United Nations

A/50/701


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

3 November 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH/FRENCH/
RUSSIAN/SPANISH


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 70


GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT

Moratorium on the export of anti-personnel land-mines

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................1 - 33

II.  APPROPRIATE MEASURES TAKEN TO LIMIT THE EXPORT OF
  ANTI-PERSONNEL LAND-MINES ............................4 - 134

  A.  Unilateral initiatives ...........................  7 - 95

  B.  Regional initiatives .............................  10 - 128

  C.  Global initiatives ...............................  13 - 1410

III.  INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM GOVERNMENTS ............................11

  Argentina ........................................................11

  Australia ........................................................11

  Brazil ...........................................................12

  Canada ...........................................................12

  Chile ............................................................13

  Ecuador ..........................................................13


95-33019 (E)   081195  091195
*9533019*/...
CONTENTS (continued)

              Page

  European Union* ..................................................13

  Japan ............................................................14

  Jordan ...........................................................15

  Malta ............................................................15

  Poland ...........................................................15

  Slovenia .........................................................16

  Spain ............................................................16

  Switzerland ......................................................16

  Ukraine ..........................................................17

  United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland .............18

  United States of America .........................................18























________________________

  *  On  behalf of the States members of the European Union  that are States
Members of the United Nations.
I.  INTRODUCTION


1.  On 15  December 1994, the  General Assembly adopted resolution 49/75  D,
entitled  "Moratorium  on the  export  of  anti-personnel  land-mines",  the
operative paragraphs of which read as follows:

  "The General Assembly,

  "...

  "1.   Welcomes  the moratorium already  declared by certain  States on the
export of anti-personnel land-mines;

  "2.  Urges States that have  not yet done so to declare such moratorium at
the earliest possible date;

  "3.  Requests the Secretary-General to prepare a  report on steps taken by

Member States to implement  such moratoriums and to submit it to the General
Assembly at  its  fiftieth session  under  the  item entitled  "General  and
complete disarmament";

  "4.   Emphasizes  the importance  of  the  Convention on  Prohibitions  or
Restrictions on the  Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed
to Be  Excessively  Injurious or  to  Have  Indiscriminate Effects  and  its
Protocols  as  the  authoritative  international  instrument  governing  the
responsible use of anti-personnel land-mines and related devices;

  "5.  Urges  States that have not done  so to adhere  to the Convention and
its Protocols;

  "6.   Encourages further  international efforts  to seek  solutions to the
problems caused  by anti-personnel land-mines, with  a view  to the eventual
elimination of anti-personnel land-mines."

2.   In pursuance  of the  request contained  in paragraph  3 of  resolution
49/75 D, the Secretary-General requested, in a  note verbale dated 17  March
1995, that  Member States provide the relevant information on  the matter by
31  May  1995.  Information  has  been  received  thus  far  from Argentina,
Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, the  European Union (on behalf of
the  States members  of the  Union that  are States  Members of  the  United
Nations),  Japan,  Jordan,  Malta,  Poland,  Slovenia,  Spain,  Switzerland,
Ukraine, the United Kingdom  of Great Britain and  Northern Ireland and  the
United States of America.  Any  additional information received from  Member
States will be issued as addenda to the present report.

3.   In  connection with  the above-mentioned  matter, the Secretary-General
sent  the following  letter on  23 June  1995  to  the Foreign  Ministers of
States not party to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons:

  "Since I  launched a  United Nations  coordinated programme  of action  in
1993 to  clear mines  worldwide, hundreds  of thousands  of land-mines  have
been cleared in  many countries by  the authorities  of those countries,  by
the United  Nations and its specialized  agencies, and by  intergovernmental
and non-governmental  organizations,  assisted  by  financial  contributions
from many  States.   Unfortunately,  between  4  and 10  million  additional
landmines are estimated to  have been laid in  many regions during  the same
period and there  has been a net increase in the number of  land-mines to be
cleared.

  "This trend is unacceptable and must be reversed.

  "In  order to  prevent further  proliferation of  land-mines, the  General
Assembly has  called upon  Member States  to establish  a moratorium  on the
export of anti-personnel land-mines.  Several  Member States have heeded the
call of the General Assembly and I  express my gratitude to all those States
which have established a moratorium or are in the process of doing so.

  "But  the cruel reality  remains that  millions of  land-mines are already
widely  available and are  used in  all conflicts,  particularly in internal
ones.   They are  often undetectable  and dangerous  to remove.   Their  use
against civilians  disrupts the  economic and social  development of  entire
regions  by  isolating  whole  communities,  depopulating  large  areas  and
preventing the return of refugees.

