United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

7 March 1996



General Assembly
Fifty-first session


                           (January-December 1995)

(*     The present document is a mimeographed version of the report
of the Council of the United Nations University for 1995.  The final
report will be issued as Official Records of the General Assembly,
Fifty-first Session, Supplement No. 31 (A/51/31).)


                                                       Paragraphs  Page

     OVERVIEW ..........................................  1 - 7      3


     A. Universal human values and global
        responsibilities ...............................  8 - 34     5

     B. New directions for the world economy ........... 35 - 59     9

     C. Sustaining global life-support systems ......... 60 - 94    14

     D. Advances in science and technology ............. 95 - 128   21

     E. Population dynamics and human welfare ..........129 - 153   27


 IV. DISSEMINATION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS ................170 - 182   35


 VI. THE STATE OF THE UNIVERSITY - 1995 ................212 - 235   44


  I. United Nations University Academic Programme for 1996/97...... 52

 II. Members of the Council of the United Nations University
     in 1995 ...................................................... 53

III. Titles published in 1995 ..................................... 55

 IV. Decision of the Council of the United Nations University on the
     programme and budget for the biennium 1996-1997 .............. 58


1.     The year 1995 was one for solemn international commemoration of
the 50 years that had elapsed since the end of the second World War
and the launching of the United Nations as an expression of humanity's
desire for an end to war.  It also marked the twentieth anniversary of
the United Nations University (UNU), the world organization's own
unique academic arm.  In the past two decades, the University has come
to play a special role in promoting the United Nations goal of peace
and progress.  Embodied in the University's vision is the recognition
that today's all-pervasive processes of transformation now under way
must be a renewed sense of global stewardship.

2.     The Council of the University held its forty-second session in
Tokyo from 4 to 8 December 1995.  Its deliberations focused primarily
on these last few years of the University's journey into the next
century.  The Council examined the University's work in the final year
of its second Medium-Term Perspective (MTP II-1990-1995) and reviewed
the draft third Medium-Term Perspective (MTP III), which will cover
the period 1996-2001.  It also adopted the programme and budget for
the University for the biennium for 1996-1997.

3.     The second Medium-Term Perspective has operated under the broad
rubric of "Global Change and Global Responsibilities".  Guided by that
perspective UNU academic work over the last six years has been carried
out in five specific programme areas:

       (a)    Universal human values and global responsibilities;

       (b)    New directions for the world economy;  

       (c)    Sustaining global life-support systems;  

       (d)    Advances in science and technology; 

       (e)    Population dynamics and human welfare.

4.     The present annual report for 1995 provides a summary of the
activities of the University within each of these programme areas. 
The document also highlights UNU efforts over the year in postgraduate
training, institutional development and the dissemination of research
findings.  A new addition to the report is a summary of the
University's work with other organizations and entities of the United
Nations system during the reporting period.

5.     As in the past, the purpose of the report is not to provide
exhaustive, detailed coverage of academic work of the University, but
rather to convey a sense of the diversity of its research, training
and dissemination efforts.  It aims thus at providing a consolidated
view of the UNU work across a globally decentralized structure of
scholarly and scientific institutions and individuals.

6.     In 1995, four of the University's research and training centres
(RTCs) were fully operational:  the World Institute for Development
Economics Research (UNU/WIDER) in Helsinki, Finland; the Institute for
New Technologies (UNU/INTECH), at Maastricht, the Netherlands; the
International Institute for Software Technology (UNU/IIST) in Macau;
and the Institute for Natural Resources in Africa (UNU/INRA), at

7.     In addition to the above centres, the University in 1995 also
established a new International Leadership Academy (UNU/ILA) at Amman,
Jordan and continued its Programme for Biotechnology in Latin America
and the Caribbean (UNU/BIOLAC) with headquarters at Caracas.  A number
of other cooperating institutions throughout the world were involved
in UNU activities; they are cited below in the context of their
specific roles within given UNU programme areas.


           A.  Universal human values and global responsibilities

8.     The world that has emerged in the aftermath of the long struggle
of the cold war is fraught with new sorts of risks.  New global
issues, thrust to the fore by political, economic and ecological
concerns, have necessitated a rethinking of human values - and their
translation into everyday rights and duties.  The instruments forged
to cope with an East-West ideological clash are often proving
hopelessly inadequate to our modern age.

9.     This UNU programme area explores a number of essential issues in
the unfolding international political scenario.  There are four
specific programmes:

       (a)    The United Nations System, global governance and security. 
This programme addresses the evolving role of the United Nations
against the increasing demands for its services in peace-keeping and
social development.  These activities are primarily carried out by the
UNU Centre in Tokyo;

       (b)    Conflict resolution and ethnicity.  A diverse tangle of
cultures and civilizations, often nursing ancient enmities, contend
for space on the globe.  The institutional research framework for this
programme is provided by the International Programme on Conflict
Resolution and Ethnicity (INCORE), a joint initiative with the
University of Ulster in Northern Ireland, a land which has known some
of the bitterest sectarian strife in recent years;

       (c)    Governance, State and society.  The unrelenting demands of
global interdependence require a broad new set of social acts of
governance.  The major focus of this programme during 1995 was on
exploratory activities for a possible UNU research and training centre
on the study of governance, to be located in Barcelona, Spain. 
Research work was also coordinated by the World Institute for
Development Economics Research (UNU/WIDER) in Helsinki;

       (d)    Culture and development.  The assertion of cultural identity,
undergirded by respect for human dignity, has come to be seen as a
fundamental driving force of equitable growth.  The current work of
the University on this important development consideration is
implemented in cooperation with the Asian-Pacific Centre in Fukuoka
City, Japan.

The United Nations System, global governance and security

10.    In 1995, this programme, either jointly or independently,
organized a number of conferences and symposia, generated
policy-relevant publications and organized new research efforts.

11.    In January, in cooperation with the International Peace Academy,
the programme organized a high-level symposium in Tokyo for policy
makers, academics and the general public on the latest developments in
peace-keeping and humanitarian operations.  The two-day symposium
attracted wide media attention, featuring a televised round-table
discussion involving Mr. Yasushi Akashi, Special Representative of the
Secretary-General for the former Yugoslavia, and Mr. Hisashi Owada,
Permanent Representative of Japan to the United Nations.

12.    The symposium addressed theoretical justifications for the use of
force and humanitarian intervention and made several practical policy
recommendations on mission mandates, rapid reaction capabilities and
training needs.  A concise report of the findings of the symposium was
published and widely circulated to permanent missions to the United
Nations, the international media and the larger academic community. 
An executive summary of the report, in French and Japanese, was also
disseminated.  An issue of UNU Work in Progress (vol. 14/2) drew on a
number of the papers presented at the meeting.

13.    The UNU project on multilateralism and the United Nations system,
launched in 1990, has been studying the dynamics between the changing
world order and new elements of international organization.  The work
of the project was completed in December at an international symposium
held in San Jose', Costa Rica.  The symposium addressed the
multilateral context of development strategies, hunger, technology,
ecosystems, human rights and security.

14.    Two volumes 1/ emanating from this project were issued by UNU
Press in 1995.  The books explore the relationship between particular
state/society complexes and the world order represented by
institutions since 1945 and provide a unique source of information and
analysis of the perceptions and policies of Member States towards the
United Nations.  Three other manuscripts based upon work of the
project were in preparation at the end of the year.

15.    As part of its project on peace-keeping, preventive diplomacy and
reform of the United Nations, the University, together with La Trobe
University and the Australian National University, organized a
conference in Melbourne, Australia.  The conference brought together
prominent international scholars, senior United Nations and government
officials, diplomats, and NGO representatives of non-governmental
organizations (NGOs) to discuss three main themes:  global security,
institutional reform and regionalism.

16.    With particular emphasis on the Asia-Pacific region, the
conference dealt with such questions as the response of churches and
other non-State entities to the security agenda of the United Nations,
environmental problems, human rights in the region, and
self-determination for indigenous peoples.  It attracted wide coverage
in the news media in Australia and will generate considerable public
response in the form of books, journal articles and opinion/editorial
("op-ed") essays in the press.

17.    UNU launched a major new research initiative on "The United
Nations System in the Twenty-first Century" at a symposium held in
Tokyo on 21 and 22 November 1995.  The symposium was held in
commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations and
the twentieth anniversary of UNU, and was organized in cooperation
with the Academic Council on the United Nations System and the
International Cooperation and Research Association.

18.    The objective of this six-year research project is to explore and
suggest the most appropriate models for international organizations,
especially the United Nations, that would best serve human needs in
the twenty-first century.  The first phase will evaluate the rationale
and concepts behind the activities of international organizations. 
The project will also take stock of the capabilities of the United
Nations and seek to diagnose problems that currently plague the
system.  The second phase of the project will combine these
theoretical inquiries with empirical studies to produce workable
future scenarios for international organization.  Specific research
topics will include:  States and sovereignty; global citizenship;
regionalism; and the role of international civil service.

19.    The UNU Global Seminar series continued for its eleventh year. 
The seminars are designed to enhance international awareness among the
student population in Japan through active interaction with scholars
and experts working in UNU's global networks.  Two seminars were held
in 1995, the first at Shonan International Village in Hayama,
Kanagawa-ken, in early September and the second in Kobe in late
September.  The themes for the seminars were "The United Nations at
50:  Building Peace", and "Global Society in Transition and United
Nations Reform:  Towards a Gentler and Safer World".  In total, about
150 students from Japan and other countries participated in the
four-day seminars.

Conflict resolution and ethnicity

20.    The experiences and involvement of India, Ireland and Sweden in
United Nations peace-keeping operations was the focus of a comparative
study undertaken by UNU under the INCORE at the University of Ulster. 
The three nations were selected on the basis of their contrasting
experiences in training and preparation for peace-keeping missions as
well as the possible differences between their European and developing
country perspectives.  The three country studies are being
complemented by comparative analyses of selected United Nations
missions, interviews with key personnel in civilian and military
peace-keeping as well as national policy makers; analyses of United
Nations documentation and reports with a view to improving
coordination between Headquarters and field commanders; and review of
press reports to gauge public reaction to the way in which peace-
keeping operations are conducted.

21.    The project is expected to provide a set of recommendations on
ways to improve the preparation and training of both civilian and
military peace-keepers.  Research activities are being carried out by
teams from INCORE and the Irish Peace Institute of the University of
Limerick and the Austrian Study Centre for Peace Research.  A database
of bibliographic materials and a press archive have been established
at the Irish Peace Institute under this project.

22.    Other INCORE activities were focused on developing and
commissioning an ethnicity and conflict reduction network and included
preparing a newsletter and building a database.  A survey was also
undertaken to determine user requirements for the database.

23.    As another step towards improving understanding of conflict
resolution, a country guide series was launched in 1995 on the
perspectives and capabilities of troop-contributing countries in peace
and humanitarian operations.  The project is a cooperative venture
with the United Nations Department of Peace-keeping Operations.  The
guide will involve preparation of country-specific reports, using
workshops and symposia to ensure effective review and comparative
analysis.  Pilot studies on France, Japan and Korea were under way at
year's end.  The country reports will review current government
policies, the political environment, the legal basis and
decision-making processes as well as the financing and budgetary
processes.  The military, civil affairs, police and NGO capabilities
and the modalities of involvement are other questions to be addressed
in the reports.

24.    In the UNU monograph series, scholars associated with
International Alert and INCORE published four research papers during
the year dealing with ethnicity and power in the contemporary world,
building peace, peaceful and constructive resolution of situations
involving minorities and conflict resolution in Northern Ireland.

25.    As part of the preparation for the Asia-Pacific economic summit
meeting held at Osaka, Japan in November 1995, UNU, together with the
Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific and La Trobe
University, Australia, held a regional security workshop in Tokyo on
30 and 31 October 1995.  The workshop entitled "Asia-Pacific Security
at Century's End:  National, Regional and Global Ramifications" formed
part of the follow-up activities of the Commission on Global
Governance.  It brought together leading Asia-Pacific scholars
involved in the so-called "two-track" or informal meetings of
officials and academics from a dozen countries concerned with confidence-
 and security-building measures in the region.  Major themes addressed
were:  the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; arms build-up
and force modernization; territorial disputes and the prospects for
their resolution; the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms and
regional compliance; and the future of the Association of South-East
Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum and track-two forums.

Governance, State and society

26.    Drawing on the resource base of scholars from the Catalan academic
community and funded by the Directorate-General of Research of the
Generalitat of Catalunya, Spain, UNU's explorations of governance
issues progressed during the year.  Two inter-university projects
included participation by graduate students and representatives of
government and civil society.  Promising young faculty members
participated in colloquia and workshops; occasional papers and
articles are the expected initial outputs from the programme.  The
long-term objective of the activities is the establishment of a UNU
research and training centre for the study of governance,
headquartered in Barcelona.

27.    Activities in Latin America continued to be the main thrust of the
project on economic change and governance, which is being carried out
in close collaboration with United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP) and the Inter-American Development Bank.  A conceptual paper
containing three country studies was produced within the project and
is being prepared for publication.  These activities are likely to
form the base for more UNDP-executed technical cooperation projects in
the region for which UNU would be asked to serve as the academic and
scholarly research base for such cooperation.  There is now also a
pending proposal, from a project workshop held in Barcelona in October
on institutional development in the southern Mediterranean, to
establish an inter-institutional information network with the
University's Barcelona initiative as the network's centre.

28.    Within the project on environmental governance, an
inter-university study team was established during the year composed
of law teachers from three universities in Barcelona and involving
faculty from the natural and political sciences as well as selected
postgraduate students.  Three seminars were held in 1995 with the
participation of graduate students, government representatives and
others on a range of topics, including:  policy priorities and law;
environmental uncertainty and its legal implications; and the
environment as a subject of law.

29.    An in-depth case study of the project will focus on the island of
Menorca in the Baleares as a representative case of a vulnerable
ecosystem subject to conflicting environmental and economic interests. 
The island comes under pressures, for example, from often conflicting
local regulations, European Union directives and global interests.

30.    Yet another dimension to this programme is being provided by a
UNU/WIDER project entitled "New Regionalism and the International
System:  Implications for Development and Security", launched last
year.  Its efforts in 1995 clearly demonstrated the direct policy
relevance of UNU/WIDER's work to current world problems.  One project
workshop, for example, brought together politicians, researchers and
dignitaries from Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority to
discuss the importance of dialogue in the continuing Middle East peace
process.  The workshop was organized in collaboration with the Peace
and Development Research Institute of Gothenburg University (PADRIGU),
Sweden, the Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of
Peace, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and DATA Studies and
Consultation, Bethlehem, Israel.

31.    The third stage of this UNU/WIDER project focuses on long-term
development, ecological sustainability and regional conflict
resolution; a workshop to initiate research activities was held in
Kathmandu, in mid-November.  A major volume on "Globalism and
Regionalism" will be published by Macmillan and several
state-of-the-art reports are being prepared for publication in the
UNU/WIDER publication series, "World Development Studies".

Culture and development

32.    A joint Symposium on Science and Culture was organized by UNU and
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO), in cooperation with the Government of Japan.  The keynote
addresses were given by Kenzaburo Oe, Nobel laureate in Literature,
and Jacques-Yves Cousteau.  The symposium's goal was to identify a
comprehensive and interdisciplinary strategy in science and culture.

33.    A declaration after the symposium addressed the problem of
bridging the perceived gulf between hard science and culture and
tradition.  What is needed, it urged, is a greater notion of
wholeness, a concept which permeates both the diversity theories of
quantum physics and the holism in Eastern religions and philosophy. 
Such a melding of science and resurgent tradition might fruitfully
undergird efforts to attain perpetual peace.

34.    Research continued in the comparative study at the Asian-Pacific
Centre in Fukuoka City, Japan, on views of environment in Asian
countries.  A third cultural exchange workshop, attended by Japanese
and other Asian scholars, was held in November.  Six papers were
presented on Asian views on the environment, which examined
environmental issues across a wide range of perspectives, from
gastronomy to water problems to religion.

               B.  New directions for the world economy

35.    Sustainable economic growth must entail enlisting the full
capabilities and energies of human society.  Seen in this light,
development is a wondrous and intricate tapestry, woven of the hopes
and fears, and the values and beliefs that so richly endow the human
endeavour.  Social and economic well-being are mutually reinforcing;
this is evident in the intimate interlinkages between human action and
the biosphere.  Expenditures on human capabilities can be as high-
yielding, in the long run, as any investments in highways, factories
or other items of industrial infrastructure.

36.    The central aim of the University's studies of the global economy
is to improve understanding of the many underlying complexities of the
world's trade in goods and services.  This has key implications for
the future well-being of the developing countries.  UNU activities in
this are primarily located at UNU/WIDER, the UNU research and training
centre for development economics in Helsinki.

37.    A distinctive feature of the work of this centre is its
recognition that the shaping of international economic policy cannot
be the business of economists alone.  The efforts of UNU/WIDER bring
multidisciplinary, multinational perspectives to economic problems by
scholars from many parts of the world.  Other important input to this
programme area is being provided by work at UNU/INTECH, the UNU
research and training centre for study of new technologies in
Maastricht, the Netherlands, and at the Tokyo Centre.

38.    Activities in this area fall under three programmes:

       (a)    Growth and sustainable development:  evolving global,
regional and national structures and mechanisms.  The work in this
programme focuses on new forces, e.g., globalization, foreign
investments and currency uncertainties, which are bedeviling emerging
markets in the developing world and impairing equitable growth;
       (b)    The socio-economic dimensions of development:  employment,
equity and gender issues.  The concern here is with the ultimate focus
of economic growth -human development.  It touches on issues of
education, health, nutrition and the role of women in development;
       (c)    Global change and perspectives.  Two important components of
the current global transformation are sharply changing patterns of
arms spending and the increased impact of human activities on the
environment.  Both have enormous international economic implications.

Growth and sustainable development:  evolving global, regional and
national structures and mechanisms

39.    Research in this programme has been directed at the impact of
evolving international structures and mechanisms, in finance, trade,
technology and other areas, on growth in the three major areas of the
developing world.  Attention is also devoted to economic
transformation in the nations of the former Soviet bloc.

