United Nations

A/50/726


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

10 November 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH/FRENCH


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 139


UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME OF ASSISTANCE IN THE TEACHING, STUDY,
DISSEMINATION AND WIDER APPRECIATION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION ..........................................1 - 54

II.  IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME DURING THE BIENNIUM
  1994-1995 .............................................6 - 1075

  A.  Activities of the United Nations ..................6 - 745

    1.  Geneva International Law Seminar ..............6 - 145

    2.  Activities of the Office of Legal Affairs .....15 - 486

      (a)  Public international law and other
        activities ...............................15 - 216

      (b)  Activities concerning the law of the sea
        and ocean affairs:  the Hamilton
        Shirley Amerasinghe Memorial Fellowship ..22 - 33  7

      (c)  Activities concerning international trade
        law ......................................34 - 4810

    3.  Cooperation with other organizations ..........    4917





95-34320 (E)  151195/...
*9534320*
  CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

    4.  Publicity ....................................50 - 5317

      (a)  United Nations Treaty Series ............    50 - 5117

      (b)  United Nations Juridical Yearbook .......       5217

      (c)  United Nations Reports of International
        Arbitral Awards .........................       5318

      (d)  Other forms of publicity ................       5418

    5.  Distribution of United Nations legal
      publications .................................      5518

    6.  Fellowships offered at national institutions . 5619

    7.  International Law Fellowship Programme .......   57 - 7419

  B.  Activities of the United Nations Institute for
    Training and Research ............................   75 - 9524

  C.  Activities of the United Nations Educational,
    Scientific and Cultural Organization .............    96 - 10428

  D.  Other activities reported by States and
    international organizations concerning the
    teaching, study, dissemination and wider
    appreciation of international law pursuant to
    General Assembly resolution 49/50 ................   105 - 10730

III.GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING EXECUTION OF
  THE PROGRAMME IN THE BIENNIUM 1996-1997 WITHIN THE
  FRAMEWORK OF THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE OF
  INTERNATIONAL LAW ....................................108 - 12631

  A.  General observations .............................   108 - 11031

  B.  Activities of the United Nations .................   111 - 12331

  C.  Activities of the United Nations Institute for
    Training and Research ............................      12434

  D.  Activities of the United Nations Educational,
    Scientific and Cultural Organization .............      12534




  CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

  E.  Other activities by States and international
    organizations concerning the teaching, study,
    dissemination and wider appreciation of
    international law, pursuant to General Assembly
    resolution 49/50 .................................      12634

IV.  ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF UNITED
  NATIONS PARTICIPATION IN THE PROGRAMME ...............127 - 13834

  A.  Biennium 1994-1995 ...............................   127 - 13534

  B.  Biennium 1996-1997 ...............................   136 - 13835

V.  MEETINGS OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON THE UNITED
  NATIONS PROGRAMME OF ASSISTANCE IN THE TEACHING,
  STUDY, DISSEMINATION AND WIDER APPRECIATION OF
  INTERNATIONAL LAW ....................................139 - 15036

  A.  Membership of the Advisory Committee .............      13936

  B.  Twenty-ninth session .............................   140 - 14936

  C.  Thirtieth session ................................   150 - 17338

I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   The  United Nations  Programme of  Assistance in  the Teaching,  Study,
Dissemination and  Wider Appreciation of  International Law was  established
by the General Assembly  under its resolution 2099 (XX) of 20 December  1965
and has  been continued under relevant  resolutions repeated annually  until
1971 and  biennially thereafter. 1/   The most  recent resolution concerning
the Programme is resolution 48/29 of 9 December 1993.

2.   In  resolution 44/23  of 17  November  1989, by  which it  declared the
period  1990-1999  the  United Nations  Decade  of  International  Law,  the
General Assembly  considered one of  the main purposes  of the  Decade to be
the  encouragement   of  the  teaching,   study,  dissemination  and   wider
appreciation  of international law  and stressed  the need  to promote those
activities.  2/    The foregoing  was  reaffirmed  by the  Assembly  in  its
resolutions 45/40 of 28  November 1990, 47/32 of  25 November 1992 and 49/50
of 9 December  1994 by which it adopted the programme for the activities for
the first term (1990-1992), the second term  (1993-1994) and the third  term
(1995-1996) of the Decade respectively. 3/

3.   Moreover, in  its resolution  48/29, the General  Assembly, bearing  in
mind  the objectives  of the  United  Nations  Decade of  International Law,
authorized  the  Secretary-General  to  carry  out  in  1994  and  1995  the
activities specified  in the  report that  he had  submitted  at the  forty-
eighth session (A/48/580).  The Assembly  expressed its appreciation to  the
Secretary-General  for his  constructive  efforts to  promote  training  and
assistance in international law within the  framework of the United  Nations
Programme  of Assistance  in the  Teaching, Study,  Dissemination  and Wider
Appreciation of  International Law,  in particular for  the organization  of
the twenty-eighth 4/ and twenty-ninth 5/  sessions of the International  Law
Seminar,  held at Geneva  in June  1992 and June 1993  respectively, and for
the activities of the Office of Legal Affairs of the Secretariat related  to
the fellowship  programme in international law  and to  the Hamilton Shirley
Amerasinghe  Memorial  Fellowship  on  the  Law  of  the  Sea,  carried out,
respectively, through its  Codification Division and  its Division for Ocean
Affairs  and  the  Law  of  the  Sea.    The  Assembly  also  expressed  its
appreciation  to the  United  Nations Institute  for  Training  and Research
(UNITAR)  and to  the United  Nations Educational,  Scientific and  Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) for their participation in the Programme.

4.  In paragraph 17 of resolution 48/29, the General Assembly requested  the
Secretary-General  to  report  to  it  at   its  fiftieth  session  on   the
implementation  of  the  Programme  during  1994  and  1995  and,  following
consultations  with  the  Advisory  Committee on  the  Programme,  to submit
recommendations  regarding the  execution  of the  Programme  in  subsequent
years.

5.   The present report  deals with the  implementation of  the Programme of
Assistance  during   1994-1995  in  accordance   with  the  guidelines   and
recommendations  submitted  regarding the  execution  of  the  Programme  in
subsequent  years.    The  report,  inter  alia,  gives  an  account  of the
activities performed by the  United Nations itself and of those in which the
Organization  has participated, as  well as  a description  submitted to the
Secretary-General by UNITAR and UNESCO concerning their own activities.

                   II.  IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME DURING THE
                      BIENNIUM 1994-1995

A.  Activities of the United Nations

1.  Geneva International Law Seminar

6.  Pursuant  to General Assembly resolution 48/31  of 9 December 1993,  the
United  Nations Office  at Geneva  organized  the  thirtieth session  of the
International   Law  Seminar   during  the   forty-sixth  session   of   the
International  Law Commission.    The Seminar  is intended  for postgraduate
students of international law and  young professors or  government officials
dealing with questions  of international law  in the  course of their  work.
Twenty-four candidates  of different nationalities,  mostly from  developing
countries, were  selected.   Twenty-three  of the  selected candidates  were
able to participate  in the 1994  session of the Seminar, which  was held at
the Palais des Nations from 20 May to 10 June 1994.

7.  Participants were from the following  countries:  Belgium, China,  Costa
Rica, Cuba, Greece,  Guinea, Indonesia,  Israel, Kenya, Mali, Mexico,  Peru,
Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Saint Lucia,  Slovakia, Sri Lanka, South Africa,
Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine and Zimbabwe. 6/

8.    Furthermore,  pursuant  to  General  Assembly  resolution  49/51  of 9
December  1994, the United  Nations Office  at Geneva  organized the thirty-
first  session  of the  International  Law  Seminar  during the  forty-ninth
session  of the  International Law  Commission.   Twenty-four candidates  of
different nationalities,  mostly from developing  countries, were  selected.
Twenty-three  of the  candidates were  able  to  participate in  the seminar
which was held at the Palais des Nations from 22 May to 9 June 1995.

9.  Participants were from the  following countries:  Argentina,  Australia,
Austria, Brazil,  Bulgaria, Burkina Faso,  Burundi, Cote d'Ivoire,  Croatia,
El  Salvador,  India, Jamaica,  Japan,  Lao  People's  Democratic  Republic,
Latvia,   Libyan   Arab  Jamahiriya,   Mongolia,   Niger,   Rwanda,   Spain,
Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago and Uruguay. 7/

10.  During the  three weeks of each session, the participants attended  the
meetings  of the  International Law  Commission.   In addition, a  number of
lectures were given at the Seminar.   Some of the lectures were delivered by
members of the  Commission; others  were given  by officials  of the  United
Nations and  of  the secretariats  of other  international organizations  at
Geneva, as well as of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

11.  At the 1994  session, three working  groups were created to deal  with:
(a)  the legal  basis for  the  establishment  of an  international criminal
court;  (b) international crimes (article 19 of the  draft articles on State
responsibility);  and (c)  reservations to  multilateral  treaties.   At the
1995 session, two working groups  were created to deal with:  (a) the  state
of  international  law  in  the  context  of unilateral  acts  and  (b)  the
consequences of  international crimes. 8/   Both in  1994 and  in 1995, each
working  group prepared  a paper  on its  topic;  the papers  were presented
orally and copies were made available to the members of the Commission.

12.   The Seminar  is funded by  voluntary contributions from  Member States
and  through  national  fellowships  awarded  by  Governments to  their  own
nationals.  The Commission noted with  particular appreciation that in  1994
the  Governments of  Austria, Denmark,  Finland, France,  Germany,  Iceland,
Norway,  Slovenia and Switzerland  and in  1995 the  Governments of Austria,
Denmark,  Finland, France,  Germany, Ireland,  Norway, Switzerland  and  the
United Kingdom  of Great Britain and  Northern Ireland  had made fellowships
available  to  participants  from  developing  countries  through  voluntary
contributions to the  appropriate component of the United Nations  Programme
of Assistance.   With  the award  of these  fellowships, it was  possible to
achieve  adequate geographical  distribution of  participants and  to  bring
from distant  countries deserving candidates  who would  otherwise have been

prevented  from participating in  the session.   For the  1994 session, full
fellowships  (travel   and  subsistence  allowance)   were  awarded  to   14
participants,   and   partial   fellowships   (subsistence   only)   to  two
participants.  For the  1995 session, full fellowships were awarded to  nine
participants and  partial fellowships  to six  participants.   Thus, of  690
participants, representing 152  nationalities, who have participated in  the
Seminar since its inception in  1964, fellowships have been  awarded to 374.
9/

13.  At  both sessions, the Commission  stressed the importance it  attached
to the  sessions of the  Seminar, which enable young  lawyers and especially
those from developing countries to familiarize  themselves with the work  of
the Commission and the  activities of the  many international  organizations
that have  their headquarters at  Geneva.  However,  as the  available funds
were almost  exhausted, the Commission recommended that the General Assembly
should  again  appeal  to  States  able  to  do  so to  make  the  voluntary
contributions  needed  to   hold  the  Seminar  in  1996  with  as  broad  a
participation as possible. 10/

14.     The  Commission  also  noted   with  satisfaction   that,  in  1995,
comprehensive  interpretation  services  had  been  made  available  to  the
Seminar.  It expressed  the hope that the  same full services and facilities
would  be  made  available  to  the  Seminar at  the  next  session, despite
existing financial constraints. 11/


2.  Activities of the Office of Legal Affairs

(a)   Public international law and other activities

15.   As in  the past,  the Office  of Legal Affairs  of the  United Nations
Secretariat,  and in  particular  its Codification  Division,  continued  to
perform various functions connected with the goals of the Programme.

16.   Pursuant  to the  relevant  recommendations  of the  Secretary-General
(A/48/580,  paras. 137 and  138) and  paragraph 1  of resolution  48/29, the
Office  participated  with UNITAR  in  the  decision-making process  on  the
various  aspects  relating  to  the general  orientation  of  the Fellowship
Programme in International  Law, such  as the selection  of fellows and  the
appointment  of  lecturers for  the  Programme.    In  that connection,  the
officers responsible  for the  conduct of  the Fellowship  Programme in  the
Codification Division of the Office of Legal Affairs  and in UNITAR acted in
close consultation  to ensure the implementation  of the  guidelines for the
Fellowship Programme as approved by the  General Assembly. Furthermore,  the
Office  of Programme Planning,  Budget and  Accounts of  the Secretariat has
vested  in  the  Office  of  Legal  Affairs  the  certifying  authority  for
expenditures against the  accounts related  to the United Nations  Programme
of Assistance in the Teaching,  Study, Dissemination and  Wider Appreciation
of International Law.

17.  Furthermore, the Office  of Legal Affairs received and assigned interns
to participate in activities  related to some of  its projects.  The Office,
in  cooperation  with  the  Office  of  Human  Resources  Management  of the
Secretariat,  selects  the  interns  and  the  duration  and  type  of their
training, which  may consist  in attaching  the intern  to a project  of the
Office  of Legal  Affairs  related to  matters in  which  the intern  has  a
special  interest, for  academic or  other  reasons.   None  of the  interns
entail any financial burden for the Organization.

18.  Members of the staff of the  Office of Legal Affairs, upon the proposal
of the  Department  of Public  Information  of  the Secretariat,  have  also
lectured  at Headquarters on  various aspects  of international  law and the
law of  international organizations  to groups of  foreign office  officials
and  university students, as  well as to representatives of non-governmental
organizations.

19.   The  Codification Division,  among  other  activities related  to  the
Programme, also  performs secretariat functions  for the Advisory  Committee
on the  Programme and has  been involved in  the preparation  of the interim
report of the SecretaryGeneral on the implementation of the Programme.

20.    The  Division has  also  serviced  the  Working  Group  of the  Sixth
Committee on  the United  Nations  Decade of  International Law,  originally
established pursuant to paragraph 4 of  General Assembly resolution 44/23 of
17 November 1989,  and whose mandate  has been renewed  annually since  1991
12/ with  a view to preparing  generally acceptable  recommendations for the
Decade.   The Division has  furthermore been involved in  the preparation of
the  annual   reports  of  the  Secretary-General   on  the   Decade.    The
Codification Division was also  mainly responsible for  the preparation  and
organization  of the  United Nations  Congress on  Public International  Law
held  in March  1995  in the  framework  of  the  United Nations  Decade  of
International Law.  It  designed the programme of the Congress, both for the
plenary meetings and the round-table discussions.

21.  In addition, the Codification Division  assists in the dissemination of
information  regarding   United  Nations  work   on  the  codification   and
progressive  development of international  law, as  well as  on some aspects
regarding its application.

(b)Activities  concerning the  law  of  the  sea  and  ocean affairs:    the
Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe Memorial Fellowship

22.   The activities  of the Division for  Ocean Affairs and the  Law of the
Sea aimed at  promoting the acquisition  of additional knowledge of  the law
of the  sea and  its  wider  application have  been continued  by  providing
training  and  assistance, inter  alia,  through  the  annual  award of  the
Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe Memorial Fellowship on the Law of the Sea.