  "The  magnitude  of  the problem  requires  a  coordinated  and determined
effort  by the  international  community.   The  49 States  parties  to  the
Convention  on Certain Conventional  Weapons have  called for  the first CCW
Review Conference,  which will  be held  at Vienna  from 25 September  to 13
October  1995, to  review the  scope  and operation  of the  Convention and,
inter alia, to strengthen its Land-mine Protocol.   The preparatory Group of
Governmental Experts, which has formulated a  draft for a revised  Land-mine
Protocol, has  made  several proposals,  which,  if  adopted by  the  Review
Conference,  would  significantly  increase   the  protection  of  civilians

against the indiscriminate use of land-mines.

  "That laudable  effort would still be  insufficient if  the Convention did
not achieve universality and  effective implementation.   I would  therefore
be  grateful, as  depositary of  the  Convention,  if your  Government could
participate in the Review Conference as  an observer and, most  importantly,
if it  would consider initiating or  completing the  procedures required for
the  ratification  of or  accession  to  the  Convention  and the  Protocols
annexed thereto."

               II.  APPROPRIATE MEASURES TAKEN TO LIMIT THE EXPORT
                    OF ANTI-PERSONNEL LAND-MINES

4.   Each  year more  than  20,000  human beings  are injured  or killed  by
landmines.  Most of  them are non-combatants:   they are farmers,  women and
children.

5.   The  international community  clears approximately  100,000  land-mines
each year.  During the  same period between  2 and 5 million new  land-mines
are  laid. Land-mine proliferation thus  adds each year two  or more decades
to the 1,100 years that would already be  necessary to clear all  land-mines
at the current rate of mine clearance.   Land-mines are in reality  a weapon
of mass destruction, in slow motion,  because they indiscriminately kill  or
maim massive numbers of human beings over a long period of time.

6.   The  magnitude of  the problem  requires a  courageous, consistent  and
continued effort  by the  international community.   The understanding  that
common   action  is   needed  has  motivated  several   initiatives  at  the
unilateral, regional and global levels.

A.  Unilateral initiatives

7.   In  October  1992, the  United  States  of  America adopted  an  export
moratorium  on anti-personnel  land-mines.    In 1993,  that moratorium  was
extended  for  three  years.    The  United  States  Congress  is  currently
considering legislation, the  Land-mine Use Moratorium Act, that would  have
the effect of  severely limiting the use  of anti-personnel land-mines.   In
February 1993, France  declared an export moratorium on anti-personnel land-
mines and in the same year Belgium declared  an indefinite moratorium on the
production,  transfer  and  use of  antipersonnel  land-mines.    During the
current year, France has widened the scope of its moratorium to include  the
production of all types of anti-personnel landmines.

8.  After the adoption by the General Assembly of resolutions 48/75 K of  16
December 1993 and 49/75 D  of 15 December 1994, in which the Assembly called
upon States  to declare a moratorium  on the export  of anti-personnel land-
mines, a  number of  States heeded  that call  and  informed the  Secretary-
General of their decisions.   Other States provided such information in  the
CCW  Group of Governmental  Experts, during the Review  Conference or in the
context of the  International Meeting on Mine Clearance.  The following list
of action taken is based on that information:

  (a)  Argentina has declared a five-year moratorium, beginning  on 27 March
1995, on the export of anti-personnel land-mines;

  (b)   Australia  has declared  that  it  does not  produce  anti-personnel
landmines;

  (c)   Austria has declared that it observes a moratorium  on the export of
anti-personnel land-mines and  that military stocks of anti-personnel  land-
mines have been destroyed;

  (d)    Belgium  has  declared  an  indefinite  moratorium  on  production,
transfer and use of anti-personnel land-mines;

  (e)  Brazil has declared that,  since 1989, there have been  no exports of

Brazilian land-mines to any country;

  (f)   Cambodia has declared  that it would  legislate a  ban on land-mines
and  would  request  that  producing  countries  cease   exporting  them  to
Cambodia;

   (g)   Canada has declared  that it has  not exported anti-personnel land-
mines since 1987 nor does it intend to do so in the future;

  (h)  Chile has  declared that it does not produce or export anti-personnel
land-mines;

  (i)  Colombia has declared that it does not produce or use land-mines;

  (j)   The Czech Republic has  declared a  three-year moratorium, beginning
on 5 October 1994, on the export of anti-personnel land-mines;

  (k)  Ecuador has declared  that it does not authorize the export of  anti-
personnel land-mines;

  (l)  Finland hasdeclared that it does not export anti-personnellandmines;

  (m)  France has  declared an indefinite  moratorium on the production  and
export of all types of anti-personnel land-mines;

  (n)  Germany has declared a three-year moratorium, beginning 8 June  1994,
on the export of anti-personnel land-mines;