40.    In Latin America, the focus has been on how the continent's
economies are weathering the forces of globalization.  Research in
this area was organized by UNU/WIDER and was completed in April 1995. 
The subject was particularly timely in the light of the liquidity
crisis in Mexico and the economic repercussions elsewhere in Latin
America during the reporting period.  Events underscored the limited
capabilities of the countries of the region to withstand the adverse
consequences of globalization.  The UNU/WIDER study first examined
different perspectives on the question held by major schools of
thought within the Latin American academic community.  It then traced
the impact of outside flows of capital, trade and technology on Latin
American cultures.  The research findings have already led to one key
researcher being invited to provide policy advice and recommendations
to a Government in the region.  The first part of the study will be
published within the UNU/WIDER "World Development Studies" series.

41.    In Asia, research centred on rural economies and the impact of new
liberalization policies.  The study focused on rural producers in
Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, examining the changes in local
markets and rural production since the initiation of the liberalizing
programmes.  Four researchers were selected to prepare specific
country studies, which were then reviewed at a two-day workshop held
at New Delhi, in October 1995.  Scholars from throughout the South
Asian region participated in the workshop and final drafts of the
studies were expected by the end of the year.

42.    In Africa, research organized by UNU/WIDER has been directed at
helping to move the continent, and its resource-based developing
economies, from a reluctant adjustment course to a more sustained
growth path.  A UNU/WIDER project entitled "Resource Mobilization and
Sustainable Growth in Africa" was completed by the end of 1995.  Work
by a research team at the Helsinki-based institute was essentially
devoted to preparing manuscripts and articles for publication.  These
included a booklet entitled "International Economic Policy and Trade
in Africa" to be published by UNDP; a chapter, "Efficacy of Structural
Adjustment Policies in Africa", for the volume Challenges of African
Development:  Structural Adjustment and Implementation and a UNU/WIDER
"Research for Action Series" publication, "Impacts of Africa's Growing
Debt on its Growth".  Two UNU/WIDER working papers were also completed
during the year, and the manuscript for the volume, Mobilization of
the Endowed Resources to Achieve a Sustainable Path of Growth in
Africa, is in press.

43.    In its continuing attention to the immense social and economic
changes in Eastern and Central Europe, UNU/WIDER is analysing and
summarizing the social policy aspects of the frequently painful
transitions of those nations to a market economy.  The study entitled
"Social Determinants and Consequences of Transition to the New Market
Economies of the 1990s:  Employment, Poverty, Equity, Demographic
Development and Gender Issues", includes comparative analyses of the
social policy implications, recent trends in social development and
social conflicts, and the consequences in employment and income policy
and demographic development.  Three reports on the study have been
published to date in the UNU/WIDER "World Development Studies" series: 
(a) "Emerging Labour Markets - Labour Market Developments and
Transitional Unemployment in Central and Eastern European Countries";
(b) "Income Policy in Central and Eastern Europe in the Transition
Period"; and (c) "Demographic Development of the Central and Eastern
European Region".  The project is expected to be completed by the end
of January 1996.  The summary volume, The Social Determinants and
Consequences of Transition in Central and Eastern Europe:  Policy
Implications is currently at the manuscript stage.

44.    Another UNU/WIDER project, "Evolving New Market Economies in
Europe and Asia", analyses the sources and consequences of the
successes and failures experienced by the evolving new market
economies in both Europe and Asia.  Research has focused on the
regional and global implications of domestic change in these regions
as well as the internal and external interactions.  Two policy-
oriented volumes are in preparation.  The first will deal with
country-specific findings, highlighting the special features which
enabled some countries to make adjustments with less difficulty than
others and, in the process, diversify their trading patterns, remove
trade restrictions and stabilize their currencies.  The second volume
will summarize the issues of system changes, expectations and
outcomes, the political economy of past errors, future-oriented
historical lessons and the role of international agencies.

45.    "Integration of China in the World Economy" is the topic of a
recently completed UNU/WIDER project which examines the internal and
external conditions of economic reforms, their economic and social
consequences and the impact of China's recent integration in the
regional and global economy.  The final manuscript containing the
research findings is now being edited for publication.

46.    At the broader international level, the High-level Group on
Development Strategy and Management of the Market Economy held its
third meeting at Helsinki in July.  The Group was established by the
Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of
the United Nations Secretariat to assist the work of the Department in
macroeconomic issues.  A UNU/WIDER research adviser chaired the
meeting.  The previous two meetings had been held with UNU/WIDER
involvement in New York in 1994 and in Laxenburg, Austria, in April
1995.  The research papers from the meetings will be published in book

47.    The principles of overseas development aid and the need for its
redirection were discussed at a November meeting at Helsinki jointly
organized by UNU/WIDER and the University Centre.  Participants
attended from:  European Centre for Development Policy Management, the
Netherlands; Institute of South-east Asian Studies, Singapore;
Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian
Federation; Overseas Development Institute, United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland; Budapest University of Economics;
Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, United Republic of
Tanzania; Seikei University, Japan; Organisation for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD) and UNDP.  The meeting analysed
papers addressing the principles of official development assistance
(ODA) and offered suggestions on the reorientation of international
development cooperation from the perspective of both donor and
recipient countries/regions.

48.    A second volume 2/ emanating from the study entitled "Trade and
Industrialization Reconsidered", a project of the UNU/WIDER external
networks, was published during the year.  The book, with five country
case studies, examines problems in manufacturing for export in the
developing countries.

49.    One of the main vehicles for international economic integration is
direct foreign investment by transnational corporations.  A UNU/WIDER
study has focused on the re-evaluation of the role of transnational
corporations as engines of growth and integration.  Seeking a broader
development perspective, the study assesses the extent to which the
interests of the transnationals coincide, and where they conflict with
those of the national and regional economies in which they operate.  A
research conference was held in late September to review 13 papers
prepared within the project.  The findings are expected to be ready
for publication in April 1996.

Socio-economic dimensions of development:  employment, equity and
gender issues

50.    The changing employment patterns and the structure of unemployment
in African economies form the base of an ongoing UNU/WIDER effort. 
The project takes a policy-oriented approach in examining changing
employment patterns by sector, occupation, age and gender.  It has
also considered the subject in terms of relevant dichotomies, e.g.,
formal versus informal, self-employment versus wage employment,
private-sector versus public-sector employment, and includes an
analysis of labour market legislation and organization.

51.    Thirteen studies of sub-Saharan African countries have been
commissioned.  Research is expected to reveal new information on the
role of the informal sector in employment creation, the structure and
role of labour market institutions in Africa and the role of small
enterprises in the labour market.  A joint UNU/WIDER-UNU/INRA Workshop
on Changing Employment Patterns and the Structure of Unemployment in
Africa was held at Accra in July.  The Employment and Development
Department of the International Labour Organization (ILO) collaborated
in the organization of the meeting.  Research findings from this
project also contributed to a UNU/WIDER Conference on Human
Settlements held in August 1995.

52.    UNU/WIDER served as the focal point for the UNU research
contribution to the World Summit for Social Development, held at
Copenhagen in March.  The proceedings of the Conference on the
Politics and Economics of Global Employment, held at Helsinki in
June 1994, were compiled in a two-volume work entitled Global
Employment:  An International Investigation into the Future of
Work. 3/  The first volume was delivered to each national delegation
at the Copenhagen Conference; an official launching ceremony for the
new book was attended by President Martti Ahtisaari of Finland,
President Arped Go"ncz of Hungary, Percival Patterson, Prime Minister
of Jamaica, and Paulo Renato Costa Souza, Minister of Education of

53.    During the year, UNU continued its important focus on issues
related to women and development.  A delegation led by the Rector and
comprising researchers and staff from UNU/WIDER and UNU/INTECH
participated in the Fourth World Conference on Women, held at Beijing
in early September.  A new UNU/INTECH volume, Women Encounter
Technology, 4/ was presented at the Conference's governmental forum.

54.    UNU/INTECH's project, "Monitoring the Impact of New Technologies
on Women's Industrial Work in Asia", continued to assemble information
on the impacts of new technologies on employment and entrepreneurial
opportunities for women in nine countries chosen to reflect the
economic and market diversity of the Asia-Pacific region.  The
project, conducted jointly with the United Nations Development Fund
for Women (UNIFEM), is partially funded by the Ministry of Development
Cooperation of the Netherlands.

55.    A project workshop on "Industrial Policies for the Twenty-first
Century:  New Technology and Women's Work" was held at New Delhi in
late March.  Among the participants were 17 senior civil servants from
eight Asian countries.  Seven individual country workshops were also
organized during the year, in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, the
Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.  A policy-oriented dialogue
meeting between NGOs and government bodies is planned for April 1996
in collaboration with the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and
the Pacific (ESCAP) and UNIFEM.  The principal researcher in the
project addressed the plenary session of the NGO Forum at the Beijing
Conference, and a workshop on "Technological Change and Women's Work
in Asia" was also organized by project leaders at the NGO Forum.  The
principal researcher was recently appointed Chairperson of the Gender
Advisory Panel of the United Nations Commission on Science and
Technology for Development.

56.    Efforts continued during the year under a UNU/WIDER project
studying the effects of economic restructuring on women's employment,
including structural adjustment, privatization, the transition to a
market economy and the shift to an export orientation.  The project is
also exploring questions of social services and policies and labour
legislation relating to women, work and family.  The final manuscript
for the research findings is expected to be completed in early 1996.

Global change and perspectives

57.    The ongoing transformation of the global military sector, largely
as a result of the ending of the East-West ideological clash, has been
the focus of a continuing effort by UNU/WIDER.  The project examines
both the supply and demand sides of security requirements.  Research
efforts will lead to a set of recommendations to international
institutions about how the restructuring process might be managed with
a minimum of fragmentation and violence.  Two volumes have resulted
from the project; the manuscripts were completed by the end of the

58.    "Global Change and Modelling", a project begun in 1991, involves a
network of institutions cooperating in an effort to improve
understanding of the complex, dynamic and often non-linear systems
underlying global change.  Efforts in this area are closely linked
with the work on eco-restructuring (under programme area 3).  It seeks
to generate information to build alternative plausible scenarios for
the twenty-first century that take into account new and complicated
questions of energy use, resource demands, population growth and
production configurations.

59.    A major UNU Conference on the Sustainable Future of the Global
System was held at the UNU Tokyo headquarters in October 1995.  The
meeting was a follow-up to an April workshop at the Institute of
Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria.  A special focus of
this global modelling is the Asia-Pacific region.

                C.  Sustaining global life-support systems

60.    Of all the dangers on the road to the twenty-first century, the
most threatening could be our own species - in the myriad daily human
acts which are threatening the thin band of earth, sea and sky we call
the biosphere.  On an increasing scale, human activity is disrupting
the systems that support all life on our planet.

61.    While the environment has been a concern of UNU since its
establishment 20 years ago, its special focus in recent years has been
on sustainable development:  growth that meets the needs of the
present while recognizing those of the future.  The University's
accumulated experience is being put to use in helping implement Agenda
21, the far-reaching set of development marching orders that emerged
from the deliberations of the United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development (UNCED), held at Rio de Janeiro in June 1992.

62.    UNU's work on life-support systems is organized within five

       (a)  Eco-restructuring for sustainable development.  Sustainable
development calls for a major shift in international consumer
patterns.  This programme seeks to generate necessary new knowledge in
environment, engineering, economics and energy use essential for
managing such a transformation.  Activities are based at the UNU Tokyo
headquarters and are implemented in close cooperation with UNU/WIDER
in Finland and UNU/INTECH in the Netherlands;

       (b)    Integrated studies of ecosystems.  This programme examines
sustainable development from the perspective of the carrying capacity
of ecosystems and their ability to support, resist or recuperate from
long-term impacts and transformations.  Ongoing projects are
coordinated by the UNU Centre;

       (c)    Information systems for environmental management.  The
concern here is with developing the intellectual tools for sound
environmental management and strengthening human capacities to achieve
it.  Programme activities are carried out primarily from the Tokyo

       (d)    Natural resources in Africa.  In this programme the United
Nations University Institute for Natural Resources in Africa
(UNU/INRA) addresses the continent's urgent needs for human resources
development and institutional capacity-building in order to achieve
more effective conservation, management and rational utilization of
natural resources for sustainable development.  UNU/INRA is
headquartered on the Legon campus of the University of Ghana, Accra,
with a Mineral Resources Unit sited in the School of Mines at the
University of Zambia in Lusaka;

       (e)    Environmental law and governance.  This programme seeks to
take into account a whole new range of thorny international legal
dilemmas which must be dealt with in more rational governance of the
environment.  Activities are currently carried out primarily at the
Tokyo Centre, but are closely linked with academic work in the Study
of Governance initiative in Barcelona.

Eco-restructuring for sustainable development

63.    UNU activities in this area during the year were focused on
extending the understanding of the new notion of "industrial
metabolism".  The concept, which was developed during earlier
University work on the human dimensions of global change, refers to
the physical processes that convert raw materials and energy into
finished products.

64.    Analysis of the conditions for successful governance related to
the environment in 14 developed and developing countries has been the
focus of a UNU/WIDER project on "National Environmental Policies:  A
Comparative Study of Capacity-building".  The first phase of research
involved compilation of information on the case studies in Chile,
China, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Latvia, the Netherlands, Nigeria, the
Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, the
United Kingdom and the United States of America.  A second phase of
research reviewed the case studies at a workshop held at the Science
Centre Berlin in early May, leading towards the completion of
activities by the end of the year.

65.    Structural transformations in both industrialized and developing
countries over the past 25 years have resulted in the formation of a
new pattern of international division of labour.  Relocation of the
manufacturing sector has become particularly evident in the Asia-
Pacific region where ASEAN countries and China are following in the
footsteps of the newly industrializing economies in Asia.  This is
likely to result in increased energy consumption by these countries
coupled with water and air pollution and other environmental problems. 
UNU is seeking to measure the environmental impacts of
industrialization and trade expansion in Asia, to assess the varying
policy linkages between the environment and trade and
industrialization and propose possible policy remedies with respect to
economic and technological cooperation between developing and
industrialized countries.  Project activities began in late September
and are expected to be carried out at the UNU Institute of Advanced
Studies (UNU/IAS) in 1996.

66.    Closely linked to these activities is a UNU project on
"Sustainable Global Future:  Scenario Building for the 21st Century"
described above in the programme on global change and modelling.  The
UNU Conference on the Sustainable Future of the Global System, held at
Tokyo from 16 to 18 October 1995 in cooperation with the National
Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan, and sponsored by the
Environment Agency of Japan and the United Nations Commission on
Sustainable Development, constituted the first step in an ongoing
effort by the UNU Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU/IAS) to search
for a better articulation of the meaning of sustainable development
and determine what problems sustainable development presents to the
international community and how those problems might be addressed. 
Presentations were given on medium- and long-term future global
scenarios of the environmental impacts of economic development as well
as scenarios of sustainable development in the context of global
resource constraints.

67.    UNU is also seeking to understand the situation of different
categories of households in different countries, their present
structure and the nature of the major structural changes to which they
are exposed and alternative ways of dealing with these changes through
a project on "Post-market Approaches to Ecological Economic
Development".  A case study of Indonesia will indicate the degree to
which an approach using input-output economics and social accounting
matrices will be suited for analysing different development scenarios. 
The project will also describe the requirements for an improved
household classification scheme.

68.    A pilot project was initiated by UNU/INTECH in 1994 to examine the
legal framework for environmental control in a developing country and
to examine the effectiveness of enforcement of environmental law.  The
project followed up on an April 1994 Workshop on the Transfer of
Environmentally Sustainable Technology, financed by the Ministry of
Development Cooperation of the Netherlands.  The pilot project
involved field research in Mexico aimed at determining how local and
foreign firm's technological decisions were influenced by the legal
framework for environmental protection in Mexico.  A second study to
examine behaviour at the level of the firm in a less industrially
developed country has been carried out in the United Republic of
Tanzania.  The pilot studies have led to the preparation of a proposal
for a three-year project on "Environmental Regulation, Globalization
of Production and Technological Change."  The European Commission has
accepted the proposal and project activities will analyse the impact
of environmental regulation on the technology and competitiveness of
European Union industry, particularly in relation to newly
industrializing and less developed countries, and the way in which
they are reflected in the pattern of trade, investment and employment.

69.    UNU continued efforts during 1995 to develop curricula and
training programmes to strengthen capacity-building in developing
countries in the field of eco-structuring for sustainable development. 
UNU and the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) organized a training
course on planning for sustainable development in the Asia-Pacific
region from 17 July to 4 August 1995 at AIT in Bangkok.  UNU provided
12 full fellowships for the training course, and an additional 12
fellowships were supported by the Governments of Australia and
New Zealand and by UNDP in the Philippines.  A similar course was
initiated in 1995 at the Tata Energy Research Institute in New Delhi. 
Other training links have been developed with Keio University in

70.    Closely related to the improvement of industrial efficiency is the
UNU project on minimizing emissions, known by the acronym ZERI (for
Zero Emissions Research Initiative).  In April 1995, the University
organized the first World Congress on Zero Emissions.  The Congress
brought together business leaders, scientists and policy makers to
discuss the efficacy of the zero emissions standard and to learn more
about the UNU initiative.

71.    The meeting was conducted simultaneously at sites in Asia, Europe
and the United States via video connection on the Internet. 
Mr. Ingvar Carlsson, Prime Minister of Sweden, and Dr. Federico Mayor,
Director-General of UNESCO, made live video interventions via the
Internet.  Special efforts have been made during the year to set up
electronic networks using the Internet to support UNU/ZERI.  The most
active network is the Integrated Biosystems Network, which has some
210 experts participating electronically.

72.    The Congress was also the location for the launching of a new UNU
book, Steering Business towards Sustainability. 5/  The UNU/ZERI
project is preparing for the Second UNU World Congress on Zero
Emissions, to be held in Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States, in
May 1996.

73.    A member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was appointed by
the Rector as chair of the UNU/ZERI Scientific Advisory Committee.  In
its review, the Committee concluded that "ZERI is not only feasible,
it is essential".  During the year, two feasibility studies related to
key aspects of the project were prepared.  The Centre for the
Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, in China, was commissioned to
undertake a study on integrated biosystems for agro-industrial waste. 
The study concluded that a two-year research project was needed to
conduct pilot studies in China, Colombia, Fiji, Namibia and the United
Republic of Tanzania.  A second study on materials separation
technologies was undertaken based on a document on "steam explosion"
prepared at the Institute for Wood Chemistry of the Latvian Academy of
Sciences.  The Oak Ridge National Laboratories, United States,
together with the Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, and the
Brazilian National Science Council, are expected to formulate specific
project activities to be undertaken in 1996.

