United Nations

A/50/681/Add.1


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

26 October 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 112 (b)


HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS:  HUMAN RIGHTS QUESTIONS, INCLUDING ALTERNATIVE
APPROACHES FOR IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVE ENJOYMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND 
FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS

Report of the Secretary-General

Role of the United Nations Centre for Human Rights in
assisting the Government and people of Cambodia in the
promotion and protection of human rights


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

ABBREVIATIONS ..........................................................3

I.  INTRODUCTION ........................................  1 - 134

II.  ACTIVITIES OF THE CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS IN CAMBODIA  14 - 1177

  A.  Assistance under the Trust Fund for a Human Rights
    Education Programme in Cambodia .................  16 - 227

  B.  Assistance under the regular budget .............      239

  C.  Activities implemented in the period from
    December 1994 to July 1995 ......................  24 - 1129

    1.  Assistance in legislative reform ............  25 - 569

    2.  Assistance in the development and
      strengthening of national institutions ......  57 - 6115

    3.  Administration of justice ...................  62 - 8017


95-33031 (E)   201195/...
*9533031*
CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

    4.  Treaty reporting and international
      obligations .................................  81 - 8519

    5.  Education for human-rights and teacher
      training ....................................  86 - 9221

    6.  Support to non-governmental organizations
      and civil society ...........................  93 - 10022

    7.  Human rights and the media ..................      10124

    8.  Information and documentation ...............  102 - 10624

    9.  Training of government officials ............      10725

     10.  Visit of Ms. Graca Machel ...................      10825

         11.  Overview of the Provincial Offices Network ..  109 - 11226

  D.  Administrative, financial and other matters .....  113 - 11726

III.  ACTIVITIES OF THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM IN THE FIELD
  OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN CAMBODIA .........................  118 - 13428

Annexes

I.  Contributions to the Trust Fund ..................................32

 II.  Expenditures under the Trust Fund ................................33

III.  Conventions in the field of human rights ratified by Cambodia ....36
ABBREVIATIONS


AIDAB     Australian International Development Assistance Bureau
ADHOC     Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association
AUSAID   Australia AID Agency
CADEAS   Cambodian Defenders' Association
CHARTO   Cambodian Human Rights Trainers Organization
CIDA     Canadian International Development Agency
ECPAT     End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism
JICA     Japan International Cooperation Agency
JITED     Joint Initiative for Training in Ethics and Defamation
KID     Khmer Institute for Democracy
KKKHRA   Khmer Kampuchea Krom Human Rights Association
LICADHO Ligue cambodgienne pour la promotion et la defense des droits de
     l'homme  
PDK     Party of Democratic Kampuchea
SIDA     Sweden International Development Agency
UNTAC     United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
UNV     United Nations Volunteers
USAID     United States Agency for International Development
VIGILANCE   Human Rights Vigilance of Cambodia
I.  INTRODUCTION


Programmes, mandate and reporting

1.  Under Commission  on Human Rights resolution 1993/6 of 19 February 1993,
the Centre for Human Rights was mandated:

  (a)  To manage the implementation  of educational and technical assistance
and advisory services programmes, and to ensure their continuation;

  (b)  To assist the Government  of Cambodia, at its request, in meeting its
obligations under  human rights instruments  recently acceded to,  including
the preparation of reports to the relevant monitoring committees;

  (c)  To provide support to bona fide human rights groups in Cambodia;

  (d)   To  contribute to  the  creation  and/or strengthening  of  national
institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights;

  (e)   To  continue  to assist  with  the drafting  and  implementation  of
legislation to promote and protect human rights;

  (f)  To continue  to assist with  the training of persons responsible  for
the administration of justice.

2.   The  Commission  requested  the Secretary-General  to  communicate  the
content of the resolution  to, and seek the consent and cooperation of,  the
Government to facilitate the  tasks of the Centre  in the fulfilment  of its
mandate, and decided to  review the programme  and mandate of the Centre  at
its next session.

3.   The General  Assembly, in  its resolution  48/154 of 20  December 1993,
requested the  Secretary-General, in  line with all  effective measures,  to
assure the protection of  the human rights of all  people in Cambodia and to
report to the General Assembly at its forty-ninth  session on the programmes
and activities of the Centre in Cambodia.

4.   Information on  the programme  of activities in Cambodia  of the Centre
for Human Rights and the  activities performed from October  1993 to January
1994 was  made available  to  the Commission  in  the  first report  of  the
Special  Representative  of  the  Secretary-General  for  human  rights   in
Cambodia 1/ as well as  the letter sent to the  Secretary-General by the two
Co-Prime Ministers in which they welcomed  the initiative of the  Commission
and  the efforts of  the Centre  to ensure the continuity  in activities for
the promotion  and protection of human  rights through  the establishment in
Cambodia of the Centre's office. The  Commission, by its resolution  1994/61
of 4  March 1994,  took note  with satisfaction  of the exchange  of letters
between the Secretary-General  and the Government  concerning the consent of
the Government  for  the  fulfilment of  the activities  of  the Centre  and
decided to  review the  programmes and  mandates of  the Centre at  its next
session.

 5.  Information on the activities of the  Centre from February to July 1994
was submitted  to  the General  Assembly at  its forty-ninth  session as  an
addendum  to   the  report   of  the  Secretary-General   on  the   question
(A/49/635/Add.1).   The General Assembly, in  its resolution  1994/199 of 23
December  1994, welcomed the report of the Secretary-General  on the role of
the  Centre  in  assisting  the  Cambodian  Government  and  people  in  the
promotion and protection of human rights;  commended the ongoing efforts  of
the  office  of  the  Centre in  Cambodia  in supporting  and  assisting the
Government,  as well  as in  supporting non-governmental  organizations  and
others  involved  in  the  protection  and  promotion  of  human  rights  in
cooperation  with the  Government,  and condemned  unreservedly  attacks  on
them; and requested the Secretary-General to  report to the General Assembly
at  its  fiftieth  session  on  the  role of  the  Centre  in  assisting the
Government and people of  Cambodia in the promotion  and protection of human
rights.    The  Assembly  decided  to  continue  its  consideration  of  the
situation of human rights in Cambodia at its fiftieth session.

6.   Information on the activities of  the Centre from July to November 1994
was submitted to  the Commission on Human Rights at its fifty-first session.
2/   In its resolution 1995/55  of 3 March 1995,  the Commission noted  with
appreciation  the programmes  of  activities  of the  Centre;  welcomed  the
efforts  made  by  the  Government  to  promote  and  protect  human rights,
including measures to  improve human rights education, conditions of prisons
and in  creating a  functioning system  of justice, and  urged that  efforts

continue  in  those areas;  expressed  grave  concern about  the  atrocities
committed  by the Khmer  Rouge; condemned  unreservedly, all  threats by the
Khmer Rouge; expressed  grave concern  at the  devastating consequences  and
destabilizing  effects of  the indiscriminate  use of  anti-personnel  land-
mines  on Cambodian society  and encouraged  the Government  to continue its
efforts  to remove  those mines;  called upon  the Government to  ensure the
full  observance of human  rights for  all persons  within its jurisdiction;
welcomed  the  agreement by  the Governments  of  Cambodia  and Viet  Nam to
address immigration  policy and practice in  a way  consistent with national
legislation  and   appropriate  international   standards;  encouraged   the
Government to continue its efforts to  meet its reporting obligations  under
international human rights  instruments, drawing  on the  assistance of  the
office in  Cambodia of the Centre;  and encouraged the  National Assembly to
enact a press  law consistent with internationally recognized standards  and
which protected freedom of expression while promoting press  responsibility.
The  Commission also decided  to review the programmes  and mandates set out
in its resolution 1993/6 at its  fifty-second session, requested the Special
Representative of the Secretary-General to  report to it at the same session
on  the role  of  the  Centre for  Human Rights  in assisting  the Cambodian
Government, and  decided to continue its  consideration of  the matter under
the agenda item entitled "Advisory services in the field of human rights".

7.   The present  report is  submitted in  accordance with General  Assembly
resolution  49/199.    It  contains  a  description  of  the  activities and
programmes  implemented in  Cambodia by  the  Centre  for Human  Rights from
December 1994 to 31 July 1995.




 Operational presence of the Centre

8.    The  Centre for  Human  Rights  was  first  mandated  to establish  an
operational  presence in  Cambodia in  February  1993  by the  Commission on
Human Rights  in its resolution 1993/6,  which was  subsequently endorsed by
the Economic and Social Council in its decision 1993/254 of 28 July 1993.

9.  In order to meet  the request of the Commission  on Human Rights that an
operational  presence of the  Centre for  Human Rights  be established after
the  expiry of the mandate  of the United  Nations Transitional Authority in
Cambodia (UNTAC) and  in order to ensure a  smooth transition from UNTAC  to
the Centre  for Human Rights  with no  disruption in  the implementation  of
human rights  activities in Cambodia, the  Centre established  its office in
Cambodia on 1 October 1993, immediately after the departure of UNTAC at  the
end of September 1993.

10.   In a  letter dated 28  June 1995, the  Secretary-General informed  all
Member States that,  in March 1995, the  Co-Prime Ministers of Cambodia  had
written  to him  to explore  the possibility of  the Centre  terminating its
operational presence in  the country by the end  of 1995 and continuing  its
technical cooperation activities from its headquarters  in Geneva.  During a
subsequent  meeting with  the Second  Prime Minister,  Mr.  Hun Sen,  in New
York, the Secretary-General proposed to send a Special Envoy  to Cambodia to
discuss the issue with the Government.   Accordingly, Mr. Marrack  Goulding,
Under-SecretaryGeneral  for Political Affairs,  visited Cambodia from 4 to 6
May  1995.  The  Secretary-General was  pleased to inform  all Member States
that his  Special Envoy's  mission resulted  in agreements  not only  on the
maintenance of  the office  in Cambodia  of the  United  Nations Centre  for
Human  Rights  but  also  on various  steps  to  be  taken  to  enhance  the
cooperation between  the Government  of Cambodia  and the  Centre for  Human
Rights (see also paras. 18, 19, 21 and 23 below).

11.   One  of those  steps  was  for the  Centre to  have  a more  proactive
approach in  soliciting comments by  the Government  on the  reports on  its
activities in  Cambodia prepared for submission  to the  Commission on Human
Rights  and  to  the  General Assembly  and  to  establish a  procedure  for

enhanced communication  in that  regard.   In the  past, although the  draft
report had  been sent to the  Ministry of Foreign  Affairs one month  before
the  submission for publication, no comments were received.   In 1995, three
inter-ministerial meetings were  held to improve communications between  the
Government and  the Centre  on the  issue of  reports, in  July, August  and
October.   They  included concerned  officials  of  the Ministry  of Foreign
Affairs and other ministries, and representatives  of the Cambodia office of
the Centre.   During that process, the  Centre informed the  Government that
the Special Representative had proposed that his draft report  be also dealt
with in the context  of the new  procedure for enhanced communication.   The
Government  subsequently provided  a  list of  suggestions for  revision and
comments  on the  draft report  of  the  Special Representative,  which were
immediately submitted to him.

12.   Several ministries communicated  their comments to  the Centre on  the
relevant  excerpts of the  report which had been  brought to their attention
as  agreed  with  the  Government.   The  Ministry of  Information  had made
several proposals  for revisions, which have  been taken into  consideration
by the Centre.  The Ministry of Social  Affairs, Labour and  Veteran Affairs
also made  suggestions for revision.  The Chairman of  the National Assembly
indicated that  he wished to  obtain more information  on the activities  of
the Centre  and  a meeting  was  organized  between representatives  of  the
Centre and one of his advisers.