  (o)  Greece has  declared an indefinite moratorium on the export of  anti-
personnel land-mines;

  (p)  Hungary does not manufacture or export anti-personnel land-mines;

  (q)   Israel has  declared a  two-year moratorium  on the export  of anti-
personnel land-mines;

  (r)   Italy  has declared  a moratorium  on the  export of  anti-personnel
landmines, which will remain in effect  until a new international  agreement
governing the  production, export  and stockpiling  of anti-personnel  land-
mines enters into force;

  (s)  Japan has provided information  on the national legislation  relating
to the  export of anti-personnel  land-mines and has  declared that it  does
not engage in any export of land-mines;

  (t)   Jordan has  declared that  it does  not manufacture or  export anti-
personnel land-mines;

  (u)   Latvia  has declared  a moratorium  on the  export of  all types  of
mines;

  (v)  Malta has  declared that it does not produce or export anti-personnel
land-mines;

  (w)  Mexico has declared that it does not produce or use land-mines;

  (x)  The Netherlands has declared  an indefinite moratorium on  the export
of anti-personnel land-mines to  those States which are not party to the CCW
and its Land-mine Protocol;
    (y)    Poland  has established  a  moratorium  on the  export  of  anti-
personnel land-mines  that are  undetectable by  electromagnetic devices  or
are non-selfdestructing and non-self-neutralizing.  That moratorium will  be
in effect till 1998;

  (z)  Romania has declare a one-year moratorium, beginning on 1 July  1995,
on the export of all land-mines;

  (aa)    The  Russian  Federation has  declared  a  three-year  moratorium,
beginning January  1993,  on  the export  of non-self-destructing  and  non-
detectable anti-personnel land-mines;

  (bb)    Slovenia has  declared  that  it  does  not export  anti-personnel
landmines;

  (cc)  South Africa has declared an indefinite moratorium on the export  of
all land-mines;

  (dd)   Spain has  declared a one-year  moratorium on the  export of  anti-
personnel  land-mines, which was  extended on  24 February  1995 for another
year;

  (ee)  Sweden has declared a three-year moratorium  on the export of  anti-
personnel land-mines;

  (ff)  Switzerland has declared  an indefinite moratorium on  the export of
land-mines to those States which  are not party to the CCW and its Land-mine
Protocol;

  (gg)    Thailand  has declared  that  it does  not  manufacture or  export
landmines;

  (hh)   Turkey has declared  that it does  not export  anti-personnel land-
mines;

  (ii)    Ukraine  has  declared  that  it  does  not  export anti-personnel
landmines, pending the adoption of a formal moratorium;

  (jj)    The United  Kingdom  of Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland has
declared an indefinite  moratorium on the export of non-self-destructing  or
non-detectable anti-personnel  land-mines, as well as  on the  export of all
anti-personnel landmines to countries that have not ratified the CCW;

  (kk)  The United States has declared a  one-year moratorium on the  export
of anti-personnel land-mines, which  was extended on 20 November 1993 for  a
period of three years.

(See  also the  communications of  States  reproduced in  the report  of the
Secretary-General (A/49/275 and Add.1) and in section III below.)

9.   In order  to establish  a coordinated  multilateral approach, proposals
have been made by  the United Kingdom in the Conference on Disarmament,  and
by Australia, Sweden and  the Netherlands in  the CCW Group of  Governmental
Experts. In the Conference on Disarmament,  the United Kingdom proposed that
States should consider applying  a code of conduct to the transfer of  anti-
personnel landmines.   In the  CCW Group of  Experts, Australia, Sweden  and
the  Netherlands proposed  that a new  article be introduced  in the revised
Protocol II of the Convention that would have the effect of prohibiting  the
transfer of  anti-personnel land-mines to  States not  party to the  CCW, as
well as  prohibiting the transfer to  any State  of non-self-destructing and
non-detectable  anti-personnel land-mines.   Additionally, the United States
and  the United  Kingdom have  developed  a  proposal for  an anti-personnel
land-mine  control programme.   The  control  programme  would impose,  as a
first step, and with  a view to  the eventual elimination of  anti-personnel
land-mines,  restrictions on  the production,  stockpiling and  transfer  of
anti-personnel  land-mines, in  particular  long-lived  anti-personnel land-
mines,  which can  explode decades  after  emplacement.   Over  30 countries
attended a meeting held at Budapest on 29  and 30 June 1995 to  discuss that
proposal.  A second meeting will be held after the CCW Review Conference.