74.    One additional UNU/ZERI feasibility study on colour use without
colour pigments will be initiated in 1996.  The subject area is one
under consideration as part of a ZERI attempt to identify potential
uses for technologies taken directly from nature, e.g., the reflected
colours from bird plumage.

Integrated studies of ecosystems

75.    UNU work related to disaster-prone regions and disaster reduction
was interrupted dramatically by the Great Hanshin earthquake which
occurred just as a workshop on urban earthquake mitigation was being
organized in Osaka on the morning of 17 January 1995.  During the
year, activities within the project were consolidated leading towards
the establishment of the Global Network on Natural Disaster Risk
Management (GLO-DISNET) jointly with Stanford University, the
International Centre for Disaster-Mitigation Engineering (INCEDE) of
the University of Tokyo and the World Seismic Safety Initiative
(WSSI).  The network will facilitate the exchange of information on
research and training activities as well as direct experiences in
disaster risk management and mitigation among researchers and disaster
managers.  Emphasis is being placed on the inclusion of developing
countries in the network.  For this purpose, a task force session was
organized in connection with the Pacific Science Congress held at
Beijing, in June 1995.  The meeting on "Harnessing the Communication
Revolution:  Towards a Global Disaster Network" was instrumental in
broadening knowledge of GLO-DISNET and in ensuring coordination with
other initiatives in the field.  A GLO-DISNET home page with extensive
information and data links has been established on the World Wide Web
(http://blume.stanford.edu:8080/).  Other more traditional means of
dissemination are also being included to ensure that participants from
developing countries are also able to have access to the information.

76.    UNU organized several workshops or seminars on topics relevant to
the project in 1995.  In March, an International Symposium on Small
Islands and Sustainable Development included a discussion of the
vulnerability of small island States to natural disasters.  In May,
UNU cooperated with the Nanyan Technological University, the Singapore
College of Insurance and WSSI in organizing a Workshop on Catastrophic
Risk Management for the Insurance and Reinsurance Industries in
Singapore.  In September, UNU organized a Workshop on Urban Earthquake
Risk Management:  Preparing for the Big One in Tokyo with
participation by leading experts from Japan and abroad in earthquake
engineering and disaster management and officials from city
governments in the capital region and from utility companies.  The
objective was to discuss what would happen if a major earthquake hit
the Tokyo metropolitan area.  In addition to workshops, dissemination
efforts have included a volume entitled The Long Road Back:  Community
Recovery from Industrial Disasters, edited by James K. Mitchell of
Rutgers University, United States, to be published by UNU Press. 
Editing is nearing completion on a manuscript emanating from the 1994
UNU workshop on "Natural Disasters in Mega-cities".

77.    A UNU project on "Management of International Waters" seeks to
promote the sustainable management of bodies of water that fall within
the jurisdiction of more than one country.  This would require not
only environmentally and technologically sound management options, but
also careful analysis of historical, political, economic, social and
legal issues.  UNU, as an autonomous academic organization,
facilitates dialogue between policy makers based on sound scientific
principles.  Project activities focused on two main international
forums.  The Asian Water Forum was organized together with the
International Water Resources Association and the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP) at AIT in January and February 1995.  The
forum focused on management issues of three major river basins in
Asia:  the Mekong, the Salween and the Ganges-Brahmaputra.  As a
follow-up to the forum, UNU is planning to undertake a study of the
Salween river system with a view to studying the possibilities of
establishing a "Salween committee" along the lines of the Mekong

78.    The University's Central Eurasian Water Forum on Aral, Caspian and
Dead Sea Water Crises and Perspectives was organized in March 1995 in
Tokyo and Shiga, Japan, in collaboration with the Japan International
Cooperation Agency, UNDP and the International Lake Environment
Committee Foundation.  The objective was to study the hydro-politics
and eco-political decision-making process around the three main inland
seas in Eurasia and their related environmental problems.  In October,
the UNU hosted the UNESCO/International Hydrology Programme Symposium
on Rivers and People in South-East Asia and the Pacific:  Partnership
for the Twenty-first Century.  During the symposium, a "Catalogue of
Rivers of South-East Asia and the Pacific" was launched and efforts
were made to design an international project in river hydrology in the
region.  Two books 6/ related to UNU work in this area were published
in 1995.

79.    The project on "Mountain Ecology and Sustainable Development"
continued to contribute to the policy-making process of the United
Nations system related to the sustainable development of mountain and
highland areas.  Within the United Nations inter-agency group for the
follow-up of UNCED Agenda 21, chapter 13, "Managing fragile
ecosystems:  sustainable mountain development", 7/ UNU cooperated with
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the
United Nations Task Manager and other participating agencies and NGOs. 
In the process, UNU was assigned to take the lead role in research
into issues pertaining to the sustainable development of mountains. 
UNU also participated in the second inter-agency coordinating meeting
hosted by the International Potato Centre, held at Lima, in
February 1995, and in the follow-up NGO consultative meeting.  The UNU
project coordinator was invited to make a presentation to the United
Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, demonstrating the
recognition given to UNU in this area.

80.    The main research activities during the year were focused on Asia. 
A project on floods in Bangladesh continued with the active
participation of scholars from Bangladesh and India.  This effort is
aimed at questioning the conventional wisdom that recurrent floods are
a consequence of erosion and deforestation in the Himalayas.  The
project also has a strong capacity-building component involving the
training of local graduate students.  A project, supported by the Ford
Foundation, on the impact of development on socio-economic conditions
and environment in minority-populated areas of north-west Yunnan,
China, is being implemented by UNU and the Yunnan Academy of Social
Sciences.  The second Andean Mountain meeting was organized at La Paz
and Huarinilla, Bolivia, in April jointly with the International
Mountain Society, the International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources (IUCN) and UNESCO.  The theme of the meeting,
which was "Sustainable Mountain Development:  Managing Fragile
Ecosystems in the Andes", focused on the potential for creating a
corridor of protected areas across the Andes.  UNU continued to
support the publication of the journal Mountain Research and
Development as an important forum for the publication of scientific
articles on issues pertaining to ecology and social and economic
development in mountain and highland areas.

81.    A joint initiative of UNU, UNESCO and the Third World Academy of
Sciences, the South-South Cooperation Programme for Environmentally
Sound Socio-Economic Development in the Humid Tropics, was established
in 1992 following UNCED.  The lead agency for the project is UNESCO
and UNU's inputs are mainly within the context of the population, land
management and environmental change (PLEC) initiative (see paras. 135-
140 below) and UNU/INRA.  Activities have been funded through the UNU-
UNESCO Collaborative Study Programme with funds-in-trust from the
Japanese Ministry of Education, Science and Culture.  In January 1995,
the second steering committee meeting was organized at the Mananara-
Nord biosphere reserve in Madagascar.  The objective of the meeting
was to review status reports on biosphere reserves in Africa, Asia and
Latin America and the Caribbean and to plan future collaborative
research and exchange activities.

82.    Analysis of forestry resources utilization in both developed and
developing countries has been the focus of a UNU/WIDER study on "The
Forest in the South and the North:  Transition from Deforestation to
Sustainable Forest Policies in Redressing Global Warming".  Activities
of the project, which started in June 1994, have been devoted to the
examination of country-level causal analyses and deforestation rates
in 90 tropical countries with respect to independent variables causing
deforestation.  Other activities have concentrated on an econometric
analysis of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.  Progress has been
made in specifying and estimating the model of the dynamics of Amazon
deforestation as well as the consequences of deforestation for carbon
dioxide emissions.  The final results of the project, which is being
conducted by the Finnish Forestry Research Institute, the European
Forest Institute and the Instituto de Pesquisa Econo'mica Aplicada,
Brazil, are expected in mid-1996.

Information systems for environmental management

83.    The UNU project on "Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Methodologies" reached its final test and reporting phase during the
year.  The objective of the project is to produce a textbook on EIA
methodologies that can be used for training developing-country
professionals involved in the preparation of EIA of development

84.    Following on activities in 1994, UNU has begun to implement a set
of activities within a major project on "Environmental Monitoring and
Analysis in the East Asian Region:  Technology Transfer and
Environmental Governance".  The three-year research, training and
dissemination project will involve some 80 scientists from nine
countries in the East Asian region.  Training of scientists from the
region in analysis and in the generation of standard reference
materials will be a first step.  A major objective of the project is
to promote calibrated techniques and methodologies in the region to
produce reliable data for further interpretation.  Scientists will
analyse pollutants in rice and grain foods, soils and industrial
wastes, fish, water (synthetic), sediment and atmospheric pollution. 
The project will include the use of specialized equipment to assist in
calibration and knowledge and technology transfer and is being
supported by the UNEP Regional Coordinating Unit for the East Asian
Seas Action Plan and has received financial support from the Japanese
private sector through the Japan Foundation for the United Nations
University.  UNU completed the project implementation report for a
UNU-UNESCO/IOC-UNEP project on Asia-Pacific mussel watch.  The report
presents the conclusions of a planning workshop for the Asia-Pacific
mussel watch held in November 1994 and includes the implementation
plan for the project.

85.    In March, UNU organized an International Symposium on Small
Islands and Sustainable Development.  UNU held a one-day planning
meeting prior to the meeting to provide inputs for its Small Island
Network, which is seen as a means to link UNU research and scholars in
issues related to small islands.  During the year, utilizing
electronic media, UNU has developed a substantial membership of
interested academics and researchers and has held a number of
electronic seminars.  A home page called "Island Gateway" was launched
on 1 December to share research findings and to link organizations and
networks associated with or active in small island related issues.

86.    The Fourth UNU Environmental Forum was organized in May on the
topic "Population, Land Management and Environmental Change". 
Originally planned for January but postponed owing to, the great
Hanshin earthquake, the meeting was based on research carried out
under the UNU PLEC initiative.  In addition to conceptual papers on
land management and biodiversity in agricultural areas, the
participation of farmers and the role of women, case studies were
presented focusing on northern Thailand, Papua New Guinea and the
Brazilian Amazon.  The Forum was organized in cooperation with the
UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre, with support from
the private sector in Japan.

Natural Resources in Africa

87.    The activities of the UNU Institute for Natural Resources in
Africa during 1995 were primarily devoted to project formulation and
feasibility studies on key aspects of the future work of the
Institute.  A major preoccupation of the Institute has been the
completion and extension of the field survey phase of its earlier
work.  The field surveys have been prepared on water, mineral and
plant resources and indigenous African food crops.  Feasibility
studies on a possible reference pedological facility for soil, plant
and water as well as a reference herbarium tissue culture and germ-
plasm conservation facility were started in 1995.  The two facilities
will be developed for research and will serve UNU/INRA collaborators
as locations for analysis as well as for use by visiting scientists
and members of the UNU/INRA College of Research Associates.  Project
proposals on land degradation monitoring and environmental resources
inventorying and integrated watershed research, development and
demonstration were completed in December 1995.  These studies and
proposals will form the basis for fund-raising initiatives in early

88.    Preparations are under way to publish nine additional field
surveys, with 14 other surveys still in various stages of editing or
revision prior to publication.  Summaries of all 43 field surveys
commissioned by UNU/INRA will be completed in 1996.

89.    In June, UNU/INRA formally commissioned the UNU/INRA computer
workstation of the mineral resources unit at the University of Zambia,
Lusaka.  The facilities include computers and accessories, geological
mapping equipment, image processing software and audiovisual
equipment.  The workstation will form an integral part of the work of
the unit.  The purchase of the equipment for the workstation was made
possible by a grant from the OPEC Fund.

90.    Although training courses originally planned by UNU/INRA were
postponed during the year, progress was made in the preparation of
training materials for indigenous African good crops and useful
plants.  A workshop utilizing these materials is expected to take
place in early 1996.

Environmental Law and Governance

91.    Important but unsettled international legal issues frequently
arise in the environmental arena, e.g., ecological threats that
transcend national boundaries.  UNU is attempting to meet an
educational need in this area by organizing courses in various parts
of the world.  A Global Faculty Training Workshop was organized in
Barcelona in July.  The workshop trained young university law faculty
members in the teaching of international environmental law.  Eighteen
professors, associate professors and lecturers from 16 countries met
with training faculty of professors, legal advisors and United Nations
officials.  A UNU Teacher Package was produced, comprising prepared
lecture notes, modules, reference materials, textbooks and a guide on
teaching methodologies.  It is hoped that participants will use the
UNU materials in teaching international environmental law at their
home institutions.  A videotape of the workshop is also available for
use by university faculty as a teaching tool.

 Co    The workshop helped to strengthen the global network in the field,
and UNU plans to organize several regional workshops and, where
appropriate, national workshops to support the "training of trainers"
multiplier effect.  Where possible, participants from the global
workshop will be invited to participate as resource persons in the
regional workshops.

93.    In early December, UNU organized an East Asian Faculty Training
Workshop on International Environmental Law as the first follow-up to
the Barcelona workshop.  The Teacher Package concept was employed in
focusing on issues affecting the East Asian region.  Fourteen
university faculty members from 10 countries in the region, as well as
a distinguished teaching core, participated in the workshop.

94.    UNU also provided expertise for a UNEP/United Nations Institute
for Training and Research (UNITAR) Training Workshop on Environmental
Law and Policy, and participated in the UNEP/IUCN meeting of legal
experts on the teaching of environmental law.  Other activities
involved possible first steps to implementing a UNU/UNEP joint
project, establishing a Master of Laws course in environmental law at
the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.  The Rector and the Executive
Director of UNEP exchanged letters in 1995 in which they agreed to
promote further collaboration in the field of training in
environmental law, research related to its implementation and
compliance with environmental accords.  The cooperative effort will
also support academic institutions in this field in the developing

                    D.  Advances in science and technology

95.    Modern technology holds out bright promise for the poor and hungry
of the global society; it has enormous capacity to inform and to
improve the human condition.  The reach of technology extends into the
daily lives and the cultures of societies everywhere.  But advances
along the information superhighway have a way of either bypassing
developing societies or imposing on them something totally
inappropriate to their needs or cultural mores.

96.    The work of UNU in this area is directly concerned with the impact
of science and technology on development and its potentials to bring
about sustainable and viable growth processes.  The activities fall
under four programmes:

       (a)    Socio-economic implications of new technologies.  From the
miller's stone to the microchip, technologies have been embedded in
social history.  Work in this programme examines the political and
socio-economic impacts of new technologies and of national technology
policies.  UNU's efforts in this area in 1995 were carried out by
UNU/INTECH in Maastricht, Netherlands;

       (b)    Applications of biotechnology for development.  This
programme consists of a regionally focused set of activities aimed at
building capacities in developing countries to harness the potential
of biotechnology for producing food of sufficient quality and
quantity, for providing inexpensive and sustainable sources of energy
and for improving human health and overall quality of life. 
UNU/BIOLAC in Caracas, coordinates activities within this programme;

       (c)    Software technology for developing countries.  Computer
software directed at problems such as flood control is the sort of
"eco-technology" needed in sustainable development.  Precisely this
sort of modern information tool is being explored at the UNU
International Institute for Software Technology in Macau.  Through
capacity-building activities, aimed at third world researchers,
lecturers and industry software engineers, UNU/IIST is addressing the
software technology needs of developing countries;

       (d)    Microprocessors and informatics.  Rapidly changing technology
threatens to "lock out" the developing world from the benefits of the
micro-electronics revolution.  The focus of this programme is on
informatics, the study of the way in which information is produced,
processed and utilized.  It provides postgraduate training in
microprocessor technology through regional training workshops around
the world.  The training efforts are largely coordinated at the
International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy.

Socio-economic implications of new technologies

97.    UNU/INTECH research has continued to examine the variety of
production spinoffs by technology institutes in China.  Special
interest focuses on such enterprises in the information technology
fields as does the evolution of reform policies.  Additional fieldwork
in China in April and May investigated the transformation of research
and development and technological systems in the Chinese machinery
industry.  Data analysis was continuing at year's end, with a report
expected during the first half of 1996.  The possibilities for using a
similar methodology on country comparisons, particularly with India,
were also explored.

98.    During 1995, research work was completed for the project on
"Export Competitiveness in Post-Apartheid South Africa".  Project
investigators gave course materials on the research results at a
series of seminars held over a three-week period in South Africa. 
UNU/INTECH is considering how best to use these course materials,
including possible publication.  The materials may also contribute to
the course work of a joint Ph.D. programme of UNU/INTECH with the
Maastricht Economic Research Institute of the University of Limburg,
the Netherlands.

99.    Fieldwork on the project on "Import Liberalization,
Industrialization and Technological Capability in Sub-Saharan Africa"
was carried out during the first three months of 1995.  The project is
assessing the impact of import liberalization on industrial
performance and on the generation of technological capabilities during
the 1980s in selected African economies.  More than 40 firms were
interviewed in Kenya, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe in
two industrial branches.  Researchers at Queen Elizabeth House,
Oxford, and the Economic and Social Research Foundation in
Dar-es-Salaam, two principal cooperating institutions in the project,
analysed the data obtained in the fieldwork.  The manuscript
containing the research findings was expected by the end of the year.

100.          The project on "New Technologies and Research and Development
Systems in Southern Europe", launched in 1994, has been comparing
technology policies in Greece, Portugal and Spain.  It has focused in
particular on the relation between national research and development
systems to relatively weak industrial systems.  In a second phase of
the project fieldwork was conducted this year at Greek research
centres in computer technology, material science, biotechnology and
chemical engineering.  The next stage has involved comparative
empirical research at research and development institutes in Portugal
and Spain and on the particular case study of Application-Specific
Integrated Circuits (ASIC) design capabilities as a result of European
and national technological development programmes.

101.          The UNU/INTECH project on "New Technologies, Economies and
Scales and Scope and Location of Production in Developing Countries"
was completed in 1995.  A volume containing country studies, overall
conclusions and implications and policy recommendations was submitted
to the publisher in December.  The study found that the diffusion of
microelectronics-based control systems and production and design
equipment in Brazil, India, Mexico, Thailand, Turkey and Venezuela was
larger than expected and was accompanied by new forms of production
organization which in a few cases were more advanced than in
equivalent firms in developed countries.  Reductions in equipment
setting-up time permit the production of a wider range of goods, with
economies of scope, while at the same time providing flexibility to
attune production schedules more closely to time variations in demand.

