering the substantive
issues involved in firearms regulation for purposes of crime
prevention and public safety, indicated the logistical and
organizational steps to be taken to implement the mandate activities.

42.  As recommended by the Commission, the Economic and Social Council,
in its resolution 1996/28 of 24 July 1996, endorsed the questionnaire
and the guidelines for the project, 16/ and requested the
Secretary-General to collect information on the basis of the
above-mentioned questionnaire and guidelines and to analyze the
information received with a view to preparing a more comprehensive
survey of firearms regulations.  Finally, the Council approved the
work plan for the further implementation of the firearms regulation
project, 17/ and requested the Secretary-General to submit his report
to the Commission at its sixth session.


             E.  Statistical and computerized applications in the
                 management of the criminal justice system

43.  The Commission, at its fifth session, had before it the report of
the Secretary-General on a draft action plan on international
cooperation and assistance with regard to statistical and computerized
applications in the management of the criminal justice system. 18/ 
The report reviewed the present and future development of the
computerized United Nations Crime and Justice Network (UNCJIN).

44.  On 23 July 1996, on the recommendation of the Commission, the
Economic and Social Council adopted resolution 1996/11, entitled
"International cooperation and assistance in the management of the
criminal justice system:  computerization of criminal justice
operations and the development, analysis and policy use of crime and
criminal justice information".  The Council urged, subject to the
availability of extrabudgetary funds, the establishment of an advisory
steering group, administered by the Secretary-General in close
coordination with the institutes of the United Nations Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme network.  That group would
review and assess, at the request of Member States, national
experiences in the area of computerization of criminal justice
operations and make follow-up logistical, technical and financial
recommendations arising from its mandate.

45.  On the offer of the Government of Republic of Korea, a training
seminar entitled "United Nations Crime and Justice Information
Network:  providing information to and from developing countries" was
held at Seoul in September 1996.  With the assistance of five outside
resource persons, the course covered the question of information
management of the criminal justice system and provided a basis for the
preparation of a manual on the collection and dissemination of crime
and justice data through computerization and electronic networking.

46.  The Secretary-General continues to expand the operations of
UNCJIN, which now contains several substantive databases, 19/
including a recently established database on bilateral agreements on
extradition, judicial/legal assistance, control of narcotic drugs and
transfer of prisoners.  A summary of the various electronic
information dissemination activities was also included in the report
of the Secretary-General to the Economic and Social Council on
international cooperation in the field of informatics. 20/


           F.  United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations
               of Criminal Justice Systems

47.  Since 1977, the Secretary-General has conducted quinquennial
surveys of crime trends and operations of criminal justice systems,
with data covering the years from 1970 to 1990.  The Fifth United
Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice
Systems (1990-1994) is being carried out by the Statistics Division
and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division of the
Secretariat, in collaboration with the resident representatives of
UNDP and the network of United Nations crime prevention and criminal
justice institutes.  Its results will provide statistical information
for the Secretariat's publication Global Crime and Justice Report,
scheduled for finalization by the end of 1997.  The Programme
envisages the recurrent publication of such a global report, based on
subsequent periodical surveys, to further facilitate dissemination of
information in the international criminal justice community.  The
Economic and Social Council in its resolution 1996/11 requested the
Secretary-General, in concert with experts from interested States and
the institutes of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Programme network, to supplement the Fifth Survey with a
survey of national capacities for the collection of crime statistics.


         G.  Implementation of the United Nations standards and norms
             in crime prevention and criminal justice

48.  The Economic and Social Council, in section III of its resolution
1993/34 of 27 July 1993, requested the Secretary-General to commence a
process of information-gathering to be undertaken by means of surveys,
such as reporting systems, and contributions from other sources,
initially paying attention to the Standard Minimum Rules for the
Treatment of Prisoners; the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement
Officials, together with the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and
Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials; the Declaration of Basic
Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power; and the
Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary.

49.  The Commission, at its fifth session, had before it the results of
the four surveys. 21/  On 23 July 1996, on the recommendation of the
Commission, the Economic and Social Council adopted resolution
1996/16, in which it invited Governments to ensure the promotion and
widest possible dissemination of the standards and norms and to
publish the Compendium of United Nations Standards and Norms in Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice in the languages of their countries. 
In addition, the Council requested the Secretary-General to prepare a
report, for submission to the Commission at its sixth session, on the
desirability of establishing an inter-sessional working group, as well
as to continue to coordinate the activities related to the use and
application of the standards and norms.

50.  In the surveys, Member States provided detailed information on
their prison systems; their police systems, including the
implementation of regulations on when and how to use force and
firearms; their programmes of victim assistance, redress and
compensation; as well as their judiciary.  The information-gathering
process is a significant milestone in promoting the use and
application of United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention
and criminal justice.  In completing the questionnaires, countries
identified achievements and shortcomings in various areas.  The
responses were relatively encouraging in terms of both quantity and
quality of information.  The sharing of experiences should encourage
other countries in their efforts to use and apply the standards.  The
identification of needs is of considerable importance when technical
cooperation and assistance projects are elaborated.  Finally, the
information-gathering process may facilitate technical cooperation,
including a regional, subregional and/or interregional approach in
promoting the use and application of the standards and norms.


