United Nations

A/51/315


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

29 August 1996

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


                                                       A/51/315
                                                              

General Assembly
Fifty-first session
Item 21 (b) of the provisional agenda*

*        A/51/150.


     STRENGTHENING OF THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AND DISASTER
       RELIEF ASSISTANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INCLUDING SPECIAL
     ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE:  SPECIAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUAL
                             COUNTRIES OR REGIONS

        Assistance for humanitarian relief and the economic and social
                           rehabilitation of Somalia

                        Report of the Secretary-General


                                   CONTENTS

                                                            Paragraphs   Page

 I.   INTRODUCTION .........................................   1 - 2       3

II.   RELIEF AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES .................   3 - 44      3

      A. General ..........................................    3 - 9       3

      B. Food security ....................................   10 - 15      5

      C. Agriculture, livestock and fisheries .............   16 - 21      7

      D. Health ...........................................   22 - 29      9

      E. Water and sanitation .............................   30 - 32     11

      F. Education ........................................   33 - 37     12

      G. Refugees and returnees ...........................   38 - 40     13

      H. Internally displaced persons .....................   41 - 44     14

III.  RECONSTRUCTION STRATEGIES AND EFFORTS ................  45 - 52     15

IV.   COORDINATION ARRANGEMENTS ............................  53 - 56     18

 V.   IMPACT SECURITY PROBLEMS .............................  57 - 61     19

VI.   ASSISTANCE PROVIDED BY MEMBER STATES .................  62 - 71     21

VII.  CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS ..............................  72 - 76     22


I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   In its resolution 50/58 G of 20 December 1995 on assistance for
humanitarian relief and the economic and social rehabilitation of
Somalia, the General Assembly noted with concern that the political
instability and the absence of central authority that continued to
characterize Somalia provided a breeding ground for new emergencies. 
The Assembly reaffirmed the importance it attached to the need for
effective coordination and cooperation among the United Nations
agencies and their partners since the withdrawal of the United Nations
Operation in Somalia in March 1995 and renewed its appeal to all the
Somali parties concerned to terminate hostilities and to engage in a
national reconciliation process that would allow for the transition
from relief to reconstruction and development.

2.   The General Assembly called upon the Secretary-General to continue
to mobilize international humanitarian, rehabilitation and
reconstruction assistance for Somalia and, in view of the critical
situation in the country, to apprise the Economic and Social Council
at its substantive session of 1996 of the progress made in the
implementation of the resolution and to report thereon to the Assembly
at its fifty-first session.  As requested by the Assembly, an oral
report was delivered to the Council at its substantive session of 1996
by the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs.  The present
report has been prepared in response to the above request by the
Assembly.


II.  RELIEF AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES

A.  General

3.   Since the last report to the General Assembly on assistance for
humanitarian relief and the economic and social rehabilitation of
Somalia (A/50/447), steady gains in the humanitarian situation have
been achieved in certain parts of Somalia.  Other areas of the country
have, however, experienced increasingly high levels of vulnerability
and hardship.  With a few exceptions, northern Somalia has witnessed
conditions conducive to rehabilitation and reconstruction activities. 
At the same time, the humanitarian and security situation in most of
the southern portion of the country has worsened.  The survival of an
important segment of the population, in particular internally
displaced persons, women, children and other vulnerable or
disadvantaged groups, remains dependent on the provision of relief
assistance.  Throughout the country, inter-clan fighting, lawlessness
and the absence of a recognized national government are major factors
hindering the flow of humanitarian assistance and thus slowing the
pace of recovery in more stable regions and threatening a recurrence
of tragedy in other areas.

4.   In spite of continuing insecurity, political instability and
related operational difficulties, United Nations agencies and their
international and Somali partners have succeeded in delivering
substantial emergency and rehabilitation assistance to affected
populations in the country.  While funding constraints and security
conditions have affected many programmes in a negative way, United
Nations agencies, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
and non-governmental organizations in Somalia continue to provide food
support as well as assistance in health services, clean water supply,
education and other fields.  Currently, 13 United Nations agencies and
organizations are carrying out humanitarian assistance activities
throughout the country.  The vital presence and efforts of over
50 international non-governmental organizations have kept them at the
forefront of relief and rehabilitation interventions in Somalia.  More
than 10 Somali non-governmental organizations, including three women's
organizations, are now working as reliable humanitarian partners of
the United Nations agencies in the country.

5.   The complex situation prevailing in Somalia has led United Nations
agencies and their partners to retain a high degree of flexibility and
to adopt creative approaches for the implementation of their
activities.  Assistance programmes have focused on working directly
with Somali communities, whenever possible, to promote sustainability
and foster a sense of local ownership.  In the absence of a recognized
national government, United Nations agencies have continued to
exercise a pragmatic approach to interacting with de facto local
authorities present in areas of operation.  However, the level of
collaboration extended by the different Somali administrative
structures has varied considerably, with some entities exhibiting a
more cooperative attitude than others vis-a`-vis the efforts of the
international humanitarian community.  Humanitarian agencies have
experienced serious obstructionist actions on the part of some local
authorities over the past year.

6.   The efforts of the United Nations and its partners over the past
year have played a major role in preventing the country from slipping
back into an acute emergency phase.  Also, in certain parts of the
country, notably the north of Somalia, progress has been made towards
reconstructing local economies and infrastructure for social services. 
However, indicators pointing to a potential deterioration in the
humanitarian situation have accumulated since early 1996, particularly
in southern Somalia, and, by the middle of the year, United Nations
agencies were uncertain how much longer a renewed humanitarian crisis
could be held back under prevailing conditions.  The health and
nutritional status of vulnerable populations has worsened in some
parts of the country, reversing to some extent previous gains made in
those areas.  Food shortages and insecurity have resulted in new
population displacements in southern Somalia, creating the risk of a
back-flow of Somali refugees into neighbouring countries.

7.   A major constraint facing humanitarian operations in the country
has been the ever diminishing donor resources available for Somalia. 
In response to the 1995 United Nations consolidated inter-agency
appeal for Somalia, a total of $28.6 million was contributed by the
end of 1995, meeting only 30.7 per cent of the appeal's revised
requirements.  While those contributions have been supplemented by the
core resources of United Nations agencies, the total amount of
available funding has not approached the level of need in the country. 
Political instability and the absence of progress towards national
reconciliation have made donors more reluctant to provide funding and
resources for Somalia.  Ironically, it is the climate of instability
and insecurity that is largely responsible for keeping Somalia in a
high-risk situation, thus increasing humanitarian assistance
requirements for the country.

8.   Concerned by the conditions affecting humanitarian workers and the
various operational difficulties faced in Somalia, the Inter-agency
Standing Committee decided to dispatch a high-level inter-agency
mission to review humanitarian operations and propose ways to improve
the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of assistance programmes in the
country.  The mission, which was carried out from 1 to
7 February 1996, was led by the Department of Humanitarian Affairs of
the Secretariat and consisted of representatives of nine United
Nations agencies and two consortia of international
non-governmental-organizations.  The mission visited five areas in the
country and held consultations with Somali authorities and
representatives of the international community.  The mission concluded
that the continued presence of United Nations agencies in Somalia was
essential, not least to prevent any possible recurrence of a major
humanitarian crisis.  It recommended that the United Nations system,
in partnership with Somalia counterparts and non-governmental
organizations, formulate a coherent humanitarian programme for
Somalia, which, given the varying conditions in different areas of the
country, should be a combination of humanitarian and developmental
approaches.  The mission made a number of additional recommendations
relating to resource mobilization, coordination and operational
matters.  On 19 April 1996, the Inter-agency Standing Committee
endorsed the mission's recommendations and mandated the Department of
Humanitarian Affairs with the task of monitoring and reporting on
their implementation.

