United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

2 August 1996



General Assembly
Fifty-first session
Item 96 (c) of the provisional agenda*

*    A/51/150.


          Specific measures in favour of island developing countries

                         Note by the Secretary-General

1.   In paragraph 9 of its resolution 49/100 of 19 December 1994, the
General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to report to the
General Assembly at its fifty-first session on the implementation of
the resolution and, in recognition of the complementarity between the
follow-up to the 1994 Barbados Conference on Small Island Developing
States and ongoing island developing country programmes, also
requested the Secretary-General to take measures to provide for
integrated reporting on, and synergetic consideration of the issues of
island developing countries.

2.   Pursuant to that request, the Secretary-General has the honour to
transmit to the General Assembly the report of the secretariat of the
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (see annex).



          Report by the secretariat of the United Nations Conference
                           on Trade and Development


                                                              Paragraphs Page

 I.   INTRODUCTION .........................................     1 - 2     5

      ISLAND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ..........................     3 - 31    5

      A. The new approach to island-specific 
         characteristics ..................................      3 - 4     5

      B. Sustainable development strategies ...............      5 - 6     6

      C. Alleviating the intrinsic handicaps of island
         developing countries .............................      7 - 19    7

      D. Liberalization, globalization and sustainable
         development ......................................        20      8

      E. Enhancing the use of current trading opportunities        21      9

      F. Taking advantage of new trading opportunities ....     22 - 24    9

      G. Promoting a favourable environment to enhance
         specialization ...................................        25     10

      H. Developing sectoral information ..................        26     10

      I. Regional and international support measures ......     27 - 29   10

      J. The role of UNCTAD ...............................     30 - 31   11


      A. Germany ..........................................     32 - 33   11

      B. Japan ............................................     34 - 35   12

      C. Madagascar .......................................        36     12

      D. Malta ............................................        37     12

      E. Philippines ......................................        38     13

      F. Sweden ...........................................        39     13

      G. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
         Ireland ..........................................        40     13

      H. Venezuela ........................................     41 - 42   14


      A. United Nations bodies and programmes .............     43 - 62   15

         1.   Department for Policy Coordination and
              Sustainable Development ......................    43 - 44   15

         2.   Economic Commission for Latin America and the
              Caribbean ....................................       45     15

         3.   Economic and Social Commission for Asia and
              the Pacific ..................................    46 - 47   16

         4.   United Nations Conference on Trade and
              Development ..................................    48 - 58   16

         5.   United Nations Development Programme .........    59 - 62   19

      B. Specialized agencies and related organizations ...     63 - 78   19

         1.   Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
              United Nations ...............................    63 - 64   19

         2.   International Atomic Energy Agency ...........    65 - 66   20

         3.   International Civil Aviation Organization ....       67     20

         4.   International Fund for Agricultural 
              Development ..................................       68     21

         5.   International Labour Organization ............       69     21

         6.   International Maritime Organization ..........    70 - 71   22

         7.   International Monetary Fund ..................    72 - 73   22

         8.   International Telecommunication Union ........       74     23

         9.   Universal Postal Union .......................       75     23

         10.  World Tourism Organization ...................       76     23

         11.  World Trade Organization .....................    77 - 78   24

      ORGANIZATIONS ........................................    79 - 81   24

      A. Commonwealth Secretariat .........................        79     24

      B. Group of Latin American and Caribbean Sugar-
         Exporting Countries ..............................        80     25

      C. Islamic Development Bank .........................        81     25

                               I.  INTRODUCTION

1.   In paragraph 3 of its resolution 49/100 of 19 December 1994, the General
Assembly took note with appreciation of the report of the Secretary-General on
a development strategy for island developing countries (A/49/227 and Add.1 and
2).  In paragraph 5 of the same resolution, the Assembly called upon the
international community to implement all the commitments achieved and the
recommendations made at the 1994 Barbados Conference on Small Island
Developing States and to take the necessary action to give effective follow-up
to the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States 1/ and, in relation to trade and development issues with
respect to island developing countries, reiterated the appeals made in
paragraph 6 of General Assembly resolution 47/186 of 22 December 1992.  In
paragraph 6, the Assembly noted the valuable role of the United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in support of island developing
countries, as recalled in resolution 47/186, and welcomed the provision made
in its resolution 49/122 of 19 December 1994 for strengthening the capacity of
UNCTAD to carry out, in accordance with its mandate, the research and analysis
necessary to complement the work of the Department for Policy Coordination and
Sustainable Development of the Secretariat.

2.   As noted in the Secretary-General's covering note to the present report,
in resolution 49/100 the Secretary-General was requested to report to the
General Assembly at its fifty-first session on the implementation of the
resolution.  In paragraph 7 of the resolution, the Commission on Sustainable
Development was invited to convene, during its session in 1996, a high-level
panel to discuss the challenges faced by island developing countries,
particularly in the area of external trade.  UNCTAD was requested to organize
this panel in cooperation with the Department for Policy Coordination and
Sustainable Development.  The panel met at United Nations Headquarters in New
York on 22 and 23 April 1996.  The policy recommendations of the panel are
outlined in section II of the present report.  Furthermore, in accordance with
paragraph 5 of resolution 49/100, the Secretary-General of UNCTAD sent a note
verbale to all Governments of States members of UNCTAD as well as a letter to
international and intergovernmental organizations, requesting them to provide
him with information on the actions they had undertaken and on the policies
adopted in favour of island developing countries.  That information as well as
a brief review of UNCTAD's own work on the specific needs and problems of
island developing countries are presented in section III of the present


            A.  The new approach to island-specific characteristics

3.   Particular attention should be given to the evidence showing an
increasingly broad variety of socio-economic situations among island
developing countries.  As a result, the relationship between island-specific
handicaps related to smallness and remoteness on the one hand, and the
economic performance of island developing countries on the other hand has
become less straightforward than in the past.  Some small island economies
which used to be regarded as acutely disadvantaged have actually demonstrated
significant growth over time and are now classified among high-income
countries, while some of the larger and less remote among them are facing
severe challenges in the context of trade liberalization and globalization. 
In short, the nature of economic issues among island developing countries has
evolved, even though the disadvantages of "islandness" remain real in many
island developing countries.  This evolution of issues implies an evolution in
policy responses.