           1.  Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners

51.  The survey reveals that the living conditions of prisoners vary
considerably between different countries.  While most countries apply
the Rules to a large extent, the lack of appropriate funds for prison
administration and prison management causes severe problems in meeting
minimum standards for prisoners in several countries.  In addition,
owing to the limited use of non-custodial measures, prison
overcrowding remains a major problem in many countries.  As a
consequence, the separation of different categories of prisoners was
reported to be a challenge for prison management in a number of
countries.  That situation has also hindered educational and work
programmes in many prisons and reduced the availability of adequate
facilities for the leisure time of prisoners.  In some countries, not
even beds and bedding could be guaranteed to every prisoner.  In
addition, social services or projects aimed at the resocialization of
the offender upon release were available to only a limited number of
prisoners.  In several countries, such services were hardly available.


          2.  Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, together
              with the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and
              Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials

52.  The survey shows that many Member States apply the instruments to
a large extent.  However, some countries have encountered problems in
the selection of appropriate applicants and their adequate education
and training, owing to a lack of adequate funds.  Difficulties were
also faced in some countries with regard to the proper use of force
and firearms and reporting thereon.  It appeared that in some
countries, in particular, investigation and interviewing techniques
were not limited to acceptable international standards.  As regards
action against corruption, investigative agencies in some countries
had developed expertise in combating corruption by law enforcement
officials, especially when this was related to organized crime and
crime linked with drug abuse.


           3.  Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary

53.  According to the survey, the Basic Principles on the Independence
of the Judiciary are widely applied.  Only a few countries indicated
that they were still struggling to improve the fundamental guarantees
to ensure the independence of the judiciary in all its aspects. 
Responses to the survey reveal that the principle of independence of
the judiciary is of central concern to many States.  A large number of
States are undertaking significant efforts to ensure the use and
application of the Basic Principles in their national law and
practice.  Differences in legal systems, however, particularly between
common law and civil law countries, seem to suggest different
approaches to the subject of judicial independence.


          4.  Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims
              of Crime and Abuse of Power

54.  Member States reported that many sections of the Declaration were
implemented in principle.  Some countries indicated that they had
revised some laws and developed programmes to provide better services
for victims.  A number of countries had taken important steps towards
improved victim assistance by introducing legislation and programmes
in the spirit of the Declaration, others indicated their intent to do
so.  However, a major gap still existed between principle and
practice.  In fact, in half of the reporting countries, the programmes
implemented were not being used by either the victims or the criminal
justice practitioners.

55.  In its resolution 1996/14, the Economic and Social Council
requested the preparation of a manual or manuals on the implementation
of the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime
and Abuse of Power, and called for improved information collection and
exchange in this respect.  Two expert meetings were envisaged to help
in this effort, to be convened with extrabudgetary funds at the
invitation of the Governments of the Netherlands and the United States
of America.  The first expert meeting was held at Tulsa, Oklahoma,
from 10 to 12 August 1996, in connection with the twenty-second Annual
Conference of the National Organization for Victims Assistance (NOVA)
and at the invitation of the Office for Victims of Crime of the United
States Department of Justice.  It produced a refined basic text of a
training manual, supplemented by a database scheme.  They will be
further considered at the next meeting, scheduled to be held at the
Hague in February 1997.


        5.  Capital punishment and safeguards guaranteeing protection
of
            the rights of those facing the death penalty

56.  In accordance with Economic and Social Council decision 1994/206
of 3 February 1994, the fifth quinquennial report of the
Secretary-General on capital punishment and the implementation of the
safeguards 22/ was submitted to the Council at its substantive session
of 1995.  At that session, the Council adopted resolution 1995/57 of
28 July 1995, in which it invited Member States to reply to the
Secretary-General's questionnaire for the preparation of the sixth
quinquennial report in the year 2000, and to provide him with the
information requested.  In the same resolution, the Commission was
asked to examine the fifth quinquennial report at its fifth session. 
Accordingly, a revised report, consolidating and integrating the
additional information received, was considered by the Commission at
its fifth session.

57.  The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1996/15 of 23
July 1996, adopted on the recommendation of the Commission, noted that
during the period 1990-1995, an increasing number of countries had
abolished the death penalty and others had followed a policy of
reducing the number of capital offences, declaring that they had not
sentenced any offender to that penalty, while still others had
retained it and a few had reintroduced it.  The resolution also called
upon Member States in which the death penalty had not been abolished
effectively to apply the safeguards guaranteeing protection of the
rights of those facing the death penalty, and encouraged such Member
States to ensure that each defendant facing a possible death sentence
was given all guarantees for a fair trial.


                  6.  Standards and norms of juvenile justice

58.  In accordance with Economic and Social Council resolution 1995/13
of 24 July 1995, the Secretary-General developed a questionnaire on
the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of
Juvenile Justice (the Beijing Rules), the United Nations Guidelines
for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (the Riyadh Guidelines) and
the United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of
their Liberty, which was considered by the Commission at its fifth
session.  The report of the Secretary-General on the results of this
survey will be submitted to the Commission at its seventh session.


                           H.  Technical cooperation

59.  The report of the Secretary-General of 14 September 1995
(A/50/432) dealt in some detail with policy issues related to
operational activities, including the Programme's place in development
assistance, particularly as relates to strengthening programme
capacity.  The report of the Secretary-General on technical
cooperation and advisory services of the Programme that was submitted
to the Commission at its fifth session, 23/ provided a detailed update
on the activities undertaken, including advisory services, training,
fellowships and contributions to peacekeeping operations.  It also
touched on the changing functions of the interregional advisers on
crime prevention and criminal justice, efforts to overcome the
reluctance of aid agencies to provide assistance in this field and the
growth of requests for assistance.  Summarized below is an update on
the activities undertaken since the preparation of the last report to
the General Assembly.

