United Nations

A/50/728


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

7 November 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 105


                SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INCLUDING QUESTIONS RELATING TO
                THE WORLD SOCIAL SITUATION AND TO YOUTH, AGEING,
DISABLED PERSONS AND THE FAMILY

World programme of action for youth to
the year 2000 and beyond

Note by the Secretary-General


  By  its resolution 1995/64  of 2  November 1995,  the Economic  and Social
Council recommended  to the General Assembly  the adoption  of the following
draft resolution:


World Programme of Action for Youth to
the Year 2000 and Beyond

  The General Assembly,

  Recognizing that  young people  in all  countries are  both a  major human
resource  for  development  and  key  agents  for  social  change,  economic
development and technological innovation,

  Bearing in mind  that the ways in which  the challenges and potentials  of
young  people are  addressed by  policy  will  influence current  social and
economic conditions and thewell-being and livelihood of future generations,

  Acknowledging that young women  and men in all  parts of the  world aspire
to full participation in the life of society,

  Recognizing that  the decade since  the observance  of International Youth
Year:    Participation,  Development  and  Peace   has  been  a  period   of
fundamental political, economic and socio-cultural change in the world,


95-34332 (E)   101195/...
*9534332*
   Acknowledging the contribution that  non-governmental youth organizations
could make in improving dialogue and  consultations with the United  Nations
system on the situation of youth,

  Recalling  its  resolution  45/103  of  14  December  1990,  in  which  it
requested the Secretary-General to prepare a  draft world youth programme of
action towards the year 2000 and beyond,

  Recalling  also  its  resolution  49/152  of   23  December  1994  on  the
International Youth  Year, in which it  requested the  Commission for Social
Development  at its  thirty-fourth  session  to consider  further the  draft
world programme of action for youth towards the year 2000 and beyond,

  Having  considered  the  report  of  the  Economic  and  Social  Council, 
A/50/3.

  1.   Adopts the World  Programme of Action for Youth to  the Year 2000 and
Beyond,  annexed hereto,  as an  integral  part  of the  present resolution,
including  the 10  priority  areas identified  therein,  namely,  education,
employment, hunger  and poverty, health,  environment, drug abuse,  juvenile
delinquency, leisure-time activities,  girls and young  women, and  the full
and  effective  participation  of  youth  in  the  life  of society  and  in
decision-making;

  2.  Invites Governments, with the  support of the international community,
non-governmental  organizations and the public and private  sectors, as well
as,  in particular,  youth  organizations,  to implement  the  Programme  of
Action by undertaking the relevant activities outlined therein;

  3.   Requests the Secretary-General  to report to  it at its  fifty-second
session, through the Commission for Social  Development and the Economic and
Social Council, on  the progress made in the implementation of the Programme
of Action, taking into account the promotion of integrated reporting;

  4.   Invites, once  again, Member  States to  include, whenever  possible,
youth  representatives in  their delegations  to  the General  Assembly  and
other  meetings  of  relevant  United  Nations   bodies,  with  a  view   to
stimulating the participation of young women  and men in the  implementation
of the Programme of Action.


Annex

WORLD PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR YOUTH
TO THE YEAR 2000 AND BEYOND


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

PREAMBLE ...................................................    1 - 24

STATEMENT OF PURPOSE .......................................    3 - 44

I.  UNITED NATIONS DECLARATION OF INTENT ON YOUTH: 
  PROBLEMS AND POTENTIALS ..............................    5 - 84

II.  DEVELOPMENT SETTING ..................................    9 -127

III.  STRATEGIES AND POLICY SPECIFICS ......................   13 - 178

IV.  PRIORITY AREAS .......................................   18 -1079

  A.  Education ........................................   21 - 3210

  B.  Employment .......................................   33 - 3913

  C.  Hunger and poverty ...............................   40 - 4714

  D.  Health ...........................................   48 - 6316

  E.  Environment ......................................   64 - 7220

  F.  Drug abuse .......................................   73 - 8521

  G.  Juvenile delinquency .............................   86 - 9024

  H.  Leisure-time activities ..........................   91 - 9725

  I.  Girls and young women ............................   98 -10326

  J.  Full and effective participation of youth in the
    life of society and in decision-making ...........  104 - 10728

V.  MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION ..............................  108 -14329

  A.  National level ...................................  112 -11529

  B.  Regional cooperation .............................  116 -12030

  C.  International cooperation ........................  121 -14330
PREAMBLE


1.    The  decade  since  the   observance  of  International  Youth   Year:
Participation, Development, Peace has been a  period during which the  world
experienced fundamental  political,  economic  and  socio-cultural  changes.
These changes  will inevitably  affect  at  least the  first decade  of  the
twenty-first century as well.

2.   Young  people represent  agents,  beneficiaries  and victims  of  major
societal changes  and are generally confronted by a paradox:   to seek to be
integrated into  an existing order or to  serve as a force to transform that
order.  Young  people in  all parts  of the  world, living  in countries  at
different stages  of development and  in different socio-economic  settings,
aspire to full participation in the life of society.


STATEMENT OF PURPOSE

3.  The  World Programme of Action for Youth provides a policy framework and
practical  guidelines  for national  action  and  international  support  to
improve the situation of young people.  It contains proposals for action  to
the  year  2000  and  beyond  aiming  at  achieving the  objectives  of  the
International  Youth  Year and  at fostering  conditions  and mechanisms  to
promote improved well-being and livelihood among young people.

4.  The Programme  of Action focuses in particular on measures to strengthen
national capacities in  the field of youth and  to increase the quality  and
quantity of opportunities available to young  people for full, effective and
constructive participation in society.


          I.  UNITED NATIONS DECLARATION OF INTENT ON YOUTH:  PROBLEMS
              AND POTENTIALS

5.   States  Members  of  the United  Nations  have agreed  to work  towards
achievement of  the purposes  and principles of  the Charter  of the  United
Nations, inter  alia  the promotion  of  higher  standards of  living,  full
employment, and conditions of  economic and social progress and development.
Young people  in all parts of  the world, living  in countries at  different
stages of  development and  in different  socio-economic situations,  aspire
towards  full participation  in  the life  of society,  as  provided  in the
Charter of the United Nations, including:

  (a)     Attainment  of   an  educational  level  commensurate  with  their
aspirations;

  (b)  Access to employment opportunities equal to their abilities;

  (c)   Food and nutrition  adequate for full  participation in  the life of
society;

   (d)   A physical and  social environment  that promotes  good health  and
protection  from disease and  addiction and  that is free from  all types of
violence;

  (e)   Human  rights and  fundamental  freedoms  without distinction  as to
race, sex, language, religion or any other forms of discrimination;

  (f)  Participation in decision-making processes;

  (g)    Places  and  facilities  for  cultural,  recreational  and   sports
activities  to improve the  living standards of  young people  in both rural
and urban areas.

6.   While the  peoples of  the United Nations,  through their  Governments,
international organizations  and voluntary associations,  have done much  to
ensure  that  these  aspirations  may  be  achieved,  including  efforts  to
implement the guidelines for further planning  and suitable follow-up in the
field of  youth endorsed  by the General  Assembly in 1985,  it is  apparent
that  the  changing  world social,  economic  and  political  situation  has
created the following  conditions that have made this goal more difficult to
achieve in many countries:

  (a)  Claims on  the physical and financial resources of States, which have
reduced  the  resources  available  for  youth  programmes  and  activities,
particularly in heavily indebted countries;

  (b)  Inequities  in social, economic  and political  conditions, including
racism  and xenophobia,  that lead  to increasing  hunger, deterioration  in
living conditions  and poverty among youth  and to  their marginalization as
refugees, displaced persons and migrants;

  (c)  Increasing difficulty for young  people returning from armed conflict
and  confrontation  to be  integrated  into  the  community,  and access  to
education and employment;

  (d)    Continuing discrimination  against  young  women  and  insufficient
access by young women to equal opportunities in employment and education;

  (e)  High levels of youth unemployment, including long-term unemployment;

  (f)   Continuing deterioration of  the global  environment resulting  from
unsustainable  patterns  of  consumption  and  production,  particularly  in
industrialized countries,  which is  a matter of grave  concern, aggravating
poverty and imbalances;

  (g)  Increasing incidence  of diseases, such as malaria and HIV/AIDS,  and
other threats to health, such as  substance abuse and psychotropic substance
addiction, smoking and alcoholism;

  (h)   Inadequate  opportunities  for vocational  education  and  training,
especially for persons with disabilities;

  (i)    Changes  in  the  role  of  the  family  as  a  vehicle for  shared
responsibility and socialization of youth;
    (j)  The  lack of opportunity  for young  people to  participate in  the
life of society and contribute to its development and well-being;

  (k)  The prevalence of debilitating  disease, hunger and malnutrition that

engulfs the life of many young people;

  (l)   The increasing difficulty  for young people  to receive  family life
education as  a basis for  forming healthy families  that foster sharing  of
responsibilities.

7.     These  phenomena,   among  others,   are  contributing  to  increased
marginalization of  young people from the  larger society,  which depends on
youth for its continual renewal.

8.   We,  the peoples  of the  United Nations,  believe that  the  following
principles, aimed  at ensuring  the well-being  of young  women and men  and
their full and active  participation in the society  in which they live, are
fundamental  to the  implementation of  the  World  Programme of  Action for
Youth.