102.          Papers from a 1994 Workshop on Foreign Direct Investment,
Economic Structure and Governments in Rotterdam were published in a
volume containing country case studies of China, Indonesia, Japan,
Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.  As part of
the project UNU/INTECH has developed a global technology and economic
development database (GLOB-TED); it is being used to analyse the role
of different parameters of development in determining relative
attractiveness of countries to multinational enterprises.  Results of
the project will be published in 1996.  A Conference on Productivity,
Technical Change and National Innovation Systems in Latin America in
the 1990s was held at Marbella, Chile, in August.  The discussion of
UNU/INTECH's approaches and research results began with an examination
of national systems of innovation.  The meeting was jointly organized
with the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

Applications of biotechnology for development

103.          Training courses were organized under UNU/BIOLAC, the UNU
Programme for Biotechnology in Latin America and the Caribbean, at
leading biotechnology centres in Argentina, Guatemala, Mexico and
Venezuela.  The workshops familiarize participating scientists with
the latest developments in the specific applications of biotechnology. 
During 1995, 23 UNU fellowships were also awarded.

104.          A one-week course was held early in the year on the molecular
basis of tumor growth control, differentiation and the cell cycle at
the Tumor Cell Biology Laboratory of the Instituto Venezolano de
Investigaciones Cientifi'cas in Caracas.  Another course on the
analysis and manipulation of the plant genome was organized at the
Centro de Investigacio'n y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto
Polite'cnico Nacional in Irapuato, Mexico, in March.  A two-week
course on the applications of biotechnologies to agriculture was held
in May at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologi'a Agropecuaria in
Moro'n, Argentina.  An advanced course on biochemical engineering
applications in environmental biotechnology and cleaner production was
held at the Instituto Centroamericano de Investigacio'n y Tecnologi'a
Industrial in Guatemala in September.  An advanced two-week training
course on the application of biotechnical processes was held at the
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico at Cuernavaca in October.

105.          The Brucellosis Research Network, in operation since 1985,
continued its activities.  A network workshop in April in Valdivia,
Chile, was attended by 18 scientists from Argentina, Brazil, Canada,
Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the United States and Venezuela.  A second
workshop, on the application of biotechnology to tuberculosis
research, was held at Caracas in June; 33 scientists from 15 countries
participated in the workshop.

106.          A new set of international scientific linkages, to be known
as the Tuberculosis Research Network, is currently being established
on the initiative of researchers from Latin America, Canada, the
Netherlands and Spain.

Software technology for developing countries

107.          UNU/IIST activities emphasize the development of reliable
software over a wide spectrum of applications important to developing
countries.  Interest in 1995 focused specifically on (a) real-time,
reactive, hybrid and safety critical systems; and (b) software support
for infrastructure systems.

108.          Postgraduate courses organized by UNU/IIST in 1995 included a
two-week course in formal software development in Hanoi in February;
two two-week courses - one in the spring, one in autumn - of lectures
and student seminars at the University of Macau; a two-week course in
formal software development and design techniques for real-time
systems using duration calculi in June in Pinang, Malaysia; and a
two-week course on formal software development and design techniques
for real-time systems in Bangalore, India, in December.

109.          A full-day seminar on the formal development of large-scale
software systems and real-time hybrid and reactive systems design was
held in Zhuhai, China, in March.  A full-day seminar on the temporal
logic of reactive systems and formal software development techniques
was organized in August at Ulaan Baator.

110.          UNU/IIST research projects were carried out in the area of
hybrid systems, typically control systems with embedded computers
using durational calculi as the formal tools.  Such projects were also
conducted in the specification and development of reactive systems. 
The projects addressed reactive systems using general-duration calculi
and investigated other theories of reactive systems such as
compositional verification and refinement calculi.  Projects on
geometric reasoning and programmes were also an activity of UNU/IIST
aimed at defining a specification language for the constructive
geometric computing which characterizes the geometric problem domain. 
The projects also sought to design an algorithm to translate a
specification writing in synchronous line groups (SLG) into a set of
theorems to be proved, from which programmes can be extracted and
which can provide interesting applications in the areas of robotics
and geodetic or aerial survey.

111.          Advanced joint development projects at UNU/IIST have focused
primarily on software support for infrastructure.  Ongoing projects
include one on Railway Computing Systems (RaCoSy) which is concerned
with an overall determination of a normative software architecture
that will allow coexistence of, data exchange between and mutual
invocation among arbitrary railway computing system software packages. 
The project involves joint research, training and development of
selected software packages.  It has received considerable attention in
Europe and Asia and UNU/IIST is planning to disseminate the results of
RaCoSy to other developing countries.

112.          Another project has involved road management systems (RoMaNS)
and the basic information technology required for toll-road booth
monitoring and control.  Digital multiplexed telephone systems form
another advanced development and training project of UNU/IIST.  This
effort is initially concerned with basic telecommunications protocol
aspects for a new digital multiplexed radio telephone system under
research and development by the Advanced Science and Technology
Institute of the Government of the Philippines.

113.          UNU/IIST also initiated during the year an advanced research-
and-development project on "Aviation Business and Air Traffic" which
will also have a specific training focus.  An exploratory aspect of
the project is studying matters related to air traffic control,
including airspace, airline timetables, air traffic and flight
bookings.  The project will also study airline operations,
particularly the information infrastructure of main airline operations
from planning to daily operations to statistics gathering.  The
project aims to assist emerging newly industrializing countries in
South and East Asia.

114.          Library monitoring and command systems is the subject of
another UNU/IIST effort which has involved research, advanced
development, training and supervision of M.Sc.-level work.  The
project has as its aim the training of fellows and Macau M.Sc. thesis
students in advanced software technology issues, as well as research
and development of a normative software architecture for a distributed
computing and communications system of libraries, publishers, book
distributors and borrowers and will include the development of a
demonstrator system for training librarians and library users.

115.          In a continuing project on "Manufacturing Industry Systems",
UNU/IIST has sought to bring the results of the latest software
technology research and development to bear on new developments in
rapidly emerging newly industrializing countries such as Indonesia,
Malaysia and the Philippines.  The project is developing and providing
training in analysis of the manufacturing industry application domain
and its software requirements and in a normative software architecture
for a computing system that not only integrates most of any one
manufacturing enterprise's information, computing and
intra-communications needs, but also integrates across several
manufacturing enterprises and between these and service functions such
as banks.

116.          Another UNU/IIST effort aims at investigating a normative
software architecture for citizen and visitor information, routing and
reservations.  It will involve University of Macau M.Sc. students and
will cover issues of large-scale multi-media, distributed and shared
information-based systems.  It will also serve as an example to
managers/authorities in the private and public sectors of projects
which can be undertaken with UNU/IIST.

117.          The project on globally distributed, geographic and
demographic information infrastructures is concerned with
understanding geographic and demographic information system-based
decision support systems and their common user access in a system for
decision-making planning support.  It might involve, for example,
experiments with and development of construction plans (e.g., land,
water or waste management) which require data and mathematical
modelling across a wide spectrum of geographic and demographic

118.          UNU/IIST continued to develop a user interface for
multilingual systems adapted to information that includes scripts of
different languages that do not follow the left-to-right, horizontal
style of European languages.  Two projects under development at
UNU/IIST will address computerized information and decision support
systems at a ministry of finance and a university monitoring and
control system which will study the information infrastructure and
command workflow and transaction processing of medium-size to large
colleges and universities.

119.          UNU/IIST has also provided consultancy services to several
organizations and Governments during the year and made numerous
presentations and interfaced with software development groups in many

Microprocessors and informatics

120.          Activities during 1995 continued to strengthen the capacities
of universities and research institutes in developing countries in the
area of informatics and communication.  A micro-informatics project is
coordinated from a base at the International Centre for Theoretical
Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy.  The Government of Italy has
provided support for activities in this area.

121.          A workshop on computer networking was held at Pune University
in India in January focusing on computer networking in developing
countries using low-cost equipment and adapting to existing low-
quality communication lines.  A course on computerized data
acquisition techniques was held in La Paz, Bolivia, in February in
cooperation with the International Centre for Physics in Bogota',

122.          A regional workshop on parallel processing and its
applications was held in Yaounde', Cameroon, in early August.  Eleven
lecturers and instructors from Cameroon, France, Gabon and India
covered the fundamental aspects of parallelism (e.g., architecture,
programming, environments and algorithms), including its applications
in mathematics, mechanics, physics, chemistry and meteorology.  A
special session was devoted to an exchange of research activities
being carried out by participants.

123.          A three-week regional college on microprocessor-based
real-time control of equipment was held in the autumn at the
University of Cape Coast, Ghana.  The 38 participants focused on
facilities offered by real-time operating systems in the design and
implementation of computer-controlled instruments.  The course was
primarily intended for physicists and engineers working with
computer-controlled systems.

124.          An workshop on "telematics" held at ICTP in Trieste in
October dealt with the fundamental aspects of communications and
computer technologies and their role in the evolving information
networks of the future.  Topics included switching technology,
signalling aspects, networks and protocols, multi-megabyte services
and multimedia, satellite networks and wireless communication

125.          A three-month workshop on academic computer networks in
developing countries was organized at Trieste, Italy, in October to
assist scientists from selected universities in developing countries
to establish computer network infrastructures at home and connect them
to the global academic networks.

126.          Preliminary activities on three research-and-development
projects were initiated during the year.  The projects will cover: 
(a) universal fuzzy controller systems based on microprocessors; (b) a
silicon PIN-diode-based detector for X-ray mammography; and (c) a DaAS
gigabyte switch for teraflop parallel machines.

127.          The "Research and Advanced Teaching in Computer Science"
project, jointly coordinated with the Institut National de Recherche
en Informatique et an Automatique at the University of Yaounde', has
as its aim to strengthen the capacity of the university's Department
of Computer Science as a regional centre of excellence in micro-
informatics as well as to promote regional cooperation in computer
science.  Each year, 8 to 10 lecturers are invited from France and
from other African countries to give two-week courses at Yaounde'. 
Subjects covered in 1995 included computer vision, computerization of
enterprises, parallel programming standards, parallel operating
systems and neural networks.  A two-week course on computer
architecture was given at the University of Ouagadougou in June and a
course on scientific computation was given in September at the
University of Benin at Cotonou.

128.          A meeting of the African Regional Research Group on Decision
Support Systems was organized at the Institut Africain d'Informatique,
at Libreville, in April, pursuant to a decision of the Second African
Conference on Research in Computer Science, held at Ouagadougou, in
October 1994, to establish a regional project on decision support
systems.  The outcome of the Libreville meeting was the establishment
of a multi-centred research network and the production of a
comprehensive project document for mobilizing funds for the project.

                  E.  Population dynamics and human welfare

129.          The impact of unchecked population growth permeates the great
concerns of our age:  hunger, war, environmental destruction.  Rising
tides of humanity threaten to inundate all our best efforts at
creating a just, harmonious and sane society.  These swelling
populations are helping to make our cities unworkable, our farms
unproductive and our Earth unlivable.  The combined impact is
particularly cruel to millions of innocent children.

130.          Population is perhaps the most intimate of all the forces
that affect human society.  As such, it is susceptible to much heat
and emotion - and badly in need of dispassionate scientific
investigation.  The UNU multidisciplinary work on the interlinkages of
population, hunger and environment problems falls under three

       (a)    Population, urbanization and development.  This programme
examines the implications of population growth and structure,
urbanization trends and international migration and the resulting
socio-economic consequences for unemployment and poverty, particularly
in developing countries;

       (b)    Population, land management and environmental change (PLEC). 
The PLEC programme investigates the consequences for land management,
hence for the environment, of continuing population growth at the
global, regional and local levels;

       (c)    Food and nutrition for human and social development.  The
persistence of hunger casts an appalling moral shadow on our age. 
Work in this programme comprises a long-standing commitment by UNU to
address major nutrition problems of developing countries and to
strengthen the capacities of developing countries to confront national
food, nutrition and health problems.

Population, urbanization and development

131.          Work in this programme in 1995 was centred on the project on
"The Mega-city and Urban Development".  It is estimated that the urban
sector of the developing countries will absorb virtually the entire
increase in population over the next three decades.  The project has
dealt with the dynamism of demographic changes, the sources and
consequences of economic development and social transformation and the
effective management required to enhance the quality of life, living
conditions and the environment of mega-cities.

132.          The project held a pre-United Nations Conference on Human
Settlements (Habitat II) Tokyo Conference on World Cities and the
Urban Future at the UNU Centre in August, in cooperation with the
National Institute for Research Advancement, bringing together
speakers from 14 countries to review case studies from Asia and the
Pacific, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe, and North
America.  Emphasizing the impacts of globalization on urban growth, a
series of recommendations on world cities and urban development has
been drafted and will be submitted to the Habitat II secretariat.  UNU
Press will publish a book, World Cities and the Urban Future, based on
selected papers from the pre-Habitat II Tokyo Conference.

133.          In another contribution to Habitat II, UNU/WIDER organized a
Conference at Helsinki in August in cooperation with the Finnish
Ministry of Environment on "Human Settlements in the Changing Global
Political and Economic Processes".

134.          Three volumes on urban problems are expected to be published
by UNU Press in 1996:  Emerging World Cities in Pacific Asia;
Mega-cities in Latin America; and The Challenge of Urban Growth in

Population, land management and environmental change

135.          The PLEC programme focuses on land resources and biological
diversity in managed agro-ecosystems among smallholder farmers in
tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America and
the Caribbean.  It analyses questions of sustaining production under
pressure of population growth, migration, penetration of markets,
transformation of land-use systems and changing agricultural systems. 
Full account is taken of the traditional agricultural systems and
practices that have evolved over time in the regions concerned. 
Emphasis is given to the development of a participatory research
methodology and capacity-building.  The goal is to produce researched
policy-relevant options for the preservation of biodiversity in
smallholder agricultural systems.

136.          An international collaborative research initiative, PLEC is
based on a comparative network of locally based research clusters;
five are now operational in West Africa, East Africa, Montane Mainland
South-East Asia, Papua New Guinea and Amazonia, and a sixth is being
developed in the Caribbean region.  On an inter-programmatic level,
the African clusters maintain close links with UNU/INRA.  The
programme also collaborates actively with the UNU Mountain Ecology and
Sustainable Development project.

137.          The initiative has received financial support from the United
Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and project development funds from the
Global Environment Facility (GEF) through UNEP.  An important activity
in 1995 was the preparation of a full funding proposal for GEF.

138.          Through PLEC, UNU played a key role in the International
Symposium on Montane Mainland South-East Asia in Transition held at
Chiang Mai University, Thailand, in November.  The symposium was
organized with a number of national institutions:  the Chinese Academy
of Social Sciences/Kunming, the Institute of Rural Economy of Yunnan
Academy of Social Sciences, the Viet Nam Upland Management Working
Group, the Thailand Development Research Institute, CARE
International-Thailand and international institutions including the
Ford Foundation, the East-West Center, the World Resources Institute,
the International Institute on Environment and Development, South-East
Asian Universities Agro-ecosystems Network, the Centre for
International Forestry Research and the International Centre for
Research in Agroforestry.

139.          The results of the first phase of the project's research were
reported in a special issue dated September 1995 of the journal Global
Environmental Change:  Human and Policy Dimensions published by
Butterworth-Heineman, in cooperation with UNU.

140.          Within the project on "Critical Zones in Global Environmental
Change", three books 8/ were published by UNU Press in 1995.  Further
case studies are being undertaken jointly with the International
Geographical Union Commission on Critical Environmental Regions and
Situations.  A book 9/ emanating from an earlier related project was
also published by UNU Press in 1995.

Food and nutrition for human and social development

141.          Activities within this programme have continued within six
global projects, with the active involvement of other organizations of
the United Nations system.  The programme has also attracted
extrabudgetary resources in excess of US$ 900,000.  The work continued
to be directed from its coordinating office in Boston, Massachusetts,
United States, but plans were developed for the gradual transfer of
activities to a new research-and-training coordinating centre on the
campus of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.  Efforts to mobilize
funding for this coordinating centre were undertaken during the year.

142.          In 1995, the applications of rapid assessment procedures
(RAP) using qualitative anthropological techniques to programme
design, evaluation and improvement continued to spread.  The best
evidence for this has been the growing demand for the RAP manual,
which has gone into its fifth printing.  The manual is being revised
and updated with the addition of a training component.  Two
specialized RAP publications have been developed and widely
distributed:  "Guidelines for the Rapid Assessment of Social, Economic
and Cultural Aspects of Malaria", and "Rapid Assessment Procedures: 
Ethnographic Method to Investigate Women's Health".

143.          The manuscript for a set of RAP guidelines on the study of
AIDS-related behaviour is undergoing final revision.  A number of
earlier RAP publications have had to be reprinted or have been
translated into other languages.  A RAP training workshop was held at
Dakar in September with support from the French Ministry of
Cooperation and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).  RAP
techniques have been included in the courses offered at the Institute
of Nutrition at Mahidol University in Thailand.  A proposal has been
developed for a new type of workshop for 1996, known as "RAP-Plus",
for policy makers, planners and research coordinators that will
provide them with some familiarity with both quantitative and
qualitative survey techniques and their integrated use.

144.          UNU efforts continued in 1995 in the area of identifying and
promoting measures to control iron deficiency, the most prevalent and
neglected of the micronutrient deficiencies.  The first reports from a
UNU-coordinated multi-centre study of the feasibility and
effectiveness of weekly as opposed to daily supplementation have been
encouraging.  The results from China, Guatemala, Malaysia and the
United States show that weekly administration is equally effective in
raising haemoglobin levels and was virtually without side effects. 
The studies are continuing in Guatemala, Indonesia and Mali.  Funding
for this initiative has been received from the Micronutrient
Initiative of Canada for an investigators meeting in Bangkok in
February 1996, at which a meta-analysis of the data will be

145.          With support from UNICEF, UNU has studied the prevalence of
iron-deficiency anaemia in Kazakstan and Uzbekistan in collaboration
with the Institute of Nutrition in Almaty.  The study reviewed the
high prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia among pregnant women, women
of child-bearing age and children in the two countries.  Based on the
results of the study, iron supplementation and iron fortification
projects have been designed for implementation in 1996.