60.  At its fifth session, the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice adopted resolution 5/2, entitled "Technical
cooperation and interregional advisory services in crime prevention
and criminal justice", in which it reaffirmed the high priority
attached to technical cooperation and advisory services as a means for
the Programme to respond to the needs of the international community
in the face of both national and transnational criminality, as well as
the importance of continuing to improve and strengthen the operational
activities of the Programme.  In its resolution 5/3, entitled
"Strategic management by the Commission on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Programme", the Commission decided to establish an informal
consultative group on resource mobilization.


                             1.  Advisory services

61.  Technical missions, undertaken at the request of Governments,
continued to represent a major part of the activities undertaken by
the interregional advisers, 24/ which have changed considerably over
the last two years.  Countries, in their requests, have not only
called for needs assessments or short-term advisory services but,
increasingly, for operational activities to be planned, designed and
carried out.  As a result, 27 project proposals, covering a wide range
of criminal justice and crime prevention issues, were prepared during
the year.  Noting the continued resistance of aid agencies and
potential donor countries to funding activities in criminal justice,
the Secretary-General underlined the fact that, in the end, the
operational value of the Programme would be judged on its capacity to
formulate and implement technical cooperation projects to satisfy the
needs and expectations of Member States.

62.  The Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division continued to
coordinate its activities closely with other relevant entities and
organizations, as well as with funding agencies and other partners. 
The move "from coordination to partnerships", as described in the last
report to the General Assembly (A/50/432, paras. 116 and 117), has
gained momentum, as demonstrated by the signature of a memorandum of
understanding between the Regional Bureau for Europe and the
Commonwealth of Independent States of UNDP and the Division. 
Additionally, in a growing number of cases, funding and logistic
support for the missions undertaken was provided by UNDP or by
countries interested in the services of the Division.

63.  The missions dealt with a large variety of problems, such as
measures against organized and economic crime (Kyrgyzstan, jointly
with UNICRI), prevention of organized criminality, drug-related crimes
and terrorism (Pakistan, jointly with UNDCP), drug-trafficking and
corruption (Romania, jointly with UNDCP), assessment of the
organization and training requirements for law enforcement officials
(Angola, Burundi, South Africa), reform of juvenile justice (Albania,
Burkina Faso, South Africa), the establishment of a witness protection
scheme (South Africa), and the assessment of conditions in the
correctional system, prison reform and training (Albania, Barbados,
Brazil, South Africa).  Collaborative activities were also implemented
with other partners, including the Department for Development Support
and Management Services, the Commission on Human Rights, the
Department for Peacekeeping Operations and institutions such as the
International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council and the
Swedish Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian
Law, resulting in joint missions, workshops and project development.


                                 2.  Training

64.  During the reporting period, the Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Division received more than 30 requests for training in the
areas of correctional services, police, organized crime, drug
trafficking, juvenile justice and crime prevention.  Most of the
requests, received from developing countries, Africa, in particular,
and countries with economies in transition, called for practical
training of criminal justice practitioners.

65.  Following past practice, many training activities were carried out
in cooperation with other organizations.  The Division's activities
centred on police, judicial staff and prison personnel.  For example,
in the framework of a national project aimed at reforming the judicial
institutions in Burkina Faso, the Division, with funds provided by the
Government of France, conducted a series of training seminars for
judges, officers of the relevant ministries, administrators of
correctional services and police officers, on juvenile justice (1-28
March 1996).  In cooperation with the United Nations African Institute
on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, the
Division organized at Kampala a workshop on the training of trainers
of the custodial corps of Malawi, Uganda and the United Republic of
Tanzania (10-14 July 1995).  The Basic Training Manual for
Correctional Workers, prepared by the International Scientific and
Professional Advisory Council, was the main training tool for the
workshop.  The Manual was also used in a training seminar for prison
personnel held in Brazil (28 August-2 September 1995).  In Burundi,
the Division cooperated with the Raoul Wallenberg Institute, the
Swedish International Development Agency and the office of the Special
Representative of the Secretary-General, in organizing a series of six
training seminars for Burundian police officials and military officers
with responsibility for internal security (winter 1995).  As part of
this initiative, a manual for use by the local police was prepared,
based on the contents of the handbook on United Nations standards for
peacekeeping police and national police regulations.


                                3.  Fellowships

66.  For the first time, the Division organized a programme of
fellowships in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice for
developing countries and countries with economies in transition,
funded from the regular budget for technical cooperation.  Under the
fellowship programme, which permits candidates to undertake practical
studies in crime prevention, criminal justice or the relationship
between crime and development, criminal justice professionals from
China, the Cook Islands, the Dominican Republic, Guinea, Jamaica and
India were selected.  A senior prosecutor of Burundi also received the
Leo Rosenthal Fellowship in juvenile justice.


          4.  Contributions to United Nations peacekeeping operations

67.  The role of crime prevention and criminal justice in the
maintenance of peace and security was emphasized by the General
Assembly in its resolution 46/152 of 18 December 1991.  In paragraph
13 of its resolution 50/146, the Assembly took note of the
contributions of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Programme to United Nations peacekeeping and special missions,
and to their follow-up, inter alia, through advisory services, and
encouraged the Secretary-General to recommend the inclusion of the
re-establishment and reform of criminal justice systems in
peacekeeping operations.