B.  Regional initiatives

10.   Further progress  could be achieved  at the  regional and  subregional
levels through initiatives promoted by  regional organizations or  groups of

countries. Examples of such  initiatives are the decision  of the Council of
the  European Union  (EU) to  establish a  common action  of the  15  States
members to implement General  Assembly resolutions 48/75 K  and 49/75 D  and
the resolution adopted  on 23 June 1995 by  the Council of  Ministers of the
Organization  of   African  Unity  (OAU)  on   the  Convention  on   Certain
Conventional Weapons and the problems caused  by the proliferation of  anti-
personnel land-mines in Africa.

11.   The moratorium  decided  by EU  applies  to  the export  of  non-self-
destructing and  non-detectable anti-personnel  land-mines, as  well as  the
export  of all  anti-personnel land-mines  to  countries  that have  not yet
ratified or acceded to the CCW Convention and its Land-mine Protocol.

12.  The resolution adopted by  OAU reads as follows:    See A/50/647, annex
I, resolution CM/Res.1593 (LXII).

  "The Council  of Ministers of the  Organization of  African Unity, meeting
in its  sixty-second ordinary session,  held at Addis  Ababa, from  21 to 23
June 1995,

  "Having  considered the  recommendations made  by the  Seminar,  organized
jointly  by  the  Organization  of  African  Unity   and  the  International
Committee of  the Red  Cross at  Addis Ababa  on 11  and 12  April 1995,  on
International Humanitarian  Law and  the 1980  United Nations Convention  on
Prohibitions or  Restrictions on  the  Use of  Certain Conventional  Weapons
Which May Be  Deemed to Be Excessively  Injurious or to Have  Indiscriminate
Effects (CM/1884 (LXII), annex 1),

  "Considering resolution  CM/Res.1526  (LX)  on respect  for  international
humanitarian law and  support for  humanitarian action  in armed  conflicts,
adopted by  the Council of Ministers at its sixtieth  ordinary session, held
at  Tunis in  June 1994,  in particular  its paragraph  6 (b),  by which the
Council  invites  States  that  have  not yet  become  party  to  the  above
Convention to do so,

  "Recalling that the Convention will be  submitted to the Review Conference
due to take place at Vienna from 25 September to 13 October 1995,

  "Noting  that  to  date  only three  African  States have  acceded  to the
Convention,

  "Deeply  concerned  over  the  tragic  consequences  resulting  from   the
generalized and  indiscriminate use  of  anti-personnel mines  and the  fact
that, of  all the regions  of the world,  Africa is the  continent with  the
largest number  of these weapons  and is, as  a result,  paying the heaviest
toll,

  "Particularly  alarmed  at  the  significant  increase  in  the  number of
victims of anti-personnel mines among the  civilian population and the  high
cost involved  in  mine clearing  and  the  rehabilitation of  the  affected
areas,

  "Noting   that  only   appropriate   measures  adopted   by   the   entire
international community will help put an end to this scourge,

  "Noting with concern  the ongoing researches aimed at modernizing blinding
laser weapons,

  "1.  Takes note  of the relevant recommendations formulated by the  above-
mentioned Seminar;

  "2.  Condemns  cases of flagrant  violation of  international humanitarian
law by the indiscriminate use of anti-personnel mines;

  "3.  Urges all member States that have not yet acceded to the 1980  United
Nations  Convention  on  Certain Conventional  Arms  to do  so  as early  as

possible;

  "4.  Further urges member States to participate  fully and actively in the
review conference slated for  25 September to 13  October 1995 at Vienna and
to  defend  a common  African  position  as  stated  at the  above-mentioned
seminar, in particular:

  "'(a) The total ban on the manufacture and use of mines;

  "'(b) The  extension of  field of application  of the  1980 Convention  to
non-international armed conflicts;

  "'(c) The  addition  to the  Convention  of  mechanisms to  guarantee  its
effective implementation;

   "'(d)   Mobilization   of   increased   resources   for   demining    and
rehabilitation of infested areas and assistance to the victims';

  "5.  Appeals to the international community  to give increased support  to
African  national   and   regional  institutions   responsible  for   giving
assistance to victims  of anti-personnel  mines, in  particular the  African
Rehabilitation Institute;

  "6.  Requests the countries that are responsible  for this act to  provide
the  necessary  resources  and   information,  including  the  maps  of  the
locations of the  mines, to the African countries  that were victims of  the
scourge  of  mines during  the Second  World War  and during  conflicts that
preceded their accession to independence;

  "7.    Supports the  adoption, by  the  Review  Conference, of  a protocol
banning blinding laser weapons;

  "8.   Reiterates  the provisions  of  its  resolution CM/Res.1370  (LV) on
refugees and  displaced  persons, appealing  to  all  member States  of  the
Organization of African Unity that are able to do so to contribute,  through
the Organization  of African  Unity or any  other appropriate  arrangements,
expertise, personnel,  equipment, technical know-how  or any other  relevant
resources  towards  the   clearance  of  land-mines  and  other   unexploded
munitions in areas of potential return of refugees;

  "9.   Requests the  Secretary-General to  follow up  the implementation of
this resolution,  and to  report  to the  next  session  of the  Council  of
Ministers."