  (a)  Every  State should provide  its young people with  opportunities for
obtaining education,  for acquiring  skills and for  participating fully  in
all  aspects of society,  with a view  to, inter  alia, acquiring productive
employment and leading self-sufficient lives;

  (b)  Every State  should guarantee to all  young people the full enjoyment
of human rights and  fundamental freedoms in accordance  with the Charter of
the United  Nations  and other  international instruments  related to  human
rights;

  (c)    Every State  should take  all necessary  measures to  eliminate all
forms  of  discrimination against  young  women  and  girls  and remove  all
obstacles to  gender equality and the  advancement and  empowerment of women
and should ensure  full and  equal access  to education  and employment  for
girls and young women;

  (d)     Every   State  should   foster  mutual   respect,  tolerance   and
understanding  among  young  people  with  different  racial,  cultural  and
religious backgrounds;

  (e)  Every State  should endeavour to ensure that its policies relating to
young  people are  informed by accurate  data on their  situation and needs,
and that the public has access to such  data to enable it to  participate in
a meaningful fashion in the decision-making process;

  (f)  Every State  is encouraged to promote  education and action  aimed at
fostering among youth a spirit of peace, cooperation and mutual respect  and
understanding between nations;

  (g)   Every State should  meet the special  needs of  young people  in the
areas  of responsible  family-planning  practice, family  life,  sexual  and
reproductive health, sexually  transmitted diseases, HIV infection and  AIDS
prevention,  consistent  with  the  Programme  of  Action   adopted  by  the
International  Conference  on  Population  and  Development, the  Copenhagen
Declaration and Programme of Action  adopted by the World  Summit for Social
Development, the Beijing Declaration and Platform  for Action adopted by the
Fourth World Conference on Women;

  (h)   Environmental  protection, promotion  and enhancement are  among the
issues considered by  young people to be of  prime importance to the  future
welfare  of society.    States  should  therefore actively  encourage  young
people,   including  youth   organizations,  to   participate  actively   in
programmes,  including  educational  programmes,  and  actions  designed  to
protect, promote and enhance the environment;

  (i)   Every  State should  take measures  to develop  the possibilities of
education and employment of young people with disabilities;

  (j)   Every State should take measures to improve the fate of young people
living in particularly  difficult conditions, including by protecting  their

rights;

  (k)  Every  State should  promote the goal of  full employment as a  basic
priority of  its economic and social  policies, giving  special attention to
youth  employment.  They should also take measures to eliminate the economic
exploitation of child labour;

  (l)  Every  State should  provide young  people with  the health  services
necessary  to  ensure  their  physical  and  mental  well-being,   including
measures to  combat disease  such as malaria  and HIV/AIDS,  and to  protect
them from harmful drugs  and the effects of addiction to drugs, tobacco  and
alcohol;

  (m)   Every State  should place people  at the centre  of development  and
direct our  economies to  meet human needs  more effectively  and to  ensure
that young people are active participants  and beneficiaries in the  process
of development.


II.  DEVELOPMENT SETTING

9.   In 1995, the world youth population - defined  by the United Nations as
the age cohort 15-24 - is  estimated to be  1.03 billion, or 18 per cent  of
the total world population.  The majority of  the world youth population (84
per cent in 1995)  lives in developing countries.   This figure is projected
to  increase to  89 per  cent in  2025.   The difficult  circumstances  that
people  experience  in  many  developing  countries  are  often  even   more
difficult  for young  people because of limited  opportunities for education
and training, viable employment and health  and social services, and because
of a growing  incidence of substance abuse  and juvenile delinquency.   Many
developing countries  are also  experiencing unprecedented  rates of  rural-
urban migration by young people.

10.   Apart from  the statistical  definition of the  term "youth" mentioned
above,  however,  the  meaning  of  the  term  "youth"  varies  in different
societies around the world.  Definitions  of youth have changed continuously
in   response  to   fluctuating  political,   economic  and   socio-cultural
circumstances.

 11.   Young  people  in  industrialized  countries  comprise  a  relatively
smaller proportion of the total population  because of generally lower birth
rates and higher  levels of life  expectancy.  They are a  social group that
faces particular problems  and uncertainties regarding its future,  problems
that relate in part to limited opportunities for appropriate employment.

12.   Young  people in all  countries are  both a  major human  resource for
development and  key  agents  for social  change, economic  development  and
technological innovation.   Their imagination, ideals, considerable energies
and  vision are essential for the continuing development of the societies in
which they  live.   The problems  that young  people face  as well as  their
vision and  aspirations are  an essential  component of  the challenges  and
prospects of today's societies and future generations  as well.  Thus, there
is  special  need   for  new  impetus  to  be   given  to  the  design   and
implementation of youth policies and programmes at all  levels.  The ways in
which the  challenges and potentials of young people are addressed by policy
will  influence current  social and  economic conditions  and the well-being
and livelihood of future generations.


III.  STRATEGIES AND POLICY SPECIFICS

13.   The General Assembly  endorsed the Declaration  on the Promotion among
Youth  of the  Ideals of  Peace,  Mutual  Respect and  Understanding between
Peoples  in 1965.    General Assembly  resolution 2037  (XX).   From 1965 to
1975,  both  the  General  Assembly  and  the  Economic  and  Social Council
emphasized  three  basic  themes  in  the  field  of  youth:  participation,

development and peace.   The need for  an international policy on youth  was
emphasized as  well.  In 1979,  the General Assembly,  by resolution 34/151,
designated 1985  as International Youth  Year:  Participation,  Development,
Peace.  In 1985,  by resolution 40/14, the Assembly endorsed the  guidelines
for  further  planning  and  suitable  follow-up   in  the  field  of  youth
(A/40/256, annex).   The guidelines are significant for their focus on young
people  as a  broad category  comprising  various  subgroups, rather  than a
single demographic entity.  They provide  proposals for specific measures to
address  the needs  of such  subgroups  as  young people  with disabilities,
rural and urban youth, and young women.

14.  The themes  identified by the General  Assembly for International Youth
Year - namely, participation, development and  peace - reflect a predominant
concern of  the international community  with distributive justice,  popular
participation and quality of life.  These were reflected in the  guidelines,
and  they  represent overall  themes of  the World  Programme of  Action for
Youth as well.

15.  The World Programme  of Action for Youth also builds upon other, recent
international instruments, including the Rio Declaration on Environment  and
Development, adopted by  the United  Nations Conference  on Environment  and
Development,    Report of  the United Nations Conference  on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro,  3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted by
the  Conference  (United   Nations  publication,  Sales  No.  E.93.I.8   and
corrigendum),  resolution 1, annex  I. the  Vienna Declaration and Programme
of Action, adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights,    Report of the
World Conference  on Human  Rights, Vienna, 14-25  June 1993  (A/CONF.157/24
(Part  I)),  chap.  III.  the  Programme  of  Action  of  the  International
Conference on  Population and  Development,    Report  of the  International
Conference  on  Population  and  Development,  Cairo,  5-13  September  1994
(A/CONF.171/13  and Add.1),  chap. I,  resolution 1,  annex.  the Copenhagen
Declaration on Social Development  and the Programme of Action of the  World
Summit for  Social Development,     Report  of the  World Summit  for Social
Development,  Copenhagen,   6-12   March  1995   (A/CONF.166/9),  chap.   I,
resolution 1, annexes I and II. and  the Platform for Action adopted  by the
Fourth World Conference on Women.   See A/CONF.177/20 (forthcoming).

16.  The World Programme of  Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond is
drawn from these general and  specific international instruments  related to
youth  policies and  programmes.   The  Programme  of Action  is significant
because  it provides  a cross-sectoral  standard  relating to  both  policy-
making  and programme  design and  delivery.  It  will serve as  a model for
integrated actions,  at all  levels,  to address  more effectively  problems
experienced  by  young people  in  various  settings  and  to enhance  their
participation in society.

17.   The World Programme of Action  for Youth is divided into three phases:
the first phase focuses on analysis and on  drafting the Programme of Action
and its adoption by  the General Assembly at  its fiftieth session, in 1995;
the  second  phase  is  concerned  with  world-wide  implementation  of  the
Programme of Action to the year 2000; the  third phase, covering the  period
2001  to  2010, will  focus  on  further  implementation  and evaluation  of
progress  made  and  obstacles  encountered;  it  will  suggest  appropriate
adjustments to  long-term objectives  and specific measures  to improve  the
situation of young people in the societies in which they live.


IV.  PRIORITY AREAS

18.    Each  of  the 10  priority  areas  identified  by  the  international
community is  presented in  terms of  principal issues,  specific objectives
and the  actions proposed  to be taken  by various actors  to achieve  those
objectives.     Objectives  and   actions  reflect  the   three  themes   of
International Youth  Year: Participation,  Development and  Peace; they  are
interlinked and mutually reinforcing.
  19.   The 10  fields of action  identified by the  international community

are education,  employment, hunger  and poverty,  health, environment,  drug
abuse,  juvenile  delinquency,  leisure-time  activities,  girls  and  young
women, and the  full and effective  participation of  youth in  the life  of
society and in  decision-making.  The Programme  of Action does not  exclude
the possibility of new priorities which may be identified in the future.

20.  Implementation of the  Programme of Action requires  the full enjoyment
by  young people  of all  human rights  and  fundamental freedoms,  and also
requires that Governments take effective action against violations of  these
rights and freedoms, and promote non-discrimination, tolerance, respect  for
diversity, with  full  respect  for various  religious and  ethical  values,
cultural backgrounds  and philosophical convictions  of their young  people,
equality  of opportunity,  solidarity,  security and  participation  of  all
young women and men.


A.  Education

21.    Although  progress  towards  universal  basic  education,   including
literacy, has  been impressive  in recent  times, the  number of  illiterate
people will  continue to grow  and many developing  countries are likely  to
fall short  of universal  primary education  by the  year 2000.   Three main
concerns  regarding current  systems of  education  may  be expressed.   The
first is  the inability  of many  parents  in developing  countries to  send
their children to schools because of  local economic and social  conditions.
The second concerns the paucity of  educational opportunities for girls  and
young  women,   migrants,  refugees,  displaced  persons,  street  children,
indigenous youth  minorities, young people in  rural areas  and young people
with  disabilities.   The  third  concerns  the  quality  of education,  its
relevance  to employment and  its usefulness  for assisting  young people in
the  transition to  full adulthood,  active citizenship  and  productive and
gainful employment.

22.  To encourage  the development of educational  and training systems more
in  line with  the  current  and future  needs  of young  people  and  their
societies, it  would  be helpful  to  share  experience and  to  investigate
alternative arrangements,  such as informal  arrangements for the  provision
of basic literacy, job skills training and lifelong education.