68.  During the period under review, the Division provided assistance,
in particular, to the operations deployed in Angola, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Haiti, Rwanda and the former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia.  The assistance rendered included successive short-term
missions, the provision of expert advice and the development of
proposals for long-term projects.  Based on a request from UNDP and
the International Civilian Mission in Haiti (MICIVIH), the Division
prepared a programme for penal reform, including a system of
registration of prisoners, establishment of a penal administration
system, training of prison wardens and renovation of prisons, funded
jointly by UNDP and the United States Agency for International
Development.  Further, in cooperation with the French Ecole nationale
de la Magistrature, a training seminar for prosecutors was organized
in Port-au-Prince.  In Kigali, the Division participated in the UNDP
round table on the mid-point review of the assistance rendered to
Rwanda, providing expertise and advisory services in connection with
the projects of UNDP and the Department for Development Support and
Management Services on the rehabilitation of the judicial system and
the correctional services of the country.  In Angola, the Division
assisted in assessing the country's criminal justice and crime
prevention needs, the reform of penal legislation, training of
criminal justice personnel and rehabilitation of correctional
services.  Related project proposals are under preparation.

69.  Further, the Division, in cooperation with the Government of
Austria and the Training Unit of the United Nations Peace Forces
(UNPF), organized the Third Workshop for United Nations Civilian
Police (CIVPOL) Station Commanders of UNPF.  In the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, the Division undertook a mission to advise
officials of the Ministry of the Interior on the implementation of
five national programmes, concerning, respectively, crime prevention,
anti-corruption measures and measures against drug trafficking, money
laundering and organized crime.  Based on a request by UNPF civilian
police, the Division fielded a mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
Despite the interest expressed in these projects, inter alia, by the
countries where these peacekeeping missions are carried out,
subsequent project proposals related to training needs of the civilian
police of the United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern
Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES), the International
Police Task Force (IPTF) of the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and
Herzegovina (UNMIBH) and the local police forces, including the
establishment of a focal point for strengthening of criminal justice
institutions, have so far received little support.  However, a joint
project of the Division and the Reconstruction and Development Support
Unit of the Department for Development Support and Management
Services, on strengthening the structures of the administration of
justice in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was approved for funding by UNDP.

70.  Follow-up activities included participation in a joint mission
with an Austrian police expert team to analyse the present structure
and training needs of local police forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
Recommendations resulting from this mission provided the basis for the
formulation of training and education requirements for IPTF in the
restructuring of the local police forces.  Further, the Division
joined the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in an
assessment mission on drug-related issues with the purpose of
establishing contacts with the relevant authorities of Bosnia and
Herzegovina.  The Division also contributed to a number of conferences
and training courses, such as the Conference on the Preparation of the
Civilian Personnel of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations,
organized by the Austrian Study Centre for Peace and Conflict
Resolution, and the International Round Table on Human Rights in
Bosnia and Herzegovina, both held in Austria; the training course on
the civilian personnel of peacekeeping/humanitarian operations and the
election monitoring missions, held at the University of Pisa, Italy;
and the training course for representatives of non-governmental
organizations of countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States,
also held at the Austrian Study Centre for Peace and Conflict
Resolution.

71.  The Commission, in its resolution 5/2, 1/ commended the
contribution of the Programme to such missions and their follow-up,
and requested the Secretary-General, subject to the availability of
extrabudgetary resources, to develop further training materials for
peacekeeping police.


            5.  Collection and exchange of information on technical
                assistance activities

72.  The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1994/22 of 25
July 1994, requested the Secretary-General to establish a database on
technical assistance, integrating the needs of Member States,
particularly developing countries.  In addition, the Secretary-General
was requested in Council resolution 1995/12 of 24 July 1995, subject
to the availability of extrabudgetary funds, to establish a regional
database for central and eastern Europe.

73.  In pursuance of the above mandate, efforts to collect the relevant
information for the establishment of the database continued within
existing resources.  At the Ninth United Nations Congress on the
Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, a series of
one-to-one interviews was conducted with all of the delegations from
least developed countries and some others.  The interviews highlighted
the fact that the least developed countries required considerable
assistance for the development of one or more aspects of their
criminal justice systems.  Twenty-three countries responded to a note
verbale of the Secretary-General requesting information on technical
assistance needs of Member States, as well as technical assistance
provided in crime prevention and criminal justice.  Out of these, 15
offered substantive information on a total of 56 technical assistance
projects. 25/  These figures do not include information on assistance
to central and eastern Europe, as this information was collected by
the European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated
with the United Nations, which had received extrabudgetary funding to
establish and manage a pilot database for that subregion.


         I.  Preparations for the Tenth United Nations Congress on the
             Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders

74.  Since 1955, 26/ the quinquennial United Nations Congresses on the
prevention of crime and the treatment of offenders have been organized
in pursuance of General Assembly resolution 415 (V) of 1 December
1950.  Their importance has been reaffirmed in numerous resolutions by
the policy-making bodies of the United Nations.  During the last 40
years, the Congresses have served as global events and worldwide
forums, influencing national policies, mobilizing public opinion,
recommending lines of action at the national, regional and
international levels, and focusing attention on major issues of
concern to Member States and the professional and scientific
community.

75.  Over the years, the Congresses have undergone a significant
transformation.  From what was primarily a meeting of experts,
following a long-established tradition inherited by the United Nations
from the International Penal and Penitentiary Commission, the
Congresses became major intergovernmental conferences.