13.  On 2  October 1995, the Minister for  Foreign Affairs in  his statement
to  the  General  Assembly  mentioned  that   the  Government  of   Cambodia
appreciated  the   work  of   the  Special   Representative;  that   through
cooperation and  regular consultations  with him  and the  Centre for  Human
Rights steps were  being taken to improve the  situation of human rights  in
the country; and  that Cambodia continued to  support the presence  and work
of   the   Centre,   which   was   bringing   precious   contributions   and
recommendations to the improvement of the overall situation in Cambodia.


II.  ACTIVITIES OF THE CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS IN CAMBODIA

14.   The Centre  for Human  Rights worked  in close cooperation  during the
period  under  consideration  with   the  ministries  concerned,  provincial
authorities, the National Assembly, the judiciary, United Nations  agencies,
funds and programmes, bilateral development agencies, the diplomatic  corps,
Cambodian human  rights non-governmental organizations  (NGOs), human rights
defenders, the  press, the monks, the school leaders and  the general public
at large. 

15.   The Special Representative of  the Secretary-General  for human rights
in Cambodia and the Director of the Cambodia office of  the Centre for Human
Rights were  invited for  an audience  with His  Majesty  Preah Bat  Samdech
Preah Norodom  Sihanouk Varman,  King of Cambodia,  on 27  January 1995,  at
which the Director presented to the  King the technical cooperation mandate,
activities and programmes  of the Centre for Human  Rights in Cambodia.   In
March  1995, the offices  of the Centre  for Human  Rights and  of the World
Health Organization (WHO) in Cambodia were  consulted on the organization of
an  audience with the King to  discuss "Health and  AIDS".  At the audience,
on 17 March 1995,  the representative of the Cambodia office summarized  for
the  King   the  recommendations   on  the   topic  made   by  the   Special
Representative in his last report to the Commission on Human Rights.


A.  Assistance under the Trust Fund for a Human Rights
    Education Programme in Cambodia                  

16.   Most  of the  activities to  be implemented  by the  Centre for  Human
Rights in Cambodia  are to be financed  from voluntary contributions  to the
Trust   Fund   for  a   Human  Rights   Education  Programme   in  Cambodia.
Contributions  received  as at  30 June  1995 are  shown in  annex I  to the
present report.

17.   By its  resolution  1993/6, the  Commission on  Human Rights  strongly
urged Governments and  interested organizations to consider contributing  to
the Trust Fund.   That appeal was repeated by the Commission on Human Rights
in  its resolution 1994/61 of  4 March 1994  and by  the General Assembly in
its  resolution  48/154.   In its  resolution  49/199 of  23 December  1994,
paragraph 19, the  General Assembly noted  with appreciation the use  by the
Secretary-General of the Trust Fund to  finance the programme of  activities
in Cambodia of the Centre for Human  Rights (see A/49/635/Add.1, paras. 4-9)
and the  Commission on Human  Rights, in its  resolution 1995/55  of 3 March
1995,  paragraph  23,  invited   Governments,  intergovernmental  and   non-
governmental  organizations,   foundations  and   individuals  to   consider
contributing to the Trust Fund.

18.  A  first appeal to  finance the  programme of activities of  the Centre
for Human  Rights  in Cambodia  was  launched  by the  Assistant  Secretary-
General  for Human  Rights, Mr.  Ibrahima  Fall,  in November  1993, shortly
after the establishment  of the Centre's office in  Phnom Penh.   On 28 June
1995, the Secretary-General launched a  new appeal to all  Member States, in
which he  mentioned that  the contributions  made by  a number of  States in
1993 and  1994 had been used  for the implementation  of activities such  as
judicial assistance, human rights training  for police and  prison officials
and  military  personnel, advisory  services  on  prison  reform,  financial
support  to  local   NGOs,  assistance  in  the  drafting  of   legislation,
information  activities  and  assistance  to  the  Cambodian  Government  in
meeting   its  reporting   obligations  under  international   human  rights
treaties.

19.   The Secretary-General  indicated that additional resources were needed
to enable the Centre to continue to implement its programme in Cambodia,  as
requested by the  General Assembly and the  Commission on Human  Rights, and
to   enhance  its  technical  assistance  activities,  as   desired  by  the
Government of Cambodia.  The Secretary-General therefore invited all  Member
States to  favourably consider making  voluntary financial contributions  to
the Trust  Fund. In  the view  of the  Secretary-General, positive  reaction
from the  Governments to that appeal  would be an  important contribution to
the consolidation of the peace and democratization process in Cambodia.

20.  At the  time of the  preparation of the present report, as  a follow-up
to the letter  of the Secretary-General,  a contribution of US$  500,000 had
been received from Australia and a  pledge of L200,000 had been  made by the
United Kingdom  of Great Britain and  Northern Ireland.   As with all  other
United  Nations trust  funds, 13  per cent  of programme  support  costs are
applied to all contributions  received and 15 per cent is kept for operating
cash reserve.

21.   Details of the expenses  under the Trust Fund can be found in annex II
concerning  assistance  to  the  Government  (sect.  A)  and  assistance  to
Cambodian NGOs (sect. B).   Activities funded under the Trust Fund  included
32  grants  to  Cambodian  NGOs  for  the  implementation  of  human  rights
activities; the establishment  of three provincial offices to implement  the
Centre's  programme  in  the Cambodian  provinces; the  implementation  of a
Judicial  Mentors Programme to  assist five  Cambodian courts; the provision
of advisory services on  prison reform and the organization of a seminar  on
the  same  topic;  a grant  to  the  Permanent  Secretariat  of  the  Inter-
Ministerial  Committee and its subcommittees on reporting obligations; and a
study trip  for Cambodian  officials to  Thailand to  study AIDS  prevention
strategies.

22.   Through the Trust Fund,  the Centre for  Human Rights provided  direct
financial  assistance to Cambodian  human rights NGOs.   In 1994, the Centre
funded 32  projects at a  cost of  $442,225.   A detailed procedure  for the
assignment of grants and criteria for  narrative and financial reporting  to
the  Centre on  the  use of  the  funds  received  has been  elaborated  and
applied.  Appropriate briefings  on the issue have been provided to the NGOs
that are beneficiaries of grants.  The Centre has started receiving  interim
reports on the activities implemented through  the grants and established  a

Trust Fund Management Team  which has prepared  a database and monitors  the
use of grants.   Technical and financial support  provided by the Centre  to
local NGOs  is contributing  to improving  the capacity  of Cambodian  human
rights NGOs to perform their activities, including  monitoring the situation
of  human rights in the country, providing human rights education to various
segments of  Cambodian society,  assisting vulnerable groups such  as women,
children and  minorities as well  as to  cooperating with the  Government in
gathering relevant  information on the  implementation of the  Constitution,
the  United Nations human rights  conventions and the human  rights laws and
in  providing government officials  with relevant  training in  the field of
human rights.


B.  Assistance under the regular budget

23.  In  addition to financing the salaries of the staff and the operational
expenses of the  Cambodia office of  the Centre, the United  Nations regular
budget  provided some  funds  to  place,  at the  request  of the  Cambodian
Government,  for six  months a  consultant at  the  Ministry of  Interior to
advise  on immigration and  nationality matters  ($24,000) and  to provide a
consultant to  strengthen Cambodian NGOs working  in the  area of children's
rights ($8,750). 


C.  Activities implemented in the period from December 1994
    to July 1995                                          

24.  The activities  implemented in Cambodia by  the Centre for Human Rights
in  the period  from  October 1993  to January  1994  are mentioned  in  the
addendum to the Special Representative's first  report to the Commission  on
Human Rights; 3/ from February to July 1994, in the addendum to the  Special
Representative's 1994 report  to the General Assembly;  4/ and from July  to
November 1994, in the Special Representative's  report to the Commission  at
its  fifty-first session. 5/  The activities  implemented from December 1994
to  July 1995  are  described  below.  They  are  grouped according  to  the
components of  the programme of advisory  services and technical  assistance
of the Centre for Human Rights.


1.  Assistance in legislative reform

25.  Through  its office in Cambodia the Centre for Human Rights has carried
out the following activities for the  creation, strengthening and support of
national institutions  and a legal  framework consistent with  international
human rights norms and  for securing the  promotion and protection of  human
rights.

26.  Assistance has  been provided to the  National Assembly in  general and
to  its various commissions,  including the  Commission on  Human Rights and
the  Reception  of  Complaints and  to  the  Government,  including  various
ministries,  in   the  drafting  and   implementation  of  the  laws  listed
hereunder, including  by the  provision of  comments.   Technical assistance
has been  provided to the judiciary  through the  Judicial Mentors Programme
and  the Provincial Officers  Network Programme.   Assistance  has also been
provided to the civil society, including non-governmental organizations  and
media organizations  and groups through  assistance in active  participation
in the drafting and implementation of laws.

27.   Supreme  Council of  Magistracy.   The Law  on the  Establishment  and
Functioning  of  the  Supreme  Council  of  Magistracy  was  adopted  by the
National  Assembly between 20  and 22  December 1994.  The  law provides for
the appointment and transfer of and  disciplinary action against judges  and
prosecutors.   Before the  passage of  the law,  an earlier  draft had  been
returned by the National Assembly to  the Government with questions  related
to  its  compatibility  with  the  Constitution  and  for  the  insertion of
provisions  to better protect  the independence  of the  judiciary, with the

advice that  an appropriate  draft law  should be  prepared in  consultation
with the concerned members of the National Assembly.

28.   The Centre communicated its  recommendations, through  the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, to the Government on the human rights aspects of the  draft
law, including several suggestions for amendments  to the procedure for  the
appointment of judges, the grounds for  their removal, types of disciplinary
action that might be taken and provisions  to guarantee the independence  of
the judiciary.  No reply was received from  the Government.  The  Government
returned the draft  in its original form to  the National Assembly.  At  the
request  of several members  of the  Assembly, the  Centre prepared detailed
comments  on the draft  law with  suggestions for amendments.   In addition,
several  meetings  were held  with  members  of  the  National Assembly  and
officials of the Ministry of Justice.   The law, as it was adopted, does not
include any provisions that were recommended for inclusion. 

29.  At the  time of preparation of the present report, the first meeting of
the Supreme Council of Magistracy had not yet been convened.

30.  Immigration.  The Immigration Law was adopted by the National  Assembly
between 22 and 26 August 1994.   The activities carried out by the centre to
assist the  Government in  drafting this  law are described  in the  Special
Representative's report  to the  Commission on  Human Rights  at its  fifty-
first  session.   6/     The  law   was  also   the  subject   of  extensive
representations between the Governments  of Cambodia and Viet  Nam.  At  the
request  of the United  Nations High  Commissioner for  Refugees, Ms. Sadako
Ogata, the  Secretary-General intervened  in order to  seek assurances  that
the law would  be implemented in a  manner consistent with the international
conventions to  which Cambodia  is a  party.   The Prime  Ministers and  the
Minister for Foreign Affairs of  Cambodia have assured the Secretary-General
that  no  unilateral action  would  be taken  and  that  collective  or mass
expulsions of ethnic  Vietnamese from Cambodia would  not occur.  After  the
adoption of  the law, the  Centre also prepared  a review  of the  text with
suggested  amendments which was  shared with  the Government  by the Special
Representative, who made  his recommendations known  to the  Government. The
Ministry of Interior then requested assistance  from the Centre in  drafting
subordinate  legislation  and  advice  in  implementation  consistent   with
international  human  rights  norms.    The  Centre accordingly  assigned  a
consultant specializing in immigration law to  work with the Ministry;  this
collaboration began in May 1995.   At the time of preparation of the present
report, the consultant is continuing to assist  the Ministry of Interior and
is  receiving  very  good  cooperation.   Training  programmes  relating  to
minorities, immigration  and  related  matters  are being  planned  for  the
relevant officials of the Ministry of Interior.