C.  Global initiatives

13.   At its forty-ninth session, the General  Assembly considered the grave
consequences  of  the indiscriminate  use  of  mines  in  relation to  three
questions: (a) the moratorium  on the export  of anti-personnel  land-mines;
(b)  assistance  in  mine  clearance;  and  (c)  the  Convention  on Certain
Conventional Weapons and its annexed  Protocols.  It adopted a resolution on
each subject.

14.    The  developments  resulting  from  the  first  two  initiatives  are
summarized in  the previous  paragraphs or in  the report of  the Secretary-
General  on  assistance  in  mine clearance  (A/50/408).    The developments
related to the review process  of the CCW will be considered by the  General
Assembly  on  the  basis  of  the  final  documents   of  the  first  Review
Conference, which concluded the  first phase of its work on 13 October  1995
and will continue its work at resumed sessions  to be held at Geneva from 15
to  19  January  and  from  22  April   to  3  May  1996.     Regarding  the
institutionalization  of  individually  declared  moratoriums in  a  legally
binding  instrument such as  the CCW Land-mine  Protocol, it  is relevant to
note that  the States participating in the first CCW  Review Conference have
accepted the inclusion in the Land-mine Protocol of an article on  transfers
of anti-personnel land-mines, although the content  of that article is still

under negotiation.

  III.  INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM GOVERNMENTS


ARGENTINA

[Original:  Spanish]

[18 April 1995]    

1.  On 27 March 1995, United Nations  General Assembly resolution 48/75  was
approved by Executive Decree No. 435/95.   This Decree suspended the export,
sale  or transfer  of all  anti-personnel land-mines  without exception  for
five years.

2.   The moratorium declared by  the Argentine Government  on the export  of
anti-personnel  land-mines  is  the basis  for  the  development  of  future
actions  aimed at establishing  a permanent regime  to control  this type of
device.  This moratorium is a first step towards mitigating the harm  caused
by the explosion of anti-personnel land-mines.

3.  These  mines affect the economic feasibility  of the areas in  question,
jeopardize peace-keeping  operations  and have  an impact  on civilian  life
after the conflict has ended.

4.  The moratorium decreed by  the Argentine Republic is in keeping with its
efforts to minimize the serious damage  these devices inflict throughout the
world, mostly on civilian populations.

5.  The Argentine Republic urges  all countries that produce  anti-personnel
land-mines to address this human problem,  which causes over 150  fatalities
a week.


AUSTRALIA

[Original:  English]

[15 May 1995]      

1.    Australia  does  not  produce  anti-personnel  land-mines.    Thus for
Australia to  declare  a moratorium  on  exports  is redundant.    Australia
supports the  action of those  countries which have imposed  a moratorium on
the export of anti-personnel land-mines to States that  are not party to the
1980 Inhumane Weapons Convention.

2.    While  Australia  sympathizes  with  the  humanitarian  intent  behind
unconditional  bans on  the  export of  anti-personnel  land-mines,  it sees
these as an interim measure that ought not be multilateralized.

3.   Since anti-personnel  land-mines are  legitimate conventional  weapons,
their sale ought to be permitted, and confined, to States party to  Protocol
II to the Convention.  Otherwise countries such  as Australia may be  forced
to become producers.   Such a selective trade  ban would encourage States to
ratify  the Convention, which  needs many  more States  parties.  Long-lived
mines should not be  produced or sold, and  their use should  be exceptional
and  virtually phased out.  These measures will  protect civilians, which is
the main objective of anti-personnel land-mine controls.

4.  Australia  appeals to Member  States to demonstrate their  commitment to
the spirit of resolution 49/75  D by actively supporting  these proposals at
the first Review Conference of the  Inhumane Weapons Convention in September
1995.

BRAZIL

[Original:  English]

[6 March 1995]     

1.  Brazil imposes  legal controls on all exports of war material, including
land-mines.   Such export  operations require  an export  licence, which  is
issued  by the Government of  Brazil in accordance with  strict criteria and
is  only granted  if, inter alia:   (a) the request  is made on  behalf of a
legitimate government authority; (b) the country  in question is not subject
to any  United Nations embargo;  (c) the export  operation is  not likely to
cause  or aggravate  tensions;  and  (d)  there  is  no breach  of  relevant
commitments under international law, including humanitarian law.