23.    The fellowship  was  launched  in  accordance  with General  Assembly
resolution 35/116 of 10  December 1980; the programme has as its purpose the
advancement of the fellows in their  chosen professions or vocations,  which
would contribute to the development of  their countries, and the acquisition
by them  of additional  knowledge on,  better understanding  of and  greater
specialization in  the fields of study  related to the  law of  the sea, its
implementation and marine affairs.

24.   The fellowship  award enables  chosen fellows  to pursue postgraduate-
level research  and  training  in the  field  of the  law  of the  sea,  its
implementation  and related marine  affairs.   Research and study facilities
at the  postgraduate level  are provided for  the successful fellows  at the
participating  institutes of  higher education.    An internship  period  of
three months is provided in  the Division for Ocean Affairs  and the Law  of
the Sea,  Office of Legal  Affairs.  The  universities participating  in the
programme are the  following:  Centre for  Ocean Law and Policy,  University
of  Virginia,  United  States of  America;  Dalhousie  Law  School, Halifax,
Canada; Graduate Institute  of International Studies, Geneva; Marine  Policy
Center, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, United  States;
Netherlands  Institute  for the  Law  of  the  Sea,  University of  Utrecht,
Netherlands;   Research   Centre  for   International  Law,   University  of
Cambridge,  United Kingdom;  School of  Law, University  of Georgia,  United
States; School  of Law, University  of Miami, United States;  School of Law,
University of Washington,  United States;  and William S. Richardson  School
of Law, University of Hawaii, United States.

25.    The  guidelines  and  rules   of  the  Hamilton  Shirley  Amerasinghe
Fellowship on  the Law  of the  Sea set  out the  application and  selection
procedures and specify the facilities provided  under the programme.   These
are  consistent  with  the  appropriate  practices  of  the  United  Nations
regarding  the award of  fellowships under  the United  Nations Programme of
Assistance  in the Teaching,  Study, Dissemination and Wider Appreciation of
International Law. 13/

26.  Applications are received globally  in response to invitations extended
through the  offices of the resident  representatives of  the United Nations
Development  Programme (UNDP)  and through  the United  Nations  information
centres. The  selection of  candidates is  subject to  a two-stage  process.
The  preliminary  stage  of  review  of  the  individual  applications   and
nominations, which  are  received from  Governments, governmental  agencies,
institutions  and bodies, is carried  out by the  Division for Ocean Affairs
and the  Law of the Sea in cooperation with the Codification Division of the
Office  of  Legal Affairs.   A  short  list  of candidates  is drawn  up for
evaluation by an Advisory Panel.

27.  Eight annual  awards and one special award  have been made  since 1986.
The  awards are  made by the Legal  Counsel of the United  Nations; prior to
1992 they were made by the  Special Representative of the  Secretary-General
for the Law of the Sea.  Awards are made on  the basis of the recommendation
of the  Advisory Panel.   The  Advisory Panel  is composed of  eight eminent
persons in international  affairs, the  law of the  sea and related  fields.
The   Panel  is   constituted   to   evaluate  the   candidates   and   make
recommendations on the  most suitable candidate, with  two reserves.   It is
on the basis of this recommendation that the award is made.

28.  The eight  annual awards made  since the institution of the  Fellowship
Programme went:   in 1986 to a lawyer  from the Ministry of Foreign  Affairs
of Nepal; in 1987  to a lawyer  from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs  of the
United  Republic of Tanzania;  in 1988,  to a Legal Adviser  attached to the
Ministry  of Foreign Affairs of Chile;  in 1989, to a State Counsel with the
Ministry of Legal Affairs of Trinidad  and Tobago; in 1990, to a jurist from
the Ministry of  Foreign Affairs of  Sao Tome and  Principe; in  1991, to  a
lecturer at the  Faculty for Maritime and Transportation Studies, University
of Rijeka, now Croatia;  in 1992, to the  Acting Chief of  the International
Law  and Treaty  Subdivision, Department  of  Fisheries  of the  Ministry of
Agriculture and  Cooperation  of Thailand;  and  in  1994, to  a  diplomatic
officer attached  to the  Ministry of  External Relations  of Cameroon.  14/
The  eight  annual  fellowships   awarded  since  the  commencement  of  the
programme have included candidates from nearly all regions of the world.

29.   Also  in 1994,  a  special award  went to  a  State Counsel  from  the
Seychelles  attached to the  Office of  the Attorney-General.   This special
award  was made  possible by a generous  grant of the United  Kingdom in the
amount  of $23,574. The United  Kingdom requested that  the recipient of the
fellowship for the academic year 1995/96 should  be chosen from a developing
country  and  should pursue  a  one-year  LLM  (master's  programme in  law)
programme or carry out  advanced study and research at the graduate level at
a university  in the  United Kingdom followed  by an internship  period with
the  Division for  Ocean Affairs  and the  Law of  the Sea,  Office of Legal
Affairs.   The Advisory  Panel welcomed  the contribution.   While extending
its appreciation to the United Kingdom  Government, the Panel expressed  the
hope that  this gesture could  be repeated as  a reflection  of a continuing
commitment and  urged other countries to  consider following  the example of
the United Kingdom Government.

30.   In  recent years, the  fellowship fund has  been reduced to  the level
where the capital  of the fund is being  consumed rather than annual  income
from  the fund.  This is contrary  to the stated objectives at  the time the
fund was  established.  The annual  fellowships are funded from the interest
accrued under the Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe  fellowship fund.  This meets
the cost of  roundtrip air travel  of the  successful fellow  from the  home
country  to the  educational institution  and thereafter  to  United Nations
Headquarters and back to  the home country.  It also provides a  subsistence
allowance  while at the university and during the internship period with the
United Nations,  Division for Ocean Affairs and  the Law of  the Sea, in New
York, on  the basis  of established  United Nations  rates for  fellowships.
Under  the  fellowship programme,  the  participating  universities  provide
facilities  for candidates to  pursue academic  research and  study, free of
tuition and related costs.

31.  The Advisory  Panel has in  recent years recommended the most  suitable
candidate  as well  as two  additional candidates.   This  is to  cover  the
eventuality that the chosen  fellow might be unable  to accept the  award or
that additional funding might  be found to grant more than one fellowship in
the year concerned.  The latter eventuality only materialized in 1994.

 32.   The Advisory Panel,  under the Chairmanship  of Professor John Norton
Moore, noted  that, as in the  previous years, the  candidates for the  1994
award were all of a very high  calibre and recommended that efforts  be made
to  acquire additional funding  for fellowships from philanthropic and other
institutions and  to  encourage  universities to  award fellowships  to  all
finalists in the programme.  Along those lines, on  the basis of the Panel's
endorsement,  selected candidates  would  be designated  as  "finalists"  in
consideration for  the  award and  they should  be  encouraged  to use  this
information   in   applying   directly   to   universities  for   fellowship
consideration.   The Panel  also urged  the UnderSecretary-General for Legal
Affairs,  the Legal Counsel,  to explore  the possibility  of increasing the
endowment so that the interest  earned therefrom would enable  them to award
more than one fellowship per year.

33.  The Advisory Panel will  meet later in 1995 to recommend a candidate or
candidates for the tenth  award.  Thereafter the  award will be announced by
the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs, the Legal Counsel.

(c)  Activities concerning international trade law

34.   The activities of the United Nations Commission on International Trade
Law (UNCITRAL)  and its secretariat (International  Trade Law  Branch of the
United Nations Office of Legal Affairs)  are designed primarily to  acquaint
lawyers,  government officials  and scholars,  particularly from  developing
countries, with  the work  of UNCITRAL  and with  the legal texts  that have
emanated from its work. In  doing so, the  Secretariat has kept in mind  the
decision of the Commission at its fourteenth session,  in 1981, that a major
purpose of  the training and assistance  activities should  be the promotion
of texts that have been prepared by the Commission. 15/

35.  Since the  statement of the Commission  at its twentieth session (1987)
that "training  and assistance was an  important activity  of the Commission
and should  be given a  higher priority than  it had  in the past",  16/ the
Secretariat  has  endeavoured  to  devise  a  more  extensive  programme  of
training and assistance than had been previously carried out.

36.   In its resolutions 48/32  of 9 December 1993  and 49/55  of 9 December
1994 on the report of  UNCITRAL on the work of its twenty-sixth and  twenty-
seventh  sessions   respectively,  the   General  Assembly   reaffirmed  the
importance,  in particular  for developing  countries,  of  the work  of the
Commission  concerned  with   training  and  assistance   in  the  field  of
international trade law and the desirability for it to sponsor seminars  and
symposia  to  provide such  training  and  assistance.    The Assembly  also
expressed  its appreciation  to the  Commission for  organizing seminars  on
international  trade  law  in  a  number   of  developing  countries.     It
furthermore appealed  to Governments,  the relevant  United Nations  organs,
organizations,  institutions and individuals to make voluntary contributions
to the trust fund for symposia and, where  appropriate, to the financing  of
special projects, and otherwise to assist  the secretariat of the Commission
in  financing  and  organizing  seminars  and  symposia,  in  particular  in
developing  countries, and in  the award  of fellowships  to candidates from
developing countries  to enable  them to  participate in  such seminars  and
symposia.

 37.   Set forth  below are  the main activities undertaken  by UNCITRAL and
its secretariat in the area  of training and assistance during the reporting
period.

National seminars on international trade law

38.   In view  of the  relative cost-effectiveness of  the national seminars
compared  to regional  seminars,  the secretariat  recently  emphasized  the
holding of a series of national seminars.   In addition, the secretariat has
continued to  provide technical consultations  and assistance  to States  in
the preparation of national legislation based  on UNCITRAL's model laws,  in
particular the  UNCITRAL Model Law  on International Commercial  Arbitration
and  the  UNCITRAL Model  Law  on  Procurement  of  Goods, Construction  and
Services.   Since the  last report  of the  Secretary-General (A/48/580) the
following national seminars were held by UNCITRAL:

  -Ulan-Batar, Mongolia  (23-24 September  1993), held  in cooperation  with
the Government of Mongolia, and attended by approximately 30 participants;

  -Karachi, Pakistan  (29-30 September 1993), held  in cooperation with  the
Training  Institute of the  Customs Authority  and the  Research Society for
International Law, and attended by approximately 35 participants;

  -Bishkek,  Kyrgyzstan (5-7  October 1993),  held in  cooperation with  the
Government of Kyrgyzstan, and attended by approximately 15 participants;

  -Buenos Aires,  Argentina (20-21 October  1993), held  in cooperation with
the   Government  of   Argentina,   and  attended   by   approximately   130
participants;

  -Rio  de Janeiro, Brazil  (25-26 October  1993), held  in cooperation with
Candido Mendes University  and PETROBRAS, and  attended by  approximately 65
participants;

  -Colombo, Sri Lanka (13-16 September 1993),  held within the framework  of
the biennial conference  of the  Law Association  for Asia  and the  Pacific
(LAWASIA).

  -Istanbul, Turkey  (25-27 April  1994), held  in cooperation with  Marmara
University and the Union  of Turkish Chambers  of Commerce, and attended  by
approximately 50 participants;

  -Shanghai,  China (27-28 June  1994), held  in cooperation  with the China
International  Economic  and Trade  Commission  (CIETAC),  and  attended  by
approximately 90 participants;

  -Harare, Zimbabwe (1-3 August 1994), held  in cooperation with the  Office
of the Attorney-General, and attended by approximately 70 participants;

   -Gaborone, Botswana  (8-10 August  1994), held  in  cooperation with  the
Office  of   the  Attorney-General,   and  attended   by  approximately   50
participants;

  -Windhoek, Namibia  (12-15 September 1994),  held in  cooperation with the
Office  of   the  Attorney-General,   and  attended   by  approximately   50
participants;

  -Nairobi,  Kenya (12-15  September  1994),  held in  cooperation with  the
Office  of   the  Attorney-General,   and  attended   by  approximately   60
participants;

  -Tbilisi,  Georgia   (7-9  November  1994),   briefing  mission  held   in
cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs;

  -Baku,  Azerbaijan  (11-15  November  1994),  briefing  mission  held   in
cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs;

  -Yerevan,  Armenia  (16-18  November  1994),  briefing  mission  held   in
cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs;

  -Panama City, Panama (17-18 November 1994),  held in cooperation with  the
Chamber of Commerce, and attended by approximately 150 participants;

  -Cali,  Colombia  (21-22 November  1994),  held  in cooperation  with  the
Chamber  of  Commerce  and  the  Inter-American  Commission  of   Commercial
Arbitration, and attended by approximately 150 participants;

  -Tashkent,  Uzbekistan (21-23  November 1994),  briefing mission  held  in
cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations;

  -Prague,  Czech Republic (4-5  April 1995),  held in  cooperation with the
Ministry  of   Industry  and  Trade,  and   attended  by  approximately   70
participants.