4.   In future analytical work, categorization of island developing countries
by type of specialization, performance or vulnerability should be systematic. 
This is necessary if one is to enhance awareness of the relationship between
their socio-economic performance and its underlying factors.  Consideration of
homogeneous subgroups of those countries can facilitate effective
cross-country analysis regarding them.  There are still common characteristics
and problems among island developing countries, but these characteristics and
problems will be more usefully dealt with within subgroups and through
comparisons between subgroups.  By studying island developing countries along
these lines, one can draw lessons from the successes or failures of some of
them with a view to helping other such countries to achieve progress towards
sustainable economic development.

                    B.  Sustainable development strategies

5.   The main challenge facing island developing countries is to adopt an
overall development strategy designed to reduce the vulnerability of their
economies and facilitate sustainable economic development.  Such a strategy
will have to be outward-oriented because trade in goods and services,
international capital flows and international migrations will continue to play
an important role in the development pattern of these countries.  Some
countries should however be encouraged to reduce their heavy dependence on
imports by striving to create more integrated production structures based on
available domestic resources in such areas as food and artisanal fisheries so
as to build up and maintain a nutritional "safety net".

6.   The development strategies of island developing countries should involve
macroeconomic policies that will take into consideration long-term
requirements for sustainable development in various sectors of the economy. 
These strategies should involve developing or strengthening the capacity to
assess the environmental effects of trade policies, to secure coordination
between environmental and trade policies, including cooperation between
environmental and trade officials in policy-making, and to promote
transparency vis-a`-vis the public in these processes.  To the extent
possible, the development strategies of island developing countries should
involve the utilization of relevant regional arrangements.  The role of the
private sector in formulating and implementing such strategies should be

                 C.  Alleviating the intrinsic handicaps of island
                     developing countries

7.   In an increasingly competitive global economy, island developing
countries are at a serious disadvantage because of the intrinsic weaknesses of
their economies that are a result of the range of adverse factors discussed
above.  They should, with the support of the international community, give
high priority to the following policy areas.

Human and institutional development

8.   Human resource and institutional infrastructure development should be
enhanced.  Special attention should be given to the development of return
incentives for skilled emigrants.  There is a need for special programmes of
"education for sustainable development" with special emphasis on changes in
attitudes and values and on cultivating island-specific cultures in response
to new socio-economic challenges.

9.   In view of the growing need of island developing countries for skilful
negotiations in international forums and with foreign investors, special
training programmes should be organized, with the support of the international
community, to develop the negotiating capacity of island policy makers.

10.  Efforts must be pursued to actively promote indigenous entrepreneurship. 
Returning migrants with entrepreneurial skills and capital should be provided
with an appropriate environment to make a contribution in this area.

11.  Measures to enhance socio-political stability and good governance and to
secure sound macroeconomic policies that will be conducive to private foreign
and domestic investment should be strongly encouraged.

Technology transfers

12.  Island developing countries should identify appropriate technology to
encourage environment-friendly diversification of production and trade,
facilitate adaptation to changing market conditions and compete

Natural resources

13.  Island developing countries should seek to exploit fully, within the
limits of sustainability, their agricultural potential and marine resources in
the exclusive economic zones by enhancing relevant skills and carrying out
specialized studies on the conservation, management and surveillance of these
resources.  Appropriate marketing structures and decentralized and affordable
credit facilities should be encouraged.


14.  Service sectors, particularly tourism and offshore financial services,
have proved to be significant factors of development in many island developing
countries.  In developing tourism, efforts should be made to encourage forward
and backward linkages with other sectors of the economy.  Proper management of
environmental assets, which is essential for the sustainability of tourism,
should be promoted.  Environmental considerations should be taken into account
in the development of new types of tourism such as eco-tourism and cultural
tourism, which are based on or associated with environmental assets and imply
environmental protection.

Transport and communications

15.  Innovative approaches to transport and communications development should
be promoted to facilitate access to such services at lower costs, particularly
for small and remote as well as archipelagic island developing countries. 
Projects to improve links with the main trading partners and inter-island
feeder services should receive special attention from donors, as such projects
often do not meet the normal commercial criteria.  International assistance
will be required to improve these countries' access to global trade
information facilities and new trading opportunities through the use of
telematic facilities such as Internet, and particularly through UNCTAD's
Global Trade Point Network.

Global hazards

16.  National regulations should be put in place to counter illicit uses of
offshore financial instruments.  Measures to prevent drug trafficking should
be enhanced through regional and international cooperative arrangements.

17.  Disaster preparedness and warning capabilities should be enhanced, and
measures to mitigate the effects of disasters should be integrated into
long-term development planning.

18.  Measures to mitigate the consequences of global warming and sealevel
rise should be a central part of development planning.

Efficiency of import regimes

19.  Small and remote island developing countries, with their heavy
dependence upon imports, need support to identify ways of reducing the costs
of imports.  This may include, inter alia, better access to competitive
sources of supplies, streamlining of import procedures and the establishment
of databases on international prices and the quality of import products.  Such
countries should also discourage imports of certain products which pose a
threat to their fragile environment.

         D.  Liberalization, globalization and sustainable development

20.   Sustainable economic development in island developing countries largely
rests on specialization in sectors that are not only viable economically but
also non-polluting (environment-neutral/friendly) or based on environmental
assets (for example, eco-tourism).  The question of specialization in the
pursuit of sustainable economic development is of particular importance.  The
implications for specialization of trade liberalization and globalization
should be further analysed with a view to maximizing the benefits of new
trading opportunities.  

            E.  Enhancing the use of current trading opportunities

21.  The capacity of island developing countries to better exploit existing
trade preferences should be strengthened.  In spite of the erosion of
preferential margins, schemes under the generalized system of preferences
(GSP) are expected to continue to play a significant role in facilitating the
participation of island developing countries in international trade.  Rules of
origin criteria should be more flexibly defined.  Preference-giving countries
should be encouraged to accept relatively higher proportions of third-country
inputs in the manufacturing of export goods and should provide for simple
administration of documentary and shipment requirements.  Other measures to
enhance the effectiveness of GSP schemes should include the extension of
product coverage to more goods of export interest to island developing
countries (e.g. tropical products, leather goods, textiles and clothing) and
the harmonization of GSP rules of origin among preference-giving countries.