9.   Significant steps have been made by the United Nations in-country
team towards implementation of the recommendations of the February
1996 mission.  Regarding the proposed United Nations humanitarian
programme for Somalia, the United Nations agencies at the country
level have embarked on an inter-agency analytical and consultative
process with a view to defining and reaching consensus on the role of
the United Nations in the country over the medium-term, reflecting a
common system-wide vision and outlining a set of broad objectives and
strategies.  It is envisaged that the process will result in a
forward-looking United Nations inter-agency strategic planning and
consolidated resource mobilization document for Somalia, utilizing a
new approach of joint programming for humanitarian and rehabilitation
needs at the regional level, in accordance with the recommendations of
the inter-agency mission and in an attempt to bolster donor commitment
to Somalia.  To that end, work is under way with the assistance of an
expert currently in Nairobi to formulate the future humanitarian
programme for Somalia, which will be reflected in the consolidated 
appeal for 1997.


B.  Food security

10.  The August 1995 gu (main) season harvest in Somalia was very poor,
owing in large part to insufficient rains and pest infestation. 
Production of the main staple crops reached 171,000 tons, representing
only about half of the 1994 gu harvest.  The output of the January
1996 der (secondary) harvest was slightly above average, with about
110,000 tons harvested.  However, the unfavourable main 1995 harvest
had a negative impact on the food security status of populations in
many parts of the country through the first half of 1996.  The
first-phase assessment of the 1996 gu season indicated a number of
positive signs for a reasonable harvest overall, but it was too early
to determine to what extent flooding and possible insect and bird
infestations in some agricultural areas would have a negative effect
on the harvest.

11.  Good crop production alone will not ensure adequate food security
for the country.  The general population's lack of income-earning
opportunities and low purchasing power, combined with increasing
prices and decreased availability of basic goods on local markets,
have aggravated the increasingly fragile food security situation in
Somalia.  Insecurity and political instability continue to have a
major impact on the overall food supply situation in Somalia.  The
closure of the country's main seaport at Mogadishu since October 1995
and the disruption of commercial trade flows and transportation routes
within the country are among the major factors eroding the
population's adequate access to food.

12.  The impact of the difficult food security situation in southern
Somalia came to a head in May 1996 when populations in the Bay, Bakool
and Juba valley regions started moving to Kismayo and along the border
with Kenya.  In response, United Nations agencies in collaboration
with non-governmental organizations and donor representatives and in
consultation with ICRC prepared a joint plan of action aimed at
halting the movement of populations out of those regions and
encouraging displaced persons to return to their home communities.  As
part of the plan, which involved the World Food Programme (WFP), the
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Office of the United
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the World Health
Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
and several international non-governmental organizations, relief food
and essential drugs were provided to vulnerable groups, seeds and
tools were distributed to farming families, special feeding centres
were set up and vaccination campaigns were conducted.  A second phase
of the plan of action for the Juba valley will attempt to strengthen
household food security through longer-term agricultural and other
interventions in order to discourage future population movements and
reduce dependency on external assistance.  Similar programmes
combining relief and rehabilitation assistance are being carried out
in other areas of Somalia.

13.  The overall goal of the WFP food aid programme in Somalia is to
contribute to the restoration of the country's traditional economic
base through support to grass-roots rehabilitation and
development-oriented initiatives.  Another goal of the programme is to
improve food security and the nutritional status of the most
vulnerable groups.  In order to achieve those goals, WFP supports a
wide range of community-based activities in the agriculture, health
and education sectors, among others.  WFP assistance is also utilized
for the promotion of small-scale income-generating schemes, the
integration of demobilized militia into civil society and the
resettlement of refugees.

14.  Between January 1995 and March 1996, WFP distributed a total of
34,176 tons of food aid in Somalia, of which about 85 per cent went
through rehabilitation projects and 15 per cent as relief assistance
to internally displaced persons, orphans, hospital patients and other
disadvantaged populations.  An average of 165,000 people per month
received WFP food assistance, mainly through food-for-work projects
for farmers, local health workers, teachers and other groups.  Between
January 1995 and May 1996, ICRC distributed a further 3,354 tons of
relief food aid to vulnerable groups in Somalia.  As part of project
implementation in the southern and central parts of Somalia, WFP
procures locally grown cereal in surplus food-producing areas, at
appropriate periods of the agricultural cycle, for distribution to
beneficiaries in areas facing food deficits.  Funds generated under
the WFP food monetization programme support agricultural
rehabilitation activities and serve to improve household food
security.

15.  The WFP Food Security Assessment Unit continues to monitor,
collect and disseminate data on agricultural production, food
availability, market prices, nutritional status of populations and
other factors affecting the food security situation in Somalia.  Since
its establishment in January 1995, the extensive gu and der crop
assessment exercises and other surveillance and information-collection
activities of the Unit have enabled the aid community to have access
to quantitative and qualitative information on food-insecure areas,
thereby facilitating timely interventions.  In the absence of civil
service structures in Somalia, the surveillance activities, early
warning information and critical analysis provided by the Food
Security Assessment Unit remain crucial.  The Unit works in close
collaboration with United Nations agencies, non-governmental
organizations and donors, as well as the Famine Early Warning System
of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).  As
part of its mandate, the Global Information and Early Warning System
of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
monitors the crop and food supply situation in Somalia continuously
and, through its regular publications "Foodcrops and Shortages",
"Special Africa Report", and special alerts and reports, keeps the
international community informed on the situation in the country.  An
FAO/WFP crop and food supply assessment mission is planned for Somalia
during July/August 1996.


C.  Agriculture, livestock and fisheries

16.  To improve the country's ability to feed itself, the provision of
agricultural inputs and plant protection and veterinary services to
food-producing communities remains essential.  Lack of crop protection
activity is among the most serious factors negatively affecting the
food supply and food security situation in Somalia.  During 1995, an
estimated 40 per cent of crops was lost to pests.  Livestock
production, the backbone of the national economy, has also experienced
difficulties owing largely to limited veterinary services.

17.  Owing to lack of funding, the Food and Agricultural Organization
of the United Nations (FAO) has been unable to carry out its primary
crop-protection mandate in Somalia adequately, with only limited
activities having been undertaken over the past year.  FAO operations
in Somalia are expected to start again following the approval of a
project for emergency assistance to farmers affected by the conflict,
funded by the Organization's Technical Cooperation Programme.  The
objectives of the assistance are twofold and include the coordination
of emergency interventions implemented by humanitarian organizations
in relation to the assessment of evolving agricultural sector
requirements and the provision of basic agricultural inputs.  As
northern Somalia is a traditional breeding ground for locusts, an FAO
specialist based at Hargeisa continues to monitor and survey the
locust situation in the region, in collaboration with the Desert
Locust Control Organization for Eastern Africa.  A project to provide
emergency assistance to farmers affected by the conflict in Somalia
was approved by FAO in June 1996.  Project activities include the
distribution of cereal and vegetable seeds and support to small-scale
plant protection efforts.  Additional agricultural inputs carried over
from previous FAO projects were distributed to destitute farmers.  In
May 1996, the Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign of the Organization of
African Unity (OAU) started a livestock vaccination campaign in the
Mandera area of Kenya near the Somali border with the involvement of
FAO, in order to minimize the spread of rinderpest disease in the
area, and similar action is required on the Somali side of the border.