2.    Brazil supports  international  efforts  to  strengthen  international
humanitarian law, in particular  in order to address the grave issue of  the
irresponsible dissemination and unlawful use of land-mines.  The  Government
of Brazil  has requested congressional consent  to adhere  to the Convention
on Certain Conventional  Weapons and  follows with interest current  efforts
to  review and  strengthen, as  appropriate,  the Convention,  including its
Protocol II on land-mines.

3.    The Brazilian  contribution  to  solve  the land-mine  crisis  is also
expressed through the provision  of assistance to  mine-clearance and peace-
keeping operations in countries affected by  the indiscriminate use of land-
mines.

4.   Brazil  produces  land-mines on  a small  scale only  and  for its  own
legitimate defence purposes.   Since  1989, there  have been  no exports  of
Brazilian landmines to any country.


CANADA

[Original:  English]

[1 May 1995]       

  Canada has not exported anti-personnel land-mines  since 1987 nor does  it
intend to  do so in the future.  Canada supports the development of a global
regime to control  the international transfer of anti-personnel  land-mines.
Canada  believes  that such  a  regime  must  complement  the Convention  on
Certain Conventional Weapons and should be an integral part of it.


CHILE

[Original:  Spanish]

[31 May 1995]      

  Chile  has neither  produced nor  exported anti-personnel  land-mines  for
more than 10 years; indeed, it was in  compliance with the relevant  General
Assembly  resolution even before that resolution existed.  Without prejudice
to the foregoing, Chile has at times considered  the use of these devices in
its  military   planning  exclusively  for   defence  purposes,  since   its
restricted budget prevented it from considering other,  more costly devices,
in view of the characteristics of its national territory.


ECUADOR

[Original:  Spanish]

[1 May 1995]       

1.  The Government of Ecuador  is pleased to report that there are currently
no natural or legal persons in the territory of the Republic  of Ecuador who
are exporting or re-exporting anti-personnel land-mines.

2.   In  addition, bearing  in mind  the General  Assembly's request  for  a
moratorium on  the export  of anti-personnel  land-mines, the Government  of
Ecuador has  decided not to  issue permits for  the export  of this  type of
weapon, if any requests for such permits are submitted in future. 


EUROPEAN UNION      On behalf of  the States  members of the  European Union
that are States Members of the United Nations.

[Original:  French]

[31 May 1995]     

  The European Union, pursuant to General  Assembly resolutions 48/75 K  and
49/75 D, which urge States  to declare a  moratorium on the export of  anti-
personnel land-mines, wishes  to inform the  Secretary-General of the United
Nations that  on 10 April 1995 the  Council of the European Union decided on
a joint  action concerning anti-personnel land-mines,  one of  the points of
which expressly establishes such a moratorium in the following terms:

   (a)   A joint moratorium  on the export  of anti-personnel  land-mines is
established  by the  member  States in  the  light of  the  relevant  United
Nations General Assembly resolutions;

  (b)  This  moratorium covers the total prohibition  of the export of  non-
detectable  and   non-self-destructing  anti-personnel   land-mines  to  all
destinations  and also  prohibits the  export of  all other  types  of anti-
personnel  land-mines  to  States  which  have  not  yet  ratified  the 1980
Convention and its Protocol II;

  (c)   Member States  may institute  moratoriums of  even broader  scope if
they so desire.


JAPAN

[Original:  English]

[27 June 1995]     

1.   The export  of anti-personnel  land-mines is  subject to the  following
principles, guidelines and regulations in Japan.  Anti-personnel  land-mines
are included in  item 1 (2) of the annexed list of the  Export Trade Control
Order.        Available  for  consultation  at  the Centre  for  Disarmament
Affairs.


1.  Three principles on arms exports

2.   At the session of the Diet held on 1  April 1967, Prime Minister Eisaku
Sato declared the three principles.

3.   Arms  exports shall  not be  permitted  to  the following  countries or
regions:

  (a)  Communist bloc countries;

  (b)   Countries  subject to  arms  exports  embargo under  United  Nations
resolutions;

  (c)   Countries  involved in  or likely  to be  involved in  international
conflict.


2.  Policy guideline on arms exports

4.   At the session  of the Diet  held on  27 February 1976,  Prime Minister
Takeo Miki announced the government policy guidelines:

  (a)    The  Government,  in  view  of  Japan's  commitment to  peace,  has
exercised  caution  regarding  arms  exports  so  as  to  avoid  aggravating
conflicts.  The Government  shall continue to do  so in accordance  with the
following policy guideline and shall not promote arms exports:

  (i)Arms exports  to areas  subject to  the three  principles shall not  be
permitted;

    (ii)Arms exports to other areas shall  be restrained in conformity  with
the  spirit of the  Constitution and the Foreign  Exchange and Foreign Trade
Law;

   (iii)Exports  of equipment related  to arms  production (item  1 (15) and
(16) of the  annex list of the  Export Trade Control  Order) are  treated in
the same manner as arms;

  (b)  The term "arms" as referred to in the three principles is defined  as
goods  that are listed in  items 1 (1)  to (14) of  the annexed  list of the
Export  Trade Control Order  of Japan and  that are  to be  used by military
forces and employed directly in combat.


