United Nations

A/50/670


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

26 October 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 161


IMPLEMENTATION OF THE OUTCOME OF THE WORLD SUMMIT
FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................1 - 92

II.  AN IMPROVED AND STRENGTHENED FRAMEWORK FOR
  COOPERATION FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ...................10 - 16  4

III.  ROLE OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE UNITED NATIONS
  SYSTEM ...............................................17 - 696

  A.  Economic and Social Council ......................17 - 216

  B.  Subsidiary bodies of the Economic and Social
      Council; the Commission for Social Development ...22 - 327

  C.  United Nations programmes ........................33 - 409

  D.  Regional commissions .............................41 - 4511

  E.  Agencies of the United Nations system ............46 - 6612

  F.  Secretariat ......................................67 - 6917

IV.  ROLE OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY .........................70 - 8017

  A.  The recommendations made by the Social Summit ....70 - 7717

  B.  Decisions that the General Assembly might wish
      to take ..........................................78 - 8020

95-32496 (E)   101195/...
*9532496*
I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   On 16  December 1992, the  General Assembly, by  its resolution  47/92,
decided to  convene a World  Summit for Social  Development at  the level of
Heads of  State  or Government,  and  accepted  with deep  appreciation  the
generous offer of the Government of Denmark to host the Summit.  The  report
of the  Summit, held  at Copenhagen from 6  to 12 March 1995,  is now before
the General Assembly. 1/

2.  The World Summit for Social Development adopted  a Declaration, entitled
the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development,  and a Programme of Action
2/  and  recommended  their  endorsement  by  the  General  Assembly  at its
fiftieth session. The Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development  includes
a statement  on the current social  situation and the  reasons for convening
the  Summit, a  set  of  principles and  goals,  and 10  Commitments.    The
Programme of  Action outlines  policies, actions  and measures to  implement
the  principles and  fulfil  the  commitments enunciated  in the  Copenhagen
Declaration.

3.   The follow-up and implementation  of the  decisions and recommendations
adopted  by the  Social Summit  are  particularly  challenging owing  to the
complex and  interconnected nature of the  issues and  the commitments made.
The  reduction  and  elimination of  poverty,  the  promotion  of productive
employment, the creation  of socially integrated societies and the  creation
of a political and economic environment  supportive of those goals  entail a
vast  array of policies  and actions and  a large  number of  actors.  Goals
must  be pursued in  a comprehensive  way, integrating  environmental, human
rights,  gender  and   other  dimensions  highlighted  at  previous   global
conferences.    The  main  responsibility  for  the  implementation  of  the
policies, actions and  measures contained  in the Declaration and  Programme
of Action rests with national  Governments.  At the same time, it is one  of
the key axioms of  the Summit that  all private and public institutions  and
organizations, as  well as all citizens,  should share that  responsibility,
and it  is clearly stated  in the Declaration  and Programme  of Action that
international  cooperation  and  assistance  are  essential  for  its   full
implementation.   Commitment 10  of the  Declaration calls  for improved and
strengthened   cooperation  for   social  development,   in  a   spirit   of
partnership,   through   the   United   Nations   and   other   multilateral
institutions.    In chapter  V of  the Programme  of Action,  the Secretary-
General of the  United Nations is requested to ensure active coordination of
the implementation of the Declaration  and the Programme of Action (para. 98
(d)).    The  present  report  focuses  mainly  on  the  supportive  role of
intergovernmental  bodies  and  the  organizations  of  the  United  Nations
system.