               F.  Taking advantage of new trading opportunities

22.  Island developing countries should analyse their specialization pattern,
identify new trading opportunities in goods and services, and devise national
policies for trade diversification.  Action in this respect could involve
detailed national studies, for those countries seeking to enhance their
specialization, of their current specialization (factors, structure, etc.),
respecialization potential, and new trading opportunities in areas of goods or
services (including for "niche" markets) in the regional and international
trading environment.  National policies should be devised to warrant
successful diversification in these countries.

23.  Developing the capacity of island developing countries to identify new
trading opportunities is essential for these countries.  This could be
achieved through systematic analysis, at the national level, of the
implications of changes in market access for island exports, considering the
existing pattern of trade and the potential for diversification.  The
development of trade information capacities through global communications
facilities should be actively pursued in this connection.  Generally, more
technical assistance will need to be devoted to the identification of new
trading opportunities and dissemination of findings.

24.  Awareness of the new rights and obligations resulting from the Uruguay
Round is also essential for island developing countries which are or will be
members of the World Trade Organization (WTO).  This implies continued
technical assistance to facilitate the implementation of market access
commitments and enable them to implement legislative and regulatory changes
with regard to tariff policies, non-tariff measures and the new issues (TRIMs
and TRIPs in particular).  

       G.  Promoting a favourable environment to enhance specialization

25.  In order to enhance their specialization or, whenever necessary,
"re-specialize", island developing countries need to create an "enabling"
environment for investment, diversification and trade expansion.  A useful
input, to that end, would be the preparation at a global level of a policy
paper on the areas of action to be taken into consideration to enhance the
specialization of such a country (investment, technology, trade, human
resources development).  Detailed policy recommendations could then be
provided to individual island developing countries on investment, technology,
domestic support services, and trade, including the adaptation of national
trade policies to the new multilateral trade framework.  Human resources for
investment attraction, technological development and trade expansion should
also be developed in the perspective of enhanced specialization.

                      H.  Developing sectoral information

26.  Action should be taken to raise the level of awareness of opportunities
for enhanced specialization in goods or services that are of special interest
to island developing countries.  This could involve developing a database on
sectoral specialization in these countries; establishing an inventory of
sectoral activities and related trading opportunities of potential interest to
island developing countries that seek to enhance their specialization; and
carrying out special in-depth studies of selected sectors of goods and
services, with particular focus on conditions for success and anticipated

                I.  Regional and international support measures

27.  The donor community is called upon to provide island developing
countries with the required financial and technical assistance in support of
their domestic efforts in the critical areas that have been elaborated on
above.  Given the particularly acute resource constraints and the volatility
of export earnings in most island developing countries, international
assistance should continue to be provided on highly concessional terms and
over a long time-frame.  The terms and conditions of such assistance,
including the procedures for aid delivery, should be flexible and simplified.

28.  In view of the small size constraint faced by many island developing
countries, special efforts should be made to promote regional cooperation
arrangements that offer a viable framework for realizing economies of scale in
various economic activities, particularly with regard to resource
exploitation, protection and policing of coast lines and exclusive economic
zones, environmental protection, market access, development and sharing of
human resources, expansion of inter-island feeder services, tourism
development and exchange of information on successes and failures in various
areas of development.

29.  Subregional, regional and international organizations dealing with
trade-related issues should stand ready to provide the required technical
assistance to strengthen the efficiency of the external sectors of island
developing countries, including their capacity to negotiate in international
forums and with foreign partners such as private investors.  The Alliance of
Small Island States (AOSIS) played an important role in the negotiating
process during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. 
Island developing countries should seek to organize themselves in a similar
manner in other areas of international negotiations.

                            J.  The role of UNCTAD

30.  UNCTAD, in its field of competence and in collaboration with relevant
regional and international organizations as well as non-governmental
organizations, should be prepared to extend to island developing countries its
technical cooperation capacity in respect of policies for sustainable economic
development.  A technical cooperation framework in favour of island developing
countries should be formulated along these lines and provide, inter alia, for
enhancing their international competitiveness and specialization in goods and
services.  UNCTAD should carry out specialization strategy studies at the
national level to assist such countries in exploiting new trading
opportunities and enhancing their specialization.  Areas of policy assistance
should involve investment, trade, technology, development of small and
medium-sized enterprises, and human resources development.

31.  It is recommended that a second meeting of island developing countries
and donor countries, similar to the one convened in 1990 pursuant to General
Assembly resolution 43/189 of 20 December 1988, be organized by UNCTAD by
mid-1997 to assess, inter alia, the progress in the implementation of the
recommendations of this panel, and review the activities carried out or
planned within the framework of the technical cooperation project mentioned


                                  A.  Germany

32.  Germany has financed bilateral projects in several island developing
countries.  In Africa, three projects are under way, amounting to a total of
DM 12.15 million.  Beneficiary countries are Mauritius, Sao Tome and Principe
and Seychelles.  In the Pacific, two projects, worth a total of DM 4.5
million, were financed in Papua New Guinea in 1995.  Additionally, several
States in the region have benefited from technical cooperation through funds
granted for actions undertaken by NGOs.  In the Caribbean, Germany has
provided technical cooperation, in a variety of areas, to Jamaica.  Technical
cooperation projects are also promoted in collaboration with regional
organizations such as the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) and
the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) (in the areas of environmental conservation
and vocational training) and the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (in the area of

33.  In addition to the above assistance, Germany has signed bilateral
treaties for the promotion and protection of foreign investment with Barbados,
Cape Verde, Cuba (initialled), Dominica, Jamaica, Malta, Mauritius, Papua New
Guinea, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Singapore.  The
treaties with Barbados, Cuba and Jamaica are not yet in force.

                                   B.  Japan

34.  In the Pacific, Japan provides, on a yearly basis, a contribution
amounting to US$ 600,000 for its Small-scale Industrial Development Programme
and Energy Development Programme, which are implemented by the South Pacific
Forum secretariat.  Every year since 1994, Japan has also provided $250,000 in
funding for and organized an annual seminar aimed at promoting exports of
goods from the South Pacific island developing countries.  It is further
expected that in October 1996, a South Pacific Island Centre will be opened in
Tokyo to enhance trade, investment and tourism between Japan and Pacific
island developing countries.