18.  In an effort to stimulate and promote subsistence food production
for vulnerable farming families, WFP has provided support to the
agricultural sector over the last four planting seasons.  Through an
integrated programme, WFP provides direct assistance to farmers and
supports related efforts such as rehabilitation of wells, water
catchments, canals and other infrastructure.  WFP also supports the
repair of feeder roads to facilitate easier access to local markets. 
The WFP local cereal procurement programme assists farming communities
in Somalia by stimulating local grain markets, while its food
monetization programme generates financial support for agricultural
rehabilitation projects.  To assist over 200,000 people, ICRC provided
seeds to 37,000 farming families in the main agricultural areas of
Somalia for the 1996 gu season.  The second phase of the ICRC
agricultural programme aims to improve vegetable production and to
assist in the manufacture of agricultural tools by local blacksmiths.

19.  Implementation of a UNDP-supported project for the integrated
agricultural and area development of Middle Shabelle started in April
1996.  The project, co-financed and executed by the United Nations
Volunteers (UNV), is designed to diversify and expand crop production,
increase rural employment and improve investment opportunities. 
Specific project activities include, inter alia, rehabilitation of
irrigation canals and other small-scale agricultural infrastructure,
establishment of extension services, provision of credit facilities
and development of small-scale income-generating schemes related to
agriculture.  The project, originally planned for the Juba valley, was
relocated to Middle Shabelle owing to security considerations.

20.  The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
continued implementation of the Beyond Relief Programme in the Bay
region until unacceptable security conditions forced the suspension of
project activities in September 1995.  Prior to the suspension, the
Beyond Relief Programme had made a substantial contribution towards
strengthening household food security and rehabilitating the
agricultural and livestock sector in the project area through the
implementation of participatory community-based interventions, ranging
from the training of local blacksmiths to the execution of migratory
pest-control campaigns.  The sustainability of the programme's
activities is manifested in the favourable level of crop projection
achieved in the project area, even after the suspension of activities. 
IFAD is currently in the process of relocating the Beyond Relief
Programme to north-west Somalia.

21.  FAO and UNDP are collaborating in the implementation of an
artisanal fisheries project in Lower and Middle Shabelle and Benadir
regions.  The project provides assistance to rebuild war-ravaged
infrastructure for the small-scale fishing industry, ensure a regular
supply of fish for human consumption and improve income and employment
opportunities in coastal communities.  ICRC has distributed fishing
materials to some 6,000 families in the Kismayo area.  A number of
other small-scale activities in the agriculture, livestock and
fisheries sectors are being supported in many areas of the country
through UNHCR quick impact projects and the UNDP Somalia Rural
Rehabilitation Programme, among other initiatives.


D.  Health

22.     Since 1991, there has been an increase in the level of
communicable diseases, while at the same time, a significant reduction
in the number of qualified Somali professionals working in the heath
sector in the country has occurred.  Low immunization coverage, poor
water and sanitation conditions and the population's limited access to
health services have exacerbated the situation.  Diarrhoeal diseases,
anaemia, malaria and acute respiratory infections remain among the
leading causes of mortality in the country.  United Nations agencies
and their partners in Somalia have made concerted efforts to protect
the health status of the population in the face of difficult
conditions.  In collaboration with WHO and non-governmental
organizations, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) supports a
total of 128 maternity health-care centres throughout Somalia, which
provide mothers and children with a wide range of basic health and
nutrition services, including vitamin and iron and folic acid
supplements.  UNICEF also supports 81 outpatient dispensaries,
470 health posts, 21 hospitals and 33 supplementary and therapeutic
feeding centres, again in close cooperation with WHO and implementing
non-governmental organizations.  WFP supports health services by
providing food rations to workers in primary health- care facilities
and hospitals.

23.  The number of malnourished children, pregnant women and nursing
mothers receiving supplementary feeding through the 33 feeding centres
declined over the past year from a monthly average of 22,000
beneficiaries to about 15,800.  However, deteriorating food security
conditions in the first half of 1996 have led to new increases in
attendance in Mogadishu and in the Juba valley.  In preparation for a
possible nutrition crisis, WHO provided 22 Somalia health
professionals with training for trainers, covering the operation of
therapeutic feeding centres and methodologies for emergency
nutritional assessments.  In addition, copies of the WHO standard
guidelines for emergency nutritional assessments, as well as the
United States Centers for Disease Control/WHO nutritional assessment
computer software, were distributed to international non-governmental
organizations operational in Somalia.

24.  WHO continued to give technical and material support to 13
tuberculosis treatment activities in Somalia and has provided training
and laboratory support for three new anti-tuberculosis activities. 
Close to 3,000 tuberculosis patients completed directly observed
therapy over the past year.  WHO distributed 20 containers of
essential drugs to non-governmental organizations and local health
authorities to assist in the treatment of acute respiratory
infections, diarrhoea, malaria and other diseases.  Basic equipment
and reagents were provided to support or establish five laboratories
and three X-ray machines were donated to selected local health
facilities.  In addition, WHO provided HIV/AIDS test kits to eight
local health facilities in the country.

25.  UNICEF continues to provide essential drugs and supplies to
maternity health-care centres, health posts and other facilities, with
increased emphasis on supervision and monitoring of programme
activities to ensure efficiency and promote capacity-building. 
Between January 1995 and March 1996, ICRC provided a total of 167 tons
of medical supplies to hospitals and other health facilities in
Mogadishu, Hiran, Galgudud, Gedo, the Juba valley, the north-east and
the north-west.  In April 1996, in response to renewed heavy fighting
in Mogadishu, a further 17 tons of emergency medical supplies was
airlifted by ICRC to the city in order to assist in the treatment of
the war-wounded, in collaboration with the Somali Red Crescent Society
(SRCS).  ICRC supports a food-for-work programme for 250 staff members
at Digfer hospital and a training programme for selected medical staff
of Keysaney hospital in Mogadishu.  In the Juba valley, a
community-based pilot health programme was implemented by ICRC in five
villages during the first quarter of 1996.  UNHCR has supported the
rehabilitation of health infrastructure in major areas of
resettlement.

26.  In parallel with the provision of essential drugs, WHO organized
training sessions for Somali health professionals on various topics,
including the rational use of drugs, the collection and analysis of
basic health data and the control and treatment of prevalent diseases. 
WHO has shifted its focus towards capacity-building within the Somali
health sector, through training of laboratory technicians, private
pharmacists and drug importers and support to the development of
coordinated sustainable drug-supply programmes.  Four Somali health
professionals have been sponsored to attend a training programme in
emergency preparedness and response, organized jointly by WHO and
ICRC.  As part of a joint United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and
WHO reproductive health effort in Somalia, more than 500 nurses,
midwives and traditional birth attendants have been provided with
training in order to upgrade their skills in maternal and child health
and family planning services.  WHO has so far provided equipment and
drugs to 25 maternity health-care centres under the project.  UNICEF
continues to support training activities for traditional birth
attendants and community health workers.