4.  On 29  March 1995, the Secretary-General sent a letter to Heads of State
or Government who  had participated at  the Social  Summit and stressed  the
political significance of the  event and of the commitments taken.  He  also
indicated that he was initiating a process to ensure a coordinated  response
from the United Nations system, based  on a clear division of  labour.  In a
second  letter to  Heads of  State or  Government dated  28 July  1995,  the
Secretary-General suggested  the designation  of a  national focal point  on
the implementation  of  the  Summit.  The Secretary-General  asked  for  the
personal views  of Heads  of State  or Government  on ways  to maintain  the
momentum  towards the  objectives agreed  upon  in  Copenhagen.   In related
exchanges  with  Governments,  the  Secretary-General  emphasized  that  the
situation of least developed  countries would be fully taken into account in
the follow-up to the Summit.   In their responses to the Secretary-General's
letter,  Governments  emphasized   their  determination  to  foster   social
development  and to  implement the  objectives  and commitments  adopted  in
Copenhagen.   Focal points are being designated in central ministries.  Some
national committees,  established in the context  of the  preparation of the
Summit, are being maintained, while in  other cases new national  committees
are being put in  place.  Such initiatives should play a role in maintaining
the  momentum for  the pursuit  of social  development that  was  created in
Copenhagen.

5.     In  the  Programme  of   Action,  the   Administrative  Committee  on
Coordination,  which is  chaired  by the  Secretary-General, was  invited to
consider  how the organizations  and agencies  of the  United Nations system
might best  coordinate their activities to  implement the  objectives of the
summit.  On  21 June 1995, the Secretary-General  sent a letter to heads  of
United Nations  programmes and  specialized agencies  and the Bretton  Woods
institutions,  stressing  the  need  to  approach  the  follow-up to  United
Nations conferences in an integrated manner. He  then presented a report  to
the  coordination  segment  of  the  Economic  and  Social  Council  in July
outlining the elements of a system-wide  integrated approach to the  follow-
up to United Nations conferences.

6.   The intergovernmental  discussions in  the Economic  and Social Council
and  the Ad Hoc Open-ended Intergovernmental Working Group  on an Agenda for
Development of  the General Assembly  confirmed Member States'  expectations
that the system would mobilize to  provide effective, concerted support  for
the  implementation of the  commitments and  programmes of  action emanating
from recent global United Nations conferences.

7.   In his  communications to  executive heads,  the Secretary-General  has
stressed that  strong inter-agency cooperation  will be  required to promote
effective follow-up  action by Governments  at all levels.   It is, however,
in  relation  to  national  action  at  the  country level  -  in  assisting
individual  countries  to  translate the  outcomes of  the  conferences into
concrete  national  policies  and  programmes,  and  in  providing  resident
coordinators and countrylevel teams with coherent system-wide support  -that
existing inter-agency efforts need to be  especially reinforced.  Bearing in
mind that follow-up  mechanisms for the Rio Conference are already in place,
the immediate priority  should be to  support effective country-level action
that  would ensure  an integrated  follow-up  to  the Cairo,  Copenhagen and
Beijing conferences around key, common objectives.   The overriding goal, in
this respect, should be to mount a concerted attack on poverty, building  on
the conceptual  framework developed at the Social Summit - in particular the
consensus  reached in  Copenhagen that  poverty elimination  requires  basic
social services, employment and sustainable livelihoods, the advancement  of
women and  an enabling environment, at  both the  national and international
levels.

8.   To  transform these  concepts  into  practical modalities  for  action,
proposals were  submitted to  the Administrative  Committee on  Coordination
involving the  expansion of  the existing  Task Force  on the  International
Conference on  Population and Development into  a more  broadly focused body
concentrating on  the provision of  basic social services  for all, and  the
establishment of  task  forces under  a  lead  agency, which  would  address
respectively the enabling  environment for social and economic  development,
and  employment  and   sustainable  livelihoods  for  all.     Complementary
arrangements would be established at the regional and country levels.

9.    These proposals,  which are  designed to  mobilize the  United Nations
system to provide  effective, concerted support for specific,  goal-oriented
programmes  aimed at  the implementation  of  the  commitments and  plans of
action  emanating from recent  United Nations  conferences, in particular at
the country level, and in support of national follow-up,  were considered at
the October session of the Administrative Committee.


II.  AN IMPROVED AND STRENGTHENED FRAMEWORK FOR COOPERATION
     FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT                               

10.    The  Social Summit  addressed  issues  of universal  relevance.    It
recommended policies and actions  involving all members of the international
community.   It  gave a  comprehensive meaning  to social  development.  Its
scope, which  encompasses the three core  issues of  poverty, employment and
social integration,  as well as  the areas  covered by  the 10  Commitments,
cuts across the responsibilities of national  ministries and the mandates of
different organizations within the system.