35.  At the Third Japan-CARICOM Countries Consultation Meeting, held in
January 1995, it was agreed that Japan and the Caribbean countries would
continue to discuss Japanese assistance for possible projects in areas such as
prevention of hurricane-related disasters, management of tourism resources,
funding for grass-roots development and the establishment of a cooperation
fund for medical projects.  In order to assist in the formulation of project
proposals, Japan proposed to send specialists to the CARICOM secretariat and
to follow up the process on both sides.

                                C.  Madagascar

36.  Madagascar is relatively distant from the major international markets. 
This situation, together with its poor air and maritime connections, are
factors leading to the loss of competitiveness of its exports.  The absence of
direct maritime links to the relevant markets necessitates the recourse to
transshipments, which increase the risks of export operations.  Moreover,
low-value, perishable goods, such as fruits and vegetables, cannot be
exported, owing to the prohibitive air transport cost.  The Government of
Madagascar has thus elaborated a project for the establishment of adequate
cold storage facilities at ports and airports, in order to facilitate the
export of perishable and other goods that require cold storage.  It is
expected that this project will be partly financed by international donors. 
Other factors affecting the competitiveness of Madagascar exports are the high
cost of telecommunications and the limited access to information on
international markets.

                                   D.  Malta

37.  The Government of Malta collaborates on an ongoing basis with the
Islands and Small States Institute of the University of Malta in research and
training activities related to island developing countries.  An important
topic of research has been the analysis of the intrinsic disabilities of
island developing countries, resulting from factors such as small size, high
transport costs and proneness to natural disasters, lending a great deal of
vulnerability to the economies of such countries, including those that are
apparently economically better off.

                                E.  Philippines

38.  In 1995, the Government of the Philippines sponsored a Regional Workshop
on the Role of Women in Fisheries Development, with the participation of the
following island developing countries:  Fiji, Indonesia, Kiribati, Maldives,
Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands and Tonga.  The workshop
formulated and adopted the Iloilo Resolution on the Role of Women in Fisheries
Development in Asia and the Pacific, which was endorsed by the Fourth World
Conference on Women held at Beijing in 1995.  As a follow-up to the workshop,
the Government of the Philippines sponsored, in 1996, the Regional Database
Workshop for Women in Fisheries Development, aimed at documenting and
enhancing the participation of women in fisheries development and hastening
and promoting the generation of a database, as well as networking and
information exchanges among Asia/Pacific and South Pacific countries.  Papua
New Guinea, Philippines and Sri Lanka participated in the workshop.

                                  F.  Sweden

39.  Sweden contributed, as a member of the Asian Fund for Development, to
lending with highly concessional terms to the Cook Islands, Kiribati,
Maldives, the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Solomon
Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa.  Other island countries
(Fiji, Nauru, and Papua New Guinea) also receive concessional development
assistance financed by contributions from donors to the Asian Fund. 
Assistance via multilateral channels is seen as having a greater impact in
small economies, and as being a more cost-efficient way of reaching out to
remote island developing countries, especially those where Sweden does not
have an official representation.  For these reasons, Sweden is making efforts
to increase its participation in the Caribbean Development Bank.

           G.  United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

40.  During the period from 1990 to 1995, the United Kingdom's bilateral aid
to island developing States amounted to about 295 million, with a peak of
91,118 million in 1990/91 and a low of 36,921 million in 1994/95.  Technical
cooperation (project) aid during the period was approximately 91 million, or
about 30 per cent of the total.  The main beneficiaries were Antigua and
Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Fiji, Grenada, Jamaica, Kiribati, Mauritius,
Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and Vanuatu. 
The United Kingdom also makes substantial contributions to island developing
countries in the form of multilateral aid, including through the European

                                 H.  Venezuela

41.  Venezuela's cooperation programmes for Central America and the Caribbean
are being conducted, inter alia, through the Programme for Energy Cooperation
(San Jose' Agreement), bilateral programmes, the Special Fund for the
Caribbean and other multilateral arrangements with the Inter-American
Development Bank, the Central American Bank for Economic Integration, the
World Bank and the Export Financing Fund.  In addition, the Investment Fund of
Venezuela disbursed a total of about US$ 2.5 million, in the 1975-1995 period,
to finance activities in Central America and the Caribbean.

42.  Under the Programme for Energy Cooperation (Agreement of San Jose'),
initiated in 1980, Venezuela has supplied 80,000 barrels per day of crude oil
to 11 Caribbean and Central American countries, including four island
developing countries (Barbados, Haiti, Jamaica and Dominican Republic), with
discounts ranging from 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the purchases.  The
beneficiary countries have used an amount of about US$ 1.3 million, derived
from this facility, to finance 142 development projects for which the
Investment Fund of Venezuela provided long-term credit.  The new mechanism
approved by the Investment Fund of Venezuela allows for the use of that
facility for purchases by the private sector.  The Special Fund for the
Caribbean, established in 1979, provides technical assistance to Caribbean
countries and territories.  Fifteen per cent of this assistance is in the form
of grants and the remaining is to be used for credit of up to 15 years, at
interest rates not exceeding 2 per cent.  By the end of 1996, the Fund will
have disbursed $13.3 million.  The Export Financing Fund is negotiating the
reactivation of lines of credit for Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, the
Dominican Republic, Grenada and Saint Lucia.  Additionally, credit lines
established within the framework of the Andean Financial Corporation to
promote commerce between its member countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru and Venezuela) and the Caribbean and Central American countries have
already been used by Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago.


                    A.  United Nations bodies and programmes

                    1.  Department for Policy Coordination and
                        Sustainable Development

43.  In response to resolution 49/100, the Department for Policy Coordination
and Sustainable Development collaborated with UNCTAD in the organization of
the High-level Panel on trade issues regarding island developing countries,
which met on 22 and 23 April 1996 during the fourth session of the Commission
on Sustainable Development.  It prepared a report on action taken by the
organs, organizations and bodies of the United Nations system to implement the
Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing
States (A/50/422 and Add.1) for the fiftieth session of the General Assembly. 
To assist the Commission on Sustainable Development in carrying out the review
of the implementation of the Programme of Action, the Department has prepared
three reports, on sustainable tourism development in small island developing
States, energy resources for those States and current donor activities in
support of their sustainable development.  It has also coordinated the
preparation of reports on telecommunications in such States and on management
of natural and environmental disasters in them.