23.    Opportunities for  young  people  to  pursue  advanced or  university
education, or  engage in research or  be trained  for self-employment should
be expanded  in developing countries.  Given the economic  problems faced by
such countries and the inadequacy of  international assistance in this area,
it is  difficult to provide appropriate  training for all young people, even
though they are a country's chief economic asset.

24.   Governments, intergovernmental and  non-governmental organizations are
called  upon  to assist  young  people  in  developing  countries to  obtain
education and training at  all levels in  developed countries as well as  in
developing countries, as well as mutual academic exchanges among  developing
countries, for example through exchanges among developing countries.

 Proposals for action

         1.  Improving the level of basic education, skill training and
             literacy among youth

25.   Priority  should  be  given to  achieving the  goal of  ensuring basic
education  for all  (including literacy),  mobilizing for  that purpose  all
channels,  agents  and forms  of education  and training,  in line  with the
concept of lifelong  education.   Special emphasis should  also be given  to
the  reform of education  content and  curricula, especially  curricula that
reinforce traditional  female roles that deny  women opportunities for  full
and  equal  partnership  in  society,  at   all  levels,  etc.  focusing  on
scientific literacy, human moral values and  learning of skills, adapted  to
the changing  environment and to life  in multi-ethnic  societies and pluri-

cultural  societies.   The  importance  of  the development  of  information
skills,  that is  skills for  researching, accessing  and using information,
and informatics should be emphasized along  with the importance of  distance
education.      Non-governmental   youth    organizations   and    education
organizations should develop youth-to-youth programmes  for basic education,
skill training  and literacy.  Consideration  should be  given to developing
programmes enabling  retired and elderly people  to teach  literacy to young
people.  Particular  attention should be given  to specific groups  of youth
in  distressed  circumstances, including  indigenous,  migrant  and  refugee
youth, displaced persons, street children and poor youth in urban and  rural
areas, as  well as  to special  problems, including  literacy problems,  for
blind youth and youth with other disabilities.


2.  Cultural heritage and contemporary patterns of society

26.  Governments should establish or  strengthen programmes to educate young
people in the cultural heritage  of their societies and  other societies and
the   world.    Governments  should  institute,  in  cooperation  with  non-
governmental youth organizations,  travel and exchange programmes and  youth
camps to help youth  understand cultural diversity at both the national  and
international levels, develop  intercultural learning skills and participate
in the preservation of  the cultural heritage  of their societies and  other
societies and  the  world around  them.    The United  Nations  Educational,
Scientific   and  Cultural   Organization  (UNESCO),  in   cooperation  with
interested  Governments and non-governmental organizations,  is requested to
expand  international  programmes,  such as  youth  camps,  by  which  young
people, particularly from developing countries, with different cultures  may
help  restore  major  international  cultural  sites  and  engage  in  other
cultural activities.


         3.  Promoting mutual respect and understanding and the ideals
             of peace, solidarity and tolerance among youth

27.   Programmes  aimed at  learning  peacemaking  and dispute  and conflict
resolution  should be encouraged and designed by Governments and educational
institutions  for introduction to schools at all levels.  Children and youth
should be informed  of cultural differences in their own societies and given
opportunities  to learn about  different cultures  as well  as tolerance and
mutual  respect for  cultural  and  religious diversity.    Governments  and
educational  institutions should  formulate and  implement such  educational
programmes that  promote and  strengthen respect  for all  human rights  and
fundamental  freedoms;  and   enhance  the  values  of  peace,   solidarity,
tolerance,  responsibility and  respect  for  the diversity  and  rights  of
others.


4.  Vocational and professional training

28.   Governments and educational institutions, in cooperation with regional
and international organizations,  could establish or enhance vocational  and
technical training that  is relevant to  current and  prospective employment
conditions.  Youth must be  given the  opportunity to  access vocational and
professional training and  apprenticeship programmes that help them  acquire
entry-level jobs  with growth  opportunities and  the ability  to adjust  to
changes in labour demand.


5.  Promoting human rights education

29.   Governments  should ensure  that the  United Nations  Decade for Human
Rights  Education  (1995-2005)   is  adequately  observed  in  schools   and
educational institutions.   In order  to make  youth aware  of their  civil,
cultural,  economic, political  and  social rights,  as well  their societal
responsibilities,  and  in  order   to  develop  harmonious  inter-community

relations,  mutual tolerance,  mutual respect,  equality between  women  and
men, and tolerance  for diversity,  Governments should develop human  rights
education strategies targeted  to youth,  taking particular  account of  the
human rights of women.


6.  Training for enterprise programmes

30.     Governments,  in   cooperation  with   regional  and   international
organizations,  should formulate  model programmes of training  for youth in
individual and cooperative  enterprises.   They are encouraged to  establish
self-contained  enterprise  centres where  young  people  may plan  and test
their enterprise venture concepts.


7.  Infrastructure for training youth workers and youth leaders

31.  Governments should assess  the adequacy of facilities and programmes to
train youth workers and youth leaders,  including the adequacy of  curricula
and staff  resources.  On the basis of such  assessments, Governments should
plan and  implement relevant  training programmes.   Non-governmental  youth
organizations  should   be  encouraged   and  assisted   to  formulate   and
disseminate model training courses for use by member organizations.

32.      Interested  organizations   should  investigate   possibilities  to
strengthen international  youth worker and  youth leadership training,  with
priority  given to  accepting participants  from developing  countries.   In
cooperation   with   concerned   organizations    that   provide    training
opportunities  for youth,  including  internships and  volunteer programmes,
establishment of an inventory of such programmes could also be explored.


B.  Employment

33.  Unemployment and underemployment among  youth is a problem  everywhere.
It  is,   indeed,  part  of  the   larger  struggle   to  create  employment
opportunities for all  citizens.  The problem  has worsened in recent  years
because  of the  global recession,  which has  affected developing countries
the most.   The  disturbing  fact is  that  economic  growth is  not  always
accompanied  by growth  in employment.  The difficulty  of  finding suitable
employment  is compounded  by a  host  of  other problems  confronting young
people, including  illiteracy and insufficient  training, and is worsened by
periods  of world economic  slow-down and  overall changing economic trends.
In some  countries, the  influx of young  people into the  employment market
has  carried acute problems.   According  to estimates  of the International
Labour Organization (ILO), more  than 100 million new  jobs would have to be
created within  the next 20  years in order  to provide  suitable employment
for  the  growing  number  of  young   people  in  the  economically  active
populations  of developing  countries.   The  situation  of girls  and young
women,  as  well  as  of  young  people  with  disabilities,  refugee youth,
displaced  persons, street  children, indigenous  youth, migrant  youth  and
minorities warrants  urgent attention,  bearing in  mind the  prohibition of
forced labour and child labour.

34.  The  crisis of youth unemployment is also a crisis of opportunities for
young  people to  acquire independently  the minimum  means of accommodation
and housing  necessary for setting up  families and participate  in the life
of  society.   Advances  in  technology  and  communications,  coupled  with
improved  productivity,  have   imposed  new  challenges  as  well  as   new
opportunities for  employment.   Young people  are among  the most  severely
affected by these  developments.  If effective  solutions are not found, the
costs to society will be much higher in the long run.  Unemployment  creates
a wide range  of social ills and  young people are  particularly susceptible
to  its damaging effects:   the lack of skill  development, low self-esteem,
marginalization,  impoverishment  and  the  wasting  of  an  enormous  human
resource.

Proposals for action

1.  Opportunities for self-employment

35.   Governments and organizations should  create or  promote grant schemes
to  provide seed money  to encourage  and support  enterprise and employment
programmes  for  young  people.     Businesses  and   enterprises  could  be
encouraged to provide counterpart financial and  technical support for  such
schemes.   Cooperative  schemes involving  young  people in  production  and
marketing of  goods and services  could be considered.   Formation of  youth
development banks could be considered. The  Committee for the Promotion  and
Advancement   of  Cooperatives   is  encouraged   to  develop   models   for
cooperatives  run by  youth in  developed  and  developing countries.   Such
models  could include  guidelines for  management training  and training  in
entrepreneurial techniques and marketing.


 2.  Employment opportunities for specific groups of the
    youth population                                  

36.   Within  funds  designated  to  promote youth  employment,  Governments
should, as  appropriate, designate resources  for programmes supporting  the
efforts  of young  women, young  people with  disabilities, youth  returning
from  military service,  migrant youth,  refugee youth,  displaced  persons,
street  children  and  indigenous  youth.    Youth  organizations and  youth
themselves should be  directly involved in  the planning  and implementation
of these programmes.


3.  Voluntary community services involving youth

37.  Where  they do not yet already  exist, Governments should consider  the
establishment of  youth voluntary service programmes.  Such programmes could
provide alternatives  to military  service, or  might constitute  a required
element  in  educational  curricula,  depending  on  national  policies  and
priorities.    Youth   camps,  community  service   projects,  environmental
protection and intergenerational  cooperation programmes should be  included
among  the opportunities  offered.   Youth organizations  should be directly
involved in designing, planning, implementing and evaluating such  voluntary
service programmes.    In  addition,  international  cooperation  programmes
organized between youth organizations in developed and developing  countries
should be  included to promote  intercultural understanding and  development
training.


4.  Needs created by technological changes

38.    Governments,  in  particular  those  of  developed  countries, should
encourage  the creation  of  employment opportunities  for  young  people in
fields that  are rapidly evolving as  a result  of technological innovation.
A subset  of the employment  data compiled  by Governments should  track the
employment  of   youth  into   those   fields  marked   by  newly   emerging
technologies.  Measures should be taken to provide ongoing  training in this
area for youth.

39.   Special  attention should  be  paid  to developing  and  disseminating
approaches that  promote flexibility in  training systems and  collaboration
between training institutions and employers, especially for  young people in
high-technology industries.