146.          UNU has continued to participate in the United Nations
Administrative Committee on Coordination Subcommittee on Nutrition
(ACC/SCN) meetings.  A meeting of the Group for the Control of Iron
Deficiency was held in June just prior to the ACC/SCN annual meeting. 
It was attended by all international and bilateral agencies concerned
with nutrition and also included some NGOs.  Each agency or
organization reported on its activities related to the control of iron
deficiency anaemia, but the major part of the meeting was taken up by
a presentation and discussion of the UNU-sponsored multi-centred
trials of weekly iron administration.

147.          In partnership with the International Union of Nutritional
Sciences and the World Health Organization (WHO) and FAO, UNU
continued to promote the International Dietary Energy Consultative
Group.  At the annual ACC/SCN meeting in June, the report of the
Group's project and its publications received special commendation.  A
major activity within this area in 1995 was the editing of the
proceedings of the Workshop on Protein-Energy Requirements held in
London in December 1994.  It has now been published as a supplement to
the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition and will be reprinted by
the Nestle' Foundation.  The report will highlight important findings
announced at the London meeting, viz., that the critical gap in
knowledge of human amino acid requirements was that for lysine, which
appears to be the limiting amino acid in the predominantly cereal
diets of most developing countries.  This information may prove
essential for judging the desirability of lysine fortification of
cereals.  The project is also sponsoring a set of field tests of two
portable respirometers, which are relatively portable and inexpensive,
to measure the energy cost of human activity.

148.          UNU has been joined by FAO in a global effort to improve the
quantity and quality of food composition data worldwide.  UNU's role
continues to be the establishment and linking of regional databases. 
As a follow-up to the UNU-FAO organizational meeting for AFROFOODS
held at Accra in September 1994, a meeting of francophone African
countries was held at Dakar in February 1995.  The Instituto de
Nutricio'n y Tecnologi'a de los Alimentos, University of Chile,
Santiago, has assumed responsibility for LATINFOODS in South America. 
A grant from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC),
Canada, has provided a high-capacity computer and UNU awarded
fellowships for training in food composition database management at
the Wageningen Agricultural University in the Netherlands and database
programming in Palmerston North, New Zealand.

149.          An organization meeting of NORAMFOODS regional database for
Canada, Mexico and the United States took place at the United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA) at Beltsville, Maryland.  One outcome
of the meeting was the agreement of USDA to assume responsibility for
the NORAMFOODS regional database.  Another important achievement was
the participation of the International Food Distributors Association
(IFDA), which is the repository of nutrient composition data for
processed foods in international trade.  Both USDA and IFDA agreed to
use the INFOODS tag names which would permit free exchange of data
with other regional and national databases in the INFOODS system.

150.          Two task force meetings were organized at Beltsville under
the auspices of UNU, FAO and the International Union of Nutritional
Sciences (IUNS).  One meeting established quality tags for food
composition data that will be incorporated into the INFOODS system and
the other provided guidelines for a future meeting of the
UNU-sponsored IUNS Committee on Terminology and Nomenclature for Food
Composition Databases.

151.          An organizational INFOODS meeting for Middle Asia
(MASIAFOODS), with the participation of China, the Democratic Peoples
Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea was held at Beijing
immediately following the Seventh Asian Congress on Nutrition in
October.  An organizational INFOODS meeting for the Arab Gulf States
was held in Dubai in November in order to set up GULFOODS. 
Participating countries included Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

152.          The International Food Intake Directory project continued to
provide important input to epidemiological studies and summarize all
food intake data available over the last 40 years from as many
developing countries as possible.  Some of the Asian and Latin
America/Caribbean summaries have already been printed.  In 1995, new
data were received from 14 African countries.  Additional input from
other developing nations is pending.

153.          The UNU quarterly journal Food and Nutrition Bulletin, now in
its sixteenth year, is one of the few publications that reach
developing-country nutrition and health workers.  UNU also continued
to publish jointly with Academic Press the quarterly Journal of Food
Composition and Analysis.


154.          The UNU training and fellowship programme supports primarily
young scholars and scientists from developing countries.  It aims to
assist them in understanding complex problems in their global context
and in developing their analytical skills.  Such training also helps
build capacities at institutions in developing countries that are part
of the UNU global networks.  The programme responds to the UNU Charter
directive to alleviate the intellectual isolation that can affect
scholars in developing countries.

155.          In the 20 years since the inception of the UNU training
programme, some 1,400 Fellows have completed their studies.  While
this number may seem small, it should be emphasized that UNU
fellowships are aimed at the "teachers of teachers".  Many former
Fellows are now in positions where they can influence development and
educational policies in their own nations.  UNU training thus has a
ripple effect in the international intellectual community.  In 1995,
80 UNU Fellows finished their work, while another 82 began their

156.          In the area of geothermal energy, there were 16 Fellows, from
China, Egypt, El Salvador, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, the
Philippines, Romania and Uganda.  Seven Fellows from Latin America and
the Caribbean were being trained in remote-sensing technology at the
Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais in Brazil.  Seven UNU Fellows from
Africa and Asia participated in the programme on renewable systems of
energy at the Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi.  There were
five Fellows from Asia in solar energy utilization at Anna University,
Madras, India, and three UNU Fellows from Fiji, Mongolia and the
Solomon Islands in seismic and cyclone hazard mitigation at the Asian
Disaster Prevention Centre, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.

157.          One UNU Fellow from Argentina, two from Cuba and one from
Uruguay are following the Master's degree programme in science and
technology policy at the Universidad Estadal de Campinas, Brazil. 
Twelve Fellows in biotechnology are in training at various
institutions in Latin America; 15 UNU Fellows from China, India,
Indonesia, Mongolia, the Philippines and Viet Nam are learning
software technology at UNU/IIST in Macau.

158.          The rolls also include:  one Fellow from Niger studying in
micro-informatics at the University of Yaounde'; one UNU fellow from
China at the University of California, Davis, United States, in
mountain ecology and sustainable development; two UNU Fellows from
Ethiopia and Nigeria in food technology at the Central Food
Technological Research Institute, India; one UNU Fellow from Venezuela
in food and nutrition at the Instituto de Nutricio'n de Centro
Ame'rica y Panama', Guatemala; two UNU Fellows from Africa in the
Master's programme in applied human nutrition at the University of
Nairobi; one UNU Fellow from Zimbabwe at the Institute for Crop and
Food Research, New Zealand;  and five UNU Fellows from China, India
and Viet Nam are in a training programme at the National Food Research
Institute in Tsukuba, Japan.

159.          In addition to the training provided under the regular UNU
Fellowship Programme, short training courses of one to six weeks'
duration were organized during the year.  For example, a one-week UNU
Global Seminar '95 on the United Nations peace efforts during its
first 50 years was held in Japan; a six-week course in natural hazard
reduction was held in Switzerland; and five two-week training
workshops in specialized areas of biotechnology were organized in
Argentina, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela.

160.          Eight two-week postgraduate courses in computer science were
held at the University of Yaounde', Cameroon; a training workshop on
computer networking was held in India; a course on computerized data
acquisition technologies was held in Bolivia; and training workshops
on international environmental law were organized in Spain and at the
UNU headquarters in Tokyo.  More than 500 persons participated in UNU
training courses during the year.

161.          A highlight of UNU training in 1995 was the Award Ceremony of
the UNU-Kirin programme at UNU headquarters in April.  The Fellows
each gave brief presentations of their research results and were
presented with a UNU certificate confirming the completion of their
training.  A unique part of the Kirin Fellowship scheme is the
follow-up research support which is provided to former Fellows.  The
second group of UNU Fellows who completed their research activities in
April were provided with such support through institutional
contractual agreements with their home institutions.

162.          A notable expansion in UNU training activities in 1995 was
the establishment of the UNU International Leadership Academy in
Amman.  This initiative, supported by the Government of Jordan, is
designed to create a community of potential future leaders who have
shared a common training experience in global issues.  Preparatory
activities started in 1995; the University has already concluded the
necessary legal instruments to locate the offices of the new UNU
academy on the campus of the University of Jordan.

163.          The UNU Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU/IAS), at its new
premises located next to UNU headquarters, launched a series of
postgraduate training activities in 1995.  A training course on
planning for sustainable development in the Asia-Pacific region was
jointly organized with the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok. 
A Ph.D. internship programme at UNU/IAS has been started and plans are
under way to initiate activities with Keio University in Japan and the
Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) in India for a high-level human
resources development effort in the area of eco-restructuring.  There
are also plans to organize a two-week course in synchrotron radiation
at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics of Japan in early

164.          Following on earlier discussions with the Government of
Iceland, work has begun on a Government-funded feasibility study for a
programme on fisheries training.  Pending the positive recommendations
of the feasibility study, it is expected that it will be possible to
establish a UNU Fisheries Training Centre with the support of the
Icelandic Government, and the first group of UNU Fellows might start
postgraduate training in fisheries as early as April 1997.

           Table 1.  1995 UNU Fellowships by programme area

       Sustaining global life-support systems

              Geothermal energy                                   16
              Natural resources and the environment               23

        Advances in Science and Technology

              UNU/IIST, including Ph.D internship                 15
              UNU/BIOLAC                                          12
              Micro-informatics                                    1
              Other fields                                         4

        Population dynamics and human welfare

              Food and nutrition                                   11

                      Total                                        82

165.          At UNU/INTECH in the Netherlands, a Ph.D. internship scheme
has continued and a group of new interns took up their positions at
the Institute.  The number of interns has had to be reduced owing to
the need to develop the infrastructure for a joint Ph.D. programme
which is under discussion with the Maastricht Economic Research
Institute (MERIT) of the University of Limburg.  A new initiative,
with the Commission of the European Communities, brought three young
Ph.D. programme researchers to UNU/INTECH for periods of six months
between mid-1995 and the end of 1996.

166.          Discussions with MERIT on a joint Ph.D. programme on
"Technological Change and the Economy" continued in 1995.  The content
of the course work, discussed by the UNU/INTECH Board in 1994, has
been established.  Subsequent negotiations on the administrative and
financial basis for the programme have been concluded and a group of
15 students was selected for the first course.  Three of the
candidates from developing countries were unable to continue in the
course for institutional and financial reasons, but the course work
component is under way.  Examinations were held in December to help
determine which of the candidates will be allowed to continue on to
the dissertation phase.

167.          UNU/IIST training activities involved the training of 12
Fellows in 1995, including 4 from China, 1 each from India and
Mongolia and 3 each from the Philippines and Viet Nam.  The period of
training ranged from 9 to 12 months.  These Fellows are seconded from
partner institutions in developing countries to be trained in
high-level software development methods and research techniques; part
of their training requires them to contribute to the ongoing research-
and-development projects of the Institute.

168.          UNU/IIST's postgraduate and postdoctoral courses seek to
enhance awareness of and provide comprehensive training in most
advanced software technology development techniques within the
Institute's areas of focus:  software support for infrastructure
systems and reactive and hybrid systems.  In addition, UNU/IIST offers
offshore courses which can involve a larger number of participants. 
In 1995, it conducted seven such courses, some of them for students at
the University of Macau.  More than 125 individuals participated in
the courses.  The Institute also provides supervision for M.Sc. and
Ph.D. students, and several of the Fellows at UNU/IIST from China
spent their period of study at the Institute as Ph.D. interns. 
Increasingly, the academic staff of the Institute are receiving
appointments as adjunct, assistant or honorary professors at the
seconding university departments or research institutes from which the
Fellows are selected.

UNU fellowships and training 

169.          Eighty-two UNU fellowships were awarded in 1995, bringing the
total number of Fellows trained by UNU since 1976 to 1,400.  UNU
Fellows in 1995 were from Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cameroon,
Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Egypt,
Ethiopia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Madagascar, Mongolia,
Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, the Philippines, Romania,
Solomon Islands, the United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, Uruguay,
Venezuela, Viet Nam and Zambia.  Seventy-three per cent of the UNU
Fellows trained in 1995 received training at institutions in
developing countries; 27 per cent received training at institutions in
industrial countries.  The main areas of UNU training in 1995
included:  applied human nutrition, biotechnology, seismic and cyclone
hazard mitigation, food composition data, food science and technology,
geothermal energy, micro-informatics, remote-sensing technology,
renewable energy systems, science and technology policy and software
technology.  About 500 individuals attended UNU training workshops in


170.          Dissemination of the results of the work being carried out by
United Nations organs is a key activity to ensure that Governments of
Member States, academic institutions and the public at large are aware
of the contributions of the organizations of the United Nations system
towards improving the human condition.  This is particularly true of
UNU, which, unlike other United Nations organs, does not focus its
work on a specific "topic", such as health, labour, food and
agriculture, or trade, but rather carries out research on different
topics.  Disseminating "research results" is a particularly difficult
task because they sometimes appear not to focus on real issues. 
Nevertheless, such research is crucial to developing a clearer
understanding of complex problems, such as peace and conflict
resolution, or environmentally sustainable development.  Such
understanding is necessary to develop and select appropriate policy
approaches for solving such problems.  Dissemination of research
results to scholars and experts studying similar problems is important
because it helps to corroborate findings, evoke critical comments or
indicate possible new directions of research.

171.          In 1995, dissemination of results of UNU research continued
to be carried out mainly through the publication of books,
proceedings, reports, papers, journal articles and journals, through
public information activities, such as meetings, press interviews,
press releases and the publication of newsletters and reports, and
through public meetings of an academic nature.

172.          Publishing was carried out mainly by the University's
publishing arm, as well as in collaboration with other scholarly
publishers in different countries.  Books published during the year
covered a number of areas, including sustainable development, the
United Nations system, water problems, development economics, urban
problems, political and administrative development, social development
issues (drugs and violence), gender studies and environmental problems
(including a new series on critical environmental regions).  Notable
among publications for the year were:  The United Nations System:  The
Policies of Member States, edited by Chadwick F. Alger, Gene M. Lyons
and John E. Trent; State, Society, and the United Nations System: 
Changing Perspectives on Multilateralism, edited by Yoshikazu
Sakamoto; Hydropolitics along the Jordan River:  Scarce Water and Its
Impact on the Arab-Israeli Conflict, by Aaron Wolf;  Managing Water
for Peace in the Middle East:  Alternative Strategies, by Masahiro
Murakami; Steering Business toward Sustainability, edited by
Fritjof Capra and Gunter Pauli; Amazonia:  Resiliency and Dynamism of
the Land and its People, by Nigel J. H. Smith, Emanuel Adilson S.
Serržo, Paulo T. Alvim and Italo C. Falesi; Regions at Risk: 
Comparisons of Threatened Environments, edited by Jean X. Kasperson,
Roger E. Kasperson and B. L. Turner II; In Place of the Forest: 
Environmental and Socio-economic Transformation in Borneo and the
Eastern Malay Peninsula, by Harold Brookfield, Lesley Potter and
Yvonne Byron; Emerging World Cities in Pacific Asia, edited by Fu-chen
Lo and Yue-man Yeung; Global Employment:  An International
Investigation into the Future of Work (two volumes), edited by Miha'ly
Simai; Women Encounter Technology, edited by Swasti Mitter and Sheila
Rowbotham; and Ethnicity and Power in the Contemporary World, edited
by Kumar Rupesinghe and Valery A. Tishkov.  The impact of some of
these results can be seen in the descriptions, which include some book
reviews, of work carried out during the year.

173.          UNU Press books were reviewed in more than 40 journals
worldwide during 1995.  Among the notable reviews are the following: 
"... highly recommended this book to those ... interest[ed] in Middle
East water issues ...  It serves as an excellent international
watershed case study ... [and] ... as a strong example of a thorough
research project with a disciplinary framework" (review of
Hydropolitics along the Jordan River, in Water Resources Development,
August 1995); "Managing Water for Peace in the Middle East makes a
valuable technical addition to ... literature on water-related
conflict potential and its alleviation in the Middle East and other
arid portions of the world" (review in Environment, vol. 37, No. 7,
September 1995); "[State, Society and the United Nations System]
departs from and complements earlier work by focusing on the policies
of seldom-studied smaller states" (review in International Journal,
summer 1995); and "... the book is worth reading ... the reader can
form an idea for himself whether it is reasonable, possible or
desirable to apply principles of ecosystems to economic systems"
(review of Industrial Metabolism:  Restructuring for Sustainable
Development, edited by Robert U. Ayres and Udo E. Simonis in I™W und
V™W Informationsdienst, 1/95).

174.          Requests for permission to use material from UNU books
continues to grow.  Most requests come from universities in the United
States wishing to reprint material in planned publications or to
photocopy material for classroom use.  Organizations requesting
permission included:  University of California at Los Angeles,
Stanford University, Boston University, Harvard Law School, Simon
Fraser University, Cornell University, University of Calgary,
University of Tokyo, East-West Center, Australian National University,
Sagami Women's University, International Labour Organization, and the
World Hunger Program.

175.          During the year, UNU/WIDER, on the occasion of its tenth
anniversary, launched a new publication series entitled "World
Development Studies".  The first five issues in the series became
available during the year:  Small Islands' Big Issues:  Crucial Issues
in the Sustainable Development of Small Developing Islands, containing
papers presented at the Global Conference on the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States in 1994; Emerging Labour
Markets:  Labour Market Developments and Transitional Unemployment in
Central and Eastern European Countries, authored by Arvo Kuddo, a
former Minister of Labour and Social Affairs in Estonia who is
currently a Research Fellow at UNU/WIDER; Food Security in Africa: 
Concepts, Measurement, Policy and Reality, authored by Siddig A.
Salih, Senior Research Fellow at UNU/WIDER; Economic Reforms, Women's
Employment and Social Policies:  Case Studies of China, Viet Nam,
Egypt, and Cuba, edited by Valentine M. Moghadam, currently Senior
Research Fellow at UNU/WIDER; and The Limits of the Global Village: 
Globalization, Nations and the State, by Professor Hernando Go'mez
Buendi'a, UNU/WIDER Sasakawa Chair in Development Economics at

176.          UNU/INTECH published a number of volumes during the year,
including The Spread of Japanese Management Techniques to Developing
Countries, by Raphael Kaplinsky with Anne Posthuma (Frank Cass and UNU
Press, January 1995); The Politics of Technology Policy in Latin
America, Mari'a-Ine's Bastos and Charles Cooper (Routledge/UNU Press,
1995); Exporting Africa:  Transformation, Trade and Industrialisation
in Sub-Saharan Africa, by Samuel Wangwe (Routledge/UNU Press, 1995);
Women Encounter Technology (mentioned above), and The Pursuit of
Science and Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa under Structural
Adjustment, by John Enos (Routledge/UNU Press, 1995).  UNU/INTECH also
issued numerous working papers and discussion papers, and a number of
journal articles and book chapters by UNU/INTECH researchers were
published during the year.