76.  The Ninth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and
the Treatment of Offenders, held at Cairo from 29 April to 8 May 1995,
was the first Congress convened after the restructuring of the United
Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme, and
reflecting its new function and format, as outlined in the annex to
General Assembly resolution 46/152.  The Ninth Congress enhanced its
practical and scientific value through problem-oriented workshops,
demonstrations of different approaches to facilitate technical
assistance and cooperation, and special sessions devoted to the
discussion of priority issues of direct interest to all countries.

77.  In initiating the preparations for the Tenth Congress, the
Secretary-General requested Governments to submit their views on the
theme of the forthcoming Congress, its format, agenda and workshop
topics.  The views of the Governments were summarized in the report of
the Secretary-General to the fifth session of the Commission on
proposals for the preparation of the Tenth United Nations Congress on
the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. 27/   The
Commission considered the report and, in its resolution 5/1, invited
States that had not yet done so to respond to the Secretary-General's
inquiry.  It also requested the Secretary-General to summarize the
views received from States, agencies and programmes of the United
Nations system and other relevant intergovernmental and
non-governmental organizations concerning the proposals for the theme,
format, agenda items, workshop topics and possible venue of the Tenth
Congress, for consideration by the Commission at its sixth session.


                               J.  Publications

78.  Special issues of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Newsletter have been published:  Nos. 24/25 on the
International Conference on Preventing and Controlling
Money-Laundering and the Use of the Proceeds of Crime:  a Global
Approach, Courmayeur, 1994; Nos. 26/27 on the World Ministerial
Conference on Organized Transnational Crime, Naples, 1994; and Nos.
30/31 on the third and fourth sessions of the Commission on Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice.  The United Nations Manuals on the
Model Treaty on Extradition and on the Model Treaty on Mutual
Assistance in Criminal Matters were published in the International
Review of Criminal Policy.  A booklet entitled "United Nations and
Crime Prevention", containing an overview of the work of the United
Nations in this area, has been issued.  The publication of the report
on the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme
network was made possible through the generous contribution of the
Asia Crime Prevention Foundation (ACPF) and the Asia and Far East
Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. 
The Handbook of the United Nations Crime and Justice Information
Network, intended to serve as an introductory guide to using the
network on the Internet, and two issues of Trends:  UNCJIN Crime and
Justice Letter (vol. 2, Nos. 3 and 4) were also published.


                     V.  STRENGTHENING PROGRAMME CAPACITY

                          A.  Provision of resources

79.  Because of urgent and growing needs, Member States continued to
express the wish for the capacity of the Programme to be further
strengthened.  Thus, the General Assembly, in its resolution 50/145,
requested the Secretary-General to pay particular attention to the
operational aspects of the follow-up to the Ninth Congress in order to
assist interested States in strengthening the rule of law by
reinforcing their national machinery, promoting human resource
development, undertaking joint training activities and executing pilot
and demonstration projects.  Furthermore, the Assembly, in its
resolution 50/146, reaffirmed the high priority attached to technical
cooperation and advisory services, stressed the importance of
continuing to improve the operational activities of the Programme,
particularly in developing countries and countries in transition, and
requested the Secretary-General to continue to strengthen the
Programme by providing it with the resources necessary for the full
implementation of its mandates.

80.  The series of major conferences and meetings held in recent
years, 28/ along with relevant resolutions of the Commission on Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice and the Economic and Social Council,
have helped to define more clearly the parameters for the Programme's
technical assistance activities.  The Secretary-General, in his report
on progress made in the implementation of General Assembly resolution
49/158, submitted to the last session of the General Assembly, had
already indicated that the degree to which the Programme could respond
to the needs of Member States "will depend largely on the operational
capacity of the Programme to render the necessary aid ...  Some steps
in this direction have been taken, but much more is clearly required
if the chasm between the needs in this field and the international
response is, if not bridged, then at least reduced" (A/50/432, para.
22).

81.  In section III, paragraphs 29 and 30 of its resolution 50/214 of
23 December 1995, the General Assembly approved the upgrading of the
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch to a division, including
the reclassification of the D-1 post of Chief of the Branch to the D-2
level and the establishment of two new P-3 posts.  In the same
resolution, the Assembly also approved other resources for technical
cooperation activities, under section 20, Regular programme of
technical cooperation, of the programme budget for the biennium 1996-
1997.  Owing to the cost-saving measures, however, these new posts
have remained frozen, while a number of planned activities had to be
postponed.

82.  The disparity between the call of the General Assembly for the
upgrading of the Programme, on the one hand, and the actual available
resources, on the other, was pointed out by the Commission on Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice at its fifth session.  The Commission
called for a careful allocation of resources among the budget
sections, taking into account the priority considerations underlying
the decision of the Assembly to increase staff resources in the
relevant budget section, specifically section 13, Crime control, where
two additional Professional posts had been approved for the current
biennium.  The Commission acknowledged that the deferment of certain
activities, in particular the organization of three expert group
meetings, would negatively affect the substantive work of the
Commission.