27.  In February 1996, cholera, which has now become endemic in
Somalia, reappeared in Mogadishu and Kismayo and subsequently spread
to many other areas of the country, including isolated rural
communities.  At the outset of the outbreak, United Nations agencies
and non-governmental organizations established inter-agency cholera
task forces at the central and regional levels in order to design and
implement a coordinated programme of preventive and curative
interventions in all affected areas.  As in previous years, those
consolidated efforts were effective in containing the epidemic and
minimizing cholera-related fatalities.  WHO provided some
30,000 litres of ringer lactate as well as other supplies and
additional drugs required for the treatment of up to 12,000 cases of
acute diarrhoea.  UNICEF organized and coordinated massive
anti-cholera water disinfection campaigns undertaken in many areas of
the country by non-governmental organizations and Somali volunteers,
and provided oral rehydration salts and other supplies.  International
non-governmental organizations were instrumental in combating the
outbreak through their direct support to and supervision of isolation
facilities and cholera treatment centres.  ICRC and SRCS also carried
out cholera prevention efforts in Mogadishu and other hard-hit areas. 
The 1996 cholera outbreak had subsided by the middle of the year, with
a total of 10,274 cases and 464 deaths recorded by WHO, representing a
case fatality rate of 4.5 per cent.

28.  At a time when many parts of the world are making substantial
progress in the elimination of preventable diseases, the gains in
immunization coverage achieved in Somalia during 1993 are being lost
because of instability and high costs.  In response to an increase in
the number of cases of measles in Mogadishu, over 170,000 children
under five years of age were vaccinated against the disease between
November 1995 and February 1996 under an extensive immunization
campaign conducted in the city by UNICEF with the assistance of WHO,
non-governmental organizations and local health authorities.  In 1995,
WHO and UNICEF in collaboration with non-governmental organizations
developed a new coordinated community-based strategy for an expanded
immunization programme in Somalia.

29.  In collaboration with WHO, the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has produced a set of
health education textbooks, charts and other materials for use in
primary schools in Somalia.  The WHO guidelines for the treatment of
acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases were
translated into Somali by UNESCO and distributed to health facilities
in the country.  Seven additional villages have joined the WHO Basic
Minimum Needs programme, which strives to support community efforts to
meet local needs in a sustainable manner, bringing to 62 the number of
Somali villages targeted under the programme.  To combat malaria, WHO
has supported initiatives to breed special larvivorous fish that eat
mosquito larvae found in stagnant waters.  WHO and the United Nations
Development Office for Somalia, in collaboration with international
non-governmental organizations and local health authorities, are
working on the development of a health-information system for Somalia. 
WHO is also promoting the use of available technology for the planning
of health systems and is working with the Development Office on the
production of special maps for the planning, monitoring and evaluation
of the health sector.


E.  Water and sanitation

30.  Access to safe drinking water and adequate waste disposal are
integral to efforts aimed at protecting the health status and well-
being of Somali populations.  As regards water and sanitation, UNICEF
rehabilitated or constructed several piped water systems and a total
of 269 other water sources, including wells and boreholes, providing
potable water to approximately 200,000 people in rural and urban areas
of Somalia.  UNHCR supported the rehabilitation of an additional
35 wells and 20 water catchments over the past year, with the
assistance of WFP food inputs.  Some 72 water and environmental
sanitation committees have been formed at the community level and
their members have been provided with training in order to enable the
committees to take over water and sanitation responsibilities.  UNICEF
has constructed some 293 pit latrines, mainly at health and education
facilities, providing improved sanitation conditions for some 40,000
people.  Training of pump mechanics by UNICEF also contributes to the
sustainability of interventions in the sector.

31.  WHO guidelines for water and sanitation were distributed in
collaboration with UNICEF in order to improve the quality and safety
of water-harvesting and water-production efforts.  As part of UNICEF
social mobilization work, health and hygiene messages have been
disseminated to people through radio broadcasts, plays and other
means.  The massive water disinfection campaign undertaken by
non-governmental organizations during the first half of 1996 with the
support of UNICEF, other United Nations agencies and ICRC played a
major role in curbing the spread of cholera in the country.  Since
1995, ICRC has dug or rehabilitated over 70 wells and boreholes in
Mogadishu, Mudug and the Juba valley, and a total of 35 wells were
equipped with hand pumps.

32.  In the first months of 1996, a prolonged dry season and ensuing
water shortages in drought-prone areas of northern Somalia led to
population movements and high mortality rates among livestock.  To
help the affected populations and support local coping mechanisms,
United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations assisted
with the delivery of potable water, the provision of food aid to the
most vulnerable groups and the repairing of strategic water wells and
boreholes in the worst affected areas.  The assistance was undertaken
in collaboration with local authorities through inter-agency drought
task forces set up at Hargeisa and Bossaso.  ICRC rehabilitated a
strategic borehole for livestock in the Sool region and provided spare
parts for two other boreholes in the area.


F.  Education

33.  The provision of basic education to vulnerable groups, in
particular to female children, has suffered a setback owing to renewed
hostilities in several parts of Somalia combined with the withdrawal
or scaling down of assistance by some humanitarian agencies. 
Widespread school closures are reported and, in the absence of
sustainable mechanisms for remunerating teachers, the quality of
education in the schools that continue to operate is likely to
deteriorate further.  As a result, the positive impact of donor
investments made in favour of the education sector in 1993/94 has been
placed at risk.  In addition, the presence of a large unschooled or
undereducated population in Somalia carries future social and
development costs for the country.  United Nations agencies and their
partners have thus been working to protect and promote basic
education, in particular through support to primary schools.

34.  UNESCO, UNICEF and implementing non-governmental organizations
support about 750 primary and Koranic schools in the country, catering
to a total population of about 160,000 children.  UNICEF continues to
distribute education kits and other learning materials to functioning
schools.  The UNESCO education development centres at Mogadishu,
Baidoa, Hargeisa, Garoe and Djibouti and its education rehabilitation
units at Garbaharey and Hoddur facilitate the development of
curricular materials and teacher training efforts for the country. 
WFP provides important support to the education sector through
food-for-work inputs for teachers and trainees and its special feeding
programmes for students.  The rehabilitation of school buildings is
supported by UNICEF, UNDP, UNHCR and WFP.

35.  UNESCO has produced and organized the distribution of primary-
level textbooks for Somalia, including a special edition for use in
the north-west.  Twenty-nine teacher-guide titles have been prepared,
of which 25,000 copies have been printed in the low-cost print shops
attached to the education development centres.  A total of 1,900
emergency education packages developed by UNESCO were distributed in
internally displaced settlements, rural areas and refugee camps.  Each
package serves as a self-contained classroom, with supplies and
instructional materials for a class of 40 students.  UNESCO has also
prepared educational cloth charts, adult literacy materials and, in
collaboration with UNHCR, environmental education kits for use in
primary schools in Somali refugee camps in Kenya.