11.   The Copenhagen  Declaration and  Programme of  Action emphasizes  that
Governments  have  the   primary  responsibility  for  social   development.
However, the notions  of participation  and responsibility  are extended  to
the private sector, to the media,  to non-governmental organizations and  to
all elements of civil society (Declaration,  para. 27; Programme of  Action,
chap. V, para. 85 (g)).

12.  International cooperation is given a major role in the Declaration  and
Programme of Action.  Commitment 10,  an improved and strengthened framework
for  international,   regional  and   subregional  cooperation   for  social
development, in  a spirit  of partnership,  through the  United Nations  and
other multilateral  institutions, is necessary  to implement  the outcome of
the  Social Summit. Chapter  V of  the Programme of Action  makes clear that
implementing the Declaration  and the Programme in developing countries,  in
particular  in  Africa,  and the  least  developed  countries, will  require
additional financial resources  and more effective development  cooperation.
The special  needs  of small  island  developing  States and  of  landlocked
developing  countries  are  recognized. Chapter  V  also  makes  clear  that
continued   international  cooperation  and  assistance   are  required  for
countries with  economies in transition.   A proper  articulation of various
forms  of   cooperation,  at   the  national,   regional,  subregional   and
international levels,  is  seen as  crucial  to  the implementation  of  the
outcome  of the  Social  Summit.   Cooperation  ought  to be  based  on  the
recognition of the diversity  in the world and  on the need  for solidarity,
within and among nations (chap. V, para. 82).

13.   The  Summit was  also remarkable for  emphasizing that  principles and
values  such as responsibility  and solidarity should provide the foundation
for human endeavours and political  action.  It presented the eradication of
poverty  as   an  ethical,   social,  political   and  economic   imperative
(Declaration, Commitment 2) and  stressed that societies  must respond  more
effectively  to the  material  and  spiritual needs  of  individuals,  their
families, and  the communities  in which  they live  (ibid., para.  3).   An
essential  requirement  for the  implementation  of  the  Summit,  including
through international cooperation,  is solidarity, extending the concept  of
partnership  and a  moral imperative  of  mutual  respect and  concern among
individuals,  communities and  nations (Programme of Action,  chap. V, para.
82).

14.   These dimensions  of the  Social  Summit ought  to give  shape to  the
actions that will be taken by the  international community to implement  its
recommendations and  commitments.   They have implications for  follow-up at
the national and international levels.   The follow-up should be  innovative
and lead  to practical results.   It will require  changes or reorientations
in  institutional  arrangements  and in  the  concepts  and  processes  that
underlie them. It should  be integrated in the  elaboration of an agenda for
development  and the  coordinated follow-up  to recent  global  conferences,
while respecting  the  specificity of  the  philosophy  and message  of  the
Copenhagen  Declaration and Programme of  Action.  It should be holistic, in
the  sense of putting  together the  various facets  of economic development
and social  progress, while  respecting the  diversity of social  conditions
and  of  traditions and  culture.   And  it  should be  comprehensive, while
ensuring the  political  visibility called  for  by  the priority  given  to
social development  by the  Summit.  These  are among  the criteria  against
which  the  overall  review and  appraisal  proposed by  the  Summit to  the
General Assembly for the year 2000  (Declaration, Commitment 10, para.  (g))
should be conducted.  At the  international level, the calendar  and agendas
of  meetings of  intergovernmental bodies  should be  organized  to maximize
their contribution to the review.

15.  In considering the issues before  it on the implementation of the World
Summit  for  Social Development,  the  General  Assembly  may  wish to  give
special attention to  the outcome  of the  1995 substantive  session of  the
Economic and Social Council.  The  Secretary-General's report to the Council
3/ and the subsequent  agreed conclusions (see A/50/3, chap. III, para.  22)
provide a  framework for  follow-up arrangements  based on  the mandate  and

functions of the General  Assembly, the Economic and  Social Council and its
subsidiary bodies.  In choosing its  themes for the coordination segment the
Council may wish to choose a theme that  would maximize its contribution  to
the Summit review.