Other seminars, conferences and professional meetings

39.   Members of the  UNCITRAL secretariat participated  as speakers  in the
following seminars,  conferences and courses where UNCITRAL legal texts were
presented for examination and discussion:

  -Twelfth  Course  of  the  International  Association  of  Law   Libraries
(Barcelona, Spain, 17-21 August 1993);

  -Pacific Economic Cooperation  Council (PECC) Meeting on Harmonization  of
International Trade Law Instruments (Singapore, 9-10 September 1993);

  -First International Conference  on Commercial Arbitration in Croatia  and
Slovenia, sponsored  by  the  Croatian  Chamber of  Commerce  (Zagreb,  8-10
December 1993);
    -Worldwide  Electronic Commerce:   Law  Policy and  Controls  Conference
sponsored by the American Bar Association (New York, 17-18 January 1994);

  -Thirty-third session  of the Asian-African  Legal Consultative  Committee
(AALCC) (Tokyo, 17-21 January 1994);

  -"L'echange de  donnees informatisees,  Entreprises-Banques" sponsored  by
Forum du droit et des affaires (Paris, 26-27 January 1994);

  -Third Lawyers' Conference  (SAARCLAW) of the South Asian Association  for
Regional Cooperation (SAARC) (New Delhi, 26-27 January 1994);

  -"Reforming and  Modernizing Procurement  Rules", sponsored  by the  Cairo
Regional   Centre   for  International   Commercial   Arbitration   and  the
International  Law  Institute of  Washington,  D.C.  (Cairo,  29-31  January
1994);

  -International Arbitration Conference, sponsored by EKIURIS Ltd.  (Company
for Economic and Legal Studies) (Moscow, 31 January-2 February 1994);

  -1994 Annual  Survey of Letter  of Credit Law  and Practice,  sponsored by
the Institute  of International Banking Law  and Practice,  Letter of Credit
UPDATE, and  the United States Council  on International  Banking (New York,
24-25 February 1994);

  -Slovak  National Seminar in  Support of  Public Procurement, sponsored by
SIGMA,  a  programme  of  the  Organisation  for  Economic  Cooperation  and
Development (OECD) and the Slovak Ministry of Transport, Communications  and
Public Works (Bratislava, 2-3 February 1994);

  -United  Nations   Economic  Commission  for   Europe  Working  Party   on
Facilitation of International Trade Procedures (Geneva, 14-18 March 1994);

  -Colloquium  on Cross-Border  Insolvency, co-sponsored by  the secretariat
of UNCITRAL  and the International  Association of Insolvency  Practitioners
(INSOL) (Vienna, 17-19 April 1994);

  -Briefings  in Support of Public Procurement Legislation, sponsored by the
Public Procurement Unit of  the Office of the Council of Ministers  (Warsaw,
26-27 April 1994);

  -Arbitrators Symposium  of the London  Court of International  Arbitration
(Budapest, 29 April-1 May 1994);

  -Annual Session of the  Governing Council of  the International  Institute
for  Unification  of Private  Law (UNIDROIT)  (Rome,  8-14 May  1994 and  29
March-1 April 1995);

   -Arbitration  Conference  sponsored  by  the  International  Council  for
Commercial  Arbitration (ICCA)  and  the China  International  Economic  and
Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC) (Beijing, 22-23 June 1994);

  -United  Nations/UNITAR  Fellowship Programme  in  International  Law (The
Hague, 8-12 August 1994);

  -Conference on  the "Egyptian New Law of Commercial Arbitration: Different
Experiences of  Adopting the  Model Law",  sponsored by  the Cairo  Regional
Centre  for International  Commercial  Arbitration  (Cairo, 12-13  September
1994);

  -Conference on the "New Trends in  Maritime Arbitration in the  Afro-Asian
Region",  sponsored   by  the  Cairo   Regional  Centre  for   International
Commercial Arbitration (Alexandria, Egypt, 14-15 September 1994);

  -Forum  on   Ukrainian  Law  and  Public  Procurement,  sponsored  by  the
International Trade Centre (ITC) (Kiev, 18-22 September 1994);

  -United  Nations   Economic  Commission  for   Europe  Working  Party   on
Facilitation  of International  Trade  Procedures (Geneva,  19-23  September
1994);

  -Thirteenth  Course  -  International   Commercial  Arbitration  and   Law
Libraries, sponsored by  the International Association of Law Libraries  and
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers (The Hague, 26-29 September 1994);

  -Arbitration Symposium of  the London Court of International  Arbitration,
Asia/Pacific Users Council (Sydney, Australia, 5-7 October 1994);

  -International Bar  Association Twenty-fifth Biennial Conference  (Sydney,
Australia, 8-15 October 1994);

  -Regional  Trade  Law Seminar  of  the  Attorney-General's  Department  of
Australia (Melbourne, 18-19 October 1994);

  -International Entry  Course on  Arbitration, sponsored  by the  Chartered
Institute of Arbitrators (Bahrain, 25-27 October 1994);

  -International Entry  Course on  Arbitration, sponsored  by the  Chartered
Institute of Arbitrators (Harare, 28-30 November 1994);

  -World Intellectual  Property Organization  (WIPO) Arbitration  Conference
(Geneva, 19-20 January 1995);

  -United  Nations   Economic  Commission  for   Europe  Working  Party   on
Facilitation of International Trade Procedures (Geneva, 20-24 March 1995);

   -Regional  Conference of  the Americas,  sponsored by  the  International
Association of  Insolvency  Practitioners  (INSOL) (Toronto,  Canada,  22-24
March 1995);

  -Willem C.  Vis International  Commercial Arbitration  Moot, organized  by
the Institute of International Commercial Law  of Pace University School  of
Law, New York (Vienna, 22-26 March 1995);

  -Dynamic  Asia  Conference, sponsored  by  the  International  Chamber  of
Commerce (ICC) (New Delhi, 27-28 March 1995);

  -International   Seminar   on   Globalization    and   Harmonization    of
Commercial/Arbitration Laws (New Delhi, 31 March-1 April 1995);

  -International   Trade   Law   Postgraduate  Course   sponsored   by   the
International Training  Centre  of  the  International  Labour  Organization
(ILO) and the University Institute of  European Studies (Turin, Italy, 11-12
April 1995);

  -Thirty-fourth session of  the Asian-African Legal Consultative  Committee
(AALCC) (Doha, 17-22 April 1995).

40.  The internship programme was continued.  During  the past two years the
secretariat received nine interns.

Sixth  UNCITRAL  Symposium  on International  Trade Law  (Vienna,  22-26 May
1995)

41.     The   secretariat  organized   the  Sixth   UNCITRAL  Symposium   on
International Trade Law on the occasion of  the twenty-eighth session of the
Commission.   The  symposium was  designed  to  acquaint young  lawyers with
UNCITRAL as an institution and with the legal  texts that have emanated from
its work.   As  was the  case at  previous symposia, lecturers  were invited
primarily  from  delegations   to  the  Commission  session  and  from   the
secretariat.   The  travel and  subsistence  costs  of 23  participants from
Africa,  Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America were  paid from the UNCITRAL
Trust Fund for Symposia.  In addition, 65 individuals attended without  such
financial assistance.  In order to save on  the costs of interpretation  and
to  be able  to increase the communication  between participants themselves,
the symposium was held in English and French only.

Consideration  by  UNCITRAL  of   the  subject  of   the  teaching,   study,
dissemination and wider appreciation of international trade law

42.   UNCITRAL considered  this subject  at its  twenty-seventh and  twenty-
eighth sessions.   In the  reports on  the work  of those sessions,  17/ the
Commission noted  the training and  assistance activities undertaken  during
the reported years as well as possible future activities in this area.

43.   The  Commission  noted that  growing awareness  of the  UNCITRAL legal
texts  in  many  countries, in  particular  developing  countries  and newly
independent  States, had  resulted in  increased requests  for training  and
technical assistance from individual Governments or regional  organizations.
It  also noted that  technical assistance  was provided  to States preparing
legislation  based on  UNCITRAL model  laws  in  the areas  of international
commercial  arbitration,  procurement  and  international credit  transfers.
For  the remainder  of 1995, seminars and  legalassistance briefing missions
were planned in Africa,  Asia, Latin America and  Eastern Europe.   However,
because of the across-the-board suspension of  official travel on behalf  of
the Organization, those plans  have been cancelled.   In addition, as it had
done in recent  years, the secretariat agreed  to co-sponsor the next three-
month  International Trade Law  Postgraduate Course  to be  organized by the
University  Institute of  European Studies  and the  International  Training
Centre of the International Labour Organization in Turin.

44.   The  Commission noted  with approval  that the  secretariat had  taken
steps to  obtain  cooperation  and coordination  with other  agencies,  both
within and outside the United Nations  system, in the provision  of training
and technical assistance in  the field of international  trade law.  It also
noted reports that there apparently was an increase in attention being  paid
by  States to  law reform  relating to  international  trade,  as well  as a
degree of  increasing attention  by bilateral  and multilateral  development
agencies,  including  other parts  of  the  United  Nations  system, to  the
importance of the harmonization and modernization of commercial law.

45.   The Commission  expressed its appreciation  and renewed  its call  for
continued  and  increased  cooperation   and  coordination  among   entities

providing  legal  assistance with  a  view  to  ensuring  that, when  United
Nations system entities,  such as  the United Nations Development  Programme
and the  International Bank for  Reconstruction and  Development, or outside
entities, are involved in  providing legal technical  assistance, the  legal
texts formulated by the Commission and  recommended by the General  Assembly
to be considered are in fact so considered and used.

46.  The Commission  noted that the ability of the secretariat to  implement
training and technical assistance plans was  contingent upon the receipt  of
sufficient funds  in the form  of contributions to  the UNCITRAL Trust  Fund
for  Symposia, as  well  as  on the  provision  to the  secretariat  of  the
necessary human  resources,  which  was  not currently  the  case.   In  the
current situation,  the demand for  training and  technical assistance  with
respect to UNCITRAL  legal texts and  the need  to promote the use  of those
texts remained to a  significant extent unfulfilled.   It was noted  that no
funds for the travel  of participants and lecturers had been provided for in
the regular  budget.   As a  result, expenses  had  to be  met by  voluntary
contributions to the UNCITRAL Trust  Fund for Symposia, which remained at an
insufficient level.

47.   In order to  facilitate contributions to  the UNCITRAL  Trust Fund for
Symposia, the Commission decided  to request that it be placed on the agenda
of the pledging conference  taking place within the framework of the General
Assembly session, on the understanding that  that would not have  any effect
on  the obligation  of  a  State to  pay  its assessed  contribution to  the
Organization.

48.  It was  noted that contributions made  to the UNCITRAL  Trust Fund  for
Symposia on  a  multi-year basis  were  of  particular value,  because  they
permitted the  secretariat to  plan and  finance the  programme without  the
need to  solicit funds from potential  donors for  each individual activity.
Such  a  contribution  has  been  received   from  Canada.    In   addition,
contributions from Austria,  Denmark, France, Pakistan and Switzerland  have
been  used  for  the  seminar  programme.    The  Commission  expressed  its
appreciation to those States and organizations  that had contributed to  the
Commission's  programme of  training and  assistance by  providing funds  or
staff or by hosting  seminars.  The Commission also renewed its call that it
be  provided with the human resources to meet the  need for its training and
technical assistance activities.


3.  Cooperation with other organizations

49.    Several   international  organizations  and  institutions  18/   have
continued to participate as observers in  various meetings of United Nations
bodies  dealing with  the progressive  development of international  law and
its  codification.   For  instance,  such  international  organizations  and
institutions participate as observers in the work of the Sixth Committee  of
the  General Assembly, the International Law Commission,  UNCITRAL and other
committees created  for the purpose  of drafting international  instruments.
It  is also to be  noted that, on  27 October 1994,  a joint  meeting of the
members of  the Asian-African  Legal  Consultative Committee  and the  legal
advisers  of the permanent missions  of Member States to  the United Nations
in  New York  was held  in cooperation  with  the  Secretariat to  discuss a
number of topics of mutual interest.


4.  Publicity

(a)United Nations Treaty Series

50.  The Treaty Section of the Office of Legal Affairs is actively  pursuing
its programme  of  computerization of  its  treaty  database.   Funding  was
approved for  the 1994-1995 biennium by the General Assembly  to convert the
text of the  Treaty Series to optical disk.   It is proposed to provide  on-
line access to this collection to  Member States and others.  This task will

be  completed by the  end of 1995,  and once the  optical disk  system is in
place material which is registered but not yet published will also be  added
onto it.

51.   The publication  Multilateral Treaties Deposited  with the  Secretary-
General, Status  as at 31  December 1994, was  published for  the first time
simultaneously in English and  in French in  April 1995 and continues to  be
updated on  a daily  basis.  It is  contained in an electronic  database and
currently being tested for on-line access  through Internet by Member States
and other  users.   It is  proposed to  provide on-line  access by  November
1995.   Hard-copy volumes of the above publications and the cumulative index
to  the Treaty  Series (currently  up to  volume  18)  are continuing  to be
published at an accelerated  rate.  The Treaty Series would be available on-
line once the appropriate electronic medium is determined.

(b)  United Nations Juridical Yearbook

52.  Publication of the  United Nations Juridical Yearbook  has been resumed
after an interruption owing  to the financial crisis.  The 1982, 1983, 1984,
1985, 1990 and  1986 editions appeared in 1989,  1990, 1991, 1992, 1993  and
1994 respectively;  the 1987,  1991 and  1992 editions  are in  press.   The
calendar of production of  subsequent editions provides  for the  submission
of the 1993 edition by the  end of 1995 and the 1988, 1989 and 1994 editions
in  1996. This calendar,  under which  work proceeds  simultaneously at both
ends,  will make it possible to bridge the gap  and eliminate the backlog by
the  end of  1996, while at  the same time  keeping readers of  the Yearbook
abreast of contemporary developments.

(c)  United Nations Reports of International Arbitral Awards

53.  The Codification  Division of the Office  of Legal Affairs has prepared
volumes 20 and  21 of the United  Nations Reports of International  Arbitral
Awards.   Volume 20 of this  publication, containing  three arbitral awards,
has  recently been issued.   The  manuscript of volume  21, again containing
three arbitral awards, is also in press.

(d)  Other forms of publicity

54.  The Codification  Division has prepared the  fifth edition of  The Work
of the International Law  Commission, which is now  in press.  In accordance
with  the programme  of activities  for the  third  term (1995-1996)  of the
Decade, approved  by  the General  Assembly  in  its resolution  49/50,  the
Division  has undertaken the  updating of  the publication  Summaries of the
Judgments,  Advisory  Opinions and  Orders  of  the  International Court  of
Justice  (1949-1991).   The  Codification  Division is  furthermore  in  the
process  of compiling  the proceedings  of  the  United Nations  Congress on
Public  International Law  (1994)  for publication.  Mention should  also be
made  in  this  context  of  the  UN  Chronicle,  which  frequently includes
information on the current  legal activities of the United Nations. 19/  The
Division for Ocean  Affairs and the Law of  the Sea published a  legislative
history of  the provisions of  the United Nations  Convention on  the Law of
the  Sea having  to  do  with marine  scientific research  (art. 246  of the
Convention); 20/ a  compilation of practice of States  at the time of  entry
into  force of the  Convention; 21/  compilation of  national legislation on
the territorial  sea, the right to innocent passage and the contiguous zone;
22/ the Law  of the Sea Bulletin (updating  information relating to the  law
of the sea and marine affairs  including national legislation, bilateral and
multilateral  treaties,  and  the  decisions  of  international  courts  and
arbitral tribunals);  The Annual Review  of Ocean Affairs  1994 23/ and  the
annual selected bibliography on the law of the sea. 24/


5.  Distribution of United Nations legal publications

55.  Pursuant to  paragraph 133 of the 1993 report of the  Secretary-General
on  the  Programme of  Assistance  (A/48/580)  and  paragraph  1 of  General

Assembly resolution 48/29  authorizing its implementation, copies of  United
Nations legal  publications issued during 1994  and 1995  have been provided
to the  institutions in developing countries  that have  been receiving such
publications under the  Programme and to other  institutions in a number  of
countries, in  particular in  the developing countries,  for which  requests
for such publications  have been  made by the  Member States concerned.  25/
The International  Court  of Justice  continued  to  provide copies  of  its
publications to institutions receiving assistance under  the Programme.   In
this connection,  the Court has  reported that, in  the recent  past, it has
substantially  increased  the  number   of  universities  and  institutions,
particularly  from developing  countries, receiving  its publications  on  a
regular  basis.  26/    Furthermore,  the  Court has  included  in  its free
distribution list  United Nations  information centres recently  established
in some developing countries. 27/


6.  Fellowships offered at national institutions

56.  In  the past the United  Nations Secretariat has  publicized fellowship
offers for  the study of  international law  at national  institutions.   No
offer was however received during 1994 and 1995.