36.  Through a joint training programme, UNICEF and UNESCO have created
a cadre of regional trainers who mobilize community support and
undertake school monitoring and inspection functions, in addition to
providing training to others.  A set of training-of-trainers'
materials and a video on good classroom practices have been produced. 
UNESCO conducted over 100 training workshops for head teachers in
15 regions of the country and in Somali refugee camps in Kenya,
Djibouti and Yemen.  The UNESCO Somalia Open Learning Unit, which
provides in-service teacher training to practising but untrained
teachers leading up to a diploma, is expanding and currently operates
five centres in four regions.

37.  UNESCO and the United Nations Development Office for Somalia
conducted comprehensive educational surveys in the Bay, Middle
Shabelle, Bari, Nugal and Mudug regions of Somalia.  As part of the
mid-decade review of progress towards Education For All, a country
case study on Somalia was completed under the coordination of UNESCO
and presented at the regional Education For All policy review seminar
held at Johannesburg, South Africa, in February 1996.  In order to
contribute to the sustainability of educational programmes, UNESCO,
UNICEF and WFP have assisted in the formation of local and regional
education boards or committees.


G.  Refugees and returnees

38.  Between December 1994 and December 1995, over 40,000 Somali
refugees in Kenya returned to Somalia under the UNHCR voluntary
repatriation programme, mainly to the Juba valley and the north-east. 
Some 700 Somali refugees were repatriated by UNHCR from Kenya to the
north-east in April and May 1996, and another 12,000 Somali refugees
were expected to return to Somalia mainly from neighbouring countries
during the remainder of the year.  The return of refugees places an
additional burden on already fragile local infrastructures and the
provision of continued support to returnees is vital to ensure their
sustainable reintegration.

39.  In the absence of a recognized government and effective national
counterparts, international aid agencies are being called upon to play
a substantial role in meeting the reintegration needs of the
returnees.  UNHCR and its partners supports initiatives to strengthen
and improve basic socio-economic conditions and infrastructure in
areas of return, thereby encouraging stability and the full
integration of the returnees into the recipient communities.  Towards
this end, quick impact projects, focusing on the rehabilitation of
social services and the creation of income-generating opportunities,
are being implemented in the Juba valley and the north-east regions,
directly benefiting a total of 170,000 people in resettlement areas. 
Since 1991, over 700 quick impact projects in the education, water,
health and other sectors have been implemented in Somalia.  UNHCR will
continue to facilitate and prepare the ground for the voluntary
repatriation of Somali refugees.  As of June 1996, a total of 475,000
Somali refugees remained registered in camps in Kenya, Ethiopia,
Eritrea, Djibouti and Yemen.

40.  UNHCR currently runs a cross-border operation from Kenya and
maintains field offices in Hargeisa, Bossaso, Galcayo and Kismayo. 
This field presence enables UNHCR to monitor post-return living
conditions closely and to facilitate rapid response.  Some 800 Somalis
crossed the border as refugees into Kenya in May and June 1996, when
food shortages, insecurity and minority targeting led to population
movements in parts of southern Somalia.  UNHCR participated in the
preparation and implementation of the consolidated plan of action
undertaken by United Nations agencies and non-governmental
organizations in order to prevent a renewed refugee influx into Kenya. 
WFP provides interim food rations to returnees in order to assure
their subsistence during initial reintegration and resettlement
periods.  ICRC has distributed relief food aid to thousands of
vulnerable returnee families in Bardera, the Juba valley and other
areas of the country over the past year.


H.  Internally displaced persons

41.  By mid-1995, inter-agency plans and strategies were in place for
the resettlement of internally displaced persons to chosen areas of
return within Somalia.  However, the implementation of
return-and-reintegration programmes was subsequently disrupted because
of increased political instability and armed conflict, in particular
in southern Somalia, provoking renewed population movements, mainly
towards relatively peaceful areas in the north-east and north-west,
but also within the southern regions of the country.  United Nations
agencies and organizations are exploring viable strategy options for
the provision of assistance to the country's internally displaced
populations under current conditions.  It is estimated that there are
presently at least 200,000 internally displaced persons in Somalia. 
They remain among the most vulnerable groups in the country.

42.  The largest concentration of internally displaced persons is found
in Mogadishu, where a survey by the International Organization for
Migration (IOM) in October 1995 revealed a total of 54,680 people
living in 109 camps.  Other major areas of displaced settlements are
in Bossaso, Burao and Kismayo.  The United Nations and
non-governmental-organization consolidated programme of food and
non-food assistance initiated in May 1996 in the Juba valley was
designed to halt population movements and to support resettlement of
internally displaced persons.  As part of its assistance activities in
Lower and Middle Juba, ICRC has over the past year provided food aid
and other relief items to thousands of displaced persons in Kismayo
and other areas of the valley.

43.  To assist people fleeing insecurity in the Baidoa area in 1995,
ICRC distributed plastic sheeting, blankets and other survival items
to over 20,000 displaced families living in the Bay, Bakool and Gedo
regions, and similar relief supplies were provided to 5,000 families
displaced by fighting in the Middle Shabelle region.  Under an
operation undertaken by UNDP and the Department of Humanitarian
Affairs, some 14 tons of non-food relief supplies were airlifted from
the Department's warehouse in Pisa, Italy, for distribution to
internally displaced persons affected by heavy rains and flooding at
Mogadishu in November 1995.  In February 1996, ICRC distributed
additional relief supplies to 15,000 families in the city's camps for
internally displaced persons.  In northern Somalia, ICRC distributed
non-food relief items to over 60,000 internally displaced and
conflict-affected persons, as well as returnees.

44.  WFP continues to provide relief food assistance to vulnerable
internally displaced populations in Somalia, including over 57,000
conflict-affected people in the Burao area.  In general, WFP strives
to limit food aid provided to displaced persons in order to discourage
relief dependency and to encourage return to home communities,
whenever feasible.  Internally displaced persons, as well as returnees
and host communities, also benefit from the network of
UNICEF-supported primary health-care facilities and many other United
Nations relief and rehabilitation programmes under implementation in
the country.  Although not falling directly under its mandate, UNHCR
remains concerned about the plight of the country's internally
displaced population and exercises an advocacy role vis-a`-vis aid
agencies and local authorities.  UNHCR and UNFPA have embarked on a
joint initiative to study and compile information on the
socio-economic characteristics of populations in major areas of
displacement and resettlement.


III.  RECONSTRUCTION STRATEGIES AND EFFORTS

45.  Although a return to acute humanitarian crisis has been averted,
political instability and the ensuing insecurity have prevented the
country as a whole from moving into a straightforward reconstruction
mode and, under current conditions, possibilities for medium- or
long-term economic and social development are limited.  In addition,
as there are no recognized counterparts in Somalia, traditional
instruments of the United Nations system to assist Governments in
achieving national recovery and development objectives, including
preparation of a country strategy note, are not applicable in the
country.  However, relatively stable conditions in certain locations
have created an environment conducive to some reconstruction and
development-oriented work and, despite the inherent risks associated
with the absence of a formal economy, several parts of Somalia have
moved out of emergency situations, enabling the reactivation of
business and other economical activities, in particular in the
northern regions.