44.  Other action in favour of island developing countries included the
establishment, within the Department, of a Small Island Developing States Unit
to carry out the functions specified in paragraph 123 of the Programme of
Action and the preparation of a report on selected sources of funding for
environmental projects accessible to small island developing States.

                 2.  Economic Commission for Latin America and the
                     Caribbean (ECLAC)

45.  ECLAC, through its Division for the Environment and Development,
undertakes several activities in which special attention is given to topics of
interest to small island developing countries.  For instance, under a proposal
on strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of the coastal and
marine biodiversity, criteria are being formulated for the application of the
Convention on Biological Diversity to marine environments.  This work
encompasses, in an integrated manner, issues related to the integrated
management of coastal zones and hydrographical basins, the application of the
Global Programme of Action for the Protection of Marine Environments to inland
activities and specific actions for the mitigation of the adverse effects of
climate change.  This type of approach meets the need for protection of
fragile ecosystems, such as those of small island developing countries, and
responds to various chapters of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States.  Furthermore, within the
framework of its technical assistance activities for the application of the
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
and their Disposal, ECLAC works directly with the secretariat of the
Convention in the establishment of a regional framework for training and
technological transfer in the area of waste management and minimization.

                3.  Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
                    Pacific (ESCAP)

46.  ESCAP, through its Pacific Operations Centre (ESCAP/POC), has
commissioned consultancies and provided advisory services to the Pacific
island developing countries.  ESCAP/POC currently has an advisory strength of
nine advisers covering such diverse areas as economic and financial
management, development and strategic planning, physical planning, sustainable
development, social development, women in development, trade and investment,
and ports and harbours development.  The number of ESCAP/POC advisory missions
to Pacific island countries rose from 80 in 1994 to 106 in 1995.  Efforts are
currently being made to equip the Centre with two additional advisers,
respectively in project appraisal and evaluation, and in human
settlements/physical planning.  These are some of the priority areas
identified by Pacific island developing countries.

47.  In addition to ESCAP/POC activities, the ESCAP secretariat (Bangkok) has
undertaken several actions in favour of island developing countries.  These
include, inter alia, the following:  a project on enhancement of national
capabilities for export of processed food products from six island developing
countries, including four least developed countries (Maldives, Samoa, Solomon
Islands and Vanuatu), which is under implementation; technical assistance to
Fiji and Papua New Guinea in the area of trade information; a subregional
seminar on trade policy issues to sensitize policy makers from Pacific island
developing countries to recent developments in the international trade
environment, especially the implications of the Uruguay Round agreements for
these countries; advisory services to Fiji on its export potential; advisory
services to Vanuatu on its accession to the World Trade Organization, and to
Fiji, Maldives, New Caledonia, Tonga and Vanuatu on the framework for
promoting micro-level efficiencies in the conduct of international trade. 
Furthermore, several studies dealing with subjects of specific interest to
Pacific island developing countries have been published.

            4.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

48.  Several General Assembly resolutions, over the last 20 years, have
mandated the UNCTAD secretariat to monitor, analyse and bring to the attention
of the international community the particular problems of island developing
countries, especially those relating to the implications of smallness and
remoteness. UNCTAD's work has mainly been organized through expert group
meetings and special studies on subjects of importance to island developing

49.  UNCTAD's action in the implementation of resolution 49/100 has comprised
the following three areas:  (a) the organization of a high-level panel meeting
on island developing countries; (b) research and analysis related to the
particular problems and needs of those countries, including support to the
work of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development;
and (c) provision of technical assistance and advisory services to island
developing countries.

(a)  High-level panel

50.  As indicated in paragraph 2 above, a high-level panel meeting on island
developing countries was held in New York on 22 and 23 April 1996.  The
panel's report was presented on 24 April 1996 to the Commission on Sustainable
Development at its fourth session.  The UNCTAD secretariat prepared the
following documentation to facilitate the deliberations of the panel:

     -   An issue paper entitled "Development challenges facing island
         developing countries:  basic issues and prospects in the context of
         trade liberalization and globalization"; 2/

     -   Two regional papers:  "Trade issues and development prospects of
         island developing countries of the Caribbean", by Dennis Pantin, 3/
         and "Trade issues and development prospects of island developing
         countries of the Pacific", by Peter Osborne. 4/

(b)  Research and analysis

51.  UNCTAD has been preparing a publication entitled "Island developing
countries:  trade issues and sustainable economic development".  This volume,
which will be published in 1996, comprises 10 chapters dealing with economic
performance, specific disadvantages and advantages, the impact of trade
liberalization and globalization on island developing economies, development
options in the areas of goods and services, regional cooperation for trade
development in the Caribbean and in the Pacific and UNCTAD's technical
cooperation in favour of island developing countries.  It will also include a
statistical annex.

52.  UNCTAD's global mandate also calls for support to the implementation of
the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island
Developing States.  This role, as pointed out in paragraph 127 of the
Programme of Action, involves "the research and analysis necessary to
complement the work of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
Development".  Two chapters of the above-mentioned publication also constitute
UNCTAD's response to a recommendation of the Barbados Programme of Action in
its paragraph 99, which requested that "a study should be undertaken on the
effects of trade liberalization and globalization on the sustainable
development of small island developing States".  A concise version of UNCTAD's
work on this subject was incorporated in the issue paper presented to the
high-level panel in April 1996. Further work in this regard addresses
environmental concerns to ensure that all economic decisions in island
developing countries will be environment-friendly.

53.  UNCTAD is also, in collaboration with the International Maritime
Organization (IMO), the task manager on maritime transport in the framework of
the implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action.  In this capacity,
UNCTAD presented to the Commission on Sustainable Development at its fourth
session (April 1996) a report of the Secretary-General entitled "Maritime
transport in small island developing States". 5/

54.  In response to a request from the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP) office in Barbados, UNCTAD is pursuing methodological work with a view
to conducting a pilot study on measuring economic vulnerability in island
developing countries.  This work follows a preliminary study carried out by
UNCTAD in 1992 6/ and is envisaged as an input to future work at a coordinated
level on the construction of an indicator as envisaged by the Barbados
Programme of Action in its paragraphs 113 and 114 ("vulnerability index").