177.          UNU/IIST dissemination efforts included publication of a
number of papers and articles.  UNU/IIST disseminates software
technology through the training of its Fellows, through its research
and advanced development projects and through offshore postgraduate
and postdoctoral courses.  During 1995, research staff of the
Institute, Fellows and sponsored collaborators gave numerous
presentations both in Macau and internationally.

178.          The editing of the proceedings of a conference jointly
organized by the PLEC programme of UNU, UNU/INRA and the University of
Ghana at Accra in 1992 were completed in 1995 with publication
scheduled in early 1996 under the title:  Sustaining the Future: 
Economic, Social and Environmental Change in Sub-Saharan Africa,
edited by George Benneh, William B. Morgan and Juha I Uitto.

179.          UNU Press moved a step closer to electronic publishing with
an agreement late in the year to jointly publish with Monash
University in Australia a CD-ROM version of Food Habits in Later Life: 
Cultural Approaches, edited by Mark L. Wahlqvist et al.  This approach
is being used because the volume, with over 1,000 tables, can be made
more useful to researchers if produced in CD-ROM format.  UNU also
made progress in the development of several homepages and in
electronic bulletin-boards and conferences using the Internet.  It is
expected that additional progress will be made in this area in early

180.          Four UNU journals were also issued during the year:  Food and
Nutrition Bulletin; Journal of Food Composition and Analysis; Mountain
Research and Development; and ASSET (Abstracts of Selected Solar
Energy Technology).

181.          During 1995, the University published numerous books,
reports, papers and journal articles.  Annex III to the present report
contains a complete list of UNU titles issued during the year.  Income
from sales of UNU Press publications totalled US$ 275,000 in 1995.

About UNU books

182.          Since 1975, UNU has published 401 books through UNU Press and
through specific co-publishing arrangements.  In 1995, 14 books were
issued by UNU Press and 12 books were published through specific
co-publishing arrangements.  Revenue generated by the sale of UNU
publications in 1995 was approximately US$ 275,000.  UNU maintained 61
depository libraries in 49 countries during 1995.


183.          As the academic arm of the United Nations system, UNU worked
with a number of organizations of the United Nations system in the
conduct of its research, postgraduate training and dissemination
activities.  The following summary provides the highlights of the
University's cooperation with other parts of the United Nations system
during the year.  The Rector and his senior colleagues participated in
a number of United Nations meetings, conferences and discussions
during 1995.  Notable among these was the Rector's participation in a
meeting of senior officials of the United Nations, his presentation of
the annual report of the University to the Economic and Social
Council, as well as his participation in the commemoration of the
fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations in New York.  The
University was represented at a number of meetings of the United
Nations system, including those held at United Nations Headquarters in
New York, at the United Nations Offices at Geneva and at UNESCO
headquarters in Paris.

Bretton Woods institutions

184.          Under the food and nutrition programme, one of the focuses of
research has been on the functional consequences and prevention of
iron deficiency.  In collaboration with several organizations, UNU is
carrying out a 12-country field research study to test the
effectiveness of weekly versus daily doses of iron supplements for the
prevention of iron deficiency anaemia.  The World Bank is providing
financial contribution to this effort.

185.          Discussions are being pursued between UNU and the Bretton
Woods Institutions on the possibility of a joint training programme at
UNU in cooperation with the Bretton Woods Institutions for the benefit
of the developing world.  In response to the need increasingly felt in
both the United Nation and the Bretton Woods Institutions for training
in these areas, UNU has advanced a proposal for setting up a recurrent
one-month training programme for staff of United Nations agencies, the
Bretton Woods Institutions and States Members of the United Nations in
four major areas:  economic development, social policy, international
finance and international institutions.

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

186.          The second UNU/INTECH conference was held at Marbella, Chile,
in August jointly with ECLAC on the theme of "Productivity, Technical
Change and National Innovation Systems in Latin America in the 1990s". 
The proceedings of the conference will be published in book form in
English and possibly in Spanish.  Arrangements are under way for the
conference results to be presented at a conference scheduled to be
held in the second half of 1996 with the Inter-American Development
Bank in one of the MERCOSUR countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and
Uruguay).  The joint August event led to the signing of a letter of
cooperation between UNU/INTECH and ECLAC that forms a basis for
further collaboration between the two institutions centring on the
areas of science and technology and development.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

187.          The UNU food and nutrition programme worked cooperatively
with many United Nations and other agencies, including FAO, UNICEF and
WHO.  Notable among such cooperative activities under the programme is
the International Food Data Systems (INFOODS) project, in which FAO
has joined forces with UNU to improve the quantity and quality of food
composition data that the UNU continues to establish and link
worldwide on a regional and subregional basis.  UNU also cooperated
with FAO, which serves as Task Manager for chapter 13 of UNCED
Agenda 21 in the area of managing fragile ecosystems and in research
on issues pertaining to the sustainable development of mountain and
highland regions.

International Labour Organization

188.          Within the framework of a project on "Changing Employment
Patterns and the Structure of Unemployment in Africa", UNU/WIDER
organized a workshop in Accra, in July in collaboration with UNU/INRA
and the Employment and Development Department of ILO.  Some of the
studies commissioned for the project provided data and information for
a UNU/WIDER conference in August in preparation for Habitat II.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

189.          In maintaining active contacts with UNCTAD in areas related
to technology and investment, UNU/INTECH addressed the United Nations
Commission on Science and Technology for Development for which UNCTAD
assumes the secretariat function, in Geneva in May.  UNU/INTECH also
made a group and individual contribution to the UNCTAD ATAS Bulletin. 
Through its links with the UNCTAD Division for Transnational
Corporations and Investment, UNU/INTECH provided advice and comments
on parts of the World Investment Report 1994 prepared by the Division
and plans to contribute a paper to the World Investment Report 1995. 
UNU/IIST is working with UNCTAD in developing a course module on
software technology and will assist in technical presentations on
issues such as the application of software and on hardware

United Nations Environment Programme

190.          The University cooperated with UNEP in a number of its
environmental projects.  UNU and UNEP cooperated in the organization
of the Asian Water Forum in Thailand in February 1995.  UNU also
worked closely with the newly established UNEP International
Environmental Technology Centre in Osaka, Japan.  UNU and UNEP also
explored the possibilities for future collaboration in the area of a
joint Master's degree programme in environmental law to be undertaken
at the University of Colombo.  UNU participated in a UNEP/UNITAR
training workshop on environmental law and policy and a UNEP-IUCN
meeting of legal experts on the teaching of environmental law.  The
Rector and the Executive Director of UNEP exchanged letters to promote
further collaboration in the field of environmental law and research
related to the implementation of environmental accords.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

191.          Under the cooperation agreement between UNU and UNESCO
concerning the UNESCO/UNU UNITWIN Chairs Programme which was
officially signed in February 1994, a UNESCO/UNU Chair in Plant
Biotechnology located at the University of Beijing, is under way with
the aim of establishing a national centre of excellence in plant
biotechnology and training postgraduate students and researchers in
this field.  The organizations have also agreed to create the first
UNU/UNESCO Zero Emissions Research Professorship to be located at the
University of Namibia in Windhoek.

192.          Within the same framework of the UNESCO/UNU UNITWIN Chairs
Programme, UNU/WIDER has initiated preliminary discussions on the
establishment of a Network of Global Economics with financial support
from UNESCO and UNU headquarters.

193.          UNU, jointly with UNESCO, organized an international
symposium on Science and Culture:  Common Path for the Future at UNU
headquarters in September 1995.  The four-day symposium, attended by
world-renowned scholars, was held in commemoration of the fiftieth and
twentieth anniversaries, respectively, of UNESCO and UNU, for the
purpose of identifying a truly comprehensive and interdisciplinary
strategy in science and culture in face of the challenges of the
twenty-first century.  At the close of the symposium, a message from
participants was released at a press conference.

194.          UNU, together with UNESCO and Yamanashi University, organized
an international symposium entitled "Rivers and People in South-East
Asia and the Pacific - Partnership for the Twenty-first Century" at
headquarters in October.  The symposium presented the results of the
UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (IHP) at the completion of
its fourth phase and drew up plans for a fifth phase over the years
1996-2000.  A catalogue of rivers of South-East Asia and the Pacific
was distributed at the symposium as one of the outputs of the fourth
phase of work.

United Nations Population Fund

195.          The University's PLEC programme as carried out with financial
support from UNFPA and the Global Environment Facility (jointly
managed by the World Bank, UNDP and UNEP), which was directed towards
the ongoing implementation of the project through field research in
six cluster areas of tropical and subtropical environments.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

196.          UNU, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees (UNHCR) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
organized an international seminar on The Indo-Chinese Exodus and the
International Response in October at UNU headquarters in Tokyo, for
the purpose of increasing understanding of the exodus and its
immediate and long-term effects.

United Nations Children's Fund

197.          Cooperation between UNICEF and UNU took place within the
framework of the UNU programme on food and nutrition for human and
social development.  For example, UNICEF provided support for a UNU
effort to study the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in Kazakstan
and Uzbekistan; and a workshop on rapid assessment procedures (RAP)
was held in Dakar, in September with support from UNICEF.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

198.          UNU/INTECH made a substantive contribution to the World Forum
on Industrialization organized by UNIDO at New Delhi in October 1995. 
At the invitation of the Director-General of UNIDO in mid-1994,
UNU/INTECH endeavoured to bring the work of a number of staff members
into a synthesis in line with the main agendas of the Forum and
produced a document of about 50 pages.  UNU/INTECH's contribution was
therefore based nearly entirely on its existing work, covering such
areas as international linkages, women's employment, information
technologies and manufacturing systems.

United Nations Development Fund for Women

199.          UNU/INTECH's project on "Monitoring the Impact of New
Technologies and Women's Industrial Work in Asia" has been conducted
from the planning stage in cooperation and collaboration with UNIFEM. 
UNIFEM has also provided funding for the initiative, together with the
Government of the Netherlands.

United Nations Institute for Training and Research

200.          UNU participated in the meeting convened by UNITAR of
directors of United Nations institutes and programmes for training,
research and planning, held at Geneva, on 28 and 29 June 1995.  The
University also provided expertise for a UNEP/UNITAR training workshop
on environmental law and policy.

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development

201.          The University sent a representative to the thirty-third
session of the Board of UNRISD which was held on 26 and 27 June 1995. 
Informal discussions during the meeting indicated possible areas of
future collaboration.  In 1995, four books emanating from a UNU/UNRISD
research project were issued:  Mexico's "War" on Drugs:  Causes and
Consequences, by Mari'a Celia Toro; Unintended Consequences:  Illegal
Drugs and Drug Policies in Nine Countries, by LaMond Tullis; Marijuana
in the "Third World"; Appalachia, USA, by Richard Clayton; and The
Burmese Connection:  Illegal Drugs in the Golden Triangle by Ronald
Renard.  These books constitute volumes 3 to 6 of a series of studies
on the impact of the illegal drug trade and were co-published by UNU
Press and Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., of the United States.  A
UNU/INTECH researcher also chaired a UNDP/UNRISD workshop on "Gender
and Macroeconomic Politics" at the NGO Forum of the Fourth World
Congress on Women held at Beijing, in September.

Other links with the organizations of the United Nations system

202.          A meeting of a High-level Group on Development Strategies and
Management of the Market Economy was organized by UNU/WIDER in July at
Helsinki.  The Group had been established by the Department of
Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis of the United
Nations Secretariat to assist the work of the Secretariat on
macroeconomic issues.  UNU/WIDER had participated actively in the
group's work together with the International Institute for Applied
Systems Analysis (IIASA).  The July meeting was a concluding meeting
of the group in follow-up to the first and second meetings held
respectively in October 1994 in New York, and in April in Laxenburg,
Austria.  Papers emanating from the three meetings are planned to be
published in book form.

203.          UNU organized a Conference on the Sustainable Future of the
Global System which was sponsored by the United Nations Commission on
Sustainable Development and the Japan Environment Agency and held at
headquarters in Tokyo in October.  The Conference was held within the
framework of a project entitled "Sustainable Global Future:  Scenario
Building for the Twenty-first Century", the goal of which was to
generate information, analytical skills, and knowledge needed to
formulate strategies and policy alternatives for sustainable
development.  The project was launched in 1994 and is continuing under
UNU/IAS in close collaboration with the Department for Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development and other related departments
of the United Nations Secretariat.  A book emanating from the October
Conference will be published.

204.          As part of the collective efforts of UNU to contribute to the
implementation of Agenda 21, UNU/INTECH embarked on a pilot project to
examine the legal framework for environmental control in a developing
country and to examine the effectiveness of enforcement of
environmental law.  In the framework of that project, exploratory
field research was carried out in Mexico resulting in a report
entitled "Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology" to be
published as a UNU/INTECH working paper.  The report was presented at
a meeting of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
in New York in April.  The coordinator for the UNU Mountain Ecology
and Sustainable Development project also gave a presentation on UNU's
work before the Commission in April.

205.          The UNU food and nutrition programme participated in two
meetings of the Subcommittee on Nutrition of the Administrative
Committee on Coordination.  Those opportunities were amply utilized to
report on and explore further collaboration in the United Nations
system concerning the major activities of the programme.  The Chairman
of the Subcommittee congratulated UNU on the breadth and depth of its
several sponsored activities.  Those activities were elaborated on in
the report of the Subcommittee on the work of its twenty-second
session, held in Washington, D.C. in June 1995.

206.          As the focal point of UNU for the World Summit for Social
Development held at Copenhagen in March, UNU/WIDER participated in and
contributed to the preparatory process for the Summit.  Based on its
own expertise and studies for the Summit, UNU/WIDER prepared two
volumes for publication and presented one of them at the World Summit,
the volume entitled Global Employment:  An International Investigation
into the Future of Work, focusing on general aspects of the economic,
political and social dimensions of unemployment as well as the gender
dimension of the issue.  A UNU delegation headed by the Rector
participated in the Summit and the Rector made a presentation to the

207.          UNU made a substantive contribution to the Fourth World
Conference on Women, held at Beijing, in September.  The presentation
drew on UNU's recent and ongoing research activities in the area of
women in development, in particular the UNU/WIDER project entitled
"Global Restructuring and Women Workers in Industrializing and
Transitional Economies and the UNU/INTECH's project entitled
"Monitoring the Impact of New Technologies and Women's Industrial Work
in Asia".  The latter project produced a book entitled Women Encounter
Technology:  Changing Patterns of Employment in the Third World, which
was launched at the Beijing Conference.  The Rector addressed the
plenary of the Conference and researchers from UNU/INTECH and
UNU/WIDER attended sessions at the governmental and the NGO sessions
of the Conference.  In connection with the UNU/INTECH project, it is
also noteworthy that the project coordinator has advised the Gender
Group of the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for
Development and would write a background paper for the Group.

208.          UNU has been making preparations for its contribution to the
United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), scheduled
to take place in Turkey in June 1996.  A Pre-Habitat II Tokyo
Conference on World Cities and the Urban Future was organized at UNU
headquarters in Tokyo in August with co-sponsors including the Japan
Habitat Society and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government.  The conference
analysed the impact of the increasing trend of globalization on
mega-cities and major metropolitan centres, in particular in the
developing world.  It was followed immediately by a UNU/WIDER
Conference on Human Settlements in Changing Global Economic and
Political Processes, held at Helsinki.  UNU/WIDER, on the basis of the
preliminary work in this area, produced a report entitled "Habitat II
and the Urban Economy" in its "Research for Action" series.

209.          Links have also been established between UNU/INTECH and the
United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development. 
The Deputy Director of UNU/INTECH has been nominated as Chair of the
Commission's Gender Advisory Group for the period 1995-1996 and as a
member of the Group until 1999.  In 1995, the Commission held one of
its meetings in Maastricht, the Netherlands, and participated in a
seminar on information technology led by the UNU/INTECH research

210.          The UNU Office in North America (UNUONA) extended its
outreach activities to enhance awareness and knowledge of the
University's substantive activities and their outcomes.  These efforts
included targeted information distribution to permanent missions and
United Nations officials at the senior and working levels.  UNUONA
also initiated a series of public forums during the year in an effort
to disseminate the results of UNU policy research.  These forums
covered such topics as United Nations reform, political and economic
aspects of global employment and the prospects for establishing a
rigorous definition and set of measures for the bio-geophysical
foundations of sustainability.  UNUONA has also strengthened
cooperation with the Department of Public Information of the United
Nations Secretariat which has been helpful in raising the visibility
of the University in New York.

211.          Other events have included the launching of UNU books and
co-published journals, such as Global Governance and Le Trimestre du
Monde.  One highlight of the year was the formal launching of the UNU
International Leadership Academy at a ceremony held at United Nations
Headquarters in the presence of the Secretary-General, Dr. Boutros
Boutros-Ghali, and Queen Noor of Jordan.

                 VI.  THE STATE OF THE UNIVERSITY - 1995

212.          The year 1995 marked the twentieth anniversary of the United
Nations University and coincided with the commemoration of the
fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations.  The University dedicated
a number of its public events to the observance of the completion of
its first two decades.  Notable among them was a symposium held during
the forty-second session of the Governing Council on 4 December 1995
entitled "The Future of Hope:  Lessons from the Past".  The symposium
brought together a number of Nobel laureates from many fields for
discussions on the progress of events in the 50 years since the Second
World War and sought to draw lessons and examples which could help UNU
in confronting the problems of the twenty-first century.  The event
was organized in collaboration with the newspaper Asahi Shimbun and
the cooperation of the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity.