31.    The  Centre  continues  to   assist  in  the  implementation  of  the
Immigration  Law  and   the  policies  and   practices  relating  to  ethnic
minorities,  particularly   as  they   relate  to   ethnic  Vietnamese,   in
cooperation with  the Office  of the  United Nations  High Commissioner  for
Refugees  (UNHCR)   and  NGOs,  and,   where  necessary,  has   communicated
recommendations to the Government.

32.  As recommended by the  Special Representative of the  Secretary-General
for human rights in  Cambodia, the Centre has  also worked in  close liaison
with the  Ministry  of Interior  on the  issue of  the internally  displaced
ethnic Vietnamese at Chrey Thom, along  the Cambodian-Vietnamese border.  As
explained in previous reports, 7/  the Special Representative  visited Chrey
Thom twice  and made several oral  and written  recommendations to encourage
the Government  to solve the problem.   The Centre  has been informed  about
the  actions taken by the  Government.  The Co-Ministers of Interior visited
Chrey Thom.   Cambodia  and Viet  Nam issued  a joint communique  in January
1995  following the  first  visit  to  Hanoi by  the  Cambodian First  Prime
Minister.  Problems discussed included the status  in Cambodia of persons of
Vietnamese origin  and of Cambodian refugees in Viet Nam,  border issues and
mutual  cooperation.  The  communique called  for the  orderly resolution of
the Chrey Thom case-load.   The two Governments  set up a  bilateral working

group to discuss and settle those  issues which met in March  and July 1995.
On  13 July 1995, 90 persons  (13 families) from the some  2,500 stranded in
Chrey Thom since early 1993 were allowed by  the Royal Government to  return
to their former place  of residence in Cambodia as they could show documents
showing  long-term residence in  Cambodia prior to 1970.   The Department of
Immigration  is identifying other  families that  are entitled  to return to
Cambodia.

33.  Press.  The  Press Law was debated by the National Assembly between  26
June  and 18 July 1995.   The law, as adopted on 18 July 1995, contains many
positive elements  which had earlier been  commented upon  favourably by the
Centre,  such as prohibition of  pre-publication censorship, confidentiality
of sources,  freedom of information,  privileges for  publication of  public
records  and  other   materials,  establishment  of  more  than  one   press
association,  a  code  of ethics  for  the  press  and  the  prohibition  of
incitement to violence.

34.  His Majesty King  Sihanouk had several times in the past expressed  his
view that  the  criminal sanctions  against  journalists  in the  draft  law
should be  deleted.  This  view had been  supported by  the Chairman  of the
National  Assembly,  Mr. Chea  Sim.    The First  Prime  Minister  had  also
publicly called  for the amendment  of the draft and  supported the position
of  the King.   The  Special  Representative  of the  Secretary-General also
wrote  to the  Government several  times during  the  last  year and  a half
expressing his concerns about the draft press law  (see A/50/681, paras. 44-
47,  77-78  and  annex II,  HR  REC.  24/94  and 7/95).    The  Minister  of
Information  and  members  of  the  National  Assembly  had  been  receiving
delegations  and  had listened  to  their  representations,  which  included
recommendations  made by  the Special  Representative.    As a  result, jail
terms had been withdrawn  from many provisions of  the draft law.   Numerous
appeals had been made by international  human rights and press organizations
urging the National Assembly  and the Government to make the press law  less
restrictive.

35.   The Centre assisted in  the drafting and  review of the draft and gave
its comments from early 1994 to the time of adoption of  the law.  It worked
very closely and recommended  changes to the draft law with the  Government,
members  of the National Assembly, the Cambodian and foreign press, NGOs and
the diplomatic community.   A description of  the main human rights concerns
raised by the Press Law as  adopted by the National Assembly is contained in
the report of the Special Representative (ibid., paras. 44-47).

36.    The  Centre  has  also  continued its  activities  to  assist  in the
implementation  of  former  laws  relating  to   the  press,  including  the
Transitional  Provisions relating  to the  Judiciary  and Criminal  Law  and
Procedure  Applicable in  Cambodia  during the  Transitional  Period,  which
continues to be  in force.  It has done so in connection  with several cases
involving restrictions  on freedom of expression  and -  consistent with its
mandate to assist the Government in  the implementation legislation for  the
protection  and   promotion  of   human  rights  -   has  communicated   its
recommendation  to and  advised the  Government  about  many of  these cases
(ibid., paras. 44-47 and 77-78).

37.    Women.   The  Cambodian  Women's  Code  was  submitted  by the  State
Secretariat for  Women's Affairs to  the Council of Ministers  in June 1995.
The Women's  Code is  a comprehensive  compilation of  the basic  guarantees
relating  to  the  protection  of  women's  rights  in  the  areas  of  non-
discrimination, labour,  criminal law  and procedure  and family  law.   The
Code is  based on the Cambodian  Constitution, Cambodian  laws including the
State  of Cambodia  (SOC) family  law,  labour  law, the  criminal procedure
code, the Supreme National Council Transitional Provisions, recent  advances
in the area of women's rights  legislation in other countries,  particularly
neighbouring ones,  and international conventions  relating to human  rights
and labour, to which Cambodia is a party.

38.   The Centre  had assisted  the State  Secretariat, at  its request,  in

reviewing and  redrafting an  earlier  draft which  had been  prepared by  a
consultant from  the United Nations Development  Fund for  Women (UNIFEM) in
early 1994.   The process of  review took almost one year.   Weekly meetings
were held  regularly with an  inter-ministerial committee  set up  specially
for the purpose.  Several local non-governmental organizations attended  the
meetings.  Copies of the draft were given  to the United Nations  Children's
Fund (UNICEF) and the United  Nations Division for the  Advancement of Women
in New  York  for comments  and  observations.  Discussions were  held  with
interested  non-governmental  organizations  in  order  to  make  known  the
provisions of the draft law.

39.   The Centre  will  continue to  assist  the  State Secretariat  in  the
legislative process successively through  the Council of  Ministers and  the
National Assembly. The Centre has also  assisted the State Secretariat  with
comments  on  other  laws relating  to  women,  such  as  the  draft law  on
kidnapping and  prostitution.  The State  Secretariat has  also submitted to
the Council of Ministers  a draft law on trafficking in and prostitution  of
children,  which had  been prepared  in 1994  by  local  NGOs and  the State
Secretariat, with the assistance of the Centre. 

 40.  Prisons.  Several meetings were held  with concerned officials at  the
Ministry  of  Interior,  including  officials  in  charge   of  prisons,  on
legislation on  the rules  and regulations  governing prisons.   At  present
there are  no detailed rules relating  to the  administration and management
of prisons and the  rights of prisoners.   With the technical assistance  of
the  Centre, a  set of draft  prison rules was  revised in order  to prepare
prison  rules  and  regulations which  are  in  conformity  with  Cambodia's
international human  rights obligations and  consistent with the  prevailing
problems facing prisons and  prisoners in Cambodia.  A first draft has  been
reviewed, initially by the Ministry of Interior  and is now under discussion
with the concerned officials.

41.   At the  request  of the  Ministry of  Interior,  the  Centre has  also
assisted in  the preparation of  a law on prisons.   This draft is currently
under discussion  in the  Ministry.   The law  will enable  the adoption  of
prison  regulations  by  the  Ministry  of  Interior.    Consultations  with
concerned parties, including NGOs, have been planned as follow-up measures.

42.   The Centre continues to  work closely with the Ministry of Interior on
the  issue of  prisons.    A draft  medical  protocol for  prison visits  is
currently  being  reviewed  by  the  Ministry.    After  its  approval,  the
provisions of  the protocol  should be  made known  to the  non-governmental
organizations and laid down as guidelines for prison visits.

43.   At the  request  of  the Ministry  of Interior,  the Centre  has  also
approved the funding  from its regular  budget for  a consultant to  explore
the feasibility of implementing non-custodial options  in Cambodia, as a way
to reduce  overcrowding in prisons.   The Centre  also assists in  emergency
situations  such  as   water  scarcity,  including  by  recommendations   to
interested  donors  for  providing  assistance.    Through  its   provincial
officers,  it has carried out a mapping of the  inmates in Siem Reap prison,
supplemented food  rations for prisoners in  Kampong Cham  prison through an
agreement with  the  local World  Food  Programme  (WFP) office  and  funded
vocational training  for  female prisoners  in  Kampong  Cham prison.    The
Centre was also consulted on prisons  by several bilateral donors, including
AUSAID  (Australia).    The  Centre  is  currently planning  a  country-wide
training programme  for prison officials in  the new  prison regulations and
the law  when  they  are  adopted,  in  cooperation  with  the  Ministry  of
Interior.   The Centre  also continues  to visit  prisons to  assist in  the
implementation of international human rights norms relating to prisons.

44.  Trafficking and prostitution  of human beings.  Cambodia is a party  to
the Convention on  the Rights of  the Child,  the provisions  of which  have
been   given  State  protection   under  article  48  of  the  Constitution.
Trafficking in and sale of children and the exploitation by prostitution  of
children  have  been  on  the  increase   in  Cambodia  according  to   non-

governmental  organizations and other concerned persons.  The NGOs requested
the assistance of the Centre in  preparing suggestions for criminalizing the
sexual exploitation and  abuse of  children and  the trafficking,  abduction
and sale  of children,  for submission to  the Government  and the  National
Assembly.   Under the existing  penal code, there are no specific provisions
on  the basis  of  which prosecutions  can  be  launched  for any  of  these
offences  relating  to children.    The  Centre  therefore  assisted in  the
preparation  of  a  draft  law  on  the  abolition  of  trafficking  in  and
prostitution of  children.  The  draft was  also reviewed  and supported  by
UNICEF and  was presented by  the State Secretariat  for Women's Affairs  to
the  Council of  Ministers.  It  has also  been brought  by the  NGOs to the
attention  of the Ministry of Justice in order to  assist in the drafting of
the  new penal code. In cooperation  with the NGOs, the Centre has also been
monitoring the  sale, forced prostitution and  trafficking of children  (see
also A/50/681, paras. 53-57 and 82 (g)).

45.   The  Centre has  also provided  comments on  another law  relating  to
kidnapping  and  trafficking  and exploitation  of  human  persons  that  is
currently pending before the National Assembly.

46.   Nationality.   A draft  nationality law  has been  pending before  the
Council of Ministers since  late 1994.   At the  request of the Ministry  of
Interior, the Centre has provided detailed  comments on and suggestions  for
revisions to the draft.   The  lack of a nationality  law has given rise  to
concerns both within and outside Cambodia about the  possibility of abuse in
the  implementation  of   the  Immigration  Law,   which  cannot   be  fully
implemented  in the absence of a definition of "Cambodian citizen".  Several
meetings  have  been  held  with  concerned  officials  of  the  Ministry of
Interior and with  concerned Cambodian NGOs on the need to adopt, as soon as
possible, a  nationality law consistent  with the  Constitution and relevant
United Nations conventions ratified by Cambodia.
  
47.  Associations.   The need for a specific and clear law  relating to non-
governmental organizations arises from the lack  of any legal provisions  on
the  registration, validity, rights  and obligations  of associations.   The
existing  rules include a  decision by  the Supreme  National Council during
the  transitional  period and  several  recent  orders  by  the Ministry  of
Interior  which have  allegedly given rise  to abuse of  power by provincial
officials, a confusion about the rights  and obligations of associations and
an  atmosphere of fear  among NGOs.  At the request  of a group of local and
international NGOs and with the support  of the Konrad Adenauer  Foundation,
the Centre provided suggestions for a model law on associations.

48.  The Centre also  continues to work with local authorities to assist  in
the  exercise  of  the  right  to  freedom  of  association  of  these  non-
governmental  organizations  in the  framework of  the Constitution  and the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

49.   The legal profession.   The Law on  the Bar Association was adopted by
the National Assembly between 16 May and 15 June 1995.   It provides for the
establishment of  the  legal profession  and  the  Bar Association  and  the
criteria for admission to  the Bar, qualifications to practice, disciplinary
actions  against  members of  the  Bar and  a  transitional  period  for the
establishment of the  first Bar Association.   At the invitation of  several
commissions  and  members of  the  National  Assembly, the  Centre  provided
comments and suggestions for amendments.   The recommendations by the Centre
included  one concerning the  independence of  the legal  profession and the
Defenders (ibid., paras. 32-34, and annex II, HR REC 5/95).