46.  Faced with that reality, United Nations agencies operating in
Somalia have adopted a regional approach whereby interventions are
designed and implemented to address the prevailing situation in each
geographical area, taking into account the area's relative position
along the relief-to-development continuum.  In another sense, however,
the distinction between relief and rehabilitation assistance in
Somalia is becoming increasingly blurred, as the main underlying
causes of human suffering and emergency needs remain the population's
lack of purchasing power and employment opportunities combined with
the absence of civil and social infrastructure and institutions of
governance.  In that context, assistance for relief, rehabilitation
and, to some extent, reconstruction has become inextricably linked.

47.  The Code of Conduct for International Rehabilitation and
Development Assistance to Somalia, adopted by the Somalia Aid
Coordination Body in 1995, and the Guidelines for United Nations
Humanitarian Relief Operations in Somalia, continue to offer a general
framework for optimal operational conditions for international aid to
Somalia.  The Somalia Aid Coordination Body is monitoring the
implementation of the Code of Conduct, which has been utilized on
several occasions over the past year as the basis for collective
action by United Nations agencies, donors, non-governmental
organizations and other international organizations.  A document
adopted by the Coordination Body in June 1996 on working arrangements
between the international aid community and responsible Somali
authorities, reaffirmed the Code's basic principle that the effective
execution of international assistance remains the responsibility of
the Somali people and that peace, security and the existence of
responsible Somali authorities are prerequisites for the sustainable
implementation of rehabilitation and development activities in the
country.  The June 1996 document also reaffirmed the commitment of the
international aid community to providing assistance to those in need
in Somalia and to remaining neutral on issues of a purely political
nature.

48.     The United Nations strategy for rehabilitation and
reconstruction efforts in Somalia continues to focus largely on the
implementation of sustainable community-based activities in support of
local coping mechanisms and to bolster self-sufficiency.  The UNDP
Somalia rural rehabilitation programme assists communities to build
their self-reliance capabilities and to meet basic minimum needs
through the provision of technical assistance and small investment
capital.  Under the programme, some 85 small-scale projects are
currently under implementation, in close collaboration with the target
communities, primarily in the areas of employment-generation and
infrastructure rehabilitation.  The Programme, which is executed by
the United Nations Office for Project Services of the Secretariat, is
currently active in the north-east and north-west parts of Somalia,
and plans are under way to expand activities into the Gedo region.  A
comparable UNDP-supported integrated agricultural and area development
project, executed by UNV, began activities in the Middle Shabelle
region in June 1996.

49.  A programme of assistance being undertaken by UNDP and the
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is building the
capacity of Somali staff in the management of essential aviation
facilities and services in the country.  Training has been provided in
air traffic control, aeronautical information services, fire-fighting
and other areas, which has improved the safety of air operations and
facilitated the delivery of humanitarian aid and commercial goods. 
The project has also upgraded major airstrips, provided basic airport
equipment and assisted local authorities to develop airport
revenue-generation systems.  To contribute to the recovery of local
economy and the alleviation of poverty, UNDP in collaboration with the
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) continues
implementation of a project to assist in the rehabilitation and
sustainable operation of Somali ports, which are vital to trade and
the sustenance of many people's livelihoods.  The project has
supported the establishment of viable port authorities at Berbera,
Bossaso and Kismayo, and has provided technical assistance and
equipment as well as training for port personnel.

50.  The United Nations Development Office for Somalia, a UNDP project
executed by the United Nations Office for Project Services, is
focusing on strengthening the planning and management capacities of
local and regional administrative structures in Somalia and is working
closely with United Nations agencies, donors, non-governmental
organizations and Somali institutions to integrate and link
inter-sectorial programmes and projects in order to ensure effective
and efficient resource utilization.  Other core functions of the
Development Office currently include economic planning and policy
analysis, development of statistical databases and maintenance of a
documentation unit on Somalia.  The Development Office continues to
provide secretariat support to the Somalia Aid Coordination Body.

51.  UNDP and the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)
have begun implementation of an urban settlement and management
programme at Hargeisa.  The programme is designed to improve urban
living conditions and strengthen municipal institutional capacities
for the planning and operation of urban facilities and public
services, including water supply and solid waste management.  Among
other activities, the project is assisting in the preparation of a
medium-term human resource development programme and a plan of action
for infrastructure rehabilitation, as well as establishing systematic
monitoring and maintenance mechanisms and generating job opportunities
for female-headed households.  Somalia is covered in an initiative of
UNDP, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World
Bank to produce a strategic action programme for the Red Sea and Gulf
of Aden aimed at safeguarding the region's marine resources and
providing guidelines for environmentally sound development plans and
projects.

52.  As there are an estimated 1 million landmines still laid in Somali
soil, UNESCO mine-awareness materials remain relevant and are used in
schools, while ICRC in collaboration with SRCS is launching a
mine-awareness campaign in Mogadishu, targeted towards youth and
militia groups.  UNESCO has distributed, in the form of video and
audio tapes, a play promoting demobilization and disarmament.  Also
developed by UNESCO are a video containing Somali peace songs and a
primary-level peace education package.  UNDP, UNHCR and WFP have
supported demobilization activities in certain areas of the country. 
Following the first symposium on the culture of peace in Somalia,
which was held in 1995 in Sana'a, two additional culture of peace
meetings took place in Paris and Addis Ababa.  These were organized by
UNESCO with the collaboration of the European Union (EU) and attended
by Somali intellectuals both resident in and outside Somalia.  Several
Somali women have taken part in training-of-trainers' workshops
covering conflict-resolution and community-based mediation techniques,
organized by the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). 
UNIFEM is also in the process of carrying out a research study on the
role of Somali women in the country's peace process.


IV.  COORDINATION ARRANGEMENTS

53.  The need for close coordination and collaboration among
humanitarian partners in Somalia has intensified over the past year in
view of continued insecurity and instability, the absence of effective
national counterparts, limited donor resources and the precarious
humanitarian situation.  The United Nations Coordination Team, chaired
by the UNDP Resident Representative, who is also the United Nations
Humanitarian and Resident Coordinator for Somalia, continues to be a
useful forum for the regular exchange of information on the activities
of its members, as well as on the security, political and humanitarian
situation in the country.  The United Nations Coordination Team
consists of senior representatives of all 13 United Nations agencies
and organizations operational in the country, as well as the United
Nations Political Office for Somalia, ICRC and the International
Federation of Red Cross/Red Crescent Societies.  The United Nations
Coordination Team cooperates closely with national and international
non-governmental organization consortia and the Somalia Aid
Coordination Body.  The United Nations Coordination Unit, which was
established as a division within the UNDP country office, continues to
play an important role in facilitating and strengthening coordination
and collaboration within the United Nations system, with respect to
both humanitarian and rehabilitation interventions, through the
provision of a wide range of information, logistical, organizational
and analytical services.  The United Nations Coordination Unit is
funded by UNDP.

54.  Coordination of sectoral activities has been enhanced through the
strengthening or creation of several inter-agency task forces and
thematic working groups.  In the health and nutrition sector, greater
collaboration among United Nations agencies and non-governmental
organizations over the past year has led to a streamlining of
interventions and improved standardization and quality of service. 
Under the lead of UNESCO and UNICEF, aid agencies are in the process
of formulating joint plans and strategies for supporting the education
sector in the country.  In 1995, the United Nations Resident
Coordinator established an inter-agency HIV/AIDS theme group, which,
under the chairmanship of WHO, has been useful in bringing together
United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations to review
the AIDS problem in Somalia and to explore possibilities for joint
action.  Similarly, an inter-agency task force on internally displaced
persons, co-chaired by UNDP and IOM, was created to facilitate
information exchange and the planning and implementation of
coordinated United Nations interventions targeting displaced
populations.  Efforts in sectoral coordination have benefited
significantly from the technical expertise and specialized services
provided by the United Nations Development Office for Somalia.  In
February 1996 the Somalia Aid Coordination Body formed a special
committee to enhance and provide guidance for sectoral coordination.