JORDAN

[Original:  English]

[16 June 1995]     

  The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan does  not manufacture, and therefore  does
not export, any kind of anti-personnel land-mines.


MALTA

[Original:  English]

[2 June 1995]      

1.  The Government of Malta fully supports  the content of resolution  49/75
D, entitled "Moratorium on the export of anti-personnel land-mines".

2.  Malta does not produce or export anti-personnel land-mines and  welcomes
the  moratoriums declared by  other States  on the  export of anti-personnel
land-mines.


POLAND

[Original:  English]

[6 June 1995]      

1.  The production  of anti-personnel land-mines in Poland was abandoned  in
the mid-1980s and the  export of those mines  has ceased de  facto following
the adoption of resolution 48/75 K.
  2.  The preparatory work  on the ordinance of the Council of Ministers  of
the Republic of  Poland formally introducing a  moratorium on the  export of
anti-personnel land-mines has entered its final stage.

SLOVENIA

[Original:  English]

[16 May 1995]      

  Slovenia does not  export anti-personnel land-mines.  Therefore,  Slovenia
already applies in practice the moratorium  on the export of  anti-personnel
landmines, in compliance with General Assembly resolution 49/75 D.


SPAIN

[Original:  Spanish]

[31 May 1995]      

1.   The Spanish authorities have  decided to extend for  a second year  the
policy instituted on 24 February  1994 to deny any request for the export of
anti-personnel land-mines.

2.   This decision was taken  on 24 February 1995  by the  competent body of
the Spanish  Government, the  Interministerial Board for  the Regulation  of
Foreign  Trade  in  Defence  Materiel  and Dual-Use  Materiel,  composed  of
members  of  the  Ministries  of  Foreign  Affairs,  Defence, the  Interior,
Economy and  Finance,  and Industry,  Commerce  and  Tourism, extending  the
decision taken on 24 February 1994.

3.   The Council of Ministers,  at its meeting of  5 May  1995, took express
note of the above-mentioned decision of the Interministerial Board.

4.   Accordingly, Spain reiterates its  appeal to all  the countries of  the
international community to adopt similar moratoriums  on the export of anti-
personnel  land-mines, in  the belief  that  such  initiatives will  help to
reduce  the high  human  and economic  costs entailed  by  the use  of  such
weapons.


SWITZERLAND

[Original:  French]

[1 May 1995]      

1.  On 11  May 1994, the Swiss Government  decided to impose a moratorium on
the export of anti-personnel land-mines to  States which are not  parties to
Protocol II of the  1980 Convention on Prohibitions  or Restrictions on  the
Use of Certain  Conventional Weapons Which May  Be Deemed to Be  Excessively
Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects.

2.   This  moratorium covers  not  only  anti-personnel land-mines,  but all
mines defined  in Protocol II, since  mines other  than anti-personnel land-
mines may also have indiscriminate effects on the civilian  population.  The
moratorium also applies to components used in the production of mines.

3.  Prior to  this decision, the production and transfer of land-mines  were
already subject  to strict limitations as  provided for in  the 1972 federal
act on war  materiel.   This act  prohibits, inter alia,  the export of  war
materiel,  including  land-mines,  to countries  at  war  or  threatened  by
dangerous tensions.

4.  Switzerland  feels that the imposition of  moratoriums on the export  of
landmines  is  a preliminary  step in  the  effort  to address  the problems
caused by the indiscriminate use of land-mines.

5.  Lastly, Switzerland attaches  particular importance to the strengthening

of the provisions  of the 1980  Convention and  its Protocol II, and  to the
accession of all States to these instruments.


UKRAINE

[Original:  Russian]

[20 July 1995]     

1.   The programme for manufacturing conventional weapons on Ukraine to date
does not provide for the development  or production of anti-personnel  land-
mines or other types of weapons of a selective nature.

2.   A  draft  government  decision  on  the  imposition  by  Ukraine  of  a
moratorium  on the export of anti-personnel land-mines has been drawn up and
submitted to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

3.    Ukraine  has  adopted  a  state   programme  for  the  utilization  of
conventional  munitions, which  provides for  the immediate  destruction  of
anti-personnel landmines.   One of  Ukraine's enterprises  is being equipped
with the necessary capability for this purpose.