(c)  Provision of technical assistance and advisory services

55.  In accordance with a recommendation of the high-level panel on island
developing countries (April 1996), UNCTAD is preparing three regional projects
of technical cooperation in trade-related policies for the Caribbean, the
Atlantic/Indian Ocean region and the Pacific.  These projects are designed to
extend to these regions the relevant capacity of UNCTAD to assist island
developing countries in the context of trade liberalization and globalization
resulting from the Uruguay Round, which entails significant challenges for
most of those countries.

56.  UNCTAD is also participating in an inter-agency project of technical
assistance to the Government of Haiti in the area of trade and investment

57.  In the framework of the Trainfortrade programme of UNCTAD, the following
training activities have been conducted since January 1995:

     -   A training seminar on trade and the environment was held in Saint
         Kitts and Nevis in January 1995 for countries of the OECS region;

     -   A training seminar on The New Multilateral Trade Framework and its
         Implications for CARICOM Countries was held in Saint Vincent and the
         Grenadines in March 1995 for countries of the OECS region;

     -   A training seminar on risk management in commodity trading was held
         in Fiji in April 1996 for ACP countries of the Pacific;

     -   A training seminar on The new multilateral trade framework and its
         implications for Pacific island developing countries was held in
         Fiji in May 1996 for ACP countries of the Pacific;

     -   A training seminar on national trade policy in the context of
         multilateral trade was held in Cape Verde in July 1996 for three
         countries, including Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe.

58.  Other specific activities pertaining to the following areas of technical
cooperation or research programmes of UNCTAD have benefited island developing
countries:  competition policy; generalized Systems of Preferences and other
trade laws; development of trade in services; Automated Systems for Customs
Data (ASYCUDA); trade efficiency (Global Trade Points Network); economic
cooperation among developing countries; trade and the environment;
entrepreneurship development; TRAINMAR (Training human resources in maritime

                   5.  United Nations Development Programme

59.  Most island developing countries have placed emphasis on UNDP's support
to natural resources management, human resource development, poverty
alleviation and management development, particularly in the public sector. 
Activities are carried out in the framework of individual country programmes
as well as subregional and regional programmes.

60.  In the Caribbean, members and associate members of the Organization of
Eastern Caribbean States have benefited from the Fifth Multi-island Programme
(1992-1996) for the Eastern Caribbean, which concentrates on management
development, environmental protection, natural resources management and
poverty reduction ($4 million).  The Caribbean component of the Fourth
Regional Programme for Latin America and the Caribbean has also provided
technical assistance in the amount of $7 million for the countries of CARICOM.

61.  In the Pacific, UNDP has been one of the lead agencies for preparing the
initial Sustainable Human Development Situation Analysis (SHDSA) of the
Pacific island countries.  Three programmes in which UNDP plays an active role
are:  (a) basic education and life skills (to improve the quality of primary
education); (b) fiscal and monetary management and reform and statistical
improvement (involving technical advice and training in areas such as
effective management of government expenditure, efficient collection of
government revenue, effective supervision of commercial banks and improved
compilation and analysis of balance of payments and national accounts
statistics); (c) disaster reduction (to mitigate the effects of natural
disasters by developing the necessary human resources and institutional
capacity to reduce their impact).

62.  Two areas of the Barbados Programme of Action have been receiving
particular UNDP attention:  the establishment of a collaborative network
(SIDS/NET) to facilitate access by small island developing States to vital
environmental information; and the implementation of a technical assistance
programme (SIDS/TAP) to reduce capacity-building constraints relating to the
main chapters of the Programme of Action.

              B.  Specialized agencies and related organizations

       1.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

63.  In order to better respond to the needs of island developing countries,
FAO has established subregional offices in the South Pacific (Samoa) and the
Caribbean (Barbados).  Furthermore, FAO is in the process of developing
subregional programmes of action on sustainable development in agriculture,
forestry and fisheries for these subregions.  One of the main objectives of
these programmes is to review ongoing relevant efforts by FAO and other
development partners with a view to identifying gaps and areas of
complementarity and defining areas for future involvement that avoid
overlapping of initiatives and that can effectively contribute to sustainable
development in the agricultural sector.  Technical consultations will be held
in both subregions in order to promote discussions and agreements on common
needs in the areas of agriculture, forestry and fisheries.

64.  The FAO Committee on Fisheries in March 1995 endorsed the creation of a
Fisheries Technical Assistance Programme for small island developing States,
focusing on the following priority areas, as identified by countries:
institutional strengthening and capacity-building; conservation and management
of fisheries in the exclusive economic zone; improved post-harvest management
and marketing; safety at sea; strengthening the economic role of national
fisheries industries; and aquaculture and inland fisheries conservation and
management.  Other activities in favour of island developing countries
include, inter alia, the eradication of transboundary diseases; post-hurricane
rehabilitation of agricultural infrastructure, crop and livestock in the
Caribbean; harmonization of pesticide regulations in the Caribbean; training
on farming systems for rural development in the Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New
Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Western Samoa and Vanuatu; and the development
of subregional strategies on soil conservation and rehabilitation for insular

                 2.  International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

65.  IAEA, through its Marine Environment Laboratory, is intensifying its
activities in small island developing States.  It is involved in pilot
monitoring programmes (e.g., using corals as historical recorders of
micro-pollutants) as well as in capacity-building and quality assurance
activities in island States of the Caribbean and East African regions.  IAEA
supports studies involving isotopic and nuclear techniques to study
retrospective conditions (climate, sealevel, pollution) and to provide time
scales for small islands evolution.  In collaboration with other agencies,
IAEA has been active in the International Mussel Watch project, which was set
up to assess the global distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants. 
In close cooperation with IMO and the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP), a Joint Working Group on the Safe Carriage of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel
by Sea has been established to consider all activities in which transport of
nuclear materials falls under the responsibilities of two or more
organizations.  The Group recommended the adoption of a draft code of practice
for the safe carriage of irradiated fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive
wastes on board ships.