7.  International Law Fellowship Programme

57.   In  paragraph 2  (a) of  its resolution  48/29, the  General  Assembly
authorized the  Secretary-General to award a  number of  fellowships in both
1994  and 1995, to be determined  in the light of the  overall resources for
the Programme of Assistance and to be awarded at the request of  Governments
of developing countries.   On the basis  of that resolution,  18 fellowships
were awarded in 1994 and again in 1995.

58.  Up to 1992, the operational costs of the  Programme were shared between
the Office of Legal  Affairs and UNITAR.  The fellowships themselves (travel
expenses and  per diem) were financed  partly from  the budgetary allocation
for the Programme of  Assistance and partly from  a trust fund  of voluntary
contributions  earmarked for the  Programme, whereas the expenses related to
organizational  staff and lecturers were borne by UNITAR.  In 1993, however,
the General  Assembly, in paragraph  5 of its  resolution 47/227  of 8 April
1993, on the "United Nations Institute  for Training and Research",  decided
"that  the funding of  training programmes held  at the  specific request of
States Members of  the United Nations  and members of  other United  Nations
system organs and specialized agencies should  be arranged by the requesting
parties".  On the basis of that paragraph, all aspects of the  International
Law  Fellowship  Programme,  including  expenses  related  to organizational
staff and lecturers, had to be financed by the Office of Legal Affairs.

59.   As a result,  most of  the budgetary  allocation for the  Programme of
Assistance  went   to  cover  the   costs  of   the  Fellowship   Programme.
Furthermore,  since no  voluntary contributions  were received  towards  the
financing of UNITAR regional refresher  courses and no State offered to host
and finance them, no  such courses could be  organized by UNITAR during 1994
and 1995.

60.   The objectives  of the International  Law Fellowship Programme  are to
enable qualified persons from developing countries, in particular  mid-level
government legal  officers and young teachers  of international  law, (a) to
deepen  their  knowledge   of  international  law,  particularly  of   those
questions of  special  interest to  developing  countries;  (b) to  have  an
opportunity  for frank and informal  exchanges of views on legal problems of
common  interest or of  special concern  to their  respective countries; and
(c) depending  on  the  financial  resources  available  to  the  fellowship
programme in any  given year, to acquire  practical experience of  the legal
work of the United Nations and its associated agencies.

61.  The criteria applied in the selection  of candidates are the following:

qualifications   of  individual   applicants;  needs   of  their  respective
countries;  potential applicability in  their normal  fields of  work of the
benefits  obtained  from  the  fellowship;  preference  to  candidates  from
countries whose nationals have not been  awarded a fellowship in immediately
preceding years;  preference to the poorest  among developing countries  and
to   those  which   have  recently   gained  independence;   and   equitable
representation of males and females.

62.   It has been  the policy to  accept applications  for the International
Fellowship Programme from developing countries where  there is a UNDP  field
representation.   UNDP now has also  established offices in the countries of
Eastern and  Central Europe as  well as in  the newly  independent States of
Central Asia whose economies  are in transition.   It is intended to  extend
the benefit of the Programme to those countries as well.

63.  For the  1994 and 1995  fellowship programmes, 87 and 158  applications
respectively had been received by the closing dates.

64.   The fellows  selected in  1994 were from Burundi,  China, Congo, Cuba,
Ghana, Guinea,  Guyana, Indonesia,  Iran (Islamic  Republic of),  Mauritius,
Mongolia,  Nigeria,  Pakistan,  Suriname,  Thailand,  Trinidad  and  Tobago,
Venezuela  and Zaire. An  observer from  Australia also  participated in the
course.  The fellows  selected in 1995 were  from Argentina, Bhutan, Brazil,
Burkina  Faso,  Chile, Comoros,  Egypt,  Malawi,  Maldives,  Mali,  Myanmar,
Niger,  the Palestinian  National Authority,  Paraguay, Republic  of  Korea,
Saint  Kitts and  Nevis, Tunisia  and Turkey.   Four  observers from  Japan,
Nicaragua and  the Palestinian National Authority  also participated in  the
course.

65.  As  in previous years, the  Fellowship Programme offered  the following
three schemes:

  (a)   Attendance for six  weeks at the  lectures at  the Hague  Academy of
International Law and the  UNITAR special seminars  as in scheme (c)  below,
followed by a three-month practical training  period in the Office  of Legal
Affairs of  the United Nations  Secretariat or in  the legal  departments of
the various United Nations bodies or specialized agencies;

  (b)   Attendance  for six weeks  at the lectures  at the Hague  Academy of
International  Law and the UNITAR  special seminars as  in scheme (c) below,
and participation in the Geneva International  Law Seminar, organized by the
Office  of Legal  Affairs  in conjunction  with the  annual  session  of the
International Law Commission;

  (c)   Attendance  for six  weeks at  the  annual  lectures in  private and
public  international law  at the  Hague  Academy  of International  Law and
participation in the special lectures and  seminars organized by UNITAR held
concurrently with the Academy's lectures.

 66.   The participants in the  1994 and 1995  programmes have been  awarded
fellowships under scheme (c) above.

67.  The study programme at  The Hague comprised, in addition  to the series
of lectures on  private and public international  law given at the  Academy,
an  intensive  programme of  seminars and  exercises specially  organized by
UNITAR for the benefit of the fellows.

68.  In 1994, the Hague Academy courses included the following topics:

  (a)  Under private international law:

  (i)  General course;

    (ii)  Non-unified legal systems in present private international law;

   (iii)  Public policy in arbitral awards;

    (iv)Impact of international  conventions on private international family
law;

  (v)  Maintenance obligations in the conflict of laws;

    (vi)Contributing  to  progressive  development of  private international
law: the United States approach;

   (vii)Recent developments in bilateral treaties on investment protection;

  (viii)Leasing and similar institutions under private international law;

  (b)  Under public international law:

  (i)  General course;

    (ii)Liability  for  acts   not  prohibited  by  international  law   and
protection of the environment;

   (iii)State sovereignty and the international protection of minorities;

    (iv)Reactions  by not  directly affected  States to  breaches  of public
international law;

  (v)Evolution of the sources of international investment law;

    (vi)Exercise of enforcement jurisdiction at sea;

   (vii)The  legal position in  international law  of heads  of State, prime
ministers and foreign ministers.

69.  In 1995, the Hague Academy courses included the following topics:

  (a)  Private international law:
    (i)Cultural identity and integration:  postmodern private  international
law;

    (ii)The principle of nationality  in contemporary private  international
law;

   (iii)Role of  substantive policies  in the formation  and application  of
choice of laws;

    (iv)Conflicts  of jurisdiction and  conflicts of  laws in  an integrated
economic area:  the experience of the European Community;

  (v)Extinctive prescription in private international law;

    (vi)Perspectives  from  international  economic   law  on  transnational
environmental issues;

   (vii)The reasonable expectations of the parties to  the choice of law  in
contract and in tort;

  (viii)The institution of the trust in civil and common law;

  (b)  Public international law:

  (i)International law at the fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations;

    (ii)Resource conservation and management in the Antarctic;

   (iii)The nuclear non-proliferation regime:  assessment and prospects;

    (iv)Emergence of the rule of law as a principle of international law;

  (v)Bilateralism and community interest in international law;

    (vi)Recent aspects of State succession;

   (vii)Intervention  in  the proceedings  of  the  International  Court  of
Justice.

70.   In 1994,  the special  seminars organized  by UNITAR  28/ covered  the
following topics:

  (a)  International financial law:  legal aspects of debt management;

  (b)  International economic law;

  (c)  International humanitarian law;

  (d)  The law of treaties;

  (e)  United Nations peace-keeping and conflict resolution;

   (f)  Codification of international  law:  general  process; international
criminal jurisdiction; reservation to treaties;

  (g)  International environmental law;

  (h)  Law of the sea;

  (i)  International refugee law;

  (j)  Arbitration in international law;

  (k)  Human rights law.

71.   In 1995,  some reforms  were introduced  in the seminars  organized by
UNITAR  to enhance the  substantive and  academic quality  of the programme.
The special seminars organized for 1995 29/ covered the following topics:

  (a)   The  World Trade  Organization  (WTO)  and the  multilateral trading
system;

  (b)  United Nations peace-keeping and conflict resolution;

  (c)  International environmental law;

  (d)  International humanitarian law;

  (e)  Human rights law;

  (f)  Refugee law;

  (g)  Law of the sea;

  (h)  Practice and procedures of multilateral negotiations.

72.  In  1994, UNITAR also arranged introductory seminars on the work of the
International  Court of Justice,  as well  as study visits  to the Permanent
Court of Arbitration and the Houses of Parliament of the Netherlands.

73.  In 1995, UNITAR arranged the following briefings and study visits:

  -International Court of Justice (briefing and study visit);

  -Permanent Court of Arbitration (briefing);

  -Iran-United States Claims Tribunal (briefing and study visit);

  -International Tribunal  for the  Prosecution of  Persons Responsible  for
Serious  Violations  of International  Humanitarian  Law  Committed  in  the
Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 (attendance of a hearing);

   -Preparatory  Commission for  the  Organization for  the  Prohibition  of
Chemical Weapons (briefing and study visit).

74.    In 1995,  in  addition  to  these core  elements  of  the  programme,
participants also  had the opportunity to attend a series  of panel sessions
given on  the occasion of the  Conference on  Contemporary International Law
Issues.   The Conference  was jointly organized  by the American  Society of
International  Law and the  Dutch Association  of International  Law and was
held in  Scheveningen, near  The Hague.   The  organizers of  the Conference
allowed the participants to attend free of charge.


        B.  Activities of the United Nations Institute
            for Training and Research            

75.     In  addition   to  participating   in  the   implementation  of  the
International Law  Fellowship Programme,  as referred  to in  section A  (7)
above, UNITAR has carried  out a number  of other activities related to  the
teaching, study, dissemination and wider appreciation of international law.

United  Nations Environment  Programme/UNITAR training in  environmental law
and  policy,  in  association  with  the  United  Nations  Centre  for Human
Settlements (Habitat) (Nairobi, 1994-1995)

76.   The objective of this  programme is to  provide the participants  with
information and training on the legal  and institutional developments at the
international  and national levels in  the field of environmental  law.  Its
aim is  to inspire  a  greater  interest in  and commitment  to the  use  of
environmental law as  an instrument for translating sustainable  development
policies  into   action.  The   programme  enables   participants  to   take
initiatives, on  a more informed basis,  in their  respective home countries
for  the  development  and  implementation  of  environmental  law  at   the
international and national levels.

77.  This three-week training programme  is specifically designed to respond
to  the needs of  developing countries.   The  methodologies applied require
active  involvement  of  the  participants  with  a  view  to  promoting the
achievement  of   tangible   results.     It  covers   an  introduction   to
environmental  law, a  detailed  examination  of major  global and  regional
environmental  conventions (including  those on  climate change,  biological
diversity, the ozone layer and movement  of hazardous wastes), an analytical
survey  of national legislative and institutional regimes adopted by various
countries for environmental  management and an  overview of new developments
in  environmental  law and  institutions  in  respect  of  subjects such  as
environment and  trade, liability and  restitution, transfer of  technology,
environmental problems of human settlements and land use.

78.  The training  programme is conducted by experts from the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP) and other United  Nations bodies and  agencies,
representatives of environmental  convention secretariats,  the World  Bank,
the  International Union  for Conservation  of Nature and  Natural Resources
and by several other experts in the field of environmental law and policy.

 79.   The first seminar on  the subject was held  in December 1993 and  the
second in April 1995.

Training on legal  aspects of debt and  financial management (many States in
Africa and Asia, 1994-1995)

80.   UNITAR's training programme in debt and financial  management seeks to
provide  training in  legal aspects  of debt  and financial  management.   A
range  of subregional  seminars and  targeted in-depth  follow-up  workshops

(along  with institutional-building  measures) will  be implemented  in  the
participants'   countries  to   sensitize  senior   officers,   middle-level
managers,  law professors and  lawyers in  legal aspects  of debt management
and/or give them training  in this area.   The training programme will  also
establish  facilities  in  selected  countries  to  provide  training  on  a
continuing basis, both nationally and subregionally.

81.  The objective of  these seminars is to focus  on the legal  elements in
the overall  process  of international  loan  negotiations  and to  deal  in
particular with those  clauses in a loan  agreement which are most  relevant
to the borrower and on which improvements can be sought in its favour.

82.  Present activities  in the field of  debt management encompass a number
of  diversified   training  components  of   several  technical   assistance
programmes. There is,  however, a clear need  for broader and more  coherent
programmes  focusing exclusively  on specific  aspects of  debt  management.
This  was clearly pointed  out in  the debt  management consultation meeting
convened by UNDP in New York.

83.   In 1994-1995 UNITAR held a number of such courses in countries of Sub-
Saharan Africa and North and South Asia and  the newly independent States of
Central  Asia.  Participants  in UNITAR-sponsored  workshops on  a number of
occasions also drafted sets of recommendations  for sound legal practice  in
debt  management, inviting  those to  whom  they  were addressed  to involve
lawyers  to a larger  degree.  An  appeal was  addressed to  lawyers to join
efforts  in persuading  those  concerned that  their  respective  countries'
interests  would be better  served by  systematic involvement  of lawyers in
debt management.   There was nothing revolutionary in what had been proposed
repeatedly,  merely  the   suggestion  that  borrowers  in  the   developing
countries  should do  what lenders  have always  done:   involve  lawyers at
every step, bring  them out of their offices  to the front line and  involve
them in the negotiation process.

84.    Further  in-depth  workshops  in  other  subregions  are  also  being
considered as there are a number of projects in the pipeline awaiting  donor
approval.  UNITAR has expanded training  activities to the newly independent
States  of Central  Asia,  thanks to  the  financial support  of  the  Swiss
Federal Office for Foreign Economic Affairs and the Irish Government.

UNITAR-International  Peace Academy fellowship programme  in peacemaking and
preventive diplomacy (Schlaining, Austria, 1994-1995)

85.    The  fellowship   programme  offers  advanced  training  in  conflict
analysis,  negotiation and  mediation to  international and  national  civil
servants who  wish to  learn or  refine these  skills.  It  is based  on the
latest knowledge  in the  field and  is taught  by distinguished  and expert
faculty from  both  academic  and applied  settings, including  current  and
former staff of the United Nations Secretariat.

86.   The programme  is available  to middle-  and senior-level Professional
staff from the substantive departments and  agencies of the United  Nations,
staff from regional organizations, diplomatic staff from foreign  ministries
and relevant personnel from non-governmental humanitarian organizations.