16.    The  decisions  on the  follow-up  should contribute  to  the broader
discussions on  the reform  of  the  functioning of  the United  Nations  in
economic, social and related  fields currently under way, as well as to  the
discussions  on an agenda  for development  and on  coordinated follow-up of
other major United Nations conferences.


 III.  ROLE OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

A.  Economic and Social Council

Recommendations made by the Social Summit

17.    Commitment  10  of  the   Declaration  calls  for  strengthening  the
structure, resources  and processes of the  Economic and  Social Council and
its  subsidiary  bodies, together  with  other  organizations of  the system
concerned  with economic and  social development.   The  Economic and Social
Council is specifically requested  to review and assess progress made by the
international  community  towards implementing  the  outcome  of  the  World
Summit (paras. (e) and (f)).

18.   In chapter  V of  the  Programme of  Action, the  Economic and  Social
Council is requested  to oversee system-wide coordination of  implementation
of the Summit outcome  (para. 95 (f)).  Part of its strengthening  mentioned
in Commitment 10  would be to establish  a closer working  relationship with
the specialized  agencies  and  to  draw upon  the  work  done on  a  common
framework for  the  implementation of  the  outcomes  of conferences.    The
Council  is also  invited to  review the  reporting  system  in the  area of
social  development  and  to   consider  holding  joint  meetings  with  the
Development Committee of the World Bank  and the International Monetary Fund
(IMF) (para.  95 (g)).   The Council is  further invited,  together with the
General  Assembly  and  other  organs  of  the  United  Nations  system,  to
contribute to the  mobilization of  financial resources and, in  particular,
to consider  new  and innovative  ideas  for  generating funds  (para.  93).
Lastly,  it is stipulated  in the  Programme of Action that,  in addition to
the  General Assembly, the  Economic and  Social Council  could also convene
meetings of high-level representatives to promote international dialogue  on
critical  social  issues  and   on  policies  for  addressing  them  through
international cooperation (para. 95 (d)).

Initiatives taken since Copenhagen

19.  The  Economic and Social  Council at  its substantive  session of  1995
held  a debate  on the  follow-up of  the Summit  under its  agenda item  on
operational activities and  under its agenda on  social development.  In its
resolution 1995/60,  the Council, apart from  its decisions  relating to the
work   of   the  Commission   for   Social   Development,   reaffirmed   the
recommendation  of the Programme  of Action  that it  should oversee system-
wide coordination  of the implementation  of the outcome  of the Summit  and
reiterated  the need for  all relevant  organs, organizations  and bodies of
the United Nations system to be involved in  the follow-up to the Summit, in
accordance with  their  mandates.   The  Council  also reiterated  that  the
implementation of the Declaration and the  Programme of Action would require
the mobilization  of financial resources at  the national and  international
levels.

20.   The Council  considered  the  theme of  coordinated follow-up  by  the
United  Nations system and  the implementation of  the results  of the major
international  conferences organized by  the United Nations in the economic,
social  and  related   fields,  during  the   coordination  segment  of  its
substantive session  of 1995.  In its agreed conclusions, the Council, while

emphasizing that  each conference  had its  own thematic  unity, decided  to
carry out,  within  the framework  of  its  yearly coordination  segment,  a
review of  cross-cutting themes  common to  major international  conferences
and  to  contribute to  an  overall  review of  the  implementation  of  the
programme  of action  of a  United Nations  conference.   To that  end,  the
Council would draw on a consolidated report of  the Secretariat based on the
input  of functional  commissions  and other  intergovernmental  bodies  and
would also benefit from the active  participation of funds, programmes,  the
regional commissions and relevant specialized agencies.   The Council was to
decide at its resumed  substantive session of 1995 on a common theme(s) that
it would  consider in  1996 (see the  agreed conclusions, sect.  I.B).   The
Council  was also to decide on the  substantive theme to be taken  up by the
special session  of the Commission  for Social  Development (see  resolution
1995/60).