213.          In reflecting on its first 20 years of academic activity, the
University completed the final year of work covered by its second
Medium-Term Perspective (MTP II - 1990-1995).  During the year, the
University prepared the framework which will guide its academic
development into the next century.  The University Centre, together
with the research and training centres and programmes, formulated the
first draft of the University's third Medium-Term Perspective
(MTP III), to cover the period 1996-2001.  Parallel to this exercise,
the University prepared its programme and budget for the biennium for

214.          During 1995, UNU continued its efforts to ensure more
effective interaction with other organizations of the United Nations
system and to align its academic activities with the primary concerns
of the system.  The development of MTP III included efforts to make
the University's ongoing programmes more coherent and responsive to
the research needs of the United Nations.  The Rector met with a
number of heads of agencies as a means to inform them about the work
of the University and to seek their cooperation and advice on how the
University's research and dissemination activities could be
strengthened to assist the agencies in their own work.  Working-level
contacts with other United Nations organizations helped to involve
those organizations in joint endeavours such as co-sponsored meetings
or research initiatives.  UNU continued to seek information and to
ensure that its activities did not duplicate those being undertaken by
other research entities within the system.  Additional efforts will be
made in 1996 to strengthen dialogue with other parts of the system
with a view to achieving a more effective sharing of information and
results in areas of common activity.

215.          The University carried on its public information and related
dissemination activities, which are aimed at heightening interest in
and the visibility of the work of the University.  These efforts
included publicizing its conferences and meetings, bringing attention
to its publications through book launchings and public forums and
moving into the area of electronic dissemination.  The UNU office for
North America, for example, held a number of public forums and events
to expand knowledge of the work of the University at Headquarters,
among permanent missions at Headquarters and among officials of the
United Nations Secretariat.

216.          The Council of the University held its forty-second session
from 4 to 8 December at headquarters in Tokyo.  The Bureau,
functioning as the steering committee of the Council, had met in early
August to review the first draft of MTP III, the draft progress report
on the establishment of a new research and training centre in Japan,
the Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU/IAS) and the draft agenda for
the forty-second session of the Council.  During the session, the
Council took note of the Rector's statement and report to the Council
as well as the individual reports of UNU at headquarters.  It also
considered the draft MTP III for 1996-2001 and requested that
amendments be made in the document for consideration by the Bureau in
July 1996 and at the forty-third session of the Council in
December 1996.  The Council also adopted the proposed academic
programme (see annex I) and the budget (see annex IV) of the
University for 1996-1997.

217.          The Council also considered progress reports on the UNU
International Leadership Academy (UNU/ILA) in Amman and the UNU
International Network on Water, Environment and Health (UNU/INWEH), in
Ontario, Canada.  In considering the reports presented to it, the
Council noted the need for a more systematic reporting of the work of
the University by the Rector and the Director of UNU research and
training centres and programmes which would permit a more critical
assessment by the Council of UNU activities in both quantitative and
qualitative terms.  The Council expressed its concern about the state
of UNU/INRA and the lack of staff and financial resources which have
hampered progress in implementing its programme activities.  The
Council also urged the Rector to continue his efforts to harmonize
standards and procedures for electronic communication throughout the
UNU system.

218.          In its discussions the Council also noted the increasing
breadth of UNU training and fellowship activities and the differing
policies and approaches which were being used within the UNU system. 
The Council asked the Rector to undertake an assessment of those
activities and to develop a strategy to ensure more coherent
implementation of training and fellowship activities, including an
appropriate geographic balance in their distribution.  The Council
also requested the Rector to study the publishing activities of UNU
with the aim of improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the

219.          During the session, the Council also designated members of a
Nominating Committee for the UNU Rectorship to begin to prepare a list
of candidates for the post of Rector of the University for the
consideration of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the
Director-General of UNESCO.  The next Rector is expected to begin
his/her term in September 1997.

220.          An important institutional development during 1995 was the
establishment of UNU/IAS.  The idea for an RTC in Japan dates back to
the inception of the University, when it was included in the original
agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Japan which
led to the establishment of UNU.  For more than 20 years it remained a
promise, an idea and a dream, but it was only in 1995 that its
establishment became a reality.

221.          In July, the necessary legal instruments were signed to
permit the hand-over of the premises of the Institute to the
University by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government authorities.  Those
facilities, amounting to some 6,000 square metres of office space, are
being made available free-of-charge by the Government and the people
of Tokyo.  The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has also made available
the basic furnishings and equipment for the Institute and has agreed
to cover a portion of the maintenance costs.  The ministries of
Foreign Affairs and of Education, Science and Culture of Japan have
generously agreed to provide support for the academic activities of
the Institute.  The preparatory work for the setting up of UNU/IAS
occupied a number of headquarters staff during the year.  These
efforts ranged from installation of the necessary furnishings and
equipment to preparation of the necessary legal instruments for
establishing the Institute to the planning of the initial academic
programme of UNU/IAS.  University staff worked closely with officials
of the Government of Japan and of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to
ensure the necessary financial resources for establishing the
Institute and for the initiation of activities as soon as the
Institute was established by the UNU Council.  The UNU Council adopted
the UNU/IAS statute at its forty-second session in early December,
thereby formally establishing the Institute.

222.          A number of start-up activities were carried out in 1995 in
preparation for initiation of academic activities in 1996.  These
activities have already been described in previous sections of the
present report.  The Governing Council decided in its previous
deliberations that the Institute should have a flexible multi-thematic
programme and that it should build up strong linkages with the
academic community in Japan.  The University organized a number of
consultative meetings in the past to assist in the process of
formulating the UNU/IAS programme of work.  Based on these
consultations, the Council decided that an entry point for the initial
activities would be global governance and multilateral cooperation
within the framework of the United Nations.  In addition, activities
related to environmentally sustainable development, mega-cities and
urban development and science and technology are likely to form the
basis of the Institute's first academic programme.  Efforts were under
way in late 1995 to search for the first Director of the Institute and
to recruit the first in-house and visiting researchers for UNU/IAS. 
Additionally, the basic administrative and support staff were being
identified at the time of the preparation of the present report.

223.          The Board of UNU/INTECH met at its sixth session from 14 to
16 June 1995 and reviewed the ongoing work of the Institute.  It also
discussed preparations undertaken by the Rector for an evaluation of
UNU/INTECH at the completion of its first five years later in 1995. 
The Board of UNU/WIDER met at its eleventh session on 19 and
20 June 1995 and reviewed the work of the Institute since the  tenth
session held the year before.  The 1994-1995 biennium was a period of
transition for UNU/WIDER in terms of the structure and priorities of
its work programme as well as its interaction with the academic
community in Finland.  The year 1995 also saw the selection of a new
Director for the Institute, who was to take office at the beginning of
1996.  The Board of UNU/IIST met at its fourth session from 17 to
19 May 1995.  It reviewed the progress of the Institute in the
implementation of its software development activities and reviewed the
planned programme of work for the next biennium.  The Rector appointed
members of the first Board of UNU/INRA to replace an advisory
committee which had been in place during the initial phase of the
UNU/INRA programme.  The Board was expected to hold its first meeting
in early 1996.

224.          The Rector convened two meetings of the Conference of
Directors of UNU research and training centres and programmes.  The
first, held on 22 and 23 March 1995, was devoted to a discussion of
ways of strengthening the role of the Conference, enhancing coherence
and intra-university academic cooperation and the development of
MTP III for 1996-2001.  The Conference also reviewed the framework for
preparing the budget for the biennium 1996-1997 as well as
administrative matters such as a university-wide staffing policy and
progress made in the area of computerization and communications.  A
second Conference of Directors was held on 1 December and focused on
preparations for the forty-second session of the Governing Council.

225.          During the year, the Rector led delegations to two major
United Nations conferences:  the World Summit for Social Development
held at Copenhagen in March, and the Fourth World Conference on Women
held at Beijing in September.  UNU/WIDER served as the focal point for
UNU input into the World Social Summit.  The Institute used the
occasion to launch the first of two volumes emanating from its work on
global employment.  A copy of the volume entitled Global Employment: 
An International Investigation into the Future of Work was given to
each national delegation attending the Summit and the title was
officially launched at a ceremony attended by Martti Ahtisaari,
President of Finland, Arped Go"ncz, President of Hungary, Percival
Patterson, Prime Minister of Jamaica, and Paulo Renato Costa Souza,
Minister of Education of Brazil.

226.          UNU/INTECH and UNU/WIDER jointly served as the focal point
for the UNU with regard to the preparatory work for the Fourth World
Conference on Women.  Researchers from both RTCs participated in
sessions and events of the governmental and NGO forums.  UNU/INTECH
used the occasion of the Beijing Conference to launch its volume
entitled Women Encounter Technology:  Changing Patterns of Employment
in the Third World.

227.          The Rector addressed the plenary sessions in Copenhagen and
Beijing and described in his statements the work of the University
related to each Conference.  The University also used the occasion of
the conferences to publicize its work in the form of summaries of its
activities related to social development and to gender and development
issues.  UNU Press also availed itself of these opportunities to draw
attention to the dissemination activities of the University in these
key areas with displays of UNU titles at both Copenhagen and Beijing.

228.          Another major institutional development during the year was
the progress made in the setting up of the UNU International
Leadership Academy (UNU/ILA) in Amman.  The UNU Council had formally
established the Academy as a programme of the University at its forty-
first session in December 1994.  In April, the Rector and the Minister
of Higher Education of Jordan signed the necessary legal instrument to
enable the UNU/ILA offices to be established within the University of
Jordan campus in Amman.  The Rector appointed an Advisory Committee
for the Academy comprising Queen Noor of Jordan (Chairperson), Hisashi
Owada, Permanent Representative of Japan to the United Nations, (Vice-
Chairperson), Jan Egeland, Secretary of State, Royal Norwegian
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Bartolome' Mitre, Editor, La Nacio'n,
Argentina.  The Rector also appointed Andre's Pastrana, a former mayor
of Bogota', as the first Director of UNU/ILA.  Mr. Pastrana was unable
to continue in his post for personal reasons and resigned in
September.  The Rector expected to appoint a new director for the
Academy in early 1996.

229.          On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the United
Nations, King Hussein of Jordan, in his address at the Special
Commemorative Meeting of the General Assembly on 22 October 1995,
referred to the establishment of UNU/ILA in Amman.  He stated that
"this academy will be the first of its kind in the world.  It will be
the first branch of the United Nations University in the Middle East",
which will work to build bridges of human contacts among future
leaders.  It will give them the opportunity for dialogue and exchange
between them and their diverse cultures.  It will prepare programmes
and courses that enrol leaders in the political, social, economic,
religious, and cultural sectors from all over the world, to foster
dialogue, understanding, and cooperation between peoples and

230.          Following extensive consultations with officials of the
Government of Canada and of the Province of Ontario, UNU made some
progress during the year towards the initiation of activities of the
International Network on Water, Environment and Health (UNU/INWEH). 
The proposal for the establishment of the Network had received the
endorsement of the UNU Council at its forty-first session in December
1994.  Discussions during the year were aimed at mobilizing the
necessary matching funding from both the central Government and from
the province.  In September, the provincial authorities informed the
Rector that owing to severe budget cuts they would be unable to honour
the pledge of the previous Government.  The University had however
earlier received a firm commitment from the Government of Canada to
contribute Can$ 5.25 million over four years for the Network with the
understanding that there would be no additional federal core funding
beyond that amount.  The Government indicated its expectation that
UNU/INWEH would become self-sufficient at the end of the initial four-
year period.  The University continued the necessary preparatory work
for setting up UNU/INWEH in early 1996 based on the assurances of
support from the Government of Canada.

231.          As of 31 December 1995, pledges to the Endowment Fund and
operating contributions made by 54 Governments and 7 other benefactors
totalled some US$ 289.2 million, of which $268.8 million had been
received.  The University also benefited during the year from
counterpart and other support, including cost-sharing support for the
fellowships and other activities.  Contributions based on new and
existing pledges for UNU research and training centres and programmes
and modest operational contributions were received during the year. 
Table 2 provides a summary of the contributions of $100,000 or more
received during 1995.

             Table 2:  Financial contributions received during 1995
                       (over US$ 100,000)                          

Source                           Purpose                    Amount ($)
Austria            Endowment Fund                                 144 329

China              Endowment Fund for UNU/IIST                  1 000 000

Italy:  Regional
 Authority of
 Sardinia          Earmarked for programme on marine science
                   and ocean affairs                              136 036

Japan              Operating contributions from Ministry of
                   Foreign Affairs, including $500,000 for
                   UNU Agenda 21 activities                     3 700 000

                   Contribution from Ministry of Education,
                   earmarked for Japan-UNU cooperative
                   study programme                              1 222 071

                   Operating contribution from Ministry of
                   Foreign Affairs for fiscal year 1995,
                   including $1,000,000 for UNU/IAS             4 700 000

                   Operating contribution from Ministry of
                   Education for fiscal year 1995, including
                   yen 100,000,000 (earmarked for UNU/IAS)      2 187 970

Jordan             For UNU/ILA                                    713 080

Macau              Endowment fund earmarked for UNU/IIST        3 000 000

Netherlands        1995 operational costs of UNU/INTECH           884 347

        Subtotal                                                17 687 833

agencies and
private sector                                                                 

United Nations     Government of Japan Trust Fund for
                   International Symposium on the United
                   Nations Peace-keeping Operations               300 000

                   Government of Japan Trust Fund for
                   activities related to the work of the
                   Commission on Global Governance                482 400

UNFPA              Collaborative studies on population,
                   land management and environmental change       240 000

EEC                UNU/INTECH project on international
                   dimensions of the impact of new
                   technologies                                   122 352

Asia-Pacific       Project on views of the environment in
Centre (Japan)     Asian countries:  their relationship to
                   sustainable development                        127 625

Ebara Corporation  UNU Zero Emissions Research Initiative         194 286

Kirin Brewery Co.  UNU-Kirin Fellowship Programme                 353 208

Nippon Foundation  Mega-cities and urban development              449 438

Shimadzu           Environmental monitoring and analysis in the   356 765
Corporation        East Asia region:  technology transfer and
(Japan)            environmental governance

        Subtotal                                                 2 626 074

        TOTAL                                                   20 313 907

232.          The University held numerous conferences, workshops and
seminars in different parts of the world during 1995.  The Conference
facilities at UNU headquarters in Tokyo were in nearly constant use by
the University and a number of outside organizations.  More than 8,500
persons attended academic events held at headquarters during the year. 
In total, more than 100 academic events were held at the UNU
headquarters and at UNU research and training centres and programmes
or at other locations under their auspices.  A number of these events
attracted wide media attention, notable among them was the first World
Congress on Zero Emissions, held at UNU headquarters on 6 and
7 April 1995.  The Congress  was the first multi-point video
conference on Internet held in Japan; there were live presentations
via Internet by Ingvar Carlsson, Prime Minister of Sweden, and
Federico Mayor, Director-General of UNESCO.  UNU was able to link up
sites in Asia, Europe and the United States, involving scholars,
policy makers and politicians in the conduct of the Congress.  Other
major conferences such as the Symposium on New Dimensions of United
Nations Peace-Keeping Operations, held in mid-January, and the
Symposium on the Future of Hope:  Lessons from the Past, held on 4
December, served to increase awareness of the diverse academic
activities of the University.

233.          In 1995, Dr. Lucien F. Michaud, S.J., of the University of
Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, became the Chairman of the Council of UNU
following his election at the forty-first session of the Council in
Accra in December 1994.

234.          The Secretary-General of the United Nations and the
Director-General of UNESCO announced the appointment of 10 new members
and one reappointed member of the UNU Council early in the year. 
These new members included Jose' Brunner Ried, a sociologist and
Minister of the Secretary-General of the Government of Chile; Paolo
Costa, Rector and Professor of Regional Economics, University Ca'
Toscari of Venice, Italy; Donald Ekong, Professor and
Secretary-General of the Association of African Universities; Salim
El-Hoss of the American University of Beirut and a former Prime
Minister and Minister of Education of Lebanon; Genady Golubev,
Professor and Head of the Department of World Physical Geography and
Geo-ecology, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, and a
former Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations and Assistant
Executive Director of UNEP; Franc'oise He'ritier-Auge', Professor and
Director, Laboratoire d'anthropologie sociale, Ecole des hautes
e'tudes en sciences sociales, Colle`ge de France; Risto Ihamuotila,
Rector and Professor of Agricultural Policy of the University of
Helsinki; Grac'a Machel, President of the Foundation for Community
Development and Chairperson of the National Organization of Children
of Mozambique, and a former Minister of Education and Culture of
Mozambique; Valeria Merino-Dirani, environmental law specialist from
Ecuador and Executive Director of the Corporacio'n Latinoamericana
para el Desarrollo; Ingrid Moses, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic) of
the University of Canberra, who was Professor of Higher Education and
Foundation Director of the Centre for Learning and Teaching at the
University of Technology in Sydney, Australia; and Wang Shaoqi,
Director-General, Department of International Cooperation, State
Science and Technology Commission, China.  Each of these members will
serve in his/her individual capacity for a six-year term ending on
2 May 2001 (see annex II for list of members of the University

235.          Professor Takashi Inoguchi, Professor of Political Science at
the University of Tokyo, assumed the post of Senior Vice-Rector of UNU
in April following a lengthy search process.  Dr. George Vassiliou,
former President of Cyprus, was appointed a member of the Board of
UNU/WIDER.  Dr. Hebe Maria Cristina Vessuri of the Instituto
Venezolano de Investigaciones Cienti'ficas in Venezuela, was appointed
to the Board of UNU/INTECH and Professor Wil Albeda of the Netherlands
was reappointed to the Board of UNU/INTECH.  Professor Zhou Li-Gao,
Vice-Rector of the University of Macau, was appointed a member of the
Board of UNU/IIST.  Professors Ivan M. Havel of the Czech Republic,
Gilles Kahn of France and Kesav V. Nori of India were all reappointed
to a second term on the Board of UNU/IIST.  Professor W. S. Alhassan,
Director-General, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,
Ghana; Dr. Bjo"rn Lundren, Director, International Foundation for
Science, Stockholm; Professor Thomas R. Odhiambo, Director, Research
and Development Forum for Science-led Development in Africa, Nairobi;
Dr. Guy Paillotin, President, Institut National de la Recherche
Agronomique, Paris; and Dr. S. I. Rasool, Director, International
Geosphere-Biosphere Programme - Data and Information System, Paris,
were appointed to the Board of UNU/INRA.