66.  Other activities responding to often expressed concerns of island
developing countries include the development of a code of practice on the
transboundary movement of radioactive waste; and ongoing work aimed at a
convention on the safety of radioactive waste management.

             3.  International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

67.  In recognition of the crucial importance of adequate and efficient air
services for island developing countries, ICAO has continued efforts to
strengthen services and facilities in this area, with particular attention to
environmental protection, safety and innovative, energy-efficient and low-cost
transport solutions.  ICAO has also been active in fostering cooperation at
the regional level, including through encouraging the consolidation of
national airline services.  Within its technical cooperation activities,
assistance has been provided in such areas as training in various fields of
civil aviation (Bahamas and Maldives); preparation of master plans for the
development of civil aviation facilities (Cape Verde); development of civil
aviation legislation (Fiji and Haiti); aeronautical information manuals (Sao
Tome and Principe); and preparation of specifications and evaluation of bids
for airport development (Trinidad and Tobago).  In Fiji, ICAO assisted in the
preparation of a project for the upgrading of the civil aviation centre,
including the introduction of the ICAO TRAINAIR concept and membership.

          4.  International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

68.  IFAD continues to give increasing importance to the needs of developing
countries, including island developing countries.  It provides funding for
projects and programmes specifically designed to support food production
systems and to strengthen relevant policies and institutions within the
framework of national priorities and strategies.  The Fund gives particular
attention to, inter alia, the need to increase food production in the poorest
food-deficit countries; the potential for increasing food production in other
developing member countries; and the importance of increasing the nutritional
levels of the poorest segments of the populations of small island developing
countries, many of which are low-income and have food deficits.  In the period
between 1978 and 1995, IFAD provided US$ 59.09 million in loans and $0.18
million in grants to finance several development projects in island developing
countries.  In 1994, a $3.5 million loan to Comoros helped finance a project
to support economic grass-roots initiatives, and in 1995 $2.92 was loaned to
Maldives to finance the development of southern atolls.  Projects scheduled
for approval in 1996 include two loans for rural enterprise development in
Dominica and in Saint Lucia, for $2.6 million and $2.2 million, respectively.

                  5.  International Labour Organization (ILO)

69.  Technical cooperation assistance to island developing countries in 1995
amounted to about $10.5 million, representing approximately 9.8 per cent of
ILO expenditure on operational activities in that year.  However, well over
half of this assistance went to four countries, namely, Madagascar, Indonesia,
the Philippines and Sri Lanka.  The share of projects in island developing
countries, in terms of total new project approvals declined from 14.5 per cent
in 1994 to 9.3 per cent in 1995.  This decline was to a large extent,
attributable to changes in United Nations funding, which are marked by a shift
from project-based operations to a programme approach.  Technical services
provided to island developing countries include such areas as employment,
human resource and enterprise development.  Several island developing
countries sought ILO's support in connection with the introduction of
austerity measures under structural adjustment programmes.  Furthermore,
increased attention has been given to issues relating to industrial relations
and working conditions, as well as to the implementation of Agenda 21, and the
need to reinforce national capacities and the overall sustainability of
programmes.  The major beneficiaries of ILO assistance to island developing
countries have been Cape Verde, Comoros, Fiji, Indonesia, Madagascar,
Maldives, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Solomon
Islands, Sri Lanka and Trinidad and Tobago. Sizeable new projects were also
approved in 1995 for Haiti and Sao Tome and Principe.

                    6.  International Maritime Organization

70.  IMO is currently seeking financial support for the re-establishment of a
Regional Maritime Safety Adviser in the Caribbean to assist the region's
island countries and territories in the establishment of maritime
administrations, the development of national shipping legislation and
regulations, the implementation of national safety programmes and the
examination of seafarers.  IMO is also continuing its activities under the
Wider Caribbean Initiative for Ship-Generated Wastes, which is a $5.5 million
programme initiated in 1993 to assist Caribbean island countries and
Territories in ratifying and implementing the International Convention for the
Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships.  Assistance has been provided to
Caribbean island developing countries in the development of national and
regional contingency plans for the control and combat of marine pollution from
ships.  In order to provide further assistance to these countries and
Territories, IMO has established a Regional Marine Pollution Emergency
Information and Training Centre in Curac'ao, with support from the Netherlands
and the United States of America.

71.  In the South Pacific, through the South Pacific Regional Environment
Programme, IMO has provided advisory services to the region's island
developing countries for the development of a regional strategy for the
protection of the marine environment.  The main areas in this respect are,
inter alia, marine pollution emergency responses, waste disposal at sea, port
estuarine and coastal environment, collection of baseline information and
identification and assessment of pollution problems, as well as legal and
institutional aspects.  Furthermore, a mission was sent to the South Pacific
in 1995 to assess the capacities and needs of the region's maritime training
institutions and to advise them on the implementation of the International
Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for
Seafarers (1978).  IMO has also carried out a series of seminars on the
facilitation of maritime traffic, to assist South Pacific island developing
countries to effectively implement the IMO Convention dealing with this
subject (FAL 1965).  The seminars focused principally on the establishment of
national FAL Committees and the use of electronic data interchange to improve
and standardize practices and procedures related to the entry, stay and
departure of ships from the ports of the region.

                     7.  International Monetary Fund (IMF)

72.  By the end of 1995, the outstanding use of IMF resources under all
facilities by island developing countries totalled SDR 1.32 billion (or
US$ 1.97 billion).  Moreover, a three-year arrangement was approved under the
Extended Fund Facility for the Philippines for an amount of SDR 474.5 million,
of which SDR 36.5 million was disbursed as of end-December 1995.  Stand-by
arrangements were approved for Haiti (SDR 20 million) and for Papua New Guinea
(SDR 71.48 million).  By end-December 1995, disbursements under these
arrangements amounted, respectively, to SDR 16.4 million and SDR 33.34

73.  IMF has also provided technical assistance to several island developing
countries.  Of particular interest is the establishment, in 1993, of the
Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre in Fiji, in a joint project with
UNDP and the Asian Development Bank.  The Centre has three technical experts
from the Fund to provide technical assistance for several island developing
countries in the region in areas such as tax administration, budget planning,
banking supervision and national accounts.