C.  Hunger and poverty

40.    Over  1  billion  people  in the  world  today  live  in unacceptable
conditions  of poverty,  mostly  in developing  countries,  particularly  in
rural areas  of  lowincome countries  of Asia  and the  Pacific, Africa  and

Latin America and the  Caribbean and the least developed countries.  Poverty
has  various  manifestations,  including  lack  of  income  and   productive
resources  sufficient   to  ensure   sustainable  livelihoods;   hunger  and
malnutrition; ill health; limited  or lack of access to education and  other
basic  services;   increased   morbidity   and   mortality   from   illness;
homelessness  and   inadequate  housing;  unsafe  environments;  and  social
discrimination  and  exclusion;  it  is  also  characterized  by  a  lack of
participation in decision-making and civil and socio-cultural life.  Poverty
is  inseparably linked  to  lack of  access to  or  control  over resources,
including  land, skills, knowledge, capital and social connections.  Without
those  resources,  people have  limited  access  to  institutions,  markets,
employment and  public services.   Young people  are particularly vulnerable
to this situation.  Therefore, specific  measures are needed to  address the
juvenilization and feminization of poverty.

41.   Hunger and malnutrition  remain among the most serious and intractable
threats to  humanity, often preventing youth  and children  from taking part
in society.   Hunger is the result of  many factors:  mismanagement of  food
production  and   distribution;  poor   accessibility;  maldistribution   of
financial   resources;    unwise   exploitation   of   natural    resources;
unsustainable patterns of consumption; environmental pollution; natural  and
human-made  disasters;  conflicts  between   traditional  and   contemporary
production systems; irrational population growth; and armed conflicts.

Proposals for action

1.  Making farming more rewarding and life in agricultural
    areas more attractive                                

42.  Governments should enhance educational  and cultural services and other
incentives in  rural areas to  make them  more attractive  to young  people.
Experimental  farming programmes  directed towards  young people  should  be
initiated,  and extension  services  expanded to  maintain  improvements  in
agricultural production and marketing.

43.     Local   and  national   Governments,  in   cooperation  with   youth
organizations,  should  organize  cultural  events  that  enhance  exchanges
between  urban and rural  youth.   Youth organizations  should be encouraged
and  assisted to  organize conventions  and  meetings  in rural  areas, with
special efforts to enlist  the cooperation of  rural populations,  including
rural youth.


2.  Skill-training for income-generation by young people

44.   Governments,  in cooperation with youth  organizations, should develop
training  programmes  for  youth  which  improve  methods  of   agricultural
production and marketing.  Training should be based on rural economic  needs
and the  needs  of  young  people in  rural  areas  for the  development  of
production and the  achievement of food security.  Attention should be given
in such  programmes to young  women, youth  retention in rural  areas, youth
returning to  rural areas from the  cities, young  people with disabilities,
refugee  and   migrant  youth,  displaced   persons  and  street   children,
indigenous youth, youth returning from military  service and youth living in
areas of resolved conflicts.


 3.  Land grants for young people

45.    Governments  should  provide  grants  of  land  to  youth  and  youth
organizations,  supported  by   financial  and   technical  assistance   and
training.  The Food and  Agriculture Organization of the  United Nations and
the  International   Labour  Organization  are   invited  to  document   and
disseminate  information  about  national  experience  with  land-grant  and
settlement schemes for use by Governments.

46.  Governments, consistent with their  rural development schemes and  with
the  assistance   of  international  organizations,   as  appropriate,   are
encouraged  to work  with volunteer  youth  organizations on  projects which
enhance and maintain the rural and urban environments.


4.  Cooperation between urban and rural youth in
    food production and distribution           

47.    Non-governmental  organizations   should  organize   direct-marketing
groups,  including  production  and distribution  cooperatives,  to  improve
current marketing systems and  to ensure that  young farmers have access  to
them.   The aim of such groups should be to reduce food shortages and losses
from defective systems of food storage and transport to markets.


D.  Health

48.   Young people  in some parts of the world  suffer from poor health as a
result  of  societal   conditions,  including  such  factors  as   customary
attitudes and harmful traditional  practices and in some cases by their  own
actions.  Poor health  is often caused  by lack of healthy environments  and
by missing  support systems in everyday  life for  health promoting patterns
of behaviour,  by lack  of information  and by  inadequate or  inappropriate
health services.  Problems  are, among others, the lack of safe and sanitary
living environments,  malnutrition, the  risk of  infectious, parasitic  and
water-borne  diseases,  the growing  consumption  of  tobacco,  alcohol  and
drugs,  unwarranted  risk-taking  and  destructive  activity,  resulting  in
unintentional injuries.

49.    The  reproductive  health  needs  of  adolescents  have  been largely
ignored.   In many countries, there  is a lack  of information and  services
available to  adolescents to help them understand their sexuality, including
sexual   and  reproductive  health   and  to   protect  them  from  unwanted
pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS.

Proposals for action

1.  Provision of basic health services

50.  All young  people should have access  to basic health  services in  the
interest of  all  and  of society  as  a whole.    It is  the  indispensable
responsibility  of each  Government  to mobilize  the  necessary  awareness,
resources and  channels.  These measures should be supported by a favourable
international economic environment and cooperation.
  51.  Efforts should  be expedited to achieve the goals of national Health-
for-All strategies, based on  equality and social justice  in line with  the
Alma  Ata Declaration  on Primary  Health  Care,  by developing  or updating
country action plans  or programmes to ensure universal,  non-discriminatory
access to  basic health services, including  sanitation and drinking  water,
to protect health, and to promote  nutrition education and preventive health
programmes.

52.   Support should  be provided  for stronger,  better coordinated  global
actions against major diseases  that take a heavy  toll of human lives, such
as malaria,  tuberculosis,  cholera,  typhoid fever  and HIV/AIDS;  in  this
context, support should be continued for  the Joint and Co-sponsored  United
Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.

53.  Young people in  some parts of the world suffer  from poor health  as a
result of societal conditions,  as well as  their own actions.  Poor  health
is often  caused by  lack of  information and  lack of  health services  for
youth, mostly  in developing countries.   The resulting  problems are, among
others, sexually  transmitted diseases, including  infection with the  human
immunodeficiency  virus  (HIV);  early  pregnancies;  lack  of  hygiene  and
sanitation, leading  to infection,  infestation and  diarrhoea; genetic  and

congenital  diseases;  psychological   and  mental  diseases;  narcotic  and
psychotropic drug abuse;  misuse of  alcohol and tobacco; unwarranted  risk-
taking  and  destructive  activity,  resulting  in  unintentional  injuries;
malnutrition; and poor spacing of births.


2.  Development of health education

54.     Governments  should  include,  in   the  curricula  of   educational
institutions  at the  primary and  secondary levels, programmes  focusing on
primary health  knowledge  and  practices.   Particular emphasis  should  be
placed on the understanding  of basic hygiene  requirements and the need  to
develop and  sustain a  healthy environment.   These  programmes need  to be
developed in full awareness of the needs and priorities of young people  and
with their involvement.

55.  Cooperation among Governments and  educational and health  institutions
should  be encouraged  in order  to  promote  personal responsibility  for a
healthy lifestyle and provide the knowledge and  skills necessary to adopt a
healthy  lifestyle,  including   teaching  the  legal,  social  and   health
consequences of behaviour that poses health risks.


3.  Promotion of health services, including sexual and
    reproductive health and development of relevant  
    education programmes in those fields             

56.    Governments,  with  the  involvement  of  youth  and  other  relevant
organizations, should ensure  the implementation of  the commitments made in
the Programme  of Action of the  International Conference  on Population and
Development,  as  established in  the  report  of  that  Conference, in  the
Copenhagen Declaration  and  Programme of  Action  of  the World  Summit  on
Social Development,  and in the Declaration  and the Platform for Action for
the Fourth  World Conference  on Women,  as well  as in  the relevant  human
rights instruments, to meet  the health needs of youth.  The United  Nations
Population Fund  and other  interested United  Nations organizations  should
continue to take effective  steps on these issues.  The reproductive  health
needs  of adolescents  as  a group  have been  largely  ignored to  date  by
existing  reproductive health services.   The  response of  societies to the
reproductive  health needs  of adolescents  should be  based  on information
that helps them  attain a  level of  maturity required  to make  responsible
decisions.     In  particular,  information  and  services  should  be  made
available  to  adolescents  to  help  them  understand  their sexuality  and
protect them  from unwanted pregnancies,  sexually transmitted diseases  and
subsequent risk of infertility.   This should be combined with the education
of   young  men   to  respect   women's  self-determination  and   to  share
responsibility with  women in matters of  sexuality and  reproduction.  This
effort  is uniquely  important  for the  health  of young  women  and  their
children,  for  women's  self-determination  and,  in  many  countries,  for
efforts  to slow  the momentum  of population  growth. Motherhood at  a very
young age  entails a  risk  of maternal  death  that  is much  greater  than
average, and the children of young mothers  have higher levels of  morbidity
and  mortality.   Early  child-bearing  continues  to  be  an impediment  to
improvements in the educational, economic and social status of women in  all
parts of  the world.   Overall  for young  women, early  marriage and  early
motherhood  can severely  curtail educational  and employment  opportunities
and are  likely to  have  a long-term  adverse  impact  on their  and  their
children's quality of life.

57.    Governments should  develop  comprehensive  sexual  and  reproductive
healthcare services  and  provide  young  people access  to  those  services
including, inter alia, education and services  in family planning consistent
with  the  results  of  the  International  Conference  on  Population   and
Development, the  World Summit for Social  Development and  the Fourth World
Conference   on  Women.     UNFPA   and  other   interested  United  Nations
organizations are  to be encouraged to  continue assigning  high priority to

promoting adolescent reproductive health.


4.  HIV infection and AIDS among young people

58.    Governments  should  develop  accessible,  available  and  affordable
primary  health  care  services   of  high  quality,  including  sexual  and
reproductive health care, as well as  education programmes, including  those
related  to sexually  transmitted disease,  including HIV/AIDS,  for  youth.
Continued  international  cooperation  and  collective  global  efforts  are
necessary for the containment of HIV/AIDS.