87.  The fellowship  programme is offered in two parts to allow participants
to  choose the type and  duration of training  that they  require.  The core
programme is a two-week in-depth programme  which includes:  (a) a framework
for   understanding  and   analysing   international  disputes   and   their
resolution;  (b)  an  analysis of  case-studies  to  allow  participants  to
grapple with  the complexities  of applying  conflict resolution methods  to
real-life  international conflict  situations; and  (c) skills  training  so
that  participants can have  the opportunity  to practise  the skills needed
for effective peacemaking and preventive diplomacy.

88.  An extended programme is offered to participants who wish to  undertake
more  in-depth training.   It  involves  an  individual case-study  in which

participants select  a recent or ongoing  conflict situation  and review and
evaluate attempts to resolve it.

89.  The specific objectives of the programme are:

  (a)   To  offer  participants an  opportunity to  review and  update their
knowledge and skills in dispute resolution;

  (b)    To  encourage  a  systematic   approach  to  disputes  and  dispute
resolution;

  (c)   To provide  an in-depth  understanding of the  processes of conflict
escalation and de-escalation;

  (d)  To  increase appreciation of the  need to understand disputes  within
their unique cultural, historical and political context;

  (e)   To allow  participants  to  sharpen their  skills in  political  and
conflict analysis;

  (f)   To  enable participants  to  be  maximally effective  in structuring
negotiation and mediation;

  (g)     To  enhance   participants'  ability  to  identify   the  parties'
motivations and  interests  and  to  invent innovative  solutions  based  on
interests.

90.    A  longer-term  -  but  also  important  -  goal  is  to  develop  an
institutional  capacity  for debriefing  and  retrieval  of  United  Nations
practices and  experience in peacemaking  and preventive  diplomacy in order
to  strengthen  the  potential  of  the  United  Nations  for  institutional
learning and  memory.   Case material presented  by staff  and assembled  by
fellows will serve as the basis for further research and  study to develop a
collection  of case histories  which document  important lessons and issues.
The goal will be  to develop a  repository of  knowledge for use within  the
fellowship  programme and, more  widely, within  the United  Nations and the
international community  as a whole.   Development of  materials, such as  a
case handbook on peacemaking and preventive diplomacy, is planned.

Workshop on  procedures for the  settlement of  trade disputes at  the World
Trade Organization (Geneva, 1994-1995)

91.    A  basic  knowledge  of  international  economic  law,  including the
procedures for  the settlement of economic  disputes, is  an important asset
in multilateral negotiations.   The objective of this workshop is to explain
dispute  settlement  procedures,  including  conciliation  and  arbitration,
which are  used in WTO.  The  training event proceeds from an explanation of
the institutional  structure of  WTO and its  basic rules  to a  descriptive
analysis  of  the  processes  used  to  resolve  trade  disputes  within the
framework of WTO.   One session is devoted to a simulation exercise aimed at
familiarizing  participants with  the  work  of  a panel  of  experts.   The
workshop  is  organized in  English  and  French  for  members of  permanent
missions accredited  to the United  Nations at  Geneva and,  on request,  in
developing countries.

Promotion  of   cooperation  in  environment:     development   negotiations
(Rychory, Czech Republic, 1994)

92.  Within this programme, one training module deals with negotiations  and
dispute  resolution.    It  provides  training on  negotiation  skills  that
promote mutual gain and  consensus.  The programme  seeks to improve the way
in  which   countries  negotiate  environmental   issues  with  each   other
(bilaterally and multilaterally) and how individual countries resolve  local
environment/  development  disputes  through  the  promotion of  alternative
dispute resolution processes and better negotiating skills.

Publications

93.   The World  Court:   What it  is and  How it  Works.   UNITAR has  just
published  the  fifth,   entirely  revised  edition  of  Professor   Shabtai
Rosenne's  comprehensive study  on  the  structure and  functioning  of  the
International  Court  of  Justice.  The  book not  only  provides  extensive
background on the origins  and composition of the  Court but also deals with
its  day-to-day work  in terms  of  jurisdiction  and procedure,  offering a
complete overview of the  cases dealt with.   Particular emphasis is  put on
the manner in  which a case is tried,  taking into account the latest  Rules
of Court, covering "almost every conceivable  issue likely to be encountered
in modern litigation before the International Court".

94.    UNITAR Case Study Workshop Package  on Negotiation of a  Multilateral
Loan. This training  package is addressed  to trainers  and can  be used  to
develop   threeto  five-day  workshops   on  the   theory  and  practice  of
negotiation of the legal elements with multilateral financial  institutions.
The  specific aim  of  the  package  is to  introduce  participants to  loan
negotiation  with  multilateral agencies.    In  addition,  it  familiarizes
participants  with   the  procedures  and   practices  of  these   agencies,
highlights the basic  underlying legal arrangements between their  countries
and such agencies, helps  them distinguish between  what is and what is  not
negotiable  and guides them  in how  such negotiations  are most effectively
conducted.

95.    The  United Nations  as  a  Dispute  Settlement  System:    Improving
Mechanisms for the Prevention and Resolution  of Conflict.  The coordination
of  the  UNITAR/Peace  Academy  Fellowship  Programme  in  Peacemaking   and
Preventive Diplomacy was given an  18-month grant by the  Ford Foundation to
carry  out research  on  the topic  of  "The  United  Nations as  a  Dispute
Settlement System:  Improving Mechanisms for  the Prevention and  Resolution
of Conflict".  The  project involved a review of the causes of  contemporary
disputes and  dispute escalation,  an analysis  of the mechanisms  available
within the United Nations system for  preventing and resolving disputes  and
proposals  for making  the system  more  effective.   A  number of  specific
suggestions  also were  made  for strengthening  pre-conflict peace-building
and preventive diplomacy.   The project was written as a book manuscript and
publication is pending.


C.  Activities of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization    

96.   The contribution  of the  United Nations  Educational, Scientific  and
Cultural  Organization   (UNESCO)  to  the   United  Nations  Programme   of
Assistance  in the Teaching,  Study, Dissemination and Wider Appreciation of
International Law  is  part of  major programme  area  V  (Social and  human
sciences:  contribution to development,  peace, human rights and democracy),
and more particularly of subprogramme V.2.1  (Research for the promotion  of
peace, human rights  and democracy) of UNESCO's 1994-1995 programme  budget,
which  states that  "reflection on  the increasing  role of  human rights in
international relations, as  well as  on new  perspectives in  the field  of
human rights, international law and humanitarian law (such as  the 'right to
be  assisted'),  will  be promoted  through  a  series  of  studies  and  an
international  workshop organized in  cooperation with the United Nations as
a contribution to the United Nations Decade of International Law".

97.  With regard to standard-setting,  the UNESCO Executive Board considered
at its one hundred forty-fifth session in 1994 the question of the  drafting
of  a  declaration on  the  rights of  future  generations, which  would  be
adopted  by   the  General  Conference  at   its  twentieth   session  as  a
contribution to the commemoration of the  fiftieth anniversary of the United
Nations and of UNESCO.

Publications

98.   UNESCO has  published a  compendium entitled Human  Rights:  Principal
International Instruments  (as of 31 May  1994), 30/ which  lists the States
parties  to  the  human  rights  instruments.     This  list  includes   the
instruments adopted by the United Nations,  its specialized agencies and the
other universal and regional bodies.

99.   Mention should  also be  made of  the Russian-language  version of  La
Declaration universelle des droits de l'homme  - 45e anniversaire 1948-1993,
which  was  published  in  French  on   the  fortieth  anniversary  of   the
Declaration in 1988.  The English-language version is being prepared.

100.    The  World  Directory  of  Teaching  and  Research  Institutions  in
International Law 31/ is  the outcome of  the efforts which UNESCO has  been
making since 1986 to encourage the study of international law.  It  contains
a  total of 578 entries for 90 countries.  It should  also be noted that the
Regional  Bureau for  Asia and  the Pacific in  Bangkok has  been publishing
since 1986 a  booklet entitled International Law:  News and Information from
Asia  and the  Pacific,  which  gives information  about  international  law
research, teaching and international law issues in the region.

The UNESCO Chairs of human rights education

101.   There are now  a number of  UNESCO Chairs of  human rights  education
established on  the  basis of  agreements concluded  with the  organization.
For example:

  (a)    The  Chair  at  the  University  of  La  Laguna,  Tenerife,  Spain,
established  in 1991, is  concerned specifically with peace, development and
democracy.  The content of the research conducted under the auspices of  the
Chair is being expanded to include human rights;

  (b)  The Chair at Comenius  University, Bratislava, Slovakia, is concerned
with human  rights education.   Under  paragraph 2 of  the agreement  signed
with UNESCO  in 1992, the objective of the Chair is to promote an integrated
system of  research, training, information  and documentation activities  in
the area of human rights education.  It  will help to facilitate subregional
and  regional collaboration  among high-level  researchers and  teachers  of
international  standing  and  the  University's  staff  of  researchers  and
teachers and will  make a significant contribution to ensuring that the work
and  activities  of  the  UNESCO  Centre  for  Human  Rights  Education  are
mentioned in teaching materials;

  (c)  The main objective of Venezuela's peripatetic Chair of human  rights,
established  in  1992,  is to  establish  a pilot  project  on human  rights
education involving five Venezuelan universities;

  (d)  The Chair  at the Nicolas Copernicus  University, Torun, Poland,  was
created in 1993.  The agreement establishing it states that:

  (i)The  Chair shall  be an  instrument  for facilitating  subregional  and
regional   collaboration  between   high-level,  internationally  recognized
researchers  and  teachers  and  the  research  and  teaching  staff  of the
University  and  high-level,  internationally  recognized  researchers   and
lecturers from other countries;

    (ii)An important area of  activity of the Chair shall be the progressive
development of a nationwide system of  permanent education for democracy and
peace  through   human  rights,   including  the   elaboration  of   special
educational  programmes  for members  of  such  services  as  the army,  the
police,   penitentiary    personnel,   the   teaching   profession,   public
administration, the judiciary, etc.
  102.   The 1994-1995  programme budget  provides for  the establishment of
new  UNESCO Chairs of  human rights education  and for  the strengthening of
the existing network.

103.  A number  of UNESCO Chairs were established in 1994:  UNESCO Chair for

Human Rights  and Democracy at the  Moscow State  Institute of International
Relations  for Foreign  Affairs of  the  Russian  Federation and  the Moscow
Independent  Institute  of  International  Law,  Russian  Federation; UNESCO
Chair  for Civic  Education, Sofia  University, Bulgaria;  UNESCO  Chair for
Education for Human Rights and Democracy  at Addis Ababa University;  UNESCO
Chair for Democracy and  Human Rights at the  Faculty of Law,  University of
Namibia.

104.  UNESCO  has received proposals  for the establishment  of such  Chairs
from various universities in different countries around the world.


D.  Other activities reported by States and international
    organizations concerning the teaching, study,       
    dissemination and wider appreciation of international
    law pursuant to General Assembly resolution 49/50   

105.  The reports  of the Secretary-General to  the General Assembly  at its
fortyninth  and  fiftieth  sessions  on the  agenda  item  entitled  "United
Nations  Decade   of  International   Law"  32/   contained  an   analytical
compilation  of  other  activities  reported  by  States  and  international
organizations carried out in implementation of  chapter IV of the  programme
of activities for the  second and third  terms (1993-1994 and 1995-1996)  of
the Decade  under General  Assembly resolutions 47/32 and  49/50, concerning
the teaching, study,  dissemination and wider appreciation of  international
law.

106.    Those activities  have  been  grouped  under  eight headings,  which
correspond  by  and  large  to  the  substance  of  the  various  paragraphs
contained in chapter IV  of the programme of  activities for the  second and
third  terms of  the  Decade.  The headings  are:   promotion of  the United
Nations Programme  of Assistance in the  Teaching, Study, Dissemination  and
Wider  Appreciation  of  International law;  promotion  of  the teaching  of
international  law  for students  and  teachers  at  schools  and at  higher
education   levels  and   international   cooperation  for   that   purpose;
organization of  and participation  in international  and regional  seminars
and  symposia for  experts on  international law; training  in international
law  for legal  professionals and  government officials  organized by States
and international organizations; publication of  the practice of  States and
international and regional organizations in the field  of international law;
publication  by  States  and  international organizations  of  international
legal instruments  and legal  studies; wider  publication of the  judgements
and  advisory opinions of  international courts  and tribunals and summaries
thereof;  and  publication   by  international  organizations  of   treaties
concluded under  their auspices,  publication of the  United Nations  Treaty
Series and the United Nations Juridical Yearbook.

107.   Consequently, chapter II.D of  the above-mentioned  reports should be
considered an integral part of the present report.

  III.  GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING EXECUTION OF THE
     PROGRAMME IN THE BIENNIUM 1996-1997 WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK
OF THE UNITED NATIONS DECADE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 

A.  General observations

108.    One  of  the  main  purposes  of   the  United  Nations  Decade   of
International  Law, as  defined  in General  Assembly  resolution  44/23 and
reaffirmed  in subsequent  resolutions,  33/  is the  encouragement  of  the
teaching, study, dissemination and wider appreciation of international  law.
In  paragraph  17  of   General  Assembly  resolution  48/29,  the  Assembly
requested the  Secretary-General to report to  the Assembly  at its fiftieth
session on the implementation of the  Programme during the period  1994-1995
and,  following  consultations  with  the  Advisory  Committee,  to   submit
recommendations  regarding the  execution  of the  Programme  in  subsequent
years.

109.    The paragraphs  below  contain  the guidelines  and  recommendations
requested  by the General  Assembly in  the above-mentioned  resolution.  In
formulating such guidelines and recommendations,  account has been  taken of
the fact  that, while  developing and  systematizing the  objectives of  the
United  Nations   Decade  of   International     Law,  the   above-mentioned
resolutions  did  not  provide new  budgetary  resources  for the  teaching,
study,  dissemination  and wider  appreciation  of  international  law,  but
relied, instead,  on financing  such activities  from  the existing  overall
level of appropriations and voluntary contributions from States.

110.   Therefore,  in substance,  the  paragraphs  below recommend  that the
United Nations and other agencies continue  the present activities under the
programme and develop and expand them  if new funds become available through
the  abovementioned sources.   New activities  should only  be undertaken if
the overall  level of appropriations  or voluntary contributions from States
make them  possible.  States should  be encouraged  to continue implementing
the objectives  relating to  the teaching,  study,  dissemination and  wider
appreciation  of  international  law which  the  programme  for  the  Decade
devolves upon  them and should report  to the  Secretary-General any further
development in this area.


B.  Activities of the United Nations

111.  Geneva International  Law Seminar.  It is expected that, if sufficient
voluntary  contributions from States  continue to  be made,  new sessions of
the Seminar  will be held in 1996  and 1997 in conjunction with those of the
International  Law Commission.   Scheduling of  the sessions  of the Seminar
should be done in such a  way as to make it possible to provide the Seminar,
from   within  existing   resources,  with   adequate  services,   including
interpretation as  required.   In connection  with the  organization of  the
Seminar, attention is also drawn to paragraph 13 above.