55.  To facilitate and improve inter-agency coordination at the field
level in Somalia, the United Nations Coordination Team in 1995
established the practice of designating one United Nations agency
official as its focal point in each area of operation within the
country.  The focal points are selected on a rotating basis from among
the senior field representatives of the United Nations agencies
serving in each geographical area of operation in the country.  The
functions of the United Nations Coordination Team focal point include,
inter alia, facilitating the collection and exchange of relevant
information, acting as a consensus builder among the United Nations
agencies with regards to operational strategies and maintaining
liaison with local authorities with a view to reaching solutions to
common problems.  The United Nations field coordination modality
invites the involvement of international non-governmental
organizations, whenever feasible.

56.  In accordance with the recommendations of the inter-agency mission
of February 1996 fielded on behalf of the Inter-agency Standing
Committee, and in view of limited donor funding, innovative
operational strategies are being pursued by the United Nations
agencies and organizations in order to maximize the cost-effectiveness
and efficiency of United Nations activities in the country.  In the
area of air transport, the United Nations agencies under the
leadership of WFP are entering into joint leasing arrangements to
consolidate their aircraft services, in the interests of reducing
costs and providing adequate capacity to meet the needs of all United
Nations agencies.  Also in line with the mission's recommendations,
agreements for the establishment of common premises and the joint
sharing of communications and security facilities are being explored
by the United Nations agencies.


V.  IMPACT OF SECURITY PROBLEMS

57.  Humanitarian operations in Somalia continue to be severely impeded
by security problems, including looting and inter-clan violence. 
While the civil conflict over the past year has often been localized
and of a low level of intensity, the fighting has at times been heavy,
claiming the lives of many innocent civilians, including women and
children.  There have been numerous incidents and attacks directed at
or affecting humanitarian agencies and staff throughout Somalia, some
ending tragically.  As a result, assistance programmes have been
suspended or greatly curtailed in several areas of the country. 
Overall, the level of access to civilian populations in Somalia has
deteriorated since September 1995.

58.  Security conditions in northern Somalia have generally been
favourable for the implementation of United Nations agency programmes,
while instability and conflict have seriously disrupted the flow of
relief and rehabilitation assistance in southern Somalia.  Where
security conditions permit, United Nations assistance is delivered
under the direct supervision of international staff.  There are
currently about 40 United Nations international staff in Somalia, with
presence in Hargeisa, Berbera, Boroma, Bossaso, Galcayo, Kismayo and
Jowhar.  In areas where security conditions preclude the permanent
presence of international staff, United Nations agency activities are
undertaken by national staff, who in many cases are facing
increasingly stressful conditions and attempts at intimidation by some
local communities.  The regular monitoring of project activities has
been complicated by prevailing security conditions in many areas of
the country.

59.  In parts of southern Somalia, the need for relief assistance has
risen, while the United Nations ability to deliver food and non-food
supplies has seriously declined because of the worsening security
conditions.  Since the capture of Baidoa by the forces of General
Mohamed Aidid in September 1995, virtually all United Nations agency
offices in the Bay and Bakool regions have remained closed and all
non-emergency assistance programmes have been suspended.  During the
takeover of Baidoa, 20 international staff members of United Nations
agencies and non-governmental organizations were temporarily detained
and most United Nations equipment and supplies were looted or lost. 
Sporadic fighting has continued to take place in the Bay and Bakool
regions.  In view of the situation, there has been no return to the
area by United Nations international staff and the scale of operations
executed by national staff has been drastically reduced.  Relief and
rehabilitation assistance to the Juba valley has also been very
problematic owing to insecurity.  The situation in southern Somalia
has contributed to renewed population movements and has prevented to a
large extent the implementation of resettlement programmes for
internally displaced persons.

60.  Mogadishu remains a tense and divided city and the situation is
currently not conducive to the permanent presence of United Nations
international staff or to non-emergency operations.  Some
non-governmental organizations have continued to post international
staff to Mogadishu, but their presence has been maintained at minimal
levels.  The main airport in Mogadishu has remained closed since March
1995.  In October 1995, fighting increased in intensity between rival
factions in the city, causing the country's main port in south
Mogadishu to cease functioning and to have a negative effect on the
flow of humanitarian assistance to the city and to the interior
regions of the country.  Relief supplies and commercial goods have
since been delivered through smaller ports near Mogadishu, but use of
these alternate ports is an unsatisfactory substitute.  In April 1996,
inter-factional fighting resurfaced in south Mogadishu, killing
hundreds of civilians and displacing many more, and having a severe
impact on the humanitarian situation in the city.  In addition,
several United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations
operating in south Mogadishu in 1996 have had relief supplies seized
by militia men and have experienced other obstacles that have further
restricted implementation of essential assistance programmes targeting
the city's vulnerable population.

61.  Common arrangements for United Nations security are in place under
the leadership of the United Nations designated official for security
matters, who is also the UNDP Resident Representative and United
Nations Humanitarian and Resident Coordinator for Somalia.  Under the
arrangement, a United Nations security officer is posted in each
operational area in Somalia where United Nations agency international
personnel are present.  As part of the arrangement, the United Nations
agencies contribute funding or personnel for the common security
system, which is managed by the designated official in consultation
with the United Nations Coordination Team.  Presently, there are a
total of six international security officers serving the United
Nations system in Somalia.


                   VI.  ASSISTANCE PROVIDED BY MEMBER STATES

62.  In addition to the activities described above, several Member
States have provided information on assistance to Somalia pursuant to
General Assembly resolution 50/58 G.

Denmark

63.  The Government of Denmark made contributions totalling
DKr 14,776,383 towards relief programmes in Somalia in 1995: 
DKr 4 million went to UNHCR for repatriation and integration
activities; DKr 5 million went towards a UNICEF water project in
Mogadishu; DKr 76,383 went to WFP for the secondment of port
personnel; and DKr 500,000 was provided to IOM for the registration
and transportation of internally displaced persons.  DKr 3 million was
provided to the Danish Red Cross towards the ICRC aid programme in
Somalia, while a further DKr 1 million was provided to the Danish Red
Cross for IFRC emergency and repatriation programmes.  In 1996 the
Government of Denmark provided a total of DKr 11,305,346 towards
relief assistance in Somalia.  Of that amount, DKr 2.2 million went to
UNICEF food aid distribution to internally displaced persons,
DKr 5 million the Danish Red Cross for ICRC programmes and
DKr 4,105,346 to Adventist Development Relief Agency.

Finland

64.  In 1995 the Government of Finland contributed a total of
Fmk 3 million to Somalia, of which Fmk 2 million was donated to UNHCR
and Fmk 1 million was provided to the Finnish Red Cross/ICRC.  As at
30 June 1996, the Government of Finland had contributed Fmk 2 million
to UNHCR and Fmk 400,000 to the Finnish Red Cross/ICRC for
humanitarian assistance programmes in Somalia.