83.  The Commission, in its resolution 5/2 on technical cooperation and
interregional advisory services in crime prevention and criminal
justice, 1/ requested the Secretary-General to explore with Member
States the establishment of a mechanism for resource mobilization and
coordination of activities in the area of technical assistance.  The
Commission also decided to include, under the relevant item of the
agenda for its sixth session, a separate topic on funding of
international technical assistance in crime prevention and criminal
justice.  In its resolution 5/3 on strategic management of the
Programme by the Commission, the Commission decided to exercise more
vigorously its mandated functions of resource mobilization and, for
this purpose, to establish an informal consultative group, to be
composed of the bureau of each session and of those Member States that
in the preceding biennium contributed to the United Nations Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice Fund or in other concrete ways to the
Programme.  The informal consultative group would report to the
Commission on the activities undertaken and results achieved.

84.  In response to the above-mentioned resolutions, and with the
support of the Chairman of the Commission, an organizational meeting
for the establishment of an informal consultative group on resource
mobilization in crime prevention and criminal justice was held at
Vienna on 5 July 1996.  The Chairman, on that occasion, underlined
that Member States, if they wanted the Programme to become operational
beyond the present level, had to find ways to secure the necessary
resources.  Establishing a mechanism with a view to ensuring that
needs were met and resources mobilized in a coordinated manner, and a
continuous dialogue established and maintained, would serve the
interest of all the parties involved.  The organizational meeting
considered the role of the informal consultative group and the action
necessary in the preparation of its first substantive meeting, to be
held on 16 October 1996.

85.  In section III, paragraph 31, of its resolution 50/214, the
General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to review the
adequacy of resources made available for crime prevention activities
at the regional level.  It should be recalled that the activities of
the regional institutes, including their financial situations, were
reviewed by the Commission on the basis of a report prepared by the
Secretary-General. 29/  It should be noted that, as reflected in the
other report submitted to the Assembly (A/51/450), the African
Institute received a grant of US$ 204,800 for the biennium 1996-1997
within the overall appropriations for the Economic Commission for
Africa (ECA).  The regional Commissions have not yet included crime
prevention and criminal justice in their regular programme of
activities.  However, a new regional adviser on drug abuse and crime
prevention has recently been appointed in ECA, while at the Economic
and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP), a regional adviser
post is financed by the Government of Japan.


         B.  United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Fund

86.  The Programme, in response to requests from Member States, also
undertook to develop further the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
Fund so that it could become a more useful instrument for supporting
technical cooperation activities for the benefit of Member States. 
The Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Fund was established in
1967, pursuant to Economic and Social Council resolution 1086 B
(XXXIX) of 30 July 1965, and was included in the annual United Nations
Pledging Conference for Development Activities in pursuance of General
Assembly decision 34/440 of 17 December 1979. 30/

87.  The Fund has been used to finance such operational activities as
needs assessment missions to Cambodia and the Russian Federation; the
formulation of technical cooperation projects for those two countries;
partial project execution (preliminary phase) for Cambodia;
organization of training activities for civilian police of the United
Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in Austria, as well as the
provision of advisory services and training in, inter alia, Burkina
Faso, Burundi, Rwanda, and Gaza for the Police of the Palestinian
Authority; reprinting of the Compendium of United Nations Standards
and Norms in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice; other
publications, including the Handbook for United Nations Civilian
Police (the "blue book") and the Manual on Domestic Violence; and
engagement of consultants for input to project formulation and
advisory services.

88.  Contributions to the Fund can be either general purpose or
earmarked for specific operational activities or for operational
activities in a specific region.  In the biennium 1994-1995, the
following States contributed to the Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Fund: 31/  Italy, $617,800; 32/ Japan, $159,895; 33/ France,
$123,877; 34/ Sweden, $34,535; 35/ Austria, $30,646; and Argentina,
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Oman, the Republic of Korea and
Sri Lanka, amounts under $25,000.


               C.  Cooperation and coordination of activities with
                   United Nations bodies and other entities

89.  Cooperation and coordination of activities with other entities
continued to be actively pursued, particularly since the restructuring
of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme. 
There have been two decisive factors in this development.  First,
considering the current level of the human and financial resources of
the Division, cooperation and coordination with other entities has
been, and will remain, a condition for the successful implementation
of many of the mandates of the Programme.  Secondly, the enhancement
of efficient and fair criminal justice systems is an essential element
of democratic development, and therefore a number of United Nations
programmes, as well as numerous intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations, might provide assistance in this area.

90.  The General Assembly, in its resolution 50/146, requested the
Secretary-General to take all necessary measures to assist the
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, as the principal
policy-making body in the field, in performing its functions and to
ensure the proper coordination of all relevant activities, in
particular with the Commission on Human Rights, the Commission on the
Status of Women and the Commission on Narcotic Drugs.

91.  The Secretary-General submitted two reports on this subject to the
Commission at its fifth session:  the first on cooperation and
coordination of activities in crime prevention and criminal justice,
including activities in cooperation with the United Nations
International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP); 36/ and the second on
the activities of the institutes comprising the United Nations crime
prevention and criminal justice programme network. 29/  In those
reports, the collaborative efforts undertaken by the Crime Prevention
and Criminal Justice Division were highlighted, focusing in particular
on cooperative arrangements with UNDCP, UNDP and the Centre for Human
Rights.  Collaboration with intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations, as well as other entities, continued to play an
important role in the development of the Programme's technical
assistance operations.