50.  Criminal procedure.  A draft of  the new code of criminal procedure has
been shown to  the Centre by the Ministry of Justice for its  comments.  The
Centre is currently considering the  draft code and will submit its comments
and suggestions to the Ministry in the near future.

51.   Electoral issues.   At the request of  several members of the National
Assembly,  the  Centre  analysed  the   legal  provisions  relating  to  the

potential  removal of  members  of  the National  Assembly in  the  light of
existing legislation  - the Constitution, the  Electoral law,  and the UNTAC
Electoral Law - and international conventions (ibid., paras. 44-47).

52.  Mines.   The Government has taken a decision to outlaw  the use, import
and sale of land-mines in  Cambodia.  The Centre was  requested to assist in
the drafting  of a  law on  land-mines to  achieve these objectives  and has
been working with  government officials, UNHCR, the International  Committee
of the Red Cross (ICRC), and  de-mining and humanitarian agencies  concerned
and  relevant non-governmental  organizations in the preparation  of a draft
law.   The draft is currently  under consideration by the relevant officials
(ibid., paras. 59-64).

53.  Law on the outlawing  of the Khmer Rouge.   The Centre has been working
to assist in the  implementation of the Law  on the outlawing  of the  Khmer
Rouge.  Information is  being  gathered  on defectors,  the amnesty  policy,
arrests and  prosecutions of  individuals under  the law,  and treatment  of
convicted persons in prisons.

54.  Other activities.  The Centre has been requested to provide  assistance
in  reviewing  the  draft  labour  law,  which  has  been  reviewed  by  the
International Labour Organization (ILO),  and the draft  law on  corruption.
Owing to lack of adequate resources, these drafts can be considered only  at
a later stage.

55.   In addition, the Centre  has also been  establishing databases on  the
implementation of other human rights-related laws  with a view to  providing
the  Government with relevant  information on  human rights  norms and laws;
this would  be particularly useful  for the inter-ministerial  subcommittees
in  charge of  preparing  reports  on  the implementation  of  international
conventions to which Cambodia has acceded.

56.   The  Centre also  continues to  assist non-governmental  organizations
interested in the legislative reform process,  at their request, with advice
on the  human rights aspects of  laws and their  implementation in a  manner
consistent with international human rights norms.


2.  Assistance in the development and strengthening
    of national institutions                      

57.  The Centre has provided financial assistance  to the secretariat of the
inter-ministerial  committee  on   reporting  obligations,  chaired  by  the
Minister of  Justice and  of the  subcommittees in charge  of preparing  the
reports of Cambodia to the Committee on Human  Rights, the Committee on  the
Rights  of  the  Child  and  the  Committee  on  the  Elimination of  Racial
Discrimination.    UNICEF  has  also contributed  financially  to  the above
secretariat, in particular to assist the  subcommittee on the Convention  on
the  Rights of the  Child.   If the Government so  requests, such assistance
could be  extended in  1996 to  reporting obligations  under the  Convention
against  Torture   and  other  Cruel,  Inhuman  or  Degrading  Treatment  or
Punishment,  the International  Covenant on  Economic, Social  and  Cultural
Rights and the Convention on the Elimination of All  Forms of Discrimination
Against Women, to all of which Cambodia has also acceded.

58.  The Centre has facilitated the provision  of US$ 10,000 from AUSAID for
a  research  and  library  facility  in  the  Ministry  of  Interior.    The
establishment of  this facility, which  will be carried  out by  a Cambodian
non-governmental organization, VIGILANCE,  will enhance the capacity of  the
Ministry   of  Interior,   which  has   responsibility  for   drafting   and
implementing key human rights-related legislation.

59.   Advice  and assistance  continues  to  be  provided to  the  Cambodian
Commission  on Human  Rights and  Reception  of  Complaints of  the National
Assembly by the  Centre in its day-to-day  functioning.  The United  Nations
Commission on  Human Rights,  in paragraph 8  (b) of its  resolution 1994/61

has  identified financial assistance  for the National Assembly Human Rights
Commission as  a priority  area. The  First  Prime Minister  has on  several
occasions  acknowledged the important  role of  the Commission  and the need
for financial  assistance to  expand its activities  to the  provinces.   In
order  to  increase the  capacity  of  the  National  Assembly Human  Rights
Commission to monitor  the human  rights situation, a  grant has been  given
under the  Trust Fund to an  NGO to  assist the Commission (see  annex II B)
and  act  as a  liaison  between  the  Commission  and  competent local  and
international  NGOs.    Funding  has  also  been  provided  to  another non-
governmental organization for parliamentary  support, including  educational
and information activities (ibid.).  Upon  the invitation of the Commission,
the  Centre participated as  an observer  in a fact-finding  mission to Siem
Reap  Province in  December 1994.    The  Centre has  advised several  donor
agencies,  such as  the  United  Nations Development  Programme  (UNDP),  to
secure funding  for the proper  functioning of the  Commission and has  also
requested  the contribution of  financial assistance  to the Commission from
several bilateral development assistance agencies.

60.  The  Centre is  also working  with UNDP to  secure funding for  several
national  institutions  and  increasing  their  capacity  in areas  such  as
forensic  facilities,  rehabilitation  of  courts  and  assistance  to   the
National  Assembly.    Upon  a  recommendation  by   the  Centre,  financial
assistance has been provided  by the Australian Embassy  in Cambodia for the
rehabilitation of  the court  in Siem  Reap Province.   The  Centre is  also
soliciting from  other donors  funding  for the  rehabilitation of  existing
Cambodian prisons,  which are  in disrepair  and decay  (see also  A/50/681,
paras. 39-43).

61.   Several briefings  have  also  been given  upon request  by  bilateral
agencies,  including  donors  such  as   SIDA,  CIDA,  AIDAB,   USAID,  Asia
Foundation, as  well as  the United  States General  Accounting Office,  the
United States State Department  and members of the diplomatic corps.   Those
meetings had  as their purpose to  assess human  rights technical assistance
needs  and suggestions  for  funding  and other  activities in  the  area of
assistance  to  national   institutions,  including  legal  structures   and
capacity-building. 



 3.  Administration of justice

62.   Judicial Mentors Programme.   The Centre has  started implementing the
Judicial Mentors  Programme, which  had been  devised in  close consultation
with the  Ministry  of Justice,  and  enjoys  the Ministry's  full  support.
Under  this project, which  began in  June 1995, five  consultants are being
placed  in  provincial  Courts  and  coordinated   from  Phnom  Penh  by   a
Coordinator.  Initially, five provinces will be covered for a period of  six
months, extension  being contingent upon  further funding  and an evaluation
of  the effectiveness of  the Programme as formulated  and implemented.  The
consultants will primarily assist the courts in implementing legislation  in
conformity with  United Nations  human rights conventions to  which Cambodia
has  acceded.   Two  judicial  mentors  started  working  at the  provincial
tribunals of Siem Reap and Kampong Speu.  The Judicial Mentors Programme  is
being  coordinated  with   another  project  for  judicial  training   being
implemented by the International Human Rights Law Group.

63.   Documentation.   In the absence  of copies of  the laws  in force, the
judges  and  other officials  are  finding  it  difficult  to perform  their
duties.   The Centre  has therefore  compiled a  set of  all Cambodian  laws
currently  in  force  in the  area  of  administration of  justice.    These
compilations,  in  Khmer  and  English,  have  been  given  by  the Centre's
provincial  officers to  provincial  officials, judges  and  prosecutors  in
Battambang, Siem Reap  and Kampong  Cham. More  copies will  be printed  for
circulation to other provinces.

64.  At  the completion of  a 12-month  research and  training programme  in

Cambodian  prisons, a  comprehensive report  titled "The state  of Cambodian
prisons" was completed and issued in January 1995.

65.  Legal training.  The Centre for  Human Rights has carried out  a number
of  activities aimed at assisting  Cambodia in establishing a system for the
administration of justice consistent with international human rights  norms.
Training sessions were  conducted for judges, prosecutors, prison  officials
and gendarmes. 8/

66.   A  seminar  on prison  reform  attended by  deputy  governors,  prison
directors,  police  commissioners  and  judicial  officials,  together  with
several  international experts,  discussed the  findings  of the  Centre for
Human Rights report on "The state  of Cambodian prisons" and  issues related
to  prison reform  in Cambodia.  Following  the  seminar, the  Department of
Prisons of the Ministry  of Interior requested the  Centre to assist  in the
preparation  of a draft  prison law  and worked collaboratively on  a set of
draft prison rules (see paras. 40-43 above).

67.  In February, the  Ministry of Defence and the  Centre arranged a series
of  human  rights  training  workshops  for  members  of  the  military, the
Military Assistance  Programme.  Participants  consisted of 40  high-ranking
military  officers learning  basic teaching  techniques/skills in  order  to
teach other military officers and their  subordinates on the application  of
international human  rights law and  international humanitarian law and rule
of law in the  Royal Cambodian Armed Forces.   The first of  these workshops
was  held  at the  Ministry of  Defence in  Phnom Penh,  in February.   Also
arranged with the Ministry of Defence is a  series of human rights  training
sessions  which  provide an  introduction  to  human  rights  at the  Senior
Military  Officers  School  in  Phnom Penh  for  approximately  180 military
officers.  The  first one of these series was  held in February.  In  March,
May and  June  three  other  training seminars  were  held:   in  the  Fifth
Military Region in Battambang Province; the  Fourth Military Region in  Siem
Reap Province  and the Second Military Region in Kampong Cham Province, with
the assistance of the Centre's Provincial Offices.

68.  A  human rights workshop  was conducted  at the  Gendarmerie School  in
Phnom Penh in February, examining human rights norms for policing.

69.  A  human rights training workshop was  held for the  staff of the newly
developed  Youth  Rehabilitation  Centre,  concentrating  on  ICRC  and  the
Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.

70.   Future scheduled workshops include  human rights  training for lawyers
being trained  by the Ministry of Justice and judicial human rights training
for trainee  judges, also  at the  Ministry of  Justice.  Another  scheduled
workshop is in  collaboration with the  Naval Justice  School of the  United
States, on armed forces on disciplined  military operations and human rights
for officers of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces.

71.  A human  rights training workshop  was conducted in April 1995  in Siem
Reap for commune leaders in April 1995 with  the assistance of the  Centre's
provincial  office.   A  seminar  was held  in  May on  the Constitution  of
Cambodia  for the staff of the  provincial court and  a lecture was given on
human rights for the  medical profession, for the doctors of the  Provincial
Hospital.

72.   Two  human rights  training  workshops  for the  Military Police  were
conducted in  Kampong Cham  in April  with the  assistance  of the  Centre's
provincial office. Human  rights training workshops were also conducted  for
30 commune  leaders, deputy commune leaders  and commune  militia chiefs and
for 27 chiefs, deputy  chiefs and police officers.  Both workshops were held
in  Cheung Prey  district. In  June,  a human  rights training  workshop was
conducted for  the chiefs of  commune and the  chiefs of  commune militia in
Bateay District.

73.   In Battambang, with the  assistance of the Centre's provincial office,

a  lecture was  given  for  40 police  officers  on making  an arrest  while
applying domestic and international human rights  law.  A lecture  was given
to  25 guards at  Battambang prison  on the  Convention Against  Torture and
other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment  or Punishment.  In  cooperation
with  the  NGO Khmer  Institute for  Democracy, lectures  were given  on the
topic "What  are human  rights?" and  the Convention  on the  Rights of  the
Child to local authorities, police and teachers.