5.  Promotion of good sanitation and hygiene practices

59.   Governments, in  cooperation with  youth and  volunteer organizations,
should  promote the establishment  of youth  health associations  to promote
good sanitation and hygiene programmes.


 6.  Prevention of disease and illness among youth
    resulting from poor health practices        

60.   Governments, in  cooperation with youth organizations,  should promote
healthier  lifestyles   and,  in  this   context,  should  investigate   the
possibility of adopting policies for discouraging  drug, tobacco and alcohol
abuse, including  possibly banning  advertisements of  tobacco and  alcohol.
They  should also undertake  programmes that  inform young  people about the
adverse effects of drug and alcohol abuse and tobacco addiction.

61.   Programmes should  be instituted,  with the  appropriate assistance of
the United  Nations bodies  and organizations concerned,  to train  medical,
paramedical,  educational  and  youth work  personnel  in  health issues  of
particular concern to young  people, including healthy lifestyles.  Research
into such issues should be promoted,  particularly research into the effects
and treatment of drug  abuse and addiction.   Youth organizations should  be
enlisted in these efforts.


7.  Elimination of sexual abuse of young people

62.  As recommended by the Vienna Declaration  and Programme of Action,  the
International Conference on Population  and Development, the World Summit on
Social Development  and the Fourth World Conference on Women, and bearing in
mind  that  young   women  are  specially  vulnerable,  Governments   should
cooperate  at the  international level  and take effective  steps, including
specific  preventive measures  to protect  children, adolescents  and  youth
from neglect, abandonment and  all types of exploitation and abuse, such  as
abduction,  rape   and  incest,   pornography,  trafficking   and  acts   of
paedophilia, as well  as from commercial sexual exploitation resulting  from
pornography and  prostitution.   Report  of the  International Conference on
Population and  Development, Cairo, 5-13  September 1994 (A/CONF.171/13  and
Add.1), chap.  I, resolution 1, annex,  para. 6.9.  Governments should enact
and enforce  legislation prohibiting female  genital mutilation wherever  it
exists  and  give vigorous  support to  efforts  among non-governmental  and
community  organizations  and  religious  institutions  to  eliminate   such
practices.   Ibid., para. 4.22.


8.  Combating malnutrition among young people

63.    Governments  should  promote  post-primary-school  and  out-of-school
health  projects  by   individuals  and  youth  organizations,   emphasizing
information  on  healthy   eating  practices.    School  lunch   programmes,
provision of  food  supplements  and similar  services should  be  available
whenever possible to help ensure proper diets for young people.


 E.  Environment

64.  The deterioration  of the natural  environment is one of the  principal
concerns of young people world wide as it has direct implications for  their
well-being at present and  in the future.   The natural environment  must be
maintained  and preserved  for both  present  and  future generations.   The
causes of environmental degradation must be  addressed.  The environmentally
friendly use of  natural resources and environmentally sustainable  economic
growth will improve  human life.  Sustainable  development has become a  key
element in  the  programmes  of youth  organizations throughout  the  world.
While  every  segment  of  society   is  responsible  for   maintaining  the
environmental integrity of the community, youth  have a special interest  in
maintaining  a healthy environment because they will be  the ones to inherit
it.

Proposals for action

1.  Integration of environmental education and training into
    education and training programmes                      

65.    Emphasis  should  be  given  in  school  curricula  to  environmental
education. Training programmes should be provided  to inform teachers of the
environmental aspects of their subject-matter and  to enable them to educate
youth on environmentally friendly habits.

66.   The participation of  youth groups in gathering environmental data and
in understanding ecological  systems and actual environmental action  should
be  encouraged  as  a  means  of  improving  both  their  knowledge  of  the
environment and their personal engagement in caring for the environment.


2.  Facilitating the international dissemination of information
    on environmental issues to, and the use of environmentally
    sound technologies by, youth                              

67.   The United Nations Environment  Programme (UNEP),  in cooperation with
Governments  and  non-governmental  youth   organizations,  is  invited   to
intensify  production  of  information  materials  illustrating  the  global
dimension,   its   origins  and   interrelated   effects   of  environmental
degradation  and  describing  the  outcome  of  initiatives  undertaken   in
developing and  developed countries as well  as countries  with economies in
transition.  UNEP  is requested to continue  its efforts to disseminate  and
exchange  information  with and  among  youth  organizations.    Governments
should  encourage and  assist youth  organizations to  initiate and  develop
youth-to-youth  contacts  through town-twinning  and  similar programmes  in
order to share the experience gained in different countries.

68.  Relevant United Nations organizations and  institutions and governments
of technologically advanced countries are encouraged  to help spread the use
of  environmentally  sound  technologies  in  developing  countries  and  in
countries with economies in  transition and to train  youth in making use of
such technologies in protecting and conserving the environment.


 3.  Strengthening participation of youth in the protection,
    preservation and improvement of the environment       

69.   Governments  and youth  organizations  should initiate  programmes  to
promote  participation  in tree  planting,  forestry,  combating  of  desert
creep, waste reduction,  recycling and other sound environmental  practices.
The  participation  of  young  people  and   their  organizations  in   such
programmes can  provide good  training and encourage  awareness and  action.
Waste  management  programmes  may   represent  potential  income-generating
activities that provide opportunities for employment.

70.   As recognized  by  the United  Nations Conference  on Environment  and
Development,  the  involvement  of  youth  in  environment  and  development
decisionmaking is critical to the  implementation of policies of sustainable
development.  Young people should be involved in  designing and implementing
appropriate environmental policies.


4.  Enhancing the role of the media as a tool for
    widespread dissemination of environmental   
    issues to the general youth public          

71.    Governments  should,  to  the   extent  consistent  with  freedom  of
expression,  encourage  the  media  and  advertising  agencies  to   develop
programmes   to   ensure  widespread   dissemination   of   information   on
environmental issues to continue to raise awareness thereof among youth.

72.  Governments should establish procedures  allowing for consultation  and
possible  participation  of   youth  of  both  genders  in   decision-making
processes with  regard to  the environment,  involving youth  at the  local,
national and regional levels.


F.  Drug abuse

73.   The vulnerability of young  people to drug  abuse has  in recent years
become  a major  concern.   The consequences  of widespread  drug abuse  and
trafficking,  particularly for young  men and  women, are  all too apparent.
Violence,  particularly street  violence, often results from  drug abuse and
illicit drug networks.

74.   As  the  number of  psychotropic drugs  increases  steadily  and their
effects and  appropriate prescriptive practices are  often not fully  known,
some patients  may not  be adequately  treated and others  may become  over-
medicated.      Misuse   of   prescription   drugs,   self-medication   with
tranquillizers,  sleeping-pills  and  stimulants  can  also  create  serious
problems, particularly in countries and regions where distribution  controls
are  weak and  habit-forming drugs  are  purchased  abroad or  diverted from
licit  channels of distribution.  In this context the vulnerability of young
people  raises  a particular  problem  and  specific measures  are therefore
needed.

 75.   The international  community places  particular emphasis on  reducing
the demand for and  supply of illegal  drugs and preventing misuse.   Supply
reduction includes combating  international illicit drug trafficking.   Drug
misuse prevention  initiatives range  from discouraging  people from  taking
drugs,  thus  preventing involuntary  addiction, to  helping  those who  are
misusing drugs  to stop doing  so.  Treatment  programmes need  to recognize
that drug misuse  is a chronic  relapsing condition.   It  is essential  for
programmes to be adapted  to the social  and cultural context and for  there
to  be effective cooperation  between various  approaches to  treatment.  To
this  end,   national  initiatives  and  measures  to  combat  illicit  drug
trafficking  should be fully  supported and  reinforced at  the regional and
international levels.

76.   Drug  control strategies  at  the  national and  international  levels
consistently emphasize initiatives  aimed at reducing drug abuse among young
people.  This is reflected in the resolutions  of the Commission on Narcotic
Drugs  and  in  the  demand  reduction  programmes  of  the  United  Nations
International Drug Control Programme.

Proposals for action

1.  Participation of youth organizations and youth in demand
    reduction programmes for young people                  

77.  To be effective, demand reduction programmes  should be targeted at all

young people, particularly those  at risk, and the content of the programmes
should  respond  directly to  the  interests  and  concerns  of those  young
people. Preventive education programmes showing  the dangers of  drug misuse
are   particularly   important.     Increasing  opportunities   for  gainful
employment  and activities  which provide  recreation and  opportunities  to
develop a variety of skills are important in  helping young people to resist
drugs.    Youth  organizations  can   play  a  key  role  in  designing  and
implementing  education programmes  and individual  counselling to encourage
the integration of youth into the  community, to develop healthy  lifestyles
and to  raise awareness  of the  damaging impact  of drugs.   The programmes
could  include training  of youth  leaders in  communication and counselling
skills.

78.   Government  entities, in  cooperation  with  relevant agencies  of the
United Nations  system, non-governmental  organizations, particularly  youth
organizations, should cooperate in carrying out demand reduction  programmes
for illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol.


2.  Training medical and paramedical students in the rational
    use of pharmaceuticals containing narcotic drugs or     
    psychotropic substances                                 

79.     The  World   Health  Organization,  associations  of   the  medical,
paramedical and pharmaceutical professions  and pharmaceutical  corporations
and  medical faculties  and institutions  could  be  asked to  develop model
training courses and disseminate information material for young medical  and
paramedical  students  on  the  proper  handling  of  drugs  and  the  early
identification and diagnosis of substance abuse.
  3.  Treatment and rehabilitation of young people who are drug
    abusers or drug-dependent and young alcoholics and      
    tobacco users                                           

80.   Research  has been  undertaken  into  the possibility  of  identifying
medication to block cravings for specific  drugs without creating  secondary
dependency, but much remains to be done in this area.   The need for medical
and social research  in the prevention and  treatment of substance abuse  as
well  as  rehabilitation,  has  become more  urgent,  particularly  with the
world-wide  increase in  abuse and  addiction among  young people.   In such
research, emphasis  should be given to  the fact  that intravenous substance
abuse  raises the  risk  of  communicable diseases  including  HIV/AIDS  and
hepatitis,  arising   from  the  sharing  of  needles  and  other  injection
equipment.  The fruits of all such research should be shared globally.