92.  For example, UNDCP provided cooperation during the Ninth Congress
on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders by
organizing a workshop on "Extradition and international cooperation: 
the exchange of national experience and implementation of relevant
principles in national legislation".  Both entities were represented
in each other's policy-making bodies.  Technical assistance activities
were undertaken jointly in Belarus and Ukraine.  Joint assessment
missions were also conducted in Angola, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan,
Pakistan, Tajikistan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.  In addition, the UNDCP field offices
offered assistance to advisory missions undertaken by the
interregional advisers.  Collaboration was especially important with
the UNDCP legal assistance programme.  Of great importance, in
connection with the follow-up to the Naples Political Declaration and
Global Action Plan against Organized Transnational Crime, was the
formulation of a joint proposal for a global project on money
laundering and control of the proceeds of crime.

93.  Efforts to strengthen cooperation with the Centre for Human Rights
included attendance by both entities of the annual sessions of the
policy-making bodies concerned, as well as ad hoc meetings on
possibilities of collaborative action in operational projects in,
inter alia, Haiti and Rwanda.  The two entities also cooperated in the
area of the rights of victims of crime and the abuse of power. 
Discussions on further cooperation centred, in particular, on the
joint development of manuals and other working materials on the
administration of justice for law enforcement officials, magistrates
and prosecutors, as well as on juvenile justice and the treatment of
offenders.

94.  Significant progress was made in achieving closer cooperation with
UNDP and the Department for Development Support and Management
Services of the Secretariat.  UNDP resident representatives assisted
in carrying out advisory missions and in developing follow-up
projects.  The needs assessment missions in support of democracy,
governance and participation to Armenia and Azerbaijan, carried out by
the Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent
States of UNDP with the participation of the Division (February and
July 1996), demonstrated that in this joint programming that the
Regional Bureau and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division
are pursuing, crime prevention and criminal justice requirements can
be included at all stages, starting with the country strategy notes,
through country profiles, to the cooperation frameworks and programme
support documents.

95.  The United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme
network continued to deliver numerous and varied programme services
throughout the various regions.  The main activities of the institutes
generally focused on the priority items established by the Commission. 
Collaboration with the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Programme network was particularly manifest in the
preparations for the Ninth Congress.  The Tenth Coordination Meeting
of the Programme network was held at Courmayeur, Italy, in October
1995 at the invitation of the International Scientific and
Professional Advisory Council.

96.  Contacts were maintained with a large number of intergovernmental
and non-governmental organizations by exchanging information on issues
of mutual concern, as well as on the funding of specific projects. 
These included the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development, the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, the
Economic Commission for Europe, the Organization for Security and
Cooperation in Europe, the Commonwealth Secretariat, the Council of
Europe, the Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation and the
International Criminal Police Organization.  Especially fruitful
cooperation was established with the Agency for Cultural and Technical
Cooperation, which funded and organized the printing and dissemination
of additional copies of the Compendium of United Nations standards and
norms in crime prevention and criminal justice in French, as well as
the translation into French of the Basic Training Manual for
Correctional Workers, and provided financial support also for the
implementation of a comprehensive project in assistance to the
criminal justice system for Burkina Faso, which was undertaken in
March 1996.
 
97.  Non-governmental organizations and other entities continued to
contribute significantly to the work of the Programme through a
variety of means, ranging from the exchange and dissemination of
information and participation in expert meetings, training courses and
seminars to the development of working materials and other
publications.


                   D.  Strategic management of the Programme

98.  The question of the strategic management of the Programme has
preoccupied the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
since its inception.  While most United Nations entities develop and
implement strategies to achieve their programme objectives, the
Commission appears to be the only entity to invoke the concept of
"strategic management".  The ongoing discussion has focused on the
general principle, as well as on specific aspects of strategic
management.  At its fourth session, the Commission adopted resolution
4/3, 37/ on the provision of information in accordance with the plan
for strategic management, elaborated in the annex to Commission
resolution 1/1.  Moreover, General Assembly resolutions 50/146 and
50/214 contain specific provisions on strategic management, including
requests for full implementation of the relevant Commission
resolutions.

99.  Strategic management involves a number of core functions:  the
definition of the programme objectives in line with the perceived
mission and, if possible, the identification of specific targets in a
given time-frame; the setting of priorities; an indication of the
activities to be carried out in phases; monitoring of their
implementation; and evaluation of the results, with a view to
replicating successes and correcting possible inadequacies.  Bearing
in mind the financial crisis facing the United Nations, with its
chronic resource constraints, a further aim is to maximize the means
available, where possible by integrating efforts and by focusing on
key issues that are likely to have a multiplier effect.  While the
United Nations programme planning, budgeting and evaluation procedures
provide detailed guidelines in this respect, they should be
supplemented by the insights and guidance of the Commission.

100.     In its resolution 5/3, on strategic management, the
Commission reaffirmed the fundamental role of the medium-term plan and
regular budget of the United Nations as the framework for exercising
the functions of the Commission relating to the strategic management
of the Programme, and took note of the draft medium-term plan for the
period 1998-2001.  It also recognized the importance of the
contribution that its bureau could make in advancing the work of the
Programme, made specific suggestions in that regard, and decided to
exercise more vigorously its mandated functions of resource
mobilization by establishing an informal consultative group.


                            VI.  CONCLUDING REMARKS

101.     Having reviewed the steps taken towards the implementation of
General Assembly resolutions 50/145 and 50/146, including other
relevant mandates in this area, it can be concluded that the
credibility of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal
Justice Programme will be measured, to a large extent, by its ability
to provide effective support to requesting countries in drafting
legislation, creating independent systems for the administration of
justice, establishing police forces that are respectful of the rule of
law and setting up national institutions for protecting fundamental
human rights.  These measures, in turn, will determine the credibility
of Governments and people's faith in them.