Activities of the Office of Legal Affairs

112.  Public international  law and other activities.   During the  biennium
19961997, the  Office of  Legal Affairs  and its  Codification Division  are
expected  to continue  performing the  various functions  connected with the
goals  of  the  Programme,  as  described  in  the  present  report, namely,
participation in  the International Law  Fellowship Programme; the  training
of interns; lecturing on international law topics; secretariat functions  to
the Advisory Committee  and to the  Sixth Committee on  the item  concerning
the  United   Nations  Programme   of  Assistance;   and  dissemination   of
information  regarding  the  codification  and  progressive  development  of
international law and the  United Nations Decade of International Law.  With
regard to  the training of interns,  the Advisory  Committee recommends that
the internship programme  be given adequate publicity. It further recommends
that geographical  distribution be duly borne  in mind  in selecting interns
and  that, at the same time, existing possibilities be fully taken advantage
of, irrespective of nationality.

113.   Activities  concerning  the  law of  the sea  and ocean  affairs; the
Hamilton Shirley  Amerasinghe Memorial  Fellowship.   It  is expected  that,
nine  fellowships having already  been awarded  during the  past nine years,
the Office of Legal  Affairs will continue to  award at least one fellowship
annually,  in  accordance with  the  rules  and  guidelines  referred to  in
paragraphs 23 to 26 above.  In this  connection, however, attention is drawn
to paragraphs 30 to 32 above.

114.   Activities concerning international  trade law.  The steps to promote
training  and  assistance  in  international  trade  law  are of  particular
concern  to  developing  countries.    The  Secretary-General,  through  the
International  Trade Law Branch  of the Office  of Legal  Affairs, will take
the  requisite action during  the biennium  1996-1997 in  order to implement
the recommendations  addressed to  him in this  regard by  UNCITRAL and  the
General Assembly.

115.  Publicity.   It is expected  that the United Nations Secretariat  will
continue its  efforts to  reduce the  backlog of  the United  Nations Treaty
Series  and of the United Nations Juridical Yearbook  in accordance with the
plan  of action referred to  in paragraphs 50  to 51  above.  Efforts should
also  be continued by  the United Nations Secretariat  to ensure the regular
inclusion in the UN Chronicle of matters of legal interest.

116.  Provision  of United  Nations legal  publications.   Copies of  United
Nations legal publications issued during 1996-1997  will be provided to  the
institutions  in  developing   countries  that  have  been  receiving   such
publications  under  the   Programme  and  to   other  institutions  in  the
developing countries  for which requests for  such publications  are made by
the  Member States concerned.  Each new request shall be reviewed on its own
merits and the availability of the legal publication  in question shall also
be taken into account.

117.    Fellowships  and  scholarships  offered  at  national  institutions.
Information   received  from  Governments   regarding  the  fellowships  and
scholarships offered at national institutions will,  at the request of those
Governments, be circulated to all Member States.

118.  International Law  Fellowship Programme.  For the reasons spelt out in
paragraphs  57 to  59 above,  the  implementation  of the  International Law
Fellowship  Programme should be  carefully evaluated  in order  to allow for
the  most   appropriate  and   cost-effective  decisions.     A   number  of
fellowships, to  be determined in the  light of  the above-mentioned review,
should  be  awarded each  year  under  the  United  Nations regular  budget.
Additional fellowships  may  also  be awarded  from the  Trust  Fund of  the
Programme  of  Assistance,   depending  on  the   amount  of  the  voluntary
contributions  received  each  year  and  taking  into  account  the  needed
protection against irregularities in the flow of voluntary contributions.

119.  The  programme should also be  open to a  limited number  of observers
whose Governments are willing to cover the expenses of their observers.

120.   Extreme caution should  be used in  the allocation of  sums from  the
Trust Fund  to finance administration and  other expenses  of the Fellowship
Programme.  As  in previous  years, it  is  to be  stressed that  guidelines
contained in General Assembly resolutions  should be followed, in particular
the desirability of using, as  far as possible, the resources and facilities
made available by Member States, international organizations and others;  as
well  as  the  need,  in  appointing  lecturers  for  the  seminars  of  the
Fellowship  Programme, to secure  representation of  the major legal systems
and balance among various geographical regions.

121.    As  in   previous  years,  maximum  use   should  be  made,  in  the
implementation of the  Fellowship Programme, of  existing human and material
resources of  the Organization so  as to achieve  the best possible  results
within  a policy  of maximum financial  restraint.  To  the extent possible,
teaching experts  from the special seminars  should be  recruited from among
the staff of the Organization,  thus reducing to a minimum consultants' fees
and  travel expenses and  making full use  of the  expertise of Organization
staff in international law and related areas.

122.   Upon the  invitation of  the Office  of Legal Affairs,  UNITAR should
continue to  participate in those aspects  of the  Fellowship Programme more
in keeping with its organizational capabilities  and in accordance with  the
guidelines set out above.

123.    Other  possible activities;  audiovisual  library.   New  activities
should  be undertaken  only if  the overall  level of appropriations  of the
United Nations  budget  or voluntary  contributions  from  States make  them
possible.  In this connection, the  Secretary-General proposes to create  an
audio-visual  library on teaching international  law.  One of  the basic and
effective  ways of  disseminating  and engendering  a wider  appreciation of
international law  is through  teaching.  Efforts  should be made  to assist

States  and,  in particular,  developing States  and their  universities and
institutions of  higher studies in  incorporating international law  courses
into their  curricula.  One  costeffective way of  assisting is  through the
preparation and  distribution of audiovisual  tapes.  The  Secretary-General
proposes  to create  an audiovisual  library  of  tapes on  teaching various
subjects of international law.  Those  subjects could include, for  example,
general  courses on international law;  United Nations law;  law of the sea;
arbitration; dispute settlement procedures; international humanitarian  law;
refugees  law; environmental law;  outer space  law, etc.   Each audiovisual
course  could be prepared  by inviting  well-known professors  to lecture on
camera, or, in  cooperation with  their respective universities, they  could
be videotaped as  they teach their  usual courses.   Every  effort would  be
made to  have these  courses in  as many  official languages  of the  United
Nations  as possible.    The tapes  would then  be  held in  an  audiovisual
library and States and  their universities would be  able to borrow  them or
receive a copy of them to use for their own teaching purposes.  The  library
could be expanded  to cover other subjects  of international law in response
to requests.


       C.  Activities of the United Nations Institute for
           Training and Research

124.  Paragraphs 75 to 95 above contain  an account of activities  performed
by UNITAR which are related to the teaching,  study, dissemination and wider
appreciation  of  international  law.    It  is  expected  that,  subject to
appropriate  funding, such  activities may  be continued  during the  period
1996-1997.


           D.  Activities of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
               and Cultural Organization

125.   Within the  framework set  by its  budgetary allocations, the  UNESCO
contribution to the United Nations Programme  of Assistance in the Teaching,
Study,  Dissemination  and Wider  Appreciation  of  International  Law  will
continue  to develop during  the biennium  1996-1997 by  means of activities
tending  to strengthen further  the specific  role of  UNESCO concerning the
development of both the research and the teaching of international law.


          E.  Other activities by States and international organizations
              concerning the teaching, study, dissemination and wider
              appreciation of international law, pursuant to General
              Assembly resolution 49/50

126.    States  and  international  organizations  should be  encouraged  to
continue to execute and expand the  activities contemplated under chapter IV
of the  programme  for  the  third term  of  the  United Nations  Decade  of
International Law under General Assembly resolution  49/50 and to report  to
the Secretary-General  any further  developments achieved  by them in  those
areas.    


IV.  ADMINISTRATIVE AND FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF 
    UNITED NATIONS PARTICIPATION IN THE PROGRAMME

A.  Biennium 1994-1995

127.   Among  the activities  carried out under  the Programme  during 1994-
1995,  the  following items  were  related  to  allocations  of the  regular
budget:  the supply of  United Nations legal publications to institutions in
developing  countries; and the  provision of  a number  of international law
fellowships, determined  in  the light  of  the  overall resources  for  the
Programme (General Assembly resolution 48/29, para. 2 (a)).

 128.   The  cost  of  the handling  and  shipping of  United Nations  legal
publications to institutions  in developing countries has been covered under
the  relevant sections of  the programme  budget for  the biennium 1994-1995
relating to Conference and  Library Services, Distribution  Service, and  to
Administration and Management,  Office of  General Services,  Communications
and Mail Operations.

129.    The  actual  cost  of  producing  the  publication  falls  under the
respective  allocations  for  the  substantive  programmes  to  which   each
publication belongs.

130.   As for the  cost of provision  by the United  Nations of  a number of
fellowships  determined  in the  light  of  the  overall  resources for  the
programme, a total of $334,500 was  appropriated from regular budget sources
under section 7 (Legal activities, progressive development and  codification
of international  law) of the programme  budget for  the biennium 1994-1995.
Furthermore, and  in  accordance  with  paragraph  15  of  General  Assembly
resolution 48/29, whereby  the Assembly requested Member States,  interested
organizations and  individuals to make  voluntary contributions towards  the
financing of  the Programme,  the Secretary-General  addressed a  note on  7
March 1994 to Member States drawing their attention  to paragraphs 2 (a) and
13  to  16  of  resolution  48/29,  paragraph  9  of  resolution  47/32  and
paragraphs 15 and 16 of resolution 46/50.

131.   In that  connection, in  1994 a  contribution of $3,000  was received
from Greece for  the International Law Fellowship  Programme.  In 1995,  the
following countries  made contributions to the  Programme:  Cyprus,  $1,130;
and Greece, $3,000.

132.   For  the International  Law  Seminar,  the following  countries  made
contributions  in  1994:    Austria,  $3,000;  Denmark,  $10,638;   Finland,
$4,521.18;  France,  $6,794.56, and  again  $7,352.94; Germany,  $11,713.29;
Iceland, $750; Norway,  $5,000; Slovenia, $750; Switzerland, $6,993.01;  and
United   Kingdom  $5,150.      In   1995,  the   following  countries   made
contributions:   Austria, $2,925; Denmark,  $11,799.31; Finland,  $5,344.85;
France, $8,316.01; Germany,  $13,391.00; Ireland, $3,873.11; Norway, $5,000;
Switzerland, $4,032.26; and United Kingdom, $8,165.32.

133.  For  the Hamilton Shirley  Amerasinghe Fellowship  on the  Law of  the
Sea, a  contribution of  $1,000 was  received in  1994 from  Sri Lanka.   In
1995,  the  United Kingdom  made a  contribution  of  $23,574 for  a special
award.

134.  For the UNCITRAL symposia,  the following countries made contributions
in 1994:   Canada,  $6,076; Pakistan,  $500; Switzerland,  $36,814. 34/   In
1995,  the  following  countries  made  contributions:    Austria,   $3,000;
Denmark, $7,082; France, $54,328; and Switzerland, $43,830.

135.   No contributions were received  during 1994-1995  for UNITAR regional
courses.


B.  Biennium 1996-1997

136.   Assuming that  the recommendations  in paragraph  116 above regarding
the provision of legal  publications are adopted,  the cost of handling  and
shipping  the United  Nations legal  publications  issued  in 1996  and 1997
would be covered, as  in previous years, by the estimates under the sections
of the  proposed programme  budget for  the biennium  1996-1997 relating  to
Conference    and   Library   Services,   Distribution   Service,   and   to
Administration and Management,  Office of  General Services,  Communications
and Mail Operations.

137.   With regard to the provision of fellowships  within the International
Law Fellowship Programme during the biennium  and possibly of travel  grants
for participants  in UNITAR regional courses  during 1996 or 1997, an amount

of $358,200 is included  in the proposed  programme budget for the  biennium
1996-1997 under  section 6  (Legal activities,  Progressive development  and
codification  of international  law) of  the  proposed programme  budget for
that biennium, assuming that  the General Assembly  approves the  guidelines
and recommendations on those programmes.

138.    The Secretary-General  would  repeat  his  efforts,  if the  General
Assembly  so   decides,  in  requesting   voluntary  contributions  to   the
Programme.  It is proposed that, as  in past years, the funds  accruing from
such contributions  have, as  a main goal,  subject to  considerations of  a
practical  nature,  the increase  of  the  number  of  fellowship grants  to
candidates from developing countries in addition  to the minimum that  would
be authorized  by the  General Assembly  under the  appropriations from  the
regular budget.


V.  MEETINGS OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON THE UNITED
    NATIONS PROGRAMME OF ASSISTANCE IN THE TEACHING,
    STUDY, DISSEMINATION AND WIDER APPRECIATION OF 
    INTERNATIONAL LAW                              

A.  Membership of the Advisory Committee

139.  In accordance with paragraph  18 of General Assembly resolution 46/50,
the membership of the  Advisory Committee for the period from 1 January 1992
to 31  December 1995  is as follows:   Bangladesh,  Colombia, Cuba,  Cyprus,
Ethiopia, France, Germany, Ghana, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of),  Italy,
Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Romania, Russian  Federation,
Sudan,  Trinidad and Tobago,  Ukraine, United  Kingdom of  Great Britain and
Northern Ireland, United Republic of Tanzania,  United States of America and
Uruguay.


B.  Twenty-ninth session

140.    In  paragraph 17  of  its  resolution  48/29,  the  General Assembly
requested the  Secretary-General to report to  the Assembly  at its fiftieth
session on the implementation of the Programme during 1994 and 1995.

141.  As  part of the  preparation of  the report requested under  the above
resolution,  the  Secretary-General  prepared  the  present  interim  report
covering the  activities carried out during 1994 by the  various bodies that
participated in the execution of the Programme.

 142.  The Advisory  Committee held its twenty-ninth  session on 13 December
1994.  The session  was attended  by  the  representatives of  the following
members of the Advisory Committee:   Cuba, Cyprus, Ethiopia, Germany, Ghana,
India,  Iran  (Islamic   Republic  of),  Italy,  Kenya,  Malaysia,   Mexico,
Netherlands,  Romania,  Russian  Federation,  Sudan,  Trinidad  and  Tobago,
Ukraine,  United Kingdom  of  Great  Britain and  Northern  Ireland,  United
States of  America and Uruguay. Representatives  of UNESCO  and the Division
for Ocean Affairs and  the Law  of the Sea also  attended.  The session  was
chaired  by Mr.  George  O.  Lamptey (Ghana),  who  in the  absence  of  the
Chairman elected  at the twenty-seventh session  of the Advisory  Committee,
Mr.  Morgan  Adokwei  Brown,  also  from   Ghana,  substituted  for  him  in
accordance with  the decision  reflected in  paragraph 157  of the  relevant
report of the Secretary-General to the  forty-eighth session of the  General
Assembly (A/48/580).