74.   On  14 and  15  December 1994,  a seminar  on  human rights,  law  and
democracy  was  held  for the  senior  staff  members  of  the  Ministry  of
Interior, particularly the Department of Legislation;  it was funded by  the
Japan International Cooperation Agency  (JICA).  On 15 and 16 February 1995,
a seminar was organized  by the office  for senior officers of the  Ministry
of Interior on  "Law drafting and human rights".   The Centre conducted  two
consultations  on law  drafting and  the principles  behind a  draft law  on
associations  for officials of  the Ministry  of Interior on 2  and 3 August
1995.

 75.   On 24 and 29 March, 17  May and 11 July  1995, lectures were given on
"Rule of  law" at the office of the Khmer Institute  for Democracy (KID) for
senior law students of the Phnom Penh faculty.

76.  On 5 May  1995, the Centre participated in the training of  journalists
with the  United Nations Educational,  Scientific and Cultural  Organization
(UNESCO),  as part  of  the Joint  Initiative  for  Training  in Ethics  and
Defamation (JITED) at the Ministry of Information.  Two lectures were  given
by   staff  members  on   Cambodian  law  and  freedom   of  the  press  and
international and comparative  law relating  to freedom of  the press.   The
Centre  also participated  in a  regional  conference for  the Asia  and the
Pacific on Media and Government relations,  hosted by the Khmer  Journalists
Association  (KJA)  and   sponsored  by  the  International  Federation   of
Journalists and UNESCO from 24 to 27 June  1995.  A Centre staff  member was
also on one of the panels.

77.   On  15 May  and  9  June, briefings  were given  on  human rights  and
Cambodian judiciary at an orientation programme for the International  Human
Rights Law Group consultants for the judiciary.

78.   On 25 May,  a briefing was  given for the  defenders of  CHARTO on the
Cambodian legal system.
  
79.   Other  activities.          The Centre  has also  attended preparatory
meetings for  the Third  International Conference  on the  Reconstruction of
Cambodia, particularly  relating to  the legal  and institutional  structure
needed for  a market  economy at  the request  of the Cambodian  Development
Council.  The Centre  has provided advice on relevant issues, such as labour
law and  the judiciary,  which are  essential components  of  the legal  and
institutional structures needed for a market economy.

80.   On  7 July,  the Cambodia  office received  a delegation  of  Japanese
representatives from  the United  Nations Centre  for Regional  Development,
the  School of Law  of Nagoya University and the  Japan Jurists League.  The
discussion concerned  the support the Office has given and  will continue to
give to  the effort of  the United Nations  Centre for Regional  Development
and the  Law School  to provide short-term  and special training  courses to
Cambodians in the  field of law.  Suggestions  were made during the  meeting
that such training programmes should  include a curriculum for international
human  rights   norms,  in  particular   the  international  covenants   and
conventions to which Cambodia has acceded, and that emphasis also be put  on
the  training  of  police  and judges.    Support  for  the  programmes  was
considered important since, in  the long run, such  efforts could serve as a
catalyst for  a broader  development and  cooperation  between Cambodia  and
Japan in the field of legal and human rights education.


4.  Treaty reporting and international obligations

81.   Since May  1994, Cambodia  has started  to prepare  reports under  the
various  United Nations human  rights conventions  to which  it has acceded.
An   inter-ministerial   committee,   a   permanent   secretariat   and  two
subcommittees  have been  created to  report  on  the implementation  of the
International Covenant on Civil and Political  Rights and the Convention  on
the Rights of the  Child. 9/  Technical  and financial assistance  have been
provided to  the Government  by  the  Centre and  UNICEF (see  paras.  57-61
above).

82.   On  26 January  1995,  the Special  Representative of  the  Secretary-
General for  human rights  in Cambodia met  with the members  of the  Inter-
Ministerial Committee.  The  meeting was chaired by the Minister of Justice,
who is  also chairing the Committee.   The  Special Representative commended
the progress made so  far and encouraged the Government to submit the  first
two  reports as  soon  as possible  and  to  start  reporting on  the  other
conventions (see also A/50/681, paras. 58 and 83).

83.  The Inter-Ministerial Committee discussed  the draft report written  by
the  subcommittee  on the  International  Covenant  on Civil  and  Political
Rights from  March 1995 to June 1995.  The reporting  and review process was
delayed for  various reasons,  such as the  lack of  experience in  drafting
such reports  for the first time,  the difficulty in collecting relevant and
reliable  information and  documentation and  the  lack of  availability  of
senior  government officials  at  the  Inter-Ministerial Committee's  level.
The  draft is now  awaiting the  final approval of the  Council of Ministers
before submission to the Human Rights Committee.

84.  Concerning the  report on the Convention  on the Rights  of the  Child,
the Centre  has provided the subcommittee  on that  convention with advisory
assistance as well as some documents  and relevant information. Since  March
1995, a human rights  reporting officer has  been provided to the Centre  by
UNV for  one year, to continue  to assist the  subcommittee, which has  also
been helped  in its  work by  the NGO  Committee on  the  Convention on  the
Rights of the Child,  specifically created to help the Government as well as
to write an  NGO report. The  subcommittee finished  drafting the report  at
the beginning  of April, and  the draft is  awaiting revision  by the Inter-
Ministerial Committee.   The final version was  expected to be available  in
mid-September 1995.

85.   In April, the Inter-Ministerial  Committee on  Reporting established a
new subcommittee  to  draft the  report  of  Cambodia on  the  International
Convention on the  Elimination of All  Forms of Racial  Discrimination.   At
its  forty-sixth  session,  the  Committee  on  the  Elimination  of  Racial
Discrimination decided to  examine the implementation  of the  Convention in
Cambodia  at its  forty-seventh session  on 11  August.    On 20  April, the
Director of  the Centre attended the  first meeting of  this subcommittee in
order  to  briefly  present  the  Convention  and  the  expectation  of  the
Committee.  The  Subcommittee on  the Elimination  of Racial  Discrimination
decided  to meet twice  a week.   It had difficulties  in gathering relevant
information and data.   The Centre is providing it with advisory assistance,
through  the   UNV  reporting  officer,  and  with  documents  and  relevant
information.  As the Subcommittee has not  finished drafting the report, the
Government   requested  the   Committee  on   the  Elimination   of   Racial
Discrimination  to postpone  its  examination  of Cambodia  until  its  next
session, in  the beginning  of 1996,  to which  the Committee  agreed.   The
report of Cambodia is therefore due by 31 December 1995.




 5.  Education for human-rights and teacher training

86.  In  collaboration with  the Cambodian  Institute of  Human Rights,  the
Centre has  continued to support the  development of  human rights curricula
for years  1 to 11  of the Cambodian  school system.   The Centre had  5,000
copies of the ABC  Human Rights book printed in Khmer to be used by teachers

at the primary-school level.   The Centre has  delivered several lectures at
the  Institute  on   the  Constitution  and  United  Nations   international
conventions to  representatives of  Cambodian NGOs,  jurists, law  students,
schoolteachers  and  monks as  well  as  to  participants  in workshops  and
training  sessions  on  the topic  "Human  rights  teaching  methodology  in
primary and secondary schools".

87.  In April 1995, a  lecture on "What are human  rights?" was given for 60
highschool and  primary-schoolteachers during  a seminar held  by the  Khmer
Institute for Democracy (KID).

88.  Moreover, UNESCO,  with some support from  the Centre, is  developing a
curriculum  on social  studies at  the  secondary  level which  will include
human rights aspects.

89.   Over the  past seven  months, the Centre has  developed and structured
human  rights  curricula  for  use by  NGOs  and the  Royal  Cambodian Armed
Forces.  Examples of such curricula include:   human rights training by non-
governmental   organizations;    combined   human    rights/non-governmental
organizations  police  training  programme;  investigation  and   monitoring
guidelines for non-governmental  organizations; definitions of human  rights
violations; and the Military Assistance Programme.

90.  A curriculum has been developed for  the judicial human rights training
workshop to be conducted  by representatives of the  Centre at the  Ministry
of Justice.

91.  Activities of  the Centre in education  of Buddhist monks has included:
(a) upon an invitation of  the Cambodian Institute of Human Rights, lectures
to the  teachers of  monks at  the Ministry  of Religious  Affairs; and  (b)
lectures in  several  pagodas for  the  monks  on the  relationship  between
Buddhist precepts  and human rights, within  the framework  of the programme
on teaching  skills and training for Buddhist elementary teachers throughout
Cambodia, organized by the  Institute in April and  May 1995.  Additionally,
during   July  and   August   1995,  a   curriculum   for   non-governmental
organizations on human rights training of monks was developed.

92.  In Siem  Reap Province, a  human rights poster contest was held  in May
1995 with the cooperation of the  provincial governor, the State Secretariat
for Women's Affairs, the Vice-Chairperson of  the Commission on Human Rights
and Reception  of Complaints of the  National Assembly, provincial  officers
of human  rights and children's  rights non-governmental organizations,  the
Ministry of Education and  the provincial office  of the Centre.  Copies  of
the Universal  Declaration of Human Rights in Khmer were distributed to each
of the 61 participating schools and commented upon  by the teachers to  help
the students select their topics.  The quality of the  drawings was found to
be excellent  by the jury.   The top 100  entries were put on  display.  The
four  senior  winners went  to  Phnom  Penh  and  met government  officials,
visited the National Assembly, and met  with human rights organizations  and
the  Director  of  the  Cambodia  office.  The  Canada  Fund  and provincial
branches   of   human  rights   and   children's   rights   non-governmental
organizations provided the funds to hold the contest.


6.  Support to non-governmental organizations and civil society

93.    There  are  more  than  30  Cambodian  human  rights non-governmental
organizations.  About 10  of them have developed  experience in the field of
protection, monitoring and education in human rights.

94.  Several  dealing with more specialized  issues, such as women's rights,
children's  rights, minorities' rights or  the rights of  the accused.  Some
have also  integrated development and social  issues into their  activities.
10/  Groups of non-governmental organizations  have been created to increase
cooperation and  mutual assistance,  such as:   Ponleu  Khmer, a  federation
which focuses  on lobbying on social  and political issues; the Human Rights

Task  Force  on  Cambodia,  a  coalition  of  international  and  local non-
governmental organizations that  provides training and advisory services  to
local  NGOs;  the  Cambodian  Human  Rights  Coordination  Committee   which
regroups  15   local  organizations  which   diffuse  information  on   NGOs
activities;  and  the  Human  Rights  Action  Committee,  a  group  of eight
organizations that  monitors urgent human rights violations and has branches
in several provinces. 

95.  Human Rights Day,  10 December, is an official holiday in Cambodia.   A
group  of 30  human  rights non-governmental  organizations  and  ministries
organized a celebration of  the Day at the Olympic Stadium for thousands  of
participants, including monks, nuns, schoolchildren,  as well as  members of
the governmental  and the diplomatic corps.   The Centre  contributed to the
funding of the event, and the Director of the Cambodia office addressed  the
celebration. 

96.  Upon the invitation of  KID, on 6 June 1995, the Director of the office
also  addressed  the  Conference to  celebrate  the  International  Year  of
Tolerance organized by KID,  at which a  letter of support from His  Majesty
the King  was read  and speeches  were also  delivered by  the Second  Prime
Minister,  the Under-Secretary  of State  of  the  Ministry of  Culture, the
Director of the UNESCO office and the representative of UNHCR.

97.    Despite real  progress,  non-governmental  organizations  still  need
further training and technical  assistance to increase  their competence and
their  ability  to carry  out  both  protection  and promotional  activities
effectively.   They are still fragile,  especially at  the provincial level.
Those of them working  on human rights  protection still need to be  further
strengthened and protected.