       1/     K. Krause and W. A. Knight (eds.), State, Society and the
United Nations System:  Changing Perspectives on Multilateralism (UNU
Press, 1995); and C. F. Alger, G. M. Lyons and J. E. Trent (eds.), The
United Nations System:  The Policies of Member States (UNU Press,

       2/     G. K. Helleiner (ed.), Manufacturing for Export in the
Developing World:  Problems and Possibilities (Routledge, 1995).

       3/     M. Simai with V. Moghadam and A. Kuddo (eds.), Global
Employment:  An International Investigation in the Future of Work (UNU
Press with ZED Books, 1995).

       4/     S. Mitter, Women Encounter Technology:  Changing Patterns of
Employment in the Third World (Routledge/UNU Press, 1995).

       5/     F. Capra and G. Pauli (eds.), Steering Business Towards
Sustainability (UNU Press, 1995).

       6/     A. T. Wolf, Hydropolitics along the Jordan River:  Scarce
Water and Its Impact on the Arab-Israeli Conflict (UNU Press, 1995),
and M. Murakami, Managing Water for Peace in the Middle East: 
Alternative Strategies (UNU Press, 1995).

       7/     Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I:  Resolutions
Adopted by the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales
No. E.93.I.8 and corrigendum), resolution I, annex II.

       8/     J. X. Kasperson, R. E. Kasperson and B. L. Turner II (eds.),
Regions at Risk:  Comparisons of Threatened Environments (UNU Press,
1995); Nigel J. H. Smith, Emanuel Adilson S. Serržo, P. T. Alvim and
I. C. Falesi, Amazonia:  Resiliency and Dynamism of the Land and Its
People (UNU Press, 1995); and H. Brookfield, L. Potter and Y. Bryron,
In Place of the Forest:  Environmental and Socio-economic
Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula (UNU Press,

       9/     T. Nishizawa and J. I. Uitto (eds.), The Fragile Tropics of
Latin America:  Sustainable Management of Changing Environments (UNU
Press, 1995).

                                  ANNEX I

        United Nations University Academic Programme for 1996/97

                                               Responsible unit
Programme area                           Existing               
Universal human values and
global responsibilities

1. The United Nations system,    UNU Centre                     UNU/IAS
global governance and security

2. Conflict resolution and       UNU Centre, INCORE

3. Governance, state and         UNU Centre, UNU/WIDER, UNU/ILA UNU/CESG

4. Culture and development       UNU Centre

New directions for the
world economy

5. Eco-restructuring for
sustainable development          UNU/WIDER, UNU Centre

6. Socio-economic dimensions
of development                   UNU/WIDER, UNU/INTECH

7. Global change and perspective UNU Centre, UNU/WIDER

Sustaining global
life-support systems

8. Eco-restructuring for         UNU Centre, UNU/WIDER,         UNU/IAS
sustainable development          UNU/INTECH

9. Integrated studies of         UNU Centre, UNU/WIDER

10. Information systems for
environmental management         UNU Centre                     UNU/INWEH

11. Natural resources in Africa  UNU/INRA

12. Environmental law and
governance                       UNU Centre                     UNU/CESG

Advances in science and technology

13. Socio-economic implications
of new technologies              UNU/INTECH

14. Applications of biotechnology
for development                  UNU/BIOLAC

15. Software technology for
developing countries             UNU/IIST

16. Microprocessors and
informatics                      UNU Centre

Population dynamics and human welfare

17. Population, urbanization
and development                  UNU Centre, UNU/WIDER          UNU/IAS

18. Population, land management
and environmental change (PLEC)  UNU Centre, UNU/INRA

19. Food and nutrition for
human and social development     UNU Centre                     UNU/FNCC

UNU Centre:           Academic Division, UNU Centre (Tokyo)
UNU/BIOLAC:           Programme on Biotechnology for Latin America and the
Caribbean (Caracas)
UNU/INCORE:           Joint International Programme on Conflict Resolution and
                      Ethnicity (Ulster, Northern Ireland)
UNU/INRA:             Institute for Natural Resources in Africa (Accra, with a
                      mineral resources unit in Zambia)
UNU/IIST:             International Institute for Software Technology (Macau)
UNU/INTECH:           Institute for New Technologies (Maastricht, The
UNU/WIDER:            World Institute for Development Economics Research
UNU/ILA:       International Leadership Academy (Amman)
UNU/CESG:             Centre for the Study of Governance (Barcelona, Spain)
UNU/IAS:       Institute of Advanced Studies (Tokyo)
UNU/INWEH:            International Network on Water, Environment and Health
                      (joint international programme with Ontario, Canada)
                      (Ontario, Canada)
UNU/FNCC:             Food and Nutrition Research and Training Coordinating
                      Centre at Cornell University (United States)

                                  ANNEX II

     Members of the Council of the United Nations University in 1995

Appointed members

Dr. Lucien F. MICHAUD, S.J. (Canada) (Chairman of the Council), Professor,
University of Sudbury, Canada

Professor Jose' Joaquin BRUNNER Ried (Chile), Minister, Ministry of the
Secretary-General, Government of Chile

Professor Paolo COSTA (Italy), Rector and Professor of Regional Economics,
University Ca' Foscari, Venice, Italy

Mr. Vladimir DLOUHY (Czech Republic), Minister, Ministry of Industry and
Trade, Czech Republic

Dr. Donald EKONG (Nigeria), Professor and Secretary-General, Association of
African Universities, Accra, Ghana

Dr. Salim EL-HOSS (Lebanon), American University of Beirut, and former Prime
Minister of Lebanon

Professor J. A. van GINKEL (Netherlands), Rector Magnificus and Professor of
Human Geography, Utrecht University

Professor Genady Nikolaevich GOLUBEV (Russian Federation), Head, Department of
World Physical Geography and Geo-ecology, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State

Professor Franc'oise HE'RITIER-AUGE' (France), Director, Laboratoire
d'anthropologie sociale, E'tude des Hautes Etudes en Science Sociales,
Colle`ge de France

Professor Risto IHAMUOTILA (Finland), Rector and Professor of Agricultural
Policy, University of Helsinki

Ambassador Hideo KAGAMI (Japan), former Permanent Representative of Japan to
the United Nations

Professor Hanaa KHEIR-EL-DIN (Egypt), Professor of Economics and Chairperson
of Economics Department, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo

Professor Sang Soo LEE (Republic of Korea), Professor Emeritus, Korea Advanced
Institute of Science and Technology

Professor Madina LY-TALL, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Mali
to France, Paris

Dr. Edson MACHADO DE SOUSA (Brazil), Head, Cabinet of the Minister of
Education, Ministry of Education and Sports, Government of Brazil

Ms. Grac'a MACHEL (Mozambique), President, Foundation for Community
Development, Mozambique

Ms. Valeria MERINO-DIRANI (Ecuador), Executive Director, Corporacio'n
Latinoamericana para el Desarrollo, Ecuador

Dr. A. P. MITRA (India), President, National Academy of Sciences; Bhatnagar
Fellow (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research); National Physical
Laboratory, India

Professor Ingrid MOSES (Australia), Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic),
University of Canberra

Professor Jacob L. NGU (Cameroon), Director, Immunology and Biotechnology
Laboratories, Cameroon

Dr. Luis Manuel PEN~ALVER (Venezuela), President, National Council for
Education, Venezuela

Dr. Victor RABINOWITCH (United States of America), Senior Vice-President,
MacArthur Foundation, United States

Professor Frances STEWART (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland), Senior Research Officer and Fellow, Institute of Commonwealth
Studies, International Development Centre, Queen Elizabeth House, University
of Oxford

Dr. WANG Shaoqi (China), Director-General, International Cooperation
Department, State Science and Technology Commission, China


Professor Heitor GURGULINO DE SOUZA (Brazil)

Ex-officio members

Dr. Boutros BOUTROS-GHALI (Egypt), Secretary-General of the United Nations

Dr. Federico MAYOR (Spain), Director-General, United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris

Dr. Marcel BOISARD (Switzerland), Acting Executive Director, United Nations
Institute for Training and Research, Geneva

                                    ANNEX III

                            Titles published in 1995


Amazonia:  Resiliency and Dynamism of the Land and Its People 
By Nigel J. H. Smith, Emanuel Adilson S. Serrao, Paulo T. Alvim and
Italo C. Falesi, UNU Press

Arms Reduction:  Economic Implications in the Post-Cold War Era
Edited by Lawrence R. Klein, Fu-Chen Lo and Warwick J. McKibbin, UNU Press

Capital, the State and Labour:  A Global Perspective
Edited by Juliet Schor and Jong-Il You, UNU/WIDER, with Edward Elgar, United

Esunikku mondai to kokusai shakai:  Funsou, kaihatsu, jinken
[Japanese edition of The Ethnic Question:  Conflicts, Development and
Human Rights] 
By Rodolfo Stavenhagen, UNU Press, with Ochanomizu Shobo, Japan

The Evolving New Global Environment for the Development Process
Edited by Miha'ly Simai, UNU Press

The Fragile Tropics of Latin America:  Sustainable Management of Changing
Edited by Toshie Nishizawa and Juha I. Uitto, UNU Press

El futuro ecolo'gico de un continente:  una visi'on prospectiva de la Ame'rica
Latina, vols. I and II 
Compiled by Gilberto C. Gallopi'n, Isabel A. Go'mez, A. A. Pe'rez and
Manuel Winograd, UNU Press, with Fondo de Cultura Econo'mica, Mexico

Gender and Development in the Arab World - Women's Economic Participation: 
Patterns and Policies
Edited by Nabil F. Khoury and Valentine M. Moghadam, UNU/WIDER, with Zed
Books, United Kingdom

Global Employment:  An International Investigation into the Future of Work,
vols. I and II
Edited by M. Simai, V. Moghadam and A. Kuddo, UNU/WIDER, with Zed Books

Hydropolitics along the Jordan River:  Scarce Water and Its Impact on the
Arab-Israel Conflict
By Aaron T. Wolf, UNU Press

In Place of the Forest:  Environmental and Socio-economic Transformation in
Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula
By Harold Brookfield, Lesley Potter and Yvonne Byron, UNU Press

Managing Water for Peace in the Middle East:  Alternative Strategies
By Masahiro Murakami, UNU Press

Manufacturing for Export in the Developing World:  Problems and Possibilities
Edited by G. K. Helleiner, Routledge

Marijuana in the "Third World":  Appalachia, U.S.A.
[vol. 5 of "Studies on the Impact of the Illegal Drug Trade"]
By Richard Clayton, UNU Press, with Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., United
States of America

Mexico's "War" on Drugs:  Causes and Consequences
[vol. 3 of "Studies on the Impact of the Illegal Drug Trade"]
By Mari'a Celia Toro, UNU Press, with Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., Boulder
and London

Modelling Global Change
Edited by Lawrence R. Klein and Fu-chen Lo, UNU Press

The North, the South and the Environment:  Ecological Constraints and the
Global Economy
Edited by Andrew Glyn and V. Bhaskar, UNU Press, with Earthscan Publications

Las Nuevas Tecnologi'as y el Futuro de Ame'rica Latina:  Riesgo y Oportunidad
Edited by Ami'lcar Herrera, Leonel Corona, Renato Dagnino et al., UNU Press,
with Siglo Veintiuno Editores, Mexico

The Political Economy of Hunger:  Selected Essays (UNU/WIDER Studies in
Development Economics)
Edited by Jean Dre`ze, Amartya Sen and Athar Hussain, Clarendon Press, Oxford

Regions at Risk:  Comparisons of Threatened Environments
Edited by Jeanne X. Kasperson, Roger E. Kasperson and B. L. Truner II, UNU

State, Society and the UN System:  Changing Perspectives on Multilateralism
Edited by K. Krause and W. A. Knight, UNU Press

Steering Business Toward Sustainability
Edited by Fritjof Capra and Gunter Pauli, UNU Press

Strengthening the Family:  Implications for International Development
By Marian F. Zeitlin, Ratna Megawangi, Ellen M. Kramer, Nancy D. Colleta,
E. D. Babatunde and David Garman, UNU Press

Sustainable Management of Soil Resources in the Humid Tropics
By Rattan Lal, UNU Press

Unintended Consequences:  Illegal Drugs and Drug Policies in Nine Countries
[vol. 4 of "Studies on the Impact of Illegal Drug Trade"]
By LaMond Tullis, UNU Press, with Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., United

The United Nations System:  The Policies of Member States
Edited by Chadwick F. Alger, Gene M. Lyons and John E. Trent, UNU Press

A Vision of Hope/Asu eno tenbo (English and Japanese version)
UNU Press, with Regency Corporation, Ltd., United Kingdom

Women, Culture and Development:  A Study of Human Capabilities
(UNU/WIDER Studies in Development Economics)
Edited by Martha C. Nussbaum and Jonathan Glover, Clarendon Press, Oxford

Women Encounter Technology:  Changing Patterns of Employment in the Third
By Swasti Mitter and Sheila Rowbothan, UNU/INTECH, with Routledge, United


Abstracts of Selected Energy Technology (ASSET), vol. 16, Nos. 2-3;
vol. 17, Nos. 1-3
Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), India

Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 16, Nos. 1-3
UNU Press

Global Environmental Change:  Human and Policy Dimensions, vol. 5, Nos. 1-3
Butterworth-Heinemann, United Kingdom

Global Governance:  A Review of Multilateralism and International
Organizations, vol. 1, Nos. 1-3
Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., United States

Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 8, Nos. 1-3
Academic Press, United States

Mountain Research and Development, vol. 14, Nos. 1-4; vol. 15, Nos. 1-3
University of California Press, United States, for UNU and International
Mountain Society, United States

                                   ANNEX IV

        Decision of the Council of the United Nations University on
            the programme and budget for the biennium 1996-1997

        The Council of the United Nations University, at its forty-second
session, held at Tokyo from 4 to 8 December 1995,

        Approved Part II (Academic programme) of the Academic Programme and
Budget of the United Nations University for the biennium 1996-1997
(UNU/C/42/L.5), as proposed by the Rector, taking into account the comments of
the Council;

        Adopted Part I (Budget) of the Academic Programme and Budget of the
United Nations University for the biennium 1996-1997 (UNU/C/42/L.5), as
proposed by the Rector, on the recommendations of the Council's Committee on
Finance and Budget, as reviewed and amended by the Council, after having
considered the report of the Advisory Committee on Administrative and
Budgetary Questions of the United Nations Secretariat (UNU/C/42/L.5/Add.1), as

                       Projected income for the biennium 1996-1997

                            (Thousands of United States dollars)

                                      UNU head-    UNU/     UNU/     UNU/
                                      quarters     WIDER    INTECH   IIST
1. Income from the Endowment Fund

   Income from investment as
   of 30 June 1995                    18 195       5 065    2 182    3 458

   Income from investment of
   new contributions receivable
   from 1 July 1995 to
   31 December 1997                      -             9      -        356

2. Operating contributions            14 365         -      1 454      -

3. Contributions for UNU
   headquarters building               3 110         -        -        -

4. Sales income and royalties
   from publications                     500         -        -        -

5. Unencumbered fund balance           1 500         878      722      -

   Core funds subtotal                37 670       5 952    4 358    3 814

6. Specific programme contributions    9 092         130    1 338      540
                                     -------       -----    -----    -----
   Grand total                        46 762       6 082    5 696    4 354

                                        UNU/         UNU/     UNU/     
                                        INRA         BIOLAC   IAS     TOTAL
1. Income from the Endowment Fund

   Income from investment as
   of 30 June 1995                       372          986      -      30 258

   Income from investment of new
   contributions receivable from
   1 July 1995 to 31 December 1997       192           25      -         582

2. Operating contributions               200           -     12 110   28 129

3. Contributions for UNU
   headquarters building                 -             -        -      3 110

4. Sales income and royalties
   from publications                     -             -        -        500

5. Unencumbered fund balance             -             -        500    3 600

   Core funds subtotal                   764         1 011   12 610   66 179

6. Specific programme contributions      179           101      400   11 780
                                         ---         -----   ------   ------
   Grand total                           943         1 112   13 010   77 959

                 Estimated expenditures for the biennium 1996-1997

                        (Thousands of United States dollars)

                                        UNU head-     UNU/     UNU/     UNU/
                                        quarters      WIDER    INTECH   IIST
Personnel costs                         21 840        2 728    2 820    1 887

Academic activity costs                 14 592        2 411    2 079    1 632

General expenses                         3 730          793      717      705

Investment management                      600          150       80      130

     Subtotal                           40 762        6 082    5 696    4 354

HQ building                              6 000            0        0        0
                                        ------        -----    -----    -----
     Grand total                        46 762        6 082    5 696    4 354

                                          UNU/         UNU/      UNU/  
                                          INRA         BIOLAC    IAS   TOTAL
Personnel costs                            437            0     4 934  34 646

Academic activity costs                    329        1 079     6 495  28 617

General expenses                           165            0     1 581   7 691

Investment management                       12           33         0   1 005

     Subtotal                              943        1 112    13 010  71 959

HQ building                                  0            0         0   6 000
                                           ---        -----    ------  ------
     Grand total                           943        1 112    13 010  77 959

     In connection with its decision to adopt the budget, the Council
considered the necessary budget authorizations which might be required by the
Rector to ensure the achievement of the objectives and to meet the defined
priorities of the University as agreed by the Council.  In this regard, the

     (a)             Authorized the Rector to transfer up to a total of 15 per
cent from headquarters' funds to the research and training centres and
programmes, also authorized the Rector to transfer up to a total of 15 per
cent from any budget line of the headquarters to the other budget lines of the
headquarters, with the proviso that any transfer which exceeds this
percentage shall require prior approval of the Council, noted that, with
respect to the budgets of the research and training centres and programmes,
any changes in line items must be approved by the Rector, and requested the
Rector to report to the Committee on Finance and Budget on all budget
transfers authorized by him;

     (b)             Further authorized the Rector to accept, allocate and
utilize additional funds which may be received by the University during the
biennium 1996-1997 for programme activities that have been approved by the
Council, and noted that any new programmes and projects to be undertaken by
the University which were not included in the approved biennial programme and
budget shall be approved by the Council before being implemented;

     (c)             Stipulated that the Rector shall consult the Council when
the University has to make expenditure commitments which would exceed the
total approved budget and all such actions shall be approved by the Council in
due course, and authorized the Bureau to take actions in this regard, if
necessary, at its meeting in July 1996.



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