81.     Research  on   issues  such   as  the  medical   treatment  and  the
rehabilitation  of  young   drug  abusers,  including  the  combination   of
different   types  of   treatment,  the   problem  of   recidivism  and  the
administrative aspects of drug treatment, and  the inclusion of students  in
the relevant faculties in such research, should be encouraged.

82.  In cooperation with the institutions of  civil society and the  private
sector, drug  abuse  prevention  should  be promoted  as  should  preventive
education for  children and youth,  rehabilitation and education  programmes
for  former drug  and alcohol  addicts,  especially  children and  youth, in
order  to  enable them  to  obtain  productive  employment  and achieve  the
independence,  dignity  and  responsibility  for  a  drug-free,   crime-free
productive  life.  Of  particular interest  is the  development of treatment
techniques  involving the family setting and peer groups.   Young people can
make significant  contributions by  participating in peer  group therapy  to
facilitate the  acceptance of  young drugdependent persons and  abusers upon
their  re-entry  into  society.    Direct  participation  in  rehabilitation
therapy entails close cooperation between youth  groups and other  community
and  health services.   WHO and other  world-wide medical  and mental health
organizations  could be requested  to set guidelines for continuing research
and  for carrying  out  comparable programmes  in different  settings, whose
effectiveness could be evaluated over a given period of time.


4.  Care for young drug abusers and drug-dependent suspects
    and offenders in the criminal justice and prison system

83.   Authorities should  consider strategies  to prevent  exposure to  drug
abuse and dependence among young people  suspected or convicted of  criminal
offences. Such strategies could  include alternative measures, such as daily
reporting to  police stations or requirements  for regular  visits to parole
officers,  and  fulfilment of  a  specified  number  of  hours of  community
service.

84.   Prison  authorities  should  cooperate  closely with  law  enforcement
agencies to keep drugs  out of the  prison system.  Prison personnel  should
be discouraged from tolerating the presence of drugs in penal institutions.

85.   Young prisoners  who are already drug-dependent  should be targeted as
priority candidates for treatment and rehabilitation  services and should be
segregated as appropriate.  Guidelines and  standard minimum rules should be
prepared  to  assist national  authorities  in  law enforcement  and  prison
systems in maintaining  the necessary controls  and initiating treatment and
rehabilitation services.  Action along  these lines constitutes  a long-term
advantage  to  society,  as  the  cycle  of  dependence,  release,  repeated
offences  and repeated  incarcerations constitutes  a  heavy burden  on  the
criminal justice  system, quite  apart from  the wasted  lives and  personal
tragedies which result from drug dependence and criminal behaviour.


G.  Juvenile delinquency

86.    Juvenile crime  and delinquency  are  serious  problems all  over the
world.  Their intensity and  gravity depend  mostly on  the social, economic
and cultural settings  of each country.  There  is evidence, however, of  an
apparent world-wide increase in juvenile criminality combined with  economic
recession, especially in marginal  sectors of urban centres.  In many cases,
youth offenders are "street children" who  have been exposed to  violence in
their  immediate social  environment, either  as  observers or  as  victims.
Their  basic  education,  when  they  have   it,  is  poor;  their   primary
socialization from  the family  is too  often inadequate;  and their  socio-
economic environment  is shaped  by poverty  and destitution.   Rather  than
relying  solely    on  the  criminal   justice  system,  approaches  to  the
prevention  of violence and  crime should  thus include  measures to support
equality and justice and to combat poverty and to  reduce hopelessness among
young people.

Proposals for action

1.  Priority to preventive measures

87.   Governments  should give priority  to issues and  problems of juvenile
delinquency and youth  criminality, with particular attention to  preventive
policies  and programmes.   Rural  areas  should  be provided  with adequate
socio-economic  and administrative  opportunities  and  services that  could
discourage young  people from migrating  to urban  areas.   Youth from  poor
urban settings  should have available  specific educational, employment  and
leisure  programmes, particularly during long school holidays.  Young people
who drop  out of  school or come  from broken families  should benefit  from
specific social programmes that help  them build self-esteem  and confidence
conducive to responsible adulthood.


2.  Prevention of violence

88.    Governments and  other  relevant  organizations,  particularly  youth
organizations,    should   consider    organizing   information   campaigns,
educational  and training  programmes in  order  to  sensitize youth  to the
personally  and  socially detrimental  effects  of  violence in  the family,

community and society, teach them how  to communicate without violence,  and
promote training  so that  they can  protect themselves  and others  against
violence.  Governments should also  develop programmes to  promote tolerance
and  better  understanding  among   youth,  with  a   view  to   eradicating
contemporary  forms  of  racism,  racial   discrimination,  xenophobia,  and
related intolerance and thereby prevent violence.

89.  To prevent violence and crime,  the development of social organization,
particularly through youth  organizations and community involvement,  should
be fostered  by a  supportive social policy  and within  a legal  framework.
Government  assistance  should  focus  on  facilitating  the  abilities   of
community  and youth  organizations  to  express  and evaluate  their  needs
concerning the prevention of violence and  crime, to formulate and implement
actions for themselves, and to cooperate with each other.


3.  Rehabilitation services and programmes

90.     Destitution,   poor   living   conditions,   inadequate   education,
malnutrition, illiteracy,  unemployment and lack  of leisure-time activities
are  factors  that  marginalize  young  people,  which  makes  some  of them
vulnerable to  exploitation as well as  to involvement in criminal and other
deviant behaviour.    If preventive  measures  address  the very  causes  of
criminality,  rehabilitation   programmes  and   services  should   be  made
available to  those  who already  have  a  criminal history.  Mostly,  youth
delinquency  begins  with  petty  offences  such   as  robbery  or   violent
behaviour, that can be easily traced  and corrected through institutions and
community and family  environments.  Indeed law enforcement should be a part
of rehabilitation measures.  Finally,  the human rights of  young people who
are  imprisoned  should  be  protected  and  principles  of  penal  majority
according to penal laws should be given great attention.


H.  Leisure-time activities

91.    The  importance of  leisure-time  activities  in  the  psychological,
cognitive and  physical development  of young  people is  recognized in  any
society. Leisure-time  activities include  games,  sports, cultural  events,
entertainment and  community service.   Appropriate  leisure programmes  for
youth  are elements of  any measure  aimed at fighting social  ills, such as
drug  abuse,  juvenile  delinquency and  other  deviant  behaviour.    While
leisure  programmes  can  contribute  greatly  to  the  development  of  the
physical, intellectual and emotional  potential of young people, they should
be designed with due care and  concern so that they are  not used as a means
for excluding youth from  participating in other  aspects of social life  or
for indoctrinating  them. Leisure-time  activity programmes  should be  made
freely available to young people.

Proposals for action

1.  Leisure-time activities as an integral part of
    youth policies and programmes                

92.  In planning, designing and  implementing youth policies and programmes,
Governments  should  recognize  the importance  of  leisure-time activities,
with the  active involvement of youth  organizations.   The importance given
to such activities should be reflected in appropriate funding.
  93.   Governments  are  invited to  establish  public  libraries, cultural
centres and other cultural facilities in rural and urban areas with the  aid
of international  organizations, and  to provide assistance to  young people
active in the  fields of  drama, the  fine arts,  music and  other forms  of
cultural expression.

94.  Governments are invited to encourage the participation  of young people
in tourism, international  cultural events, sports  and all other activities
of special interest to youth.


              2.  Leisure-time activities as elements of educational
                  programmes

95.    A means  by which  Governments  may accord  priority to  leisure-time
activities is  to provide educational institutions with resources to develop
the infrastructure required for  their establishment.  In addition, leisure-
time activities could be part of the regular school curriculum.


                 3.  Leisure-time activities in urban planning and
                     rural development

96.    National Governments  as  well  as  local  authorities and  community
development  agencies  should  incorporate leisure-time  activity programmes
and facilities in urban planning, giving  particular attention to areas with
a high human  concentration.  Equally,  rural development  programmes should
pay due attention to the leisure needs of rural youth.


4.  Leisure-time activities and the media

97.     Communications  media   should  be  encouraged   to  promote   youth
understanding and  awareness of all aspects of social integration, including
tolerance and non-violent behaviour.


I.  Girls and young women

98.   One of  the most important  tasks of  youth policy is  to improve  the
situation of girls and young women.   Governments therefore should implement
their obligations  under international human rights  instruments as well  as
implementing  the Platform  for Action  of  the  Fourth World  Conference on
Women,  the  Programme  of   Action  of  the   International  Conference  on
Population and Development, the Vienna Declaration  and Programme of  Action
of the  World Conference on  Human Rights and  other programmes  of relevant
United Nations  conferences.  Girls  are often treated  as inferior and  are
socialized  to put  themselves  last, thus  undermining  their  self-esteem.
Discrimination and neglect  in childhood  can initiate  a lifelong  downward
spiral of  deprivation and exclusion from  the social  mainstream.  Negative
cultural  attitudes  and practices  as  well  as  gender-biased  educational
processes  including   curricula,  educational   materials  and   practices,
teachers'  attitudes and  classroom  interaction, reinforce  existing gender
inequalities.
  Proposals for action

1.  Discrimination

99.    Discrimination and  neglect  in  childhood  can  initiate a  lifelong
exclusion  from  the  society.    Action   should  be  taken  to   eliminate
discrimination  against   girls  and  young  women  and  ensure  their  full
enjoyment of  human rights  and fundamental  freedoms through  comprehensive
policies,  plans  of  action  and  programmes  on  the  basis  of  equality.
Initiatives  should be  taken  to  prepare girls  to  participate  actively,
effectively  and  equally with  boys  at  all  levels  of social,  economic,
political and cultural leadership.