21.   In  its same conclusions  on a coordinated  follow-up to international
conferences, the Council stated that it  would ensure the harmonization  and
coordination  of  the   agendas  and  work  programmes  of  the   functional
commissions.  To  achieve this,  the  Council  could, inter  alia,  organize
meetings on  specific issues with the  chairpersons and  secretariats of the
functional commissions, as well as with  other subsidiary and related bodies
and their  executive  boards. The  role of  the regional  commissions and  a
better interaction between the Council and  the Committee for Programme  and
Coordination are  also mentioned.  Furthermore,  all functional  commissions
are  invited to develop multi-year programmes of work  for the follow-up and
review of  programmes of action of  conferences.  As  noted in paragraph  28
below,  the Commission for  Social Development is to  consider such a multi-
year  programme of work at its  special session of 1996.   A better division
of labour among the functional commissions  would require, according to  the
Council, that each would  focus on core issues  of the conference  for which
it is responsible and on receiving inputs from other  commissions on related
issues (see the agreed conclusions, sect. I.B and C).


B.  Subsidiary bodies of the Economic and Social Council;
    the Commission for Social Development               

22.    It  will be  recalled  that  the Commission  for  Social  Development
participated  in the  elaboration  of the  agenda for  the World  Summit for
Social Development. The report of its  thirty-third session presented to the
Economic and Social Council and the General  Assembly in 1993 4/ contributed
to  a clarification  of the  agenda of the  Summit and the  treatment of the
three core  issues.  For  example, the Commission  outlined the elements  of
social  development  strategies  that  would  further  social   integration,
including equal  access to opportunities and  information, promotion of  the
role of  grassroots and  non-governmental organizations,  and ensuring  that
public administration is  transparent and  accountable.  These are  elements
of  the  "society  for all"  advocated  in  the  Programme  of  Action.   In
addition, the  Commission emphasized  that a  stable and  non-discriminatory
international environment was essential for social development.

Recommendations made by the Social Summit

23.   Commitment  10 includes  the  decision  to strengthen  the  structure,
resources  and  processes  of  the  Economic  and  Social  Council  and  its
subsidiary bodies.   It also includes  a reference to  the role of  relevant
functional commissions  in the review and  assessment of the  outcome of the
Summit  to  be  undertaken by  the  Council  and  submitted  to  the General
Assembly (paras. (e) and (f)).

24.   In  chapter V  of the  Programme  of Action,  the Economic  and Social
Council was  invited to review  the mandate,  agenda and composition  of the
Commission   for  Social   Development,  including   consideration  of   the
strengthening of  the Commission, taking into  account the  need for synergy
with other related commissions and conference follow-up (para. 95 (f)).

25.   It should also be  noted that in chapter V of the Programme of Action,
the  role  of the  Committee  on  Economic,  Social and  Cultural  Rights in
monitoring the  relevant aspects  of the  Declaration and  the Programme  of
Action is emphasized  (para. 95 (i)).  This  Committee, which is  made up of
experts,  receives  and   examines  reports  of  States  parties  on   their
compliance with  the provisions  of the International Covenant  on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights.

Thirty-fourth session of the Commission for Social Development

26.   At its  thirty-fourth session,  the Commission  for Social Development
adopted resolution  34/4 on  the  follow-up of  the Summit,  with three  key
points:   it referred  to its central role in  the follow-up; it proposed an
opening of its debate to experts  and the main actors of  civil society; and
it indicated that the Council might consider an expansion of the  membership
of the Commission and the annualization of its meetings. 5/

27.  The Commission also  adopted a provisional agenda  for its thirty-fifth
session,  6/ scheduled to  take place in  1997, with  two substantive items:
the follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development  and the monitoring
of other international plans  and programmes of action.   Under the  item on
follow-up to  the World Summit,  the Commission  identified four  sub-items:
(a) implications of decisions  and resolutions adopted by the Council at its
substantive  session  of 1995  and  the  General  Assembly  at its  fiftieth
session  that relate to  the Commission;  (b) priority subjects encompassing
the core issues,  commitments and related issues  of the Summit; (c)  review
of the progress made in the implementation of  and follow-up to the  outcome
of the Summit,  including reports of  