102.     Since 1991, thanks to the catalytic effects of the work of
the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, the Programme
has been able to establish itself as an instrument and focus of
international cooperation and technical assistance in the area of
crime prevention and criminal justice.  This has been illustrated by
the increasing number of requests received and the activities
successfully undertaken.  The Programme's technical assistance
activities in crime prevention and criminal justice must continue to
cover a broad range of topics, including an enhanced capacity for
general policy development, as well as the provision of advice on
highly technical matters in specific areas.

103.     Nonetheless, the achievement of a satisfactory state of
affairs is still a long way off.  The dramatic increase in the needs
of Member States in this field has continued unabated.  Significant
gaps remain to be filled in order to meet the goals that have guided
the restructuring of the Programme.  The transnationalization of crime
has made international cooperation against it an urgent priority. 
There is much that still needs to be done to fulfil those goals and to
achieve maximum Programme effectiveness.  The demands placed on the
Programme have expanded very rapidly, without a commensurate increase
in its resource allocation.  The Commission has made recommendations
to release resources from activities of low priority to others of high
priority, but even this is a stop-gap measure in view of the plethora
of requests.  The efforts to expand partnerships with other United
Nations entities, specialized agencies, institutes and
non-governmental organizations, while instrumental in rationalizing
the use of some resources, also suffer from inherent constraints.

104.     The programme measures currently under way can have only a
relatively small impact, since the resource base of the Programme
remains one of the smallest in the entire United Nations budget.  The
basic issue will thus continue to be that of the overall resources
assigned for this purpose, and it should be addressed through broader
policy and budgetary measures.  The existing gap in resources can only
be filled by Member States, and voluntary contributions for project
implementation will be vital.  But without such measures, the
Programme will not be able to meet the expectations its renewal and
the emphasis on its operationalization have raised among Member
States.  The importance of security and the rule of law for
sustainable development, governance and democratization has been
emphasized repeatedly.  It is time to translate these goals into
concrete terms for the benefit of all.


                                     Notes

     1/  See A/CONF.169/16, chap. I.

     2/  See Official Records of the Economic and Social Council,
1996, Supplement No. 10 (E/1996/30).

     3/  See E/CN.15/1996/2/Add.1.

     4/  E/CN.15/1996/3, para. 104.

     5/  E/CN.15/1996/4.

     6/  E/CN.15/1996/3.

     7/  E/CN.15/1996/4, para. 42.

     8/  E/CN.15/1996/7 and Corr.1.

     9/  E/CN.15/1996/8.

     10/ E/CN.15/1996/6.

     11/ See E/CN.15/1996/10.

     12/ E/CN.4/1995/42.

     13/ See E/CN.15/1996/11 and Corr.1.

     14/ E/CN.15/1996/CRP.12.

     15/ E/CN.15/1995/14 and Corr.1.

     16/ E/CN.15/1996/CRP.5.

     17/ Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1996,
Supplement No. 10 (E/1996/30), paras. 73 and 74.

     18/ E/CN.5/1995/13.

     19/ The United Nations Crime and Justice Network (UNCJIN) is
located at the following Internet address:

     http://www.ifs.univie.ac.at/țuncjin/uncjin.html.

     20/ E/1996/81.

     21/ E/CN.15/1996/16/Add.1-4.

     22/ E/1995/78 and Add.1 and Add.1/Corr.1.

     23/ E/CN.15/1996/8.

     24/ An overview on operational activities carried out from 1 May
to 31 December 1995 is contained in E/CN.15/1996/CRP.10.

     25/ For further details see report of the Secretary-General on
technical cooperation and advisory services of the United Nations
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme (E/CN.15/1996/8),
paras. 66-72.

     26/ The First Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the
Treatment of Offenders was convened at Geneva in 1955; the Second
Congress in London in 1960; the Third Congress at Stockholm in 1965;
the Fourth Congress at Kyoto, Japan in 1970; the Fifth Congress at
Geneva in 1975; the Sixth Congress at Caracas in 1980; the Seventh
Congress at Milan, Italy, in 1985; the Eighth Congress at Havana in
1990; and the Ninth Congress at Cairo in 1995.

     27/ E/CN.15/1996/15.

     28/ Such as the World Ministerial Conference on Organized
Transnational Crime, held in 1994, and the Ninth United Nations
Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders,
held in 1995.

     29/ E/CN.15/1996/21 and Corr.1 and 2.

     30/ By its resolution 1086 B (XXXIX), the Economic and Social
Council decided to establish the United Nations Trust Fund for Social
Defence.  In accordance with paragraph 44 of the statement of
principles and programme of action of the United Nations Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme (General Assembly resolution
46/152, annex), the Fund was renamed the United Nations Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice Fund.

     31/ The figures provided include both contributions and pledges. 
Not all pledges had been received by 30 April 1996.

     32/ The annual contribution of Italy is used to support the
functioning and operations of the International Scientific and
Professional Advisory Council and UNICRI.

     33/ The contribution of Japan was earmarked for a project on the
control of firearms.

     34/ The contribution of France was earmarked for the preparation
of the Ninth Congress and for a technical cooperation project in
Burkina Faso.

     35/ The contribution of Sweden was earmarked for two training
courses for Palestinian police.

     36/ E/CN.15/1996/20.

     37/ Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1995,
Supplement No. 10 (E/1995/30).


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