98.  Local non-governmental organizations have consistently expressed  their
appreciation for the support  provided to their activities by the Centre  in
a phase of  consolidation of democracy  in Cambodia.   The  Centre has  been
able  to  provide  them  with  daily  advisory  and  consultative  services,
training and education  in human rights.   Meetings  with human rights  non-
governmental organizations  are taking place on  a regular  basis to discuss
various  human  rights issues,  to  exchange  information  and  to find  the
appropriate way to deal with certain cases. 11/   This form of assistance to
NGOs is  also  being  provided in  Battambang, Kampong  Cham  and Siem  Reap
through  the Centre  provincial offices.  Specific training  activities  for
NGOs have included the following:

   -In  December  1994,  a  human  rights  workshop  was  conducted  for the
Cambodian  Defenders Project  on  training new  Defenders  in  international
human rights law;

  - In January 1995, a workshop was held for the Vietnamese Association  and
Ligue cambodgienne  pour la promotion  et la defense  des droits de  l'homme
(LICADHO)  on how to  conduct interviews  and draft reports.   A lecture was
given  to  human  rights trainers  of  Outreach,  upgrading  their  training
techniques;

  -In  March  1995, a  workshop  for Vigilance  was  held  on  upgrading its
abilities in conducting monitoring and investigation;

  -The Combined Human Rights Non-governmental Organizations Police  Training
Programme workshop  was  conducted in  Phnom  Penh;  the workshop  aimed  at
training   Cambodian   non-governmental  organizations,   including   ADHOC,
LICADHO,  Vigilance and Outreach,  in teaching  a common,  core human rights
course for police throughout Cambodia;

  -Lectures were organized by KID and given by the Centre on the  Convention
against  Torture  and  Other  Cruel,  Inhuman,  or  Degrading  Treatment  or
Punishment  for the NGO  Victim Contribution Assistance Organization; and on
the Convention on  the Rights of the  Child, for the Children's  Development
Association in Cambodia;

  -In  May 1995,  a  workshop  was conducted  for human  rights  trainers of
CHARTO with  the  technical assistance  of  the  Centre on  upgrading  their
training techniques, and  a round-table  discussion was  held for  Cambodian
human rights  non-governmental organizations at  the European Union  office,
reviewing NGOs' training methodology and coordination;

  -In June 1995, a  squatters' rights workshop was held for the Urban Sector
Group,  training  its members  to teach  squatters  about  their rights.   A
workshop on the International Convention on the Elimination of  All Forms of
Racial Discrimination was conducted by the  Centre for Khmer Kampuchea  Krom
Human Rights  Association  (KKKHRA).   A  lecture  was given  on  children's
rights to LICADHO and  the Cambodian Centre for the Protection of Children's
Rights;

  -In  Siem  Reap,  the  provincial  liaison and  support  officer  assisted
LICADHO in a human rights training session for the police.  On 26 June,  the
Centre's provincial office commemorated  with human rights  non-governmental
organizations  the signing  of the  Charter  of the  United Nations  and its
significance for promoting and protecting human rights;

  -On 26 June, the Cambodia office  commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of
the signing of the  Charter of the  United Nations and its significance  for
promoting  and protecting  human  rights  by inviting  all  Cambodian  human
rights non-governmental organizations to the Cambodia office and  discussing
those Articles of the Charter relevant to human rights;

  -In July, three months after ADHOC,  LICADHO, Vigilance and Outreach  were
trained  in  applying the  common-core human  rights  curriculum for  police
training, an assessment workshop was held  to review the teaching techniques
when applying this curriculum.

99.   The Centre  has also  provided assistance  to several non-governmental
organizations working on children's issues.   It has regularly attended  the
monthly  meetings of  the  Child  Welfare Group,  composed of  more  than 40
competent organizations.  The Centre has  assisted the NGO Committee  on the
Convention of  the  Rights of  the  Child,  composed of  nine  organizations
elected  by  the non-governmental  community.   It assists  the governmental
subcommittee on  the Convention on the  Rights of the  Child in  its work of
drafting  the report of Cambodia (see paras. 84-88).  It also drafts its own
report to  be sent  to the  United Nations  Committee on  the Rights  of the
Child and promotes and monitors the Convention in Cambodia.

100.  The Centre has also provided technical  support to the work of  ECPAT,
dealing  with the  issue of  trafficking  in  and prostitution  of children.
With the collaboration of a consultant from ILO  the Centre has also invited
a  Thai  non-governmental organization,  the Centre  for  the Protection  of
Children's  Rights, which deals  with child  prostitution, to  come to Phnom
Penh  to  meet   the  local  non-governmental  organizations  dealing   with
trafficking in children.   The members of  the Centre for the Protection  of
Children's  Rights  explained   their  work  and  initiated  contacts   with
Cambodian organizations.


7.  Human rights and the media

101.   In May 1995, as  part of the  Joint Initiative for Training in Ethics
and  Defamation  (JITED),  a  seminar   for  Cambodian  journalists  on  the
professional understanding of  defamation and of international human  rights
norms related  to freedom  of expression (rights  and responsibilities)  was
organized by UNESCO and the Centre  at the Cambodian Communication Institute
at the Ministry  of Information.  The Minister delivered the opening speech.
Two  lectures were  given  by staff  of the  Centre  on Cambodian  law,  and
international and comparative law relating to freedom of the press.


8.  Information and documentation

102.   The  Centre  has  continued to  provide  a  variety of  human  rights
materials  in Khmer,  French  and English  to ministries,  embassies, United
Nations   agencies,   non-governmental   organizations,   institutions   and
journalists.

103.  The following materials are the most  common disseminated in Khmer  by
the Centre:    Constitution  of  Cambodia; Universal  Declaration  of  Human
Rights; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;  International
Covenant  on  Economic,  Social  and  Cultural  Rights;  Convention  on  the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination  against Women; Convention on the
Rights of  the Child;  International Convention  on the  Elimination of  All
Forms of Racial Discrimination; Basic Principles  on the Independence of the
Judiciary; Standard Minimum Rules for the  Treatment of Prisoners; and  Code
of Conduct of Law Enforcement Officials.

104.   These  materials are  provided upon  request or  used as part  of the
curricula for lectures,  workshops and seminars.   A total of 46 ministries,
embassies,   United   Nations   agencies,   institutions,   non-governmental
organizations, journalists  and  other  organizations  have  received  these
materials,  inter alia:  Ministry  of Interior,  Ministry of  Defence, State
Secretariat for  Women's Affairs,  Faculty of  Law, Cambodian  Communication
Institute, UNDP, LICADHO,  Cambodian Defenders' Association  (CADEAS), Khmer
Buddhist Society.

105.   On Human  Rights Day,  10 December  1994, thousands  of human  rights
posters, brochures  and  stickers were  distributed  by  the Centre  to  the
general  public attending  the Human  Rights  Day celebration  organized  by
Cambodian human rights non-governmental organizations.

106.  The  Centre provides a resource and  video room for  visitors, who can
also view  videos  produced by  UNTAC  or  other human  rights  productions.
Within  the coming  months  the office  is  planning to  publish  a  monthly
newsletter  describing  the  relevant  activities  of  the  Government,  the
National   Assembly,   the   Cambodian    human   rights    non-governmental
organizations, United Nations agencies and the Centre.


9.  Training of government officials

107.  The Centre has funded  a study trip for 19  Cambodian health officials
to  Thailand to study  AIDS prevention  strategies adopted  in that country.
The  project was  a joint  initiative  of  several United  Nations agencies,
including UNDP, WHO,  UNICEF and the Centre  for Human Rights, and  followed
various recommendations of  the Special Representative  for Human  Rights in
Cambodia towards strengthening the Cambodian response to the AIDS epidemic.


10.  Visit of Ms. Graca Machel

108.  UNICEF and  the Centre for Human Rights, through its Cambodia  office,
organized  the visit  to  Cambodia, from  3 to  9  June  1995, of  Ms. Graca
Machel, the Expert appointed by the Secretary-General  to carry out a  study
on the impact of armed conflict  on children.  During her  visit, the Expert
met with the First Prime Minister and the  two Co-Ministers of Defence,  the
heads of  United  Nations agencies,  funds  and  programmes and  the  United
Nations resident  coordinator, attended the  land-mines conference in  Phnom
Penh and  made a field  visit to Battambang  Province.  In  Phnom Penh,  the
Centre   organized   three   meetings    with   Cambodian   non-governmental
organizations, one  with women's  organizations, one with  human rights  and
children's  rights organizations,  and one  with  the  NGO Committee  on the
Convention on the Rights of the Child.   The Centre also organized a working
session on  children in armed  conflict with UNHCR  and ICRC, as  well as  a
meeting with Ambassadors.  Finally, the Centre  arranged a meeting with  the
monk Non Nget in Pagoda Batom.
  11.  Overview of the Provincial Offices Network

109.   In December  1993, as  a follow-up  to the  work of  the UNTAC  Human
Rights Component  on human  rights education  in the  provinces, one  of the
priorities  which had been  established in  the Centre's  programme of human
rights  activities  in  Cambodia  was  the  strengthening  of  human  rights
activities at the local and provincial levels.

110.   Implementation  of the  Provincial  Network  Programme was  begun  in
February  1995 by  the opening  of the  Siem Reap  office, followed  by  the
Kampong Cham office  on 22 February  1995 and  the Battambang  office on  25
April  1995. Each  office  is run  by  a UNV  Human  Rights Officer  who  is
assisted  by  a  local Human  Rights Assistant.    A UNV  Provincial Network
Coordinator  is  based  in  Phnom  Penh.    The  primary  functions  of  the
provincial  offices   are  to  provide   technical  support,  training   and
information  services to  the  provincial authorities,  the  judiciary,  the
police,  the military,  local  communities and  the  local  non-governmental
organizations, as  well  as to  assess  technical  assistance needs  at  the
provincial level.

111.  At the time  of preparation of the present report, many activities had
already taken  place in each of  the above-mentioned  provinces, among which
the following are noteworthy:

  (a)   Siem Reap.   Meetings with  the police, military  police and  prison
authorities; human  rights training for the police and gendarmerie (military
police) (see also paras. 69-80 above);  dissemination of information to  the
local community;  community  activities  such  as  a  human  rights  posters
contest organized for the primary and  secondary school students (see paras.
89-95   above);  work   with  the  Siem  Reap   Tribunal;  dissemination  of
compilations  of  international  instruments  and  Cambodian  laws  to   the
community leaders; visits to the prison;

  (b)  Kampong Cham.   Human rights training for senior police officers  and
gendarmerie;   meetings  with   judges;  meetings   with   Provincial  Civil
Administration;  reporting  on  the  situation  of  unaccompanied  children;
sewing  training  programme for  female  detainees;  visits  to the  prison;
meetings with the  local human rights non-governmental organizations.   This
provincial office received much support from UNHCR;

  (c)    Battambang.    Meetings   with  judicial,  police  and  gendarmerie
authorities; human  rights  training for  the  police;  visits to  camps  of
internally displaced persons; human rights training for villagers;  training
on the  rights of  the child;  meetings with  human rights  non-governmental
organizations; visits to the prison.

112.    Additional  provincial  offices  will  be  opened  depending  on the
availability of funds.


D.  Administrative, financial and other matters

113.  The budget for 1994-1995 for a  continued United Nations human  rights
presence in Cambodia (see A/C.5/48/78) was  approved by the Fifth  Committee
of the General Assembly on 22 July 1994 without a vote (see  A/48/811/Add.4,
paras.  9-11).   The  General  Assembly,  in its  resolution  49/199  of  23
December  1994,   requested   the  Secretary-General   to  ensure   adequate
resources, from within  existing United Nations  resources, for the enhanced
functioning of the operational presence in  Cambodia of the Centre for Human
Rights of the Secretariat.