2.  Education

100.  Universal and  equal access to and completion of primary education for
girls  and young  women as  well as  equal access  to secondary  and  higher
education should  be  ensured.   A  framework  should  be provided  for  the
development  of educational materials and practices that are gender balanced
and promote an educational setting that  eliminates all barriers that impede
the schooling  of girls and young  women, including  married and/or pregnant

girls and young women.


3.  Health

101.  Discrimination  against girls and young  women should be eliminated in
health and  nutrition.   The removal  of discriminatory  laws and  practices
against  girls and young  women in food  allocation and  nutrition should be
promoted, and  access should  be ensured  to health  services in  accordance
with the Programme of Action of  the International Conference on  Population
and Development  and the Platform for  Action of the Fourth World Conference
on Women.


4.  Employment

102.  Girls  and young women should be  protected from economic and  related
forms of exploitation  and from performing  any work  that is  likely to  be
hazardous,  to interfere  with their  education or  to  be harmful  to their
health or  physical,  mental,  spiritual, moral  or social  development,  in
conformity  with  the  Convention  of  the  Rights  of  the  Child  and  the
Convention on the Elimination of All  Forms of Discrimination against Women.
Equal  access for  young women  in  all  employment opportunities  should be
promoted  and  their  participation   in  the  traditionally  male-dominated
sectors should be encouraged.


5.  Violence

103.  Governments should cooperate at the  international level and enact and
enforce  legislation protecting  girls and  young  women  from all  forms of
violence, including female  infanticide and prenatal sex selection,  genital
mutilation, incest, sexual  abuse, sexual  exploitation, child  prostitution
and child  pornography.   Age appropriate  safe and  confidential programmes
and support services  to assist girls and young  women who are subjected  to
violence should be  developed in cooperation with relevant  non-governmental
organizations, particularly youth organizations as appropriate.


          J.  Full and effective participation of youth in the life of
              society and in decision-making

104.   The  capacity  of  progress of  our societies  is based,  among other
elements,   in  their   capacity  to   incorporate  the   contribution   and
responsibility of  youth in the  building and designing  of its  future.  In
addition  to their  intellectual contribution and their  ability to mobilize
support, they bring unique perspectives that need to be taken into account.

105.    Any  efforts and  proposed  actions  on the  other  priority  areas,
considered in this  programme are, in a certain way, conditioned by enabling
economic, social  and  political participation  of  youth,  as a  matter  of
critical importance.

106.  Youth  organizations  are  important  forums  for  developing   skills
necessary for effective  participation in society, promoting tolerance,  and
increased cooperation and exchanges between youth organizations.

Proposals for action

107. The following actions are proposed:

  (a)  Strengthening youth's access  to information in order  to enable them
to make better use of their opportunities to participate;

  (b)   Developing  and/or  strengthening opportunities  for youth  to learn
their  rights  and  responsibilities,  promoting  their  social,  political,

developmental  and environmental  participation and  removing obstacles that
affect  their  full  contribution  to society  and  respecting,  inter alia,
freedom of association;

  (c)    Encouraging and  promoting  youth  association  through  financial,
educational and  technical support  for youth associations and  promotion of
their activities;

  (d)    Taking  into  account  the  contribution  of  youth  in  designing,
implementing  and evaluating  national policies  and plans  affecting  their
concerns;

  (e)     Encouraging   increased  national,   regional  and   international
cooperation and exchange between youth organizations;

  (f)   Inviting Governments to strengthen  the involvement  of young people
in international forums, inter alia, by  considering the inclusion of  youth
representatives in their national delegations to the General Assembly.


 V.  MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION

108.  Effective implementation  of the World  Programme of Action for  Youth
will  require significant  expressions of  commitment by  organizations  and
institutions  responsible  for  its  adoption  and  implementation  and  the
involvement of such organizations and especially  of youth from all  sectors
of society.  Without such commitment by governmental, intergovernmental  and
non-governmental  entities  at  the  national,  regional  and  international
levels, the  Programme of  Action  will  remain little  more than  a  global
statement of intent and general standard for action.

109.  Therefore the development of an overall system of enabling  mechanisms
is  necessary  for  the  Programme  of  Action  to  be  implemented.    Such
mechanisms  should engage,  on  a  continuing basis,  the human,  political,
economic, financial  and sociocultural  resources necessary  to ensure  that
the Programme of Action is implemented efficiently and effectively.

110.    Implementation  of  the World  Programme  of  Action  for  Youth  is
ultimately  the  responsibility  of  Governments  with  the  support  of the
international community and in  cooperation, as appropriate,  with the  non-
governmental and private sectors.  Translation of the Programme's  proposals
for  action into  specific  plans, targets  and law  will  be  influenced by
national priorities, resources and  historical experience.  In this process,
Governments  can   be  assisted,   at  their   request,   by  regional   and
international organizations.

111.  In implementing the World Programme of  Action for Youth, Governments,
youth organizations  and other actors should  promote an  active and visible
policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective  in all policies and programmes
in  accordance  with   the  results  of  the  International  Conference   on
Population and Development, the World Summit  on Social Development, and the
Fourth World Conference on Women.


A.  National level

112.  Governments that have  not already done so are urged to formulate  and
adopt an integrated national  youth policy as a  means of addressing  youth-
related concerns.  This should  be done as part of  a continuing process  of
review  and assessment  of the situation  of youth, formulation  of a cross-
sectoral national  youth programme  of action  in terms  of specific,  time-
bound  objectives,  and  systematic  evaluation  of  progress  achieved  and
obstacles encountered.

113.  Reinforcing  youth-related concerns  in development activities can  be
facilitated   through   the   existence   of   multilevel   mechanisms   for

consultation,  dissemination of  information,  coordination,  monitoring and
evaluation.  These  should be cross-sectoral in nature and multidisciplinary
in  approach   and  should  include   the  participation  of   youth-related
departments and  ministries, national  non-governmental youth  organizations
and the private sector.

114.   Special  and  additional  efforts  may  be required  to  develop  and
disseminate  model frameworks for  integrated policies  and to  identify and
organize   an   appropriate  division   of   responsibilities   among   both
governmental and  non-governmental  entities  concerned  with  youth-related
issues.   Special  and additional  efforts  could  also be  directed towards
strengthening national capacities  for data collection and dissemination  of
information,  research  and  policy  studies, planning,  implementation  and
coordination, and training and advisory services.

115.  National coordinating mechanisms should be appropriately  strengthened
for integrated youth  policies and programmes.  Where such mechanisms do not
exist, Governments are urged to promote  their establishment on a multilevel
and cross-sectoral basis.


B.  Regional cooperation

116.    The  activities  of  the  United  Nations  regional  commissions, in
cooperation with concerned regional  intergovernmental and  non-governmental
youth   and  youth-related  organizations,  are   essential  complements  to
national and global action aimed at building national capacities.

117.   Regional commissions,  within their  existing mandates,  are urged to
promote the implementation of the  Programme of Action through incorporation
of its goals in  their plans and  to undertake comprehensive reviews of  the
progress achieved and obstacles encountered and identify options to  further
regional-level action.

118.   Regional  intergovernmental  meetings of  ministers  responsible  for
youth,  in   cooperation  with   the  concerned   United  Nations   regional
commissions,  regional intergovernmental  organizations  and  regional youth
non-governmental organizations,  can make  particular  contributions to  the
formulation, implementation,  coordination and evaluation  of action at  the
regional level, including periodic monitoring of regional youth programmes.

119.   Data collection,  dissemination of  information, research and  policy
studies,   interorganizational   coordination  and   technical  cooperation,
training seminars  and advisory services are among the measures which can be
provided  on  request  at  the  regional  level  to  promote,  implement and
evaluate youth programmes.

120.   Regional youth  non-governmental organizations,  regional offices  of
bodies  and  organizations  of  the  United  Nations   system  and  regional
intergovernmental  organizations  concerned   with  youth  are   invited  to
consider meeting  on a  biennial  basis  to review  and discuss  issues  and
trends  and identify  proposals for  regional and  subregional  cooperation.
United Nations  regional commissions are also  invited to  play an essential
role  through  the provision  of  a  suitable  venue  and appropriate  input
regarding regional action.


C.  International cooperation

121.    An  essential  role  for  international  cooperation  is  to promote
conditions conducive to the implementation of  the World Programme of Action
for  Youth at all levels.   Means available  include policy-level debates at
the  policy level  and  decisions  at the  intergovernmental  level,  global
monitoring  of  issues and  trends,  data  collection and  dissemination  of
information,  research and  studies,  planning and  coordination,  technical
cooperation, and  outreach and  partnership among  interested constituencies

from both the non-governmental and private sectors.

122.   In  its capacity  as the subsidiary  body of the  Economic and Social
Council responsible  for global  social development  issues, the  Commission
for Social Development has an important role to play as the focal point  for
the implementation of  the Programme  of Action.   The Commission is  called
upon to continue the policy-level dialogue  on youth for policy coordination
and for periodic monitoring of issues and trends.

123.     Current  regional  and   interregional  conferences  of   ministers
responsible  for youth affairs  in Africa,  Asia, Europe,  Latin America and
the Caribbean  and Western Asia are  invited to  intensify cooperation among
each other  and to  consider meeting  regularly at  the international  level
under the  aegis of  the United  Nations.   Such meetings  could provide  an
effective forum for a focused global dialogue on youth-related issues.

124.   Youth-related bodies and organizations  of the  United Nations system
are the  above-mentioned conferences.  In  this connection,  the existing ad
hoc inter-agency group  on youth  should meet  annually and  invite all  the
bodies  and agencies  of the  United  Nations  system concerned  and related
intergovernmental organizations to discuss ways and  means by which they can
further and  promote  the implementation  of the  Programme of  Action on  a
coordinated basis.