143.    In  the absence  of the  Legal Counsel  of  the United  Nations, Ms.
Jacqueline Dauchy,  Director of the Codification  Division of  the Office of
Legal  Affairs,  represented  the  Secretary-General  at  the  session.  Ms.
Mahnoush H.  Arsanjani, Senior Legal Officer,  Codification Division of  the
Office of Legal Affairs, acted as Secretary of the Advisory Committee.

144.   The  Advisory Committee  considered the  Secretary-General's  interim

report.

145.     As  regards   the  International   Fellowship  Programme,   several
representatives stressed the importance  of the Programme  for the  training
of  junior professors and diplomats  from developing States.  In that regard
concern was  expressed  about the  financial constraints  on the  Programme.
Some  representatives expressed the  hope that  the budget  of the Programme
could be increased for the next biennium.

146.  The Committee endorsed UNITAR's  proposal of allowing participation of
observers in  the International Fellowship  Programme, on the  understanding
that the resources  available for  candidates from  developing States  would
remain unaffected.  As  regards the number of observers, the Director of the
Codification Division  explained that UNITAR proposed,  at this juncture,  a
maximum of five observers.

147.  With  respect to  the Geneva International  Law Seminar, the  question
was asked  whether a postgraduate degree  was required  for participation in
the  Seminar.  The  Secretary of  the Committee  explained that applications
for the programme  were received from postgraduate students of international
law, young  law professors and  government officials  dealing with questions
of  international law in  the course  of their work.   A postgraduate degree
was a  requirement for the first  two groups of candidates  but not for  the
third.

148.   It  was also asked  why the report  of the Secretary-General  did not
cover  activities on teaching and  training in the area of international law
undertaken  by or under  the aegis  of other United Nations  bodies, such as
the Legal  Subcommittee of  the  Committee  on the  Peaceful Uses  of  Outer
Space.  The  Secretary of the  Committee explained  that the  report of  the
Secretary-General was  traditionally confined to  the activities which  were
considered by  the  sponsoring bodies,  organs  or  agencies of  the  United
Nations as falling within the framework of the Programme of Assistance. 
  149.   As regards the seminars  sponsored by  UNITAR, some representatives
expressed  special  appreciation for  the  programme  on  training on  legal
aspects of debt and financial management and the UNITAR-International  Peace
Academy fellowship programme on peace-keeping and preventive diplomacy.


C.  Thirtieth session

150.  The Advisory Committee held its thirtieth  session on 26 October 1995.
The session  was attended by the  representatives of  the following members:
Bangladesh,  Colombia,  Cyprus,  Ethiopia,  France,  Germany,  Ghana,   Iran
(Islamic  Republic  of),  Italy,   Kenya,  Malaysia,  Mexico,   Netherlands,
Nigeria, Romania, Russian  Federation, Sudan, Trinidad and Tobago,  Ukraine,
United  Kingdom of Great  Britain and  Northern Ireland,  United Republic of
Tanzania and United  States of America.   Representatives of UNESCO and  the
Division  for Ocean  Affairs and  the Law  of the  Sea also  attended.   The
session  was chaired  by Mr.  Eric  Odoi-Anim,  Counsellor of  the Permanent
Mission of Ghana to the United Nations.

151.   In  the absence  of  the  Legal Counsel  of the  United Nations,  Ms.
Jacqueline Dauchy,  Director of the Codification  Division of  the Office of
Legal  Affairs,  represented  the  Secretary-General  at  the  session.  Ms.
Mahnoush H. Arsanjani,  Senior Legal  Officer, Codification Division of  the
Office of Legal Affairs, acted as Secretary of the Advisory Committee.

152.    The Advisory  Committee  considered  the  Secretary-General's  draft
report.

153.  In response to  the remark that there was a certain imbalance  between
the parts of  the report  devoted to  International Law  Seminars and  those
covering seminars on international trade law,  the Secretary of the Advisory
Committee  explained that  information on  the numerous  seminars held under
the aegis  of UNCITRAL  was difficult  to present  in condensed  form.   She

added that the relative  brevity of the section devoted to International Law
Seminars in  no way  detracted from  the  importance attached  to the  event
under the Programme.

154.  In reply  to comments from the  floor on paragraph 17  of the  report,
the Secretary said that every  effort would be made to provide in the future
more  detailed  information   regarding  the  beneficiaries  of  the   legal
component  of the  internship programme  organized  by  the Office  of Human
Resources Management.

155.   The  Director of  the  Codification  Division confirmed  that,  while
interns were selected on  as wide a geographical  basis as possible,  only a
relatively small  number  could be  accepted  every  year because  of  space
constraints. Existing capacities were used to  the fullest and no  qualified
candidate was excluded on the mere ground of nationality.

156.  It  was suggested that  the internship programme should  be publicized
as widely as possible so  as to attract interest outside the host State  and
allow  for  a  selection  based  on   merit  rather  than  on   geographical
representation.

157.   In response  to questions  from a  member of  the Advisory  Committee
concerning paragraphs  22 to  33 of  the report,  the representative of  the
Division for  Ocean Affairs  and  the Law  of  the  Sea explained  that,  in
enlisting the  cooperation of  universities  for the  implementation of  the
internship  programme  under  the  Hamilton   Shirley  Amerasinghe  Memorial
Fellowship, due account had to be taken of  the limited funds available  for
the award of fellowships.  Offers  from universities in developing countries
which  could  accommodate fellows  free  of  charge  would  however be  most
welcome.   With specific  reference to paragraph  29, he  indicated that the
beneficiary of the special  award made possible  by a grant from the  United
Kingdom  had  been  selected  through  the  same  screening  process  as the
beneficiaries of  the other  awards under  the Hamilton Shirley  Amerasinghe
Memorial Fellowship.

158.   In  response to  the suggestion  that  the  report of  the Secretary-
General  should  cover other  activities  of  the Division  including  those
relating  to the dissemination of information and publications on the law of
the sea, the representative  of the Division for  Ocean Affairs and  the Law
of the Sea indicated that  the possibility of covering such activities would
be explored.

159.  The  remark was made  that several  sections of  the report seemed  to
duplicate  information contained in  other reports  considered by  the Sixth
Committee.     One  example  was  the   section  on  activities   concerning
international trade law, which was also  reported on in other documents such
as the  report of UNCITRAL and  the report of  the Secretary-General on  the
Decade of International Law.   It was therefore  suggested that in  order to
avoid duplication and repetitious debate and to  keep financial implications
to  a  minimum, the  device  of  cross-references  should  be used  wherever
possible.   When  the subject-matter  of reports  overlapped,  consideration
should  be given to  where the information  would most  usefully be located.
In  this regard  the  remark  was made  that  the purpose  of  the  Advisory
Committee  was not  to review  past  accomplishments  but rather  to provide
guidance for  the future and that  the report should be drafted accordingly,
so  that  prospective activities  and  fellowship  availabilities  could  be
publicized sufficiently early.

160.   The  Secretary indicated  that  the  report was  traditionally  self-
contained but  that the  possibility of resorting to  cross-references would
be duly  explored.    She  added that  the  various  units involved  in  the
implementation of the Programme might find  it difficult to plan  activities
ahead of the approval of the guidelines provided  by the General Assembly on
a biennial basis.

161.     While  recognizing   the  validity   of  the   latter  point,   one

representative pointed out that  the Advisory Committee would be in a better
position  to  provide  concrete  guidance to  the  Secretary-General  if the
various  units  concerned  could  give   advance  notice  of   their  plans,
particularly as regards the grant of fellowships.

162.   In response  to a  question concerning  the criteria  applied by  the
United  Nations  in making  legal  publications  available  to  researchers,
particularly  in  developing countries,  the  Secretary  drew  attention  to
paragraph 55 of the  report.  She also  indicated that United  Nations legal
publications  were distributed  to all permanent missions  and to depository
libraries.   Furthermore, the Secretariat consistently accommodated requests
for recent publications from individual scholars, including from  developing
countries.

 163.  It  was suggested that an important function of the  Committee was to
help  improve  the  flow  of  information  between  the  United  Nations and
academic institutions  concerned with international law.   It  was felt that
paragraph 56  illustrated the existing insufficiency  of communication.   It
was   suggested  that  the   Secretariat  might  list:    (a)  scholarships,
programmes, facilities, etc.,  available to universities through the  United
Nations system, and  (b) appeals  and invitations  by the  Secretary-General
for information, scholarships,  contributions to projects, programmes, etc.,
from universities.  This information could be attached to the report, or  in
a separate note or brochure, but should be  presented in a consolidated form
suitable  for Governments  to  transmit  directly to  universities in  their
countries.  The Secretary of the Committee indicated that the circular  note
sent  annually to all  permanent missions to the  United Nations did request
information on  the availability of fellowships.   A  separate form intended
for universities could be  prepared and attached either to the said note  or
to the report of the Secretary-General.

164.  In  response to a query from  a member of  the Advisory Committee, the
Secretary indicated  that the geographical location of the activities listed
would be provided in the final version of the report.

165.   It was also  observed that the  section devoted to  UNITAR read  more
like  a brochure  of general  purport than  like a  description of  specific
activities and that its style should perhaps be harmonized with that of  the
rest of the report.

166.   The remark was made  that no precise information was  provided on the
workshop  to  be organized  in  cooperation with  the  United  Nations  as a
contribution to the  United Nations Decade of  International Law.  The  hope
was furthermore  expressed that UNESCO would  find it possible to reduce the
price of its publications.

167.  The view was reiterated in this context that the report  would serve a
more  useful purpose  if section  III  covered in  more detail  the  various
activities  planned for the  next biennium,  so that  the Advisory Committee
could express its views on them.

168.  As regards  the training of  interns, it was agreed to include  in the
report a  recommendation to  the Secretary-General  on the  publicity to  be
given to the relevant programmes and on the  modalities of selection of  the
interns.

169.   Concern was voiced  that, despite the  increase in  the membership of
the  Organization, the Programme was benefiting fewer and  fewer States.  In
this  connection, it  was noted  that,  owing  to financial  constraints, no
refresher course  had been  offered in  the last  few years.   The hope  was
expressed that the Committee would make  concrete proposals to increase  the
resources available under the Programme.

170.  As regards  the proposal to create  an audiovisual library on teaching
international law, some delegations felt that  audiovisual tapes could be  a
useful addition to the teaching programmes  at universities and would  allow

for a  wide dissemination  of the  teachings of  leading jurists.   In  that
connection, reference  was made  to the  audiovisual tapes  prepared by  the
Secretariat on the  work of various organs of the United Nations such as the
International Court of Justice.  The  delegations in question therefore  saw
merit in pursuing the idea, on the understanding that a number of  practical
questions (budgetary  implications, copyright,  royalties, etc.) would  have
to be carefully considered.

171.  Reservations  were however expressed  on the utility  of the  proposed
library.  Audiovisual tapes, it  was stated,  did not  allow for interaction
between  professors  and  students  and  served  a  useful  purpose  only in
relation to certain categories  of persons (such  as the handicapped) or  to
highly specialized issues of international law  such as the delimitation  of
maritime boundaries.   The remark  was also made  that the  proposed library
should not be limited to the official languages of the United Nations.

172.  The  Secretary explained that modern  technology could and already did
play  an important role  in teaching.   Given  current financial constraints
and the  fact that a  limited number  of persons had access  to the seminars
organized  under the  Programme,  audiovisual tapes  on various  subjects of
international  law were  a  convenient tool  to  place at  the  disposal  of
educational  institutions of  States, especially  developing States.    Such
tapes could address  a variety of subjects, from  the role of the organs  of
the Organization  to  theoretical aspects  of international  law, and  could
consist  of a single  lecture or  a series of lectures,  depending on demand
and on the experience  gained in implementing the project.  The costs  would
have  to be met  through voluntary  contributions and  the Secretariat would
try to enlist the cooperation of universities.

173.  The  Director of the Codification  Division said that  the Secretariat
would reflect further on  the matter in the light of the debate and submit a
more detailed  proposal for consideration by  the Advisory  Committee at its
next session.


Notes

  1/   Resolutions  2204  (XXI)  of 16  December  1966, 2313  (XXII)  of  14
December 1967, 2464 (XXIII) of 29 December 1968,  2550 (XXIV) of 12 December
1969, 2698 (XXV) of 11 December  1970, 2838 (XXVI) of 18 December 1971, 3106
(XXVIII) of 12  December 1973, 3502 (XXX) of 15 December 1975,  32/146 of 16
December  1977, 34/144  of 17  December 1979,  36/108 of  10  December 1981,
38/129 of 19 December 1983, 40/66 of 11  December 1985, 42/148 of 7 December
1987, 44/28 of  4 December 1989 and 46/50  of 9 December 1991.   Information
concerning action taken under the Programme  in previous years is  contained
in the following reports of the  Secretary-General to the General  Assembly:
Official Records  of the  General Assembly,  Twenty-first Session,  Annexes,
agenda item 86,  document A/6492  and Add.1;  ibid., Twenty-second  Session,
Annexes,  agenda item  90,  document A/6816;  ibid.,  Twenty-third  Session,
Annexes,  agenda item  89, document  A/7305; ibid.,  Twenty-fourth  Session,
Annexes,  agenda item  91,  document A/7740;  ibid.,  Twenty-fifth  Session,
Annexes,  agenda item  90,  document A/8130;  ibid.,  Twenty-sixth  Session,
Annexes,  agenda item 91, document  A/8505 and Corr.1 and  2; ibid., Twenty-
eighth Session, Annexes, agenda item 98,  document A/9242 and Corr.1; ibid.,
Thirtieth  Session,  Annexes, agenda  item  117,  document  A/10332;  ibid.,
Thirty-second Session, Annexes,  agenda item 114, document A/32/326;  ibid.,
Thirty-fourth Session, Annexes,  agenda item 111, document A/34/693;  ibid.,
Thirty-sixth Session,  Annexes, agenda item  113, document A/36/633;  ibid.,
Thirty-eighth Session, Annexes,  agenda item 122, document A/38/546;  ibid.,
Fortieth  Session,  Annexes, agenda  item  128,  document  A/40/893;  ibid.,
Forty-second Session,  Annexes, agenda item  127, document A/42/718;  ibid.,
Forty-fourth Session,  Annexes, agenda item  138, document A/44/712;  ibid.,
Forty-sixth  Session,  Annexes, agenda  item  124,  document  A/46/610;  and
ibid., Forty-seventh Session, Annexes, agenda item 139, document A/48/580.

  2/  General Assembly resolution 44/23, preamble, and paras. 1 and 2 (d).