114.   Most of the administrative problems identified in the previous report
to  the  General  Assembly  (see  A/49/635/Add.1,  paras.  59-71) have  been
resolved.  For instance, an  increase of the imprest  account (from $100,000
to $275,000 for  three months  was approved  and implemented  in June  1995.
This  has improved  the operation  of  the  Cambodia office  and programmes,
which  had  increased  considerably  with the  enhanced  functioning  of the
operational presence in the provinces,  e.g., the Provincial Offices Network

and  the Judicial Mentors  Network.   Both local and  international staff of
the  Cambodia  office  have  been  provided  with  more  secure  contractual
conditions and payment of salaries is being made  without delay.  All  other
operational and programme expenses are met promptly. 

115.    Despite  these improvements,  a  number  of structural  difficulties
remain, owing  to the  absence of  appropriate administrative  and financial
autonomy  of the  Centre for  Human Rights  (a part  of the  United  Nations
Secretariat) and,  in turn, its Cambodia  office.   Decision-making power on
these  issues ultimately lies  with Administrative and Financial Services of
the  United   Nations  Office  at  Geneva   (UNOG).    The  lack  of  proper
administrative support by the  Centre (owing to lack of resources) and UNOG,
or,  alternatively, appropriate delegation of authority in  these matters to
the  Cambodia office negatively  affect the  smooth operation  of the office
and  the effective and  timely implementation  of the  Centre's programme in
Cambodia.

116.  The General Assembly, in its resolution  49/199, paragraph 1, and  the
Commission  on  Human  Rights,  in  its  resolution  1995/55,  paragraph  1,
recognized the  enhanced  functioning  of the  operational presence  of  the
Centre for Human Rights in Cambodia,  and requested the Secretary-General to
ensure adequate resources, from within existing United Nations resources.

117.  In addition, the General Assembly and  the Commission on Human Rights,
in the above-mentioned resolutions  (paras. 6 and  7 respectively) requested
the Special Representative, in collaboration with  the office in Cambodia of
the  Centre,  to  undertake  an  evaluation  of  the  extent  to  which  the
recommendations  made  by the  Special Representative  in  his reports,  for
which  no  financial  implications  were  provided  in  the  budget  for the
biennium  1994-1995,  were  followed  up  and  implemented.    In  order  to
implement that request, entailing  a review of  the extent to which all  the
recommendations made since 1993 have been  followed up or implemented, there
is a need for a consultant assisted by a local assistant-cum-interpreter.






 III.  ACTIVITIES OF THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM IN
      THE FIELD OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN CAMBODIA    

118.   The Vienna Declaration Programme  of Action  recommended an increased
coordination in  support of human rights  within the  United Nations system.
12/  The  Centre  for  Human  Rights  was  to  play  an  important  role  in
coordinating  system-wide attention  for human rights.   The coordination of
the United Nations system  in the field of human rights and the  cooperation
received by the Centre are very satisfactory.

119.   The representative  of the  Secretary-General in  Cambodia, Mr. Benny
Widyono, whose mandate, under Security Council  resolution 880 (1993), is to
maintain close liaison and dialogue with  the Government in accordance  with
the spirit and principles of the Paris agreements, to  monitor the political
situation in  Cambodia and  report on significant  developments relating  to
peace  and security, to  report on  his activities  to the Secretary-General
through the  Under-Secretary-General for Political  Affairs and to  maintain
liaison and  dialogue with the Resident  Coordinator, the head  of the Human
Rights Centre in Cambodia and other United Nations agencies.

120.  The United Nations Resident  Coordinator in Cambodia convenes  regular
meetings of the  heads of United  Nations agencies, funds and  programmes to
discuss questions  of common interest and  improve the  cooperation with the
Government.   The United  Nations system  in Cambodia  includes the Resident
Coordinator, the representative  of the Secretary-General in Cambodia,  FAO,
the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the  United Nations Centre for  Human
Rights, UNDP, UNESCO,  the United  Nations Population  Fund (UNFPA),  UNHCR,

UNICEF, UNV,  WFP, WHO,  as well  as the  ILO and United  Nations Industrial
Development Organization  (UNIDO) representatives for  Cambodia in  Bangkok.
Regular meetings are also organized for  administrative officers in order to
exchange   information   and  harmonize   questions  relating   to  finance,
personnel, administration, etc.

121.   The  meetings between  the heads  of agencies  included the following
topics: disaster preparedness  (flood alert, drought), humanitarian aid  and
relief (food,  assistance to displaced  persons, etc.), security,  HIV/AIDS,
gender issues,  the  rule of  law,  good  governance, joint  celebration  of
United Nations  days or  years (on  signing of the  Paris agreements,  human
rights, the child, children victims  of aggression, eradication  of poverty,
tolerance,  women,  refugees,  peace, health,  etc.).    The  United Nations
agencies, funds and  programmes in Cambodia, including UNDP, UNESCO,  UNFPA,
UNICEF, UNV, WHO and the Centre for Human  Rights have established a  United
Nations/HIV/AIDS Technical  Working Group to  help coordinate and  integrate
all efforts  by these agencies, the  Government and  other concerned parties
to  respond to  the epidemic  through  a multi-sectoral,  comprehensive  and
coordinated  approach.  Initiatives  of the  Group have  included: the cost-
sharing venture  to finance a multi-sectoral  AIDS study  tour for concerned
Cambodian government  officials in Thailand;  encouragement to the  Ministry
of Information to take  a more active  and creative approach in its  efforts
to inform the Cambodian public; and  improving the coordination between  the
different United  Nations agencies involved in  combating the  spread of the
virus.  A resource  manual, "Your United Nations",  is being prepared by the
Cambodian Communication Institute to introduce the different United  Nations
agencies,  including   the  Centre  for  Human   Rights  to  the   Cambodian
journalists.
  122.  A joint statement  of the United Nations resident representatives in
Cambodia  was  prepared  and  distributed  on  the  occasion  of  the  third
International Conference on the  Reconstruction of Cambodia,  held in  Paris
in March  1995, and  affirmed that the  observance of human  rights and  the
maintenance of  democracy  and the  rule of  law would  continue to  feature
prominently throughout  all of  the  United Nations  support activities  and
that  specific  advisory   services  and  capacity-building  support   would
continue to be provided for such purposes as  prison reform, training of the
judiciary and public education and information.

123.   In General Assembly resolution  49/199, paragraph  20, and Commission
on  Human Rights  resolution 1995/55,  paragraph  22,  the Centre  for Human
Rights was requested, in cooperation with the relevant specialized  agencies
and development  programmes, to  develop and implement programmes,  with the
consent  and cooperation  of the  Government  of  Cambodia, in  the priority
areas identified by the Special Representative  of the Secretary-General for
human  rights  in  Cambodia,  paying  particular  attention  to  women   and
vulnerable groups, including children and minorities.

124.  On  12 June 1995, the  head of the Cambodia  office of the  Centre for
Human  Rights informed  the other  heads  about  the Vienna  Declaration and
Programme of Action  and the relevant  provisions of the resolutions  of the
General Assembly  and the Commission  on Human Rights.   It  was agreed that
all  organizations  would  inform   the  Centre  of   their  programmes  and
activities  related to human rights  issues so that the  Centre might inform
the General Assembly and the Commission in its reports.

125.   The  United  Nations  Resident Coordinator  and the  heads  or senior
officers of UNDP, the United Nations  Centre for Human Rights, UNFPA, UNHCR,
UNICEF, UNIDO  and  UNV Cambodia  attended  the  fifteenth Workshop  on  the
Management  of   Field  Coordination  for   Senior  United  Nations   System
Representatives  organized from 22 to  30 June 1995 at the ILO International
Training Centre in  Turin.  Three  common objectives were identified  by the
Cambodia team:   elimination of poverty;  strengthening the  capacity of the
judiciary  and  the  establishment  of  the  rule  of  law  by  an  improved
clarification  and  dissemination   of  law;  and  social  regeneration   by
promoting  ethnic   tolerance  through   development  of   interdisciplinary
research on ethnic groups, public  awareness raising, special  programmes to

introduce human rights and ethnic tolerance in school curricula.

126.  At  the time of  preparation of the present report,  ILO, UNDP, UNFPA,
UNHCR, UNICEF  and  WFP had  provided  the  information which  is  presented
below.

127.  ILO activities  and projects include  substantial consultancy services
to the Secretariat of State of Social  Affairs, Labour and Veterans  Affairs
in  the drafting  of  a labour  law  with  special  emphasis on  freedom  of
association (ILO  Convention No.  87); the  Employment Generation  Programme
for Cambodia composed of three projects:   labour-based public works,  small
enterprise  and  informal  sector  promotion  and  vocational  training  for
employment, mainly financed by UNDP, all  of which give special attention to
women and disabled persons.

128.   UNDP  has developed a  project on human  rights teaching, methodology
and training for  primary and secondary schools, also funded by the European
Union and Comite contre la faim et pour  le developpement, which will  allow
the Ministry  of Education, with the  assistance of  the Cambodian Institute
of Human  Rights, to  develop curricula  and produce  training materials  on
human rights  to be integrated into the school programmes for grades 1 to 12
throughout Cambodia. An  inter-ministerial committee was established by  the
Government in 1994,  with the support of UNDP  and UNV, to promote  highland
peoples'  development  as  part  of  a  sub-regional  programme  which  will
reinforce mutual understanding and increased knowledge and skills  regarding
highland peoples.

129.   UNFPA programmes  include:   birth spacing  services and  information
(women's  rights, right to  information, right  to health);  family kits for
internally  displaced persons  (right  to shelter,  assistance,  health  and
protection); education on population and social science  in secondary school
(including  teaching of human  rights and  right to  education); training on
advocacy for  women in  development (women's rights); media-led  campaign on
AIDS  and  birth  spacing;  preparation  of  a  national  census/demographic
analysis  (right   to  be   recognized  as   a  person   before  the   law);
interdisciplinary  studies  on  ethnic  groups,  minorities  and  indigenous
people (see also para. 130 below).

130.   UNHCR  has  developed  programmes  for international  protection  and
assistance to refugees,  voluntary returnees,  internally displaced  persons
and  other  persons of  concern to  the  Office.   These  programmes include
assistance  to:  several  hundred Cambodian  refugees still  residing in the
region who are expected  to voluntarily repatriate; vulnerable returnees (to
promote self-sufficiency  for vulnerable  families through  non-governmental
organizations counselling,  incomegenerating activities, etc., in particular
for  female-headed  households -  the larger  grouping, for  which long-term
solutions remain problematic); internally displaced persons, as a  follow-up
to the military  conflict (in cooperation with  the Government, WFP and  the
Cambodian Red  Cross); displaced ethnic Vietnamese  in Cambodia  who in 1993
fled by boat their  traditional places of  residence on Tonle Sap lake  as a
result of persecution and who  are now in a  refugee-like situation, pending
a durable  solution (in collaboration with  the Government,  WFP, the United
Nations Centre for Human Rights, Medecins du monde, the  Cambodian Red Cross
and  other partners).   UNHCR  is  also  conducting training,  promotion and
advocacy  on  refugee  law  and  other  norms  relating  to  asylum-seekers,
displaced persons  and  voluntary  returnees and  has initiated  and  partly
funded  a project  called "Interdisciplinary  research  on ethnic  groups in
Cambodia"  with the Preah Sihanouk Raj Academy, with  the aim of identifying
problems relating to the integration of  ethnic minority groups in Cambodian
society.

131.    The UNICEF  Plan  of  Operations  1996-2000  includes programmes  on
protection  and care  of vulnerable  children  and women,  basic  education,
health  care, social  mobilization for  rights  and  goals, food,  water and
environment,  community  education  and  child  care  and  capacity-building
focused on women and youth.

132.   UNIDO in  1994 assisted  in preparing  a large-scale project  for the
establishment  of a  food safety  and  quality  control system  in Cambodia,
which is planned for 1995-1997 subject to approval by donors.

133.  UNV  is contributing to the Provincial  Offices Network of the  Centre
by  providing United Nations  Volunteers who  perform the  function of Human
Rights Officer in charge of each provincial office (see paras. 111-117).