                8.  International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

74.  In 1995, ITU initiated, jointly with the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), a pilot project on access to
telematics facilities in the Caribbean region.  This project, which is
considered to be a test bed for the future SIDSNET, was also supported by
several other international organizations.  In the preparation for this pilot
project, contacts and needs assessment studies were carried out in many
Caribbean island developing countries, including Barbados, Saint Lucia and
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.  In addition, a mission representing UNESCO
and the International Council for Scientific and Technical Information, in
collaboration with ITU, was fielded in February 1995 to assess recent
developments and the commitment of concerned national and regional
organizations and to finalize plans for the pilot project.  The mission's
findings indicated an increased awareness about telematics, in particular the
Internet, in the region.  Other ITU activities in favour of island developing
countries include cooperation with the South Pacific Forum to provide
workshops and seminars for the region's island developing countries,
collaboration with the Caribbean News Agency (CANA), UNDP and UNESCO in the
establishment of a regional satellite news network, and assistance in disaster
communication issues.  Furthermore, ITU is preparing to undertake pilot
studies on rural telecommunications in several Caribbean countries.

                       9.  Universal Postal Union (UPU)

75.  Within its limited resources, UPU has provided assistance to several
island developing countries in such areas as sectoral and programmatic
support; restructuring of postal services; postal legislation; training;
review of operational procedures; and provision of informatic and postal
equipment.  Furthermore, a regional adviser has been placed in Saint Lucia to
provide technical assistance to Caribbean developing countries.

                     10.  World Tourism Organization (WTO)

76.  The World Tourism Organization envisages the organization, towards the
end of 1996, of an expert group meeting on tourism development in small
islands.  It is expected that the recommendations from the meeting will take
into account not only the main Agenda 21 principles, but factors that are
specific to tourism in small islands.

                      11.  World Trade Organization (WTO)

77.  The Uruguay Round agreements do not make a distinction between "island
developing countries" and "developing countries".  However, some developed
members of WTO have recently made provisions for WTO assistance to island
developing countries with a view to assisting them in taking advantage of the
opportunities presented by the Uruguay Round.  New Zealand, for example,
donated an amount of NZ$ 200,000 to WTO, to be spent equally over a period of
two years, to assist Pacific island developing countries which are members of
WTO in complying with their notifications and other obligations under the WTO
Agreement.  These funds are also to be used to assist other Pacific island
developing countries in the process of acceding to WTO.  A Norwegian trust
fund was also set up, within WTO, to provide targeted technical assistance to
developing countries, especially the least developed ones, in order to
facilitate their integration in the multilateral trading system.  The European
Union has provided financing for eight regional seminars to explain to
developing countries the results of the Uruguay Round and the opportunities
and benefits that those countries could derive from it.  Several island
developing countries will benefit from these seminars.

78.  Overall, island developing countries should benefit from the substantial
tariff cuts that were made on products of export interest to them.  In due
course, they should benefit from the elimination of restraints on exports of
textiles and clothing imposed under the Multi-Fibre Arrangement and from the
commitments made in agriculture, such as the reduction of trade-distorting
measures of domestic support, and the capping and reduction of export
subsidies.  Furthermore, two WTO bodies, the Committee on Trade and
Development and its Subcommittee on the Least Developed Countries, are in the
process of formulating policies that could be adopted to enhance the
participation of developing countries, particularly the least developed
countries, in the multilateral trading system.


                         A.  Commonwealth Secretariat

79.  In the area of trade, the Commonwealth Secretariat has given high
priority to assisting member Governments in assessing the implications for
their economies of the Uruguay Round agreements and other changes in the
international trading system.  Activities in this area include, inter alia,
the organization of a workshop on the above issues, in collaboration with
CARICOM, and the undertaking of several studies.  In the area of financing,
advice and other assistance is being provided on economic policies and debt
management.  A major initiative has been the Commonwealth Private Investment
Initiative to assist member countries, including island developing countries,
in accessing private sources of finance and channelling long-term commercial
investment to small and medium-sized enterprises in these countries.  In the
area of the environment, a pan-Commonwealth workshop was organized in Malta
with the participation of senior policy makers of several island developing
countries.  Other activities in favour of island developing countries include
assistance in the management of water resources and coastal zones, in the
identification of biological resources and in training in the mitigation of
the adverse effects of natural disasters.  Human resources development has
also received special attention and, in this context, support has been
provided for faculty development and the establishment of specialized regional
programmes for management skills at the University of the West Indies, the
University of the South Pacific and other regional management development

             B.  Group of Latin American and Caribbean Sugar-Exporting
                 Countries (GEPLACEA)

80.  Island developing countries that are members of GEPLACEA benefit from
technical assistance for the improvement of the sugar agribusiness and the
development of derived products and by-products.  The Group also assists
member countries in developing policies related to sugar and in enhancing
capacities in the areas of international marketing of sugar and international
sugar agreements.  In the field of training, a seminar on the international
marketing of sugar in the New York exchange market is foreseen for September
1996 and, in collaboration with UNCTAD, a Trainfortrade seminar is being
prepared for the upgrading of skills in the area of sugar marketing.

                         C.  Islamic Development Bank

81.  In 1995, the Islamic Development Bank approved financing for one project
in the Comoros, on rehabilitation and strengthening of the system of supply of
gases, for an amount of $861,000, and two projects in Maldives:  a regional
secondary school ($2.323 million) and four regional hospitals ($3.585
million).  Both the Comoros and Maldives are least developed countries and
members of the Bank.  The projects were financed under a programme entitled
"Special Account of the Least Developed Member Countries", which offers highly
concessionary loans, with terms varying between 25 and 30 years, including a
10-year grace period, and a service fee of 0.75 per cent per annum.


     1/  Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States, Bridgetown, 25 April-6 May 1994 (United
Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.I.18 and corrigenda), chap. I, resolution
1, annex II.

     2/  UNCTAD/LLDC/IDC/2.

     3/  UNCTAD/LLDC/IDC/Misc.1.

     4/  UNCTAD/LLDC/IDC/Misc.2.

     5/  E/CN.17/1996/20/Add.4.

     6/  "Preliminary study on the construction of an index for ranking
countries according to their economic vulnerability".


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Date last posted: 28 December 1999 17:35:10
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