  3/   See General Assembly resolutions  47/32 and  49/50, second preambular
paragraph, subparagraph (d).   See also chapter IV of the programme for  the
activities for  the second term (1993-1994)  and the  third term (1995-1996)
of  the  United  Nations  Decade  of   International  Law,  annexed  to  the
resolutions.
Chapter IV reads as follows:


                    "IV.  Encouragement of the teaching, study,
                          dissemination and wider appreciation
                          of international law

  "1.  The Advisory Committee on  the United Nations Programme of Assistance
in   the  Teaching,   Study,  Dissemination   and  Wider   Appreciation   of
International  Law  should,  in  the  context  of  the  Decade,  continue to
formulate, as  appropriate and in a  timely manner,  relevant guidelines for
the  Programme's  activities  and  report  to  the  Sixth  Committee  on the
activities  carried  out  under  the  Programme  in  accordance  with   such
guidelines.   Special emphasis  should be  given to  supporting academic and
professional institutions  already carrying  out research  and education  in
international  law, as  well as  to  encouraging  the establishment  of such
institutions  where they  might not  exist, particularly  in  the developing
countries.   States and  other public  or private  bodies are encouraged  to
contribute to the strengthening of the United Nations Programme.

  "2.  States should encourage their  educational institutions to  introduce
courses in international  law for students studying law, political  science,
social  sciences  and other  relevant  disciplines;  they should  study  the
possibility of introducing topics of international  law in the curricula  of
schools  at  the  primary  and   secondary  levels.     Cooperation  between
institutions at the university level among  developing countries, on the one
hand, and  their  cooperation with  those  of  developed countries,  on  the
other, should be encouraged.

  "3.   States  should consider  convening  conferences  of experts  at  the
national and  regional levels in  order to study  the question  of preparing
model curricula and materials for courses  in international law, training of
teachers in  international law,  preparation of  textbooks on  international
law and  the use  of modern  technology to  facilitate the  teaching of  and
research in international law.

  "4.   States,  the United  Nations  system  of organizations  and regional
organizations  should  consider  organizing   seminars,  symposia,  training
courses, lectures and  meetings and undertaking  studies on  various aspects
of international law.

  "5.  States are encouraged to  organize special training in  international
law for legal professionals, including  judges, and personnel  of ministries
of  foreign  affairs and  other  relevant  ministries  as  well as  military
personnel.   The United  Nations Institute  for Training  and Research,  the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the  Hague
Academy of International  Law, regional organizations and the  International
Committee  of the  Red Cross  are invited  to continue  cooperating  in this
respect with States.*

  "6.  Cooperation among developing countries,  as well as between developed
and  developing  countries,  in  particular  among  those  persons  who  are
involved in  the practice of  international law,  for exchanging  experience
and  for mutual  assistance in  the  field  of international  law, including
assistance  in  providing  textbooks and  manuals of  international  law, is
encouraged.

  "7.  In  order to make  better known  the practice  of international  law,
States  and international  and regional  organizations should  endeavour  to
publish, if they  have not done so,  summaries, repertories or yearbooks  of
their practice.

  "8.    States   and  international  organizations  should  encourage   the
publication  of important  international legal  instruments and  studies  by
highly qualified publicists, bearing in  mind the possibility  of assistance
from private sources.**

  "9.   Other  international courts  and tribunals,  including the  European
Court  of Human  Rights and  the Inter-American  Court of  Human Rights, are
invited to disseminate more widely their  judgements and advisory  opinions,
and to consider preparing thematic or analytical summaries thereof.

  "10.    International organizations  are  requested  to  publish  treaties
concluded  under their  auspices, if  they have  not  yet  done so.   Timely
publication of  the United Nations Treaty  Series is  encouraged and efforts
directed  towards adopting  an  electronic  form of  publication  should  be
continued.  Timely publication of the  United Nations Juridical Yearbook  is
also encouraged."
  ________________________

  *   In the  programme for  the activities for the  third term (1995-1996),
this paragraph was followed by a new paragraph 6:

  "6.   In connection  with the training  of military personnel,  States are
encouraged  to foster  the  teaching  and dissemination  of  the  principles
governing the protection of the environment  in times of armed  conflict and
should  consider  the  possibility  of  making  use  of  the  guidelines for
military manuals  and instructions prepared  by the International  Committee
of the Red Cross."

   **  In the  programme for the activities for the third term  (1995-1996),
this paragraph was followed by a new paragraph 10:

  "10.   The  Secretary-General, in  cooperation  with  the Registry  of the
International Court  of  Justice, is  encouraged to  update the  publication
Summaries  of Judgments, Advisory  Opinions and  Orders of the International
Court  of  Justice  (1948-1991),  in  all  the  official  languages  of  the
Organization and within the existing overall level of appropriations."

  4/  See Official Records of  the General Assembly, Forty-seventh  Session,
Supplement No. 10 (A/47/10), chap. V, sect. H.

  5/   Ibid., Forty-eighth Session, Supplement  No. 10  (A/48/10), chap. VI,
sect. E.

  6/  Ibid., Forty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 10 (A/49/10), para. 409.

  7/     Official  Records   of  the  General  Assembly,  Fiftieth  Session,
Supplement No. 10 (A/50/10), chap. VII, sect. E.

  8/  Ibid., para. 523.

  9/  Ibid., chap. VII, sect. E.

  10/  Ibid., para. 527.

  11/  Ibid., para. 528.

  12/  General Assembly resolutions 46/53,  para. 1; 47/32, para.  1; 48/30,
para. 1; and 49/50, para. 1.

  13/   For a discussion  on how the  fellowship became  integrated into the
United   Nations  Programme   of   Assistance  in   the   Teaching,   Study,
Dissemination and  Wider Appreciation  of International  Law, see  A/36/633,
paras. 55-57 and 84-86.

  14/   The person identified for the 1993 annual award of the fellowship on
the  Law of  the Sea  could  not,  owing to  work commitments,  take up  the

fellowship. As it was  too late to  substitute another candidate or to  make
the  necessary  arrangements  for  the year  1994  with  another educational
institution, the 1993 fellowship was not used.

  15/   Official  Records of  the  General Assembly,  Thirty-sixth  Session,
Supplement No. 17 (A/36/17), para. 109.

  16/  Ibid., Forty-second Session, Supplement No. 17 (A/42/17), para. 335.

  17/  Ibid., Forty-ninth Session, Supplement  No. 17 (A/49/17), paras. 232-
239, and Fiftieth Session, Supplement No. 17 (A/50/17), paras. 412-423.

  18/   Such organizations  and institutions  include:   Arab Commission for
International  Law,  Asian-African Legal  Consultative  Committee,  European
Committee  on   Legal  Cooperation,   Inter-American  Juridical   Committee,
Commission  of  the  European  Communities,  Hague  Conference  of   Private
International Law,  International Institute for  the Unification of  Private
Law, Organization  of American States, Hague  Academy of International  Law,
European  Community, Latin  American Economic System, League  of Arab States
and Organization of African Unity.

  19/   See for instance, in the June 1994 issue  (XXXI, No. 2), articles or
notes on human  rights, international criminal tribunal, outer space  bodies
and seabed mining; in  the March issue (XXXII,  No. 1), notes  on Convention
on  the  Safety  of  United  Nations  and  Associated  Personnel,  Terrorism
Declaration; and  in the June issue  (XXXII, No. 2),  three articles on  the
International  Seabed  Authority, the  United  Nations  Congress  on  Public
International Law and the suggested deletion  of the "enemy States"  clauses
of the Charter of the United Nations.

  20/   United  Nations publication,  Sales No.  E.94.V.9  (English, French,
Spanish).

  21/   United Nations  publication, Sales  No. E.94.V.13  (English, French,
Spanish).

  22/    United Nations  publication, Sales  No. E.95.V.7  (English, French,
Spanish).

  23/  United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.V.1 (English only).

  24/  United Nations publications, Sales  Nos. E.94.V.10 (English only) and
E.95.V.11 (English only).

  25/   Countries whose  institutions received  United Nations  publications
include the  following:  Afghanistan,  Albania, Algeria, Angola,  Argentina,
Azerbaijan,  Bahrain,   Bangladesh,  Barbados,   Belarus,  Benin,   Bolivia,
Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria,  Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chile,  China,
Colombia,  Congo,  Costa  Rica,  Cote  d'Ivoire,  Cyprus,  Czech   Republic,
Dominica,  Dominican  Republic,   Ecuador,  Egypt,  El   Salvador,  Estonia,
Ethiopia, Fiji,  Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala,  Guinea, Guyana, Haiti,  Honduras,
Iceland,  India,  Indonesia, Iran  (Islamic  Republic  of),  Iraq,  Jamaica,
Jordan,  Kenya,  Kuwait, Latvia,  Lebanon,  Lesotho,  Liberia,  Libyan  Arab
Jamahiriya,   Lithuania,   Madagascar,   Malawi,   Malaysia,  Mali,   Malta,
Mauritius,  Mexico,   Mongolia,   Morocco,   Mozambique,   Myanmar,   Nepal,
Nicaragua, Niger,  Nigeria, Pakistan,  Panama, Papua  New Guinea,  Paraguay,
Peru,  Philippines,  Poland, Qatar,  Republic  of  Korea,  Romania,  Russian
Federation,  Rwanda,  Saint  Vincent  and  the  Grenadines,  Saudi   Arabia,
Senegal, Seychelles,  Sierra Leone, Singapore,  Slovakia, Sri Lanka,  Sudan,
Suriname,  Swaziland, Syrian  Arab Republic,  Thailand, Togo,  Trinidad  and
Tobago,  Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda,  United Arab  Emirates, United Republic of
Tanzania,  Uruguay,  Venezuela, Yemen,  Zambia,  Zaire  and  Zimbabwe.   See
further  discussion on the  question during  the seventeenth  session of the
Advisory Committee (A/38/546, paras. 83 and  84), at its nineteenth  session
(A/40/893, paras. 84-87)  and at  its twenty-third session (A/44/712,  para.
120).

   26/  Institutions from the following  countries have been included  among
the  recipients of  publications  from the  International Court  of Justice:
Argentina,  Brazil,  Egypt,  India,  Morocco,  Mozambique,  Niger, Pakistan,
Papua  New  Guinea,  Poland,  Spain,  Syrian  Arab  Republic,  Viet  Nam and
Zimbabwe.

  27/    Those  recently  established  information  centres  are located  at
Brazzaville, Dhaka, Harare, Managua and Ouagadougou.

  28/  In 1994, the following were in charge of The Hague special  seminars:
Professor Laurence Boisson  de Chazournes, Graduate Institute of Geneva; Mr.
P. Couvreur,  Secretary of  the International  Court of  Justice; Mr. A.  De
Zayas, Complaints  Procedure Branch, Centre  for Human  Rights, Geneva;  Mr.
Gerold Hermann, Secretary, United Nations Commission on International  Trade
Law  (UNCITRAL),  Vienna;  Mr.  Ivor  C. Jackson,  former  Deputy  Director,
Division  of Refugees  Law and Doctrine,  Office of the  United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva; Mr. P.  H. G. Jonkman, Secretary General,
Permanent  Court of  Arbitration, The  Hague;  Mr.  Michael Graf  von Korff-
Schmising, Head of Section, Federal Ministry of  Economics, Bonn; Mr. F.  T.
Liu,  Special Adviser,  International  Peace Academy,  New York,  and former
United Nations  Assistant Secretary-General for  Special Political  Affairs;
Mr.  Umesh Palwankar,  Legal Division,  International Committee  of  the Red
Cross,  Geneva;  Mr. Manuel  Rama-Montaldo,  Senior  Legal  Officer,  United
Nations Office of Legal Affairs, New  York; Professor Nico Schrijver, Senior
Lecturer  in International  Law,  Institute  of Social  Studies, The  Hague;
Professor Jacques Soubeyrol,  Professor of International Law, University  of
Bordeaux;  Mr. Arthur  Witteveen, Secretary  of the  International Court  of
Justice,  The Hague; Mr.  Abdulqawi A.  Yusuf, Representative  of the United
Nations  Conference  on  Trade  and  Development,  New York;  and  Professor
Elisabeth  Zoller, Professor  of  Public International  Law,  University  of
Strasbourg III.

  29/  In 1995, the following were in charge of  The Hague special seminars:
Ms.   Laurence   Boisson   de   Chazournes,   Professor   of   International
Environmental Law, Graduate  Institute of International Studies,  University
of  Geneva; Mr. Jean-Claude  Concolato, Head  of the  Liaison Office  of the
United  Nations  High Commissioner  for Refugees,  The  Hague; Mr.  Philippe
Couvreur, Secretary  of the International Court  of Justice,  The Hague; Ms.
Yolande  Diallo,  Chief, Information,  Publications and  External Relations,
Centre  for  Human  Rights,  Geneva;  Ms.  Birgitta  Ekterkade,  Preparatory
Commission of the Organization for the  Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, The
Hague; Mr.  Jeffrey Gertler, Counsellor, Legal Affairs Division, World Trade
Organization,  Geneva; H.E.  Winfried  Lang,  Ambassador of  Austria to  the
United Nations,  Geneva, and Professor of  International Law; Mr. F. T. Liu,
Special  Adviser,  International Peace  Academy,  New  York,  former  United
Nations  Assistant  Secretary-General  for Special  Political  Affairs;  Mr.
Nasser Ali  Mansurian, Legal  Advisor, United  States-Iran Claims  Tribunal,
The  Hague;  Ms. Gabrielle  Marceau,  Legal  Affairs Officer,  Legal Affairs
Division,  World  Trade Organization,  Geneva;  Mr.  Allahyar  Mouri,  Legal
Assistant,  United  States-Iran  Claims  Tribunal,  The  Hague;  Mr.   Marco
Sassoli, Deputy Head of the Legal  Division, International Committee of  the
Red Cross,  Geneva; Ms. Betty Shifman,  First Secretary,  Permanent Court of
Arbitration,   The  Hague;   Mr.   Nico  Schrijver,   Senior   Lecturer   in
International Law, Institute of Social Studies,  The Hague; Mr. Johannes  G.
Van  Aggelen,   Deputy   Chief,  Information,   Publications  and   External
Relations, Centre for  Human Rights, Geneva;  Mr. Andrew Williams, Director,
Graduate School of International Relations, University of Kent,  Canterbury;
and Mr. Arthur Witteveen, Secretary of  the International Court of  Justice,
The Hague. 

  30/  Paris, UNESCO, 1994.

  31/  Third edition (Paris, UNESCO, 1994), 245 pages.

  32/  For the  report to the forty-eighth session, see A/49/323 and  Add.1-
3, chap. II.D.   For the  report to  the fiftieth session, see  A/50/368 and

Add.1, chap. II.D.

  33/   See General  Assembly resolutions  45/40, annex,  chap. V,  para. 5;
47/32, annex, chap. V, para. 6; and 49/50, chap. V, para. 6.

  34/  The 1994 and 1995 contributions of  Switzerland have been applied  to
the symposia organized by UNCITRAL.


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