4.   Lack of  sufficient  funds in  Ukraine  is  impeding the  complete  and
effective solution of this problem.

5.  During  the period from  1992 to  1995, the Ukraine Ministry  of Defence
and other state bodies  did not conclude  any agreements to deliver or  sell
anti-personnel land-mines  to foreign States and  did not  sell such weapons
abroad.

6.   During those  years, Ukraine refused  to sell to  several States  anti-
personnel land-mines with which its armed forces are equipped.

 7.   After the Cabinet of Ministers  of Ukraine adopts  the decision on the
imposition of a moratorium on the  export of anti-personnel land-mines,  the
Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  will  send  the  text  of  the corresponding
document to the United Nations.


UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

[Original:  English]

[18 May 1995]      

1.  The United Kingdom believes that there is a pressing need  to reduce the
dangers  to civilians  from the  irresponsible  use of  anti-personnel land-
mines. In  July 1994 the United  Kingdom announced  an indefinite moratorium
on the export  of anti-personnel land-mines, the scope of which was extended
on 15 March 1995. The United Kingdom's moratorium  now comprises a total ban
on  the  export  of  non-self-destructing  or  non-detectable anti-personnel
land-mines, plus a  ban on the  export of all  anti-personnel land-mines  to
countries  that  have   not  ratified  the  1981  United  Nations   Weaponry
Convention.   The  United Kingdom  is also  bound by  a European  Union-wide
moratorium covering the same ground.

2.  The United Kingdom remains committed to putting an end to trade in  non-
self-destructing  and non-detectable  anti-personnel land-mines,  which  are
the most  dangerous to civilians; and  to ensure  that even self-destructing
mines are acquired only by responsible countries.


UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

[Original:  English] 

[8 September 1995]   

1.   The  United States  believes  the  international community  should take
strong action  to reduce  the threat posed  to civilian  populations by  the
indiscriminate  use of land-mines.   Hence, on 11  November 1993, the United
States formally introduced  in the First Committee of the General Assembly a
draft resolution  calling  for  States  to implement  moratoriums  on  anti-
personnel land-mine exports. On 3 November  1994, the United States formally
introduced in the First Committee a  similar draft resolution, which  called
not only for export moratoriums, but  also for further international efforts
to address  the problem, with a  view to the  eventual elimination of  anti-
personnel  land-mines.    Both  resolutions  were  adopted  in  the  General
Assembly by consensus.  The United  States will formally introduce a similar
resolution  in  the First  Committee  during  the  fiftieth  session of  the
General Assembly.

2.  On  30 November 1993, the United  States enacted a three-year  extension
of  its moratorium on  the export  of anti-personnel  land-mines (Public Law
103-160, of 30 November  1993).  Since  passage of the 1993 resolution,  the
United States  has approached  States that  either produce  or export  anti-
personnel land-mines, requesting that they also adopt export moratoriums.
  3.  Further steps  are needed to address  the scope of problems associated
with indiscriminately  placed land-mines.   Efforts to  clear mines  already
laid, to strengthen the 1980 Convention  on Prohibitions or Restrictions  on
the  Use  of  Certain  Conventional  Weapons  Which  May  Be  Deemed  to  Be
Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate  Effects and to establish an
international control  programme for anti-personnel  land-mines are critical
elements of a comprehensive strategy.

4.  The United  States is involved in  de-mining programmes in  Asia, Africa
and  Central America.   In  the last  year $46  million has  been spent  for
global  de-mining assistance.   The United  States also  worked closely with
the United  Nations to  hold an International  Meeting on Mine  Clearance at
Geneva from  5 to 7 July to  raise funds for de-mining and to discuss global
de-mining needs, operational priorities and ongoing  programmes.  The United
States pledged $12.5 million at the conference.

5.    On 24  March  1995  the  United States  deposited  its  instrument  of
ratification  of the  CCW.  This  ensures that the  United States will  be a
full party  at the  September  Review  Conference at  Vienna, where  we  are
committed to strengthening restrictions in the Land-Mine Protocol.

6.  The  United States and United Kingdom  have developed a  proposal for an
anti-personnel  land-mine  control programme.    Although  the  goal is  the
eventual  elimination of  anti-personnel land-mines,  as a  first step,  the
control programme would  impose restrictions on the production,  stockpiling
and transfer  of anti-personnel land-mines,  in particular long-lived  anti-
personnel land-mines, which can explode decades  after emplacement.  Over 30
countries attended a  meeting at Budapest on 29  and 30 June to discuss  the
joint United States/United  Kingdom proposal.  A second meeting will be held
after the CCW Review Conference.


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