125.   Effective channels  of communication  between non-governmental  youth
organizations and the United Nations system  are essential for dialogue  and
consultations  on   the  situation  of  youth   and  implications  for   the
implementation  of  the Programme  of  Action.    The  General Assembly  has
repeatedly stressed  the  importance  of channels  of communication  in  the
field  of youth.    The Youth  Forum  of  the  United Nations  system  could
contribute  to  Programme  implementation  through  the  identification  and
promotion of joint initiatives to further  Programme objectives so that they
better reflect the interests of youth.


1.  Data collection and dissemination of information

126.   Capacities  to collect,  analyse and  present data  in a  timely  and
accurate fashion  are essential for  effective planning and  target-setting,
for  monitoring issues and  trends and  for evaluating  progress achieved in
implementing  the World Programme  of Action  for Youth.   Special attention
should be  directed towards building national capacities and institutions to
collect  and compile  regularly  socio-economic  data series  that are  both
cross-sectional  and  disaggregated by  cohort.    To  this end,  interested
centres  and institutions may  wish to  consider the  possibility of jointly
strengthening  or establishing,  in  cooperation with  the  United  Nations,
networks  concerned with  collection of  data and  publication of statistics
and to  realize thereby greater  economies of scale  in the development  and
dissemination of statistics in the field of youth.

127.   Major contributions are  currently being  made by the  United Nations
related to data and  statistics in the  field of youth.  Such  contributions
include  the  socio-economic  data collection  and  statistical  development
activities of the Statistical Office of  the United Nations Secretariat; the
youth  policies and  programmes information  activities of the  Division for
Social Policy and Development of the  Department for Policy Coordination and
Sustainable  Development;  the  educational  and  literacy  data  collection
activities of UNESCO; and the youth advisory networks  of the United Nations
Environment Programme. Concerned  bodies and agencies of the United  Nations
system  are urged to  explore ways and means  of achieving greater coherence
in data collection  and the publication  of statistics.  This  could include
programme planning and coordination on an  inter-agency basis.  For example,
the  data  bank  programme  on  adolescent   health  of  the  World   Health
Organization is  coordinated with the work of the Statistical  Office of the
United  Nations  Secretariat.   Other  bodies  and  agencies  of the  United
Nations system  are invited to contribute  data in their respective areas of

expertise  to  an  integrated  socio-economic  data  bank  on  youth.    For
instance, the  international  drug  abuse assessment  system of  the  United
Nations International Drug Control Programme  is urged to consider including
a component on youth  and drugs.  An inventory of innovative youth policies,
programmes  and  projects  could  be  coordinated  and  made  available   to
interested users  by the Department  for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
Development.    Other topics  that  could  be  considered  for joint  action
include juvenile delinquency, runaways and homeless youth.

128.    Public  information  and communications  are  equally  important  in
building awareness  of youth issues,  as well as a  consensus on appropriate
planning  and action.   The bodies  and organizations of  the United Nations
system concerned are urged, as a  matter of priority, to review publications
currently produced and identify ways in  which these publications can better
promote the  Programme of  Action and areas  in which  they may  need to  be
complemented  through the production  of leaflets  and posters in connection
with special events.

129.  To encourage  widespread awareness of and support for the Programme of
Action,  Governments, non-governmental  organizations and,  as  appropriate,
the private sector, are urged to consider the possibility of preparing  both
printed  and  audiovisual materials  related  to  areas  of  concern in  the
Programme of Action.  This  could be carried out with the assistance of  and
in cooperation with the United Nations  and materials could be  disseminated
through  United Nations  public  information  channels.   In addition  young
people and  youth organizations are urged  to identify  and plan information
activities that focus on priority issues,  which they would undertake within
the context of the Programme of Action.


2.  Research and policy studies

130.    Comparative  studies  on  issues  and  trends  concerning  youth are
essential to the continuous  expansion and development of the global body of
knowledge  on  relevant  theory,  concepts  and  methods.     International,
regional  and national  research  centres and  institutions  concerned  with
youth-related  issues are urged  to consider the possibility of establishing
cooperative relationships with  the United Nations to ensure effective links
between the implementation of the Programme  of Action and relevant research
and studies.

 131.    A closely  related  concern  is  cooperation  in strengthening  and
improving  national  capacities   for  the  research  design,  conduct   and
dissemination of relevant studies on the situation of young people.

132.  A third  concern is improved  planning and coordination of the  scarce
human  and financial  resources available  so that  appropriate attention is
accorded to initiatives at all levels,  undertaken by young people,  related
to  priority   areas  identified  in  the   Programme  of   Action,  to  the
identification and assessment  of issues and  trends, and to the  review and
evaluation of policy initiatives.


3.  Planning and coordination

133.   Using the  mechanisms currently  available within  the United Nations
system for  planning,  programming  and coordinating  activities  concerning
youth, interested bodies and organizations of  the United Nations system are
urged  to review  their medium-term  planning  process to  give  appropriate
consideration to reinforcing a youth perspective  in their activities.  They
are also urged to identify current  and projected programme activities  that
correspond to  the priorities  of  the  Programme of  Action so  that  these
activities can be  reinforced throughout the system.  Appropriate  attention
should  be directed  towards identifying  opportunities for  joint  planning
among  interested  members  of the  system  so  that  joint  action  may  be
undertaken that  reflects their respective areas  of competence  and that is

of  direct interest to  young people  or that responds to  priority needs of
young people in special circumstances.

134.    A  complementary  mechanism  for  coordination  is  provided  by the
channels  that   have  been  developed  between   the  United  Nations   and
intergovernmental   and   non-governmental   youth   organizations.     Such
mechanisms  require appropriate  strengthening  to enable  them  to  respond
better to priorities for action, as identified in the Programme of Action.


4.  Technical cooperation, training and advisory services

135.   Technical cooperation  is an  essential means  for building  national
capacities and institutional capabilities.  Bodies and organizations of  the
United Nations system that have not already done so are urged  to review and
assess their range of programmatic and  operational activities in the  light
of priorities  for  action  identified in  the Programme  of  Action and  to
reinforce a  youth dimension in technical  cooperation activities.   In this
regard,  special  attention should  be directed  towards measures  that will
serve  to   promote  expanded  opportunities   for  international  technical
assistance and  advisory services  in  the field  of  youth  as a  means  of
building   expanded   and   strengthened   networks   of  institutions   and
organizations.

136.   There  is  a need  to continue  to  improve  the impact  of technical
cooperation activities carried out by the  United Nations system,  including
those  that  relate to  youth activities.   The  United Nations  system must
continue  to assist Governments,  at their request, to ensure implementation
of  national  plans  and  strategies  within  the  national  priorities  and
programmes to support  youth activities.   As  administrative overheads  can
reduce the resources available  for technical cooperation,  these should  be
reduced.   National  execution should  be  the  preferred modality  for  the
implementation of  projects and programmes  and, where required,  developing
countries should  be  assisted  to  improve their  national  capacities  for
project and programme formulation and execution.

137.   The countries  with economies  in transition,  where required, should
also be  assisted  to improve  their  national  capacities for  project  and
programme formulation and execution.

138.   The organization,  on an inter-agency  basis, of  missions to review,
assess  and  plan  technical  cooperation  concerning  youth,  available  on
request to  Governments, represents  a specific  contribution by  the United
Nations system to the implementation of the Programme of Action.

139.  The United  Nations Youth Fund represents a unique resource to support
catalytic and innovative action concerning youth.  Programme  implementation
can be  furthered through  the Fund's  support, in  both a  technical and  a
financial sense, of pilot action, studies  and technical exchanges on issues
concerning youth that encourage the participation  of youth in devising  and
carrying out  projects and whose short  time-frames often  make it difficult
to  obtain  needed  support  from  conventional  budgeting  processes.   The
capacities  of the Fund for  innovative action are, however,  limited in the
light of Programme priorities, and  interested Governments, non-governmental
organizations   and  the   private  sector  are  invited   to  consider  the
possibility of supporting the  activities of the  Fund on a predictable  and
sustained basis.  To  this end, the parties  concerned may wish  to consider
the possibility of constituting an advisory body at  an appropriate level to
review the  application of the  terms of reference  of the Fund,  priorities
and means of strengthening its capacities.


5.  Outreach and partnership among specialized constituencies

140.    A  crucial element  in  implementing  the  Programme  of  Action  is
recognition that governmental action alone is  not sufficient to ensure  its

success, rather  it should  further be  complemented by  the support of  the
international  community. This  process will  also require  both  systematic
outreach and partnership among the  Programme's many constituencies  in both
the non-governmental and private sectors.

141.   A  critical  first step  is phased  expansion  and regularization  of
channels of  communication between the  United Nations and  non-governmental
youth organizations to include representatives of interested private  sector
organizations.    This  would  build  upon  the  provisions  of  the General
Assembly in resolution 45/103 concerning the  involvement of youth and  non-
governmental youth organizations  in formulation of the Programme of Action.
Youth,   youth-related   organizations   and   interested   private   sector
organizations  are urged to identify, in partnership  with Governments, ways
in which  they could contribute to  action at the  local level to  implement
the Programme,  and to  the periodic  review, appraisal  and formulation  of
options to achieve its goals and objectives.

142.     Implementation  of  the  Programme   of  Action  offers   important
opportunities  to expand technical and cultural exchanges among young people
through  new  partnerships  in  both  the  public  and  private  sectors; to
identify  and   test  improved  ways   to  leverage   public  resources,  in
partnership  with  the non-governmental  and  private  sectors,  to  further
Programme  priorities;  and   to  encourage  and  plan  jointly   innovative
approaches to critical issues concerning youth.

143.   Relevant voluntary organizations,  particularly those concerned  with
education, employment,  juvenile justice, youth development, health, hunger,
ecology   and  the  environment,  and  drug  abuse,  can  further  Programme
implementation  by  encouraging   involvement  of  young  people  in   their
programme planning  and  field activities.    The  Programme of  Action  can
contribute  to the work of  such organizations because it  provides a global
policy framework for consultation and coordination.


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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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