Germany

65.  In 1995 the Government of Germany provided UNHCR with DM 500,000
to assist in the repatriation programme for Somali refugees in
Djibouti.  Food aid for Somalia totalling DM 2,651,000 was provided
through the German non-governmental organization Deutsche Welt Hunger
Hilfe.  The Government of Germany also made a contribution of
DM 40,000 towards the convening of a Department of Peackeeping
Operations/United Nations Operation in Somalia Lessons Learned
Seminar.  In 1996 ICRC was the recipient of DM 490,000 to undertake
its relief programme in Somalia.

Italy

66.  The Italian Emergency Department, which in 1995 had no programme
in Somalia because of the civil war, in 1996 pledged a financial
programme of approximately Lit 3 billion to Somalia.  Of this amount,
Lit 800 million will go towards continuing the health and social
programme of Garoe; and Lit 2.1 billion has been pledged to UNHCR and
to UNICEF for their health and social programmes.  A contribution of
Lit 1 billion has also been pledged in favour of the United Nations
Development Office for Somalia.

Japan

67.  Between 1 April 1995 and 31 March 1996 the Government of Japan
made a number of contributions to United Nations relief assistance
programmes in Somalia.  This includes US$ 4.6 million to UNHCR to
assist in the repatriation of Somali refugees from Kenya and the Cross
Border Operation; $6,860,000 to WFP for programmes within Somalia as
well as for refugees from Somalia (portions of this food were provided
to refugees from Sudan and Ethiopia through WFP); and $2,940,000 to
WFP for emergency food aid for war victims in Somalia.

Liechtenstein

68.  In July 1996 Liechtenstein contributed Sw F 10,000 to the
Department of Humanitarian Affairs for its Somalia programme.

Norway

69.  In 1996 the Government of Norway contributed a total of
NKr 3,912,890 to Somalia.  Of this amount, NKr 2,250,550 went to
Norwegian Church Aid for rehabilitation programmes for returnees in
the Gedo region and NKr 1,662,340 went to the UNICEF supplementary
feeding programme.

Saudi Arabia

70.  During the civil war in Somalia, the Government of Saudi Arabia
provided food and relief assistance to the value of US$ 15 million for
the people of Somalia.  Special assistance of $5 million was provided
by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Fahd Bin Abdulaziz, to
relieve the crises of hunger in Somalia.  Another amount totalling
$2,738,000 was provided as development assistance. The Saudi Arabia
Crescent Society is continuing the process of collecting contributions
on the popular level for the people of Somalia.  These contributions,
which are in kind, are sent on a regular basis to Somalia.

Switzerland

71.  The Government of Switzerland provided a total of SFr 2,343,000 in
humanitarian assistance to Somalia in 1996.


VII.  CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS

72.  Although there have been some positive developments since the last
report of the Secretary-General to the General Assembly on assistance
for humanitarian relief and the economic and social rehabilitation of
Somalia (A/50/447), the situation in Somalia continues to frustrate
the international community and to exact an enormous price upon the
country's population.  Continued destruction of property, wanton
violence and the ensuing displacement of civilians, in particular in
the southern regions of the country, keep Somalia in an extremely
precarious humanitarian situation.  This is further complicated by the
continued closure of the port of Mogadishu, seriously affecting the
general food imports and relief food assistance.  United Nations
agencies and national and international non-governmental organizations
are therefore required to remain at the forefront of relief
interventions in these areas, expending much of their effort in
ensuring that waves of disaster are held at bay.

73.  In areas of the south where significant gains had been made in
recent years through the combined efforts of committed Somali
communities and national and international humanitarian partners, the
self-serving actions of a few have had consequences for many.  The
events that occurred in September 1995, when the town of Baidoa in the
agriculturally rich Bay region was overrun by the militia of General
Aidid, are a case in point.  The area had enjoyed relative peace and
stability and was, as a result, the main focus of rehabilitation
efforts in southern Somalia.  Because of the success of programmes in
the area, it had become a showcase of donor and agency activities and
was a vital example of what could be achieved in a Somalia when
citizens felt secure and could turn their attention towards
production, and away from fear and despair.  The incursion by the late
General Aidid and the consequent disruption in agricultural production
in what is the principal grain-producing area of the country had
repercussions for Somalia as a whole, resulting in major setbacks for
humanitarian and rehabilitation activities from which the region has
still not recovered. Such insecurity and attacks on civilians and
humanitarian programmes and partners continue to characterize the
situation in the south.  The recent naming of Hussein Farah Aidid as
successor to his father, General Aidid, may have implications for the
situation in southern Somalia. It is clear that unless there is
commitment on the part of faction leaders that they will not continue
to hold Somalia hostage to their political ambitions, the country will
remain in a state of acute vulnerability and those who will continue
to suffer will be the weakest and the poorest.

74.  Throughout Somalia, a substantial burden has been placed upon
United Nations agencies and their partners to increase their sectoral
activities, largely because, in the absence of national institutions
and authorities, international agencies have had to fulfil the role of
facilitators and negotiators in very insecure and war-ravaged
environments.  But there are areas, notably in the north of the
country, which show a marked interest in pursuing the ideals of peace
and stability.  Even where pockets of insecurity continue to exist,
conditions in these areas are far less precarious for the general
population.  There we find the re-emergence of institutions and
authorities, community-engendered capacity-building initiatives, the
reconstruction of local economies and infrastructures for social
services and the reactivation of trade activities and livestock
production.  International agencies for their part have focused more
on a combination of relief and rehabilitation activities in those
areas and have moved away from mainly emergency-oriented programmes. 
Efforts have focused to a large extent on sustainable community-based
activities that support local economies and encourage and strengthen
self-support and self-reliance.

75.  United Nations agencies and their partners are involved in
supporting the revitalization of local economies, generating
employment, providing training, enhancing local capacities and
rehabilitating infrastructure.  In addition to many other activities,
children are being vaccinated, schools are being built, wells dug and
chlorinated, aviation and port facilities managed, health facilities
constructed and livestock production assisted.  All of these
multisectoral activities are part of a concerted effort by the United
Nations agencies to make a contribution towards good governance in
Somalia.  Rehabilitation efforts can thus be said to be taking place
in those areas of Somalia where leaders and communities have shown
themselves ready and willing to move away from protracted warfare and
violence.

76.  There is clearly a stark difference in assistance requirements in
Somalia from one geographical region to another and those differences
are inextricably linked to the security environments that exist. 
Bearing in mind that Somalia is a composite of these differing
environments, the United Nations agencies are in the process of
developing a resource mobilization strategy and appeal document that
reflect the problematic context in which operations are carried out. 
While diminishing donor resources for Somalia have reined in the
operations of humanitarian partners, donors are encouraged to adopt a
proactive and forward-thinking approach with regard to Somalia.  The
international community should support the efforts of the United
Nations agencies and their partners in order to encourage and reward
the continuance of progress in those areas of Somalia which are making
rigorous efforts to move forward and in order that other areas of the
country can begin to see the concrete advantages and developments the
citizens of Somalia can enjoy when their leaders are willing to break
the cycle of despair.

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This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

Date last posted: 28 December 1999 17:35:10
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org