 134.   WFP  is committed  to the  basic  human rights  of an  estimated 2.2
million Cambodian  people living in poverty  to have  protection from hunger
and malnutrition.   For  this purpose, WFP  is conducting:   poverty mapping
(to  identify  locations vulnerable  to  food  insecurity because  of floods
followed  by drought);  food  aid and  rehabilitation  (2,400  village-based
development  projects,   rehabilitation,  training,  credit  and   emergency
relief); emergency  assistance to villagers  forced repeatedly to flee their
homes and farms in the north  and north-west provinces (internally displaced
persons) because  of military conflict;  food-for-work schemes organized  as
part of a resettlement programme, water  supplies, sanitation or shelter  at
their temporary locations; food aid since  August 1993 to ethnic  Vietnamese
families  stranded at  Chrey Thom,  in  cooperation  with the  Cambodian Red
Cross and UNHCR.


Notes

  1/  E/CN.4/1994/73, paras. 229-271.

  2/  E/CN.4/1995/87 and Add.1.

  3/  E/CN.4/1994/73, paras. 252-271.

  4/  A/49/63/Add.1, paras. 10-58.

  5/  E/CN.4/1995/87, paras. 7-52.

  6/  Ibid., para. 11.

  7/  See E/CN.4/1995/87/Add.1.

  8/  See also A/49/635/Add.1, paras.  19-28, and E/CN.4/1995/87, paras. 23-
25.

  9/  See A/49/635/Add.1, paras. 29-33 and E/CN.4/1995/87, paras. 26-33.

    10/   See A/49/635/Add.1, paras. 37-43,  and E/CN.4/1995/87, paras.  39-
43.

    11/  See E/CN.4/1995/87, para. 40.

    12/  A/CONF.157/24, chap. II, sect. II.A, para. 1.

ANNEX I

Contributions to the Trust Fund for a Human Rights Education
Programme in Cambodia (as of 30 June 1995)

(In United States dollars)



Australia

35 555Iceland
35 714Luxembourg
31 384Norway
71 174Sweden

279 762  Total
453 589
ANNEX II

Expenditures under the Trust Fund for a Human Rights Education
Programme in Cambodia (as of 31 July 1995)

A.  Assistance to the Cambodian Government

(In United States dollars)

Activity
Amount spent a/
Amount
committed
Advisory services on prison reform and seminar on prisons

16 409

Training and information activities

98 102Assistance in reporting obligations
17 400
Study trip for health officials to Thailand on AIDS prevention strategies
3 388
Provincial network
18 973
61 726Judicial Mentor Programme
23 426
151 374
      Total

79 596

159 828
Grand total

239 424

     a/    The amount indicated as "spent" had been disbursed as  of 31 July
1995;  the  amount indicated  as  "committed"  was  being  used for  ongoing
projects.
B.  Assistance to Cambodian non-governmental organizations

(In United States dollars)


Organizations
Amount approved
Brief description
Cambodian Institute of Human Rights

5 198

Translation  into Khmer  of the United Nations  Manual on ReportingCambodian
Institute of Human Rights
46 100
Curriculum project  on human  rights educationCambodian  Institute of  Human
Rights
3 901
Translation into  Khmer of  the  compilation of  international human  rights
instrumentsCambodian Human  Rights  Task Force  (International Human  Rights
Law Group)
65 000
Assistance to Cambodian NGOsInternational Catholic Migration Commission
39 074 (part I)

10 000 (part II)
Human  rights education  for women  and communities  (Battambang)Enfants  du
Cambodge
 800
Trauma relief:  compensation  to two widows whose husbands were killed as  a
result of a PDK attackCHARTO
20 000
Human   Rights  Defender   programme   and  training   activities   in   the
provincesKKKHRA
10 000
Training and  assistance programme for minoritiesParliamentary  Organization
for Social Development
13 427
To  support the National  Assembly and  to broaden  popular participation in
the legislative processPonleu Khmer
6 000
Production of leaflets and newsletters on human rightsASCEND
15 000 (part I)
5 000 (part II)
Production  of videos in  Khmer on  criminal justice  issues, prisons, child
abuse and the handicappedCADEAS
5 000
Human Rights Defenders programmeVietnamese Association
5 500
Assistance to displaced ethnic VietnameseUrban Sector Group
29 328
To work  with urban  poor, particularly  squatters on  forced evictions  and
housing rights issuesCambodian Women's Development Association
15 000
To work  with marginalized  women, particularly  sex workersCambodian  Human
Rights Information Organization
17 272
To act  as a liaison  between the National Assembly  Human Rights Commission
and the local and international NGOs on human rights monitoring
Vigilance

10 000

To improve the ability of this  large human rights organization's provincial
offices to  provide investigation and  monitoring servicesHuman Rights  Task
Force on Cambodia
8 000
To strengthen  the monitoring,  networking and  advocacy work  of provincial
human rights groupsCambodian Institute of Human Rights
30 000
To  print  the  previously  prepared  school  human  rights  curriculum  and
distribute   it   to  80,000   Cambodian   teachersCambodian   Human  Rights
Coordination Committee
5 000
To help in  the establishment of a coordinating  group of nine human  rights
groups and in particular to defray  printing costs of a newsletterChildren's
Rights Project
22 000
To  improve the capacity of a  Khmer NGO to advocate and  monitor the rights
of Cambodian childrenAction Committee
5 000
To  help establish  a committee  of six  NGOs  to  respond quickly  to human
rights violationsVietnamese Association
10 000
To  provide skilled  technical support  in  the  areas of  investigation and
monitoring of human rights abuses against the Vietnamese minorityOutreach
10 000
To provide technical assistance to improve  the research and report  writing
skills of this organization on women's issuesLICADHO
15 000
Medical assistance in prisonsLICADHO

3 000
Publication of hygiene bookletsCHARTO
9 625
Human rights  video and production  on women's and  children's rights to  be
disseminated to human rights NGOsLCDHC
 300
Celebration of Human Rights Day (10 December 1994)ADHOC
 300
DittoLICADHO
 300
DittoAction Committee
 500
DittoCambodian Institute
1 600
Ditto
  Total cost of projects

442 225



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A/50/681/Add.1
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ANNEX III

Conventions in the field of human rights ratified by Cambodia

A.  Conventions with reporting obligations

1.  United Nations Conventions

Instrument
Date of signature
Date of receipt of the instrument of ratification or accession
Date of entry into force
Initial report due
Initial report submitted
Periodic report due
Monitoring body
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

17 October 1980

26 May 1992
(accession)

26 August 1992

30 June 1994



Whenever the Committee so requests (art. 17)

Committee  on  Economic, Social  and  Cultural  Rights (Geneva)International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
17 October 1980
26 May 1992
(accession)
26 August 1992

25 August 1993

Whenever the Committee so requests (art. 40)
Human Rights Committee (Geneva)Convention  on the Elimination  of All  Forms
of Racial Discrimination
4 November 1983
28 November 1983 (ratification)
28 December 1983
28 December 1984
18 December 1985
CERD/C/111/Add.4
28 December
1986 (2)
1988 (3)
1990 (4)
1992 (5) (art. 9)
Committee on  the Elimination  of  Racial Discrimination  (Geneva)Convention
against  Torture  and  Other  Cruel,  Inhuman  or  Degrading  Treatment   or
Punishment

15 October 1992
(accession)
14 November 1992
13 November 1993

Every four years and whenever the Committee so requests (art. 19)
Committee against Torture (Geneva)Convention on the Rights of the Child
22 September 1992
15 October 1992 (ratification)
14 November 1992
13 November 1994

Every five years (art. 66)
Committee on the Rights of the  Child (Geneva)Convention on the  Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
17 October 1980
15 October 1992 (accession)
14 November 1992
14 November 1993

Every four years and whenever the Committee so requests (art. 44)
Committee  on   the  Elimination  of   Discrimination  against  Women   (New
York)Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid

28 July 1981 (accession)
28 August 1981


Periodic report (art. VII)
Group of three members of the Commission on Human Rights








2.  ILO Conventions

Instruments
Date of receipt of the instrument of ratification or accession
Date of entry into force
Initial report due
Initial report received
Monitoring body

Night Work (Women) Convention (No. 4)

24 February 1969

24 February 1970

Annual report (art. 22 of ILO Constitution)

No report has been  submitted by Cambodia to  the ILO under  this Convention
for more than 15 years

ILO   Committee  of   Experts  on   the   Application  of   Conventions  and
RecommendationsNight Work of Young Persons (industry) Convention (No. 6)
24 February 1969
24 February 1970
Annual report (art. 22 of ILO Constitution)
Ditto
ILO   Committee  of   Experts  on   the  Application   of  Conventions   and
RecommendationsWhite Lead (painting) Convention (No. 13)
24 February 1969
24 February 1970
Annual report (art. 22 of ILO Constitution)
Ditto
ILO  Committee   of   Experts  on   the  Application   of  Conventions   and
RecommendationsForced Labour Convention (No. 29)
24 February 1969
24 February 1970
Annual report (art. 22 of ILO Constitution)
Ditto
ILO   Committee  of   Experts  on   the   Application  of   Conventions  and
RecommendationsEmployment Policy Convention (No. 122)
28 September 1971
28 September 1972
Annual report (art. 22 of ILO Constitution)
Ditto
ILO   Committee  of   Experts  on   the  Application   of  Conventions   and
Recommendations






  Note:   On 15 August 1994,  on the basis of  the procedure established  by
article  19  of the  ILO  Constitution,  which  provides  for submission  of
reports  on non-ratified  conventions,  Cambodia submitted  a  report  under
Convention 158 (Termination of Employment).

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B.  Other United Nations conventions

1.  Convention on the  Prevention of the Crime of  Genocide:  accession,  14
October 1950; entry into force, 2 November 1950.

2.   Supplementary Convention on  the Abolition of  Slavery, the Slave Trade
and  Institutions and  Practices similar  to  Slavery:   accession,  12 June
1957; entry into force, 12 June 1957.

3.    Convention  relating to  the  Status of  Refugees  and 1969  Protocol:

accession, 15 October 1992; entry into force, 3 November 1992.


C.  Other conventions:  UNESCO

1.   Accord pour l'importation  d'objets de caractere educatif, scientifique
ou culturel, avec annexes A, B,  C, D et E et  Protocole annexe:  accession,
5 November 1951.

2.  Convention  universelle sur le Droit d'auteur  et Protocoles 1, 2 et  3:
accession, 3 August 1953.

3.   Accord visant  a faciliter  la circulation  internationale du  materiel
visuel  et  auditif   de  caractere  educatif,  scientifique  et   culturel:
accession, 20 February 1952.

4.   Centre international d'Etudes pour  la conservation  et la restauration
des biens culturels (ICCROM):  accession, 13 June 1961.

5.  Convention  et Protocole pour la protection  des biens culturels en  cas
de conflit arme:  ratification, 4 April 1962.

6.  Convention concernant  les mesures a prendre  pour interdire et empecher
l'importation,  l'exportation et  le transfert  de propriete  illicites  des
biens culturels:  ratification, 26 September 1972.

7.   Convention concernant la protection  du patrimoine  mondial culturel et
naturel:  acceptance, 28 November 1991.


D.  Geneva Conventions of 1949 for the protection of
war victims                                

1.   Convention for  the Amelioration  of the  Condition of the  Wounded and
Sick in Armed Forces in the Field:  accession, 8 December 1958.

2.  Convention for  the Amelioration of  the Condition of the Wounded,  Sick
and  Shipwrecked  Members of  Armed Forces  at Sea:   accession,  8 December
1958.




 3.  Convention relative  to the Treatment of Prisoners of War:   accession,
8 December 1958.

4.   Convention relative to the  Protection of Civilian  Persons in Time  of
War: accession, 8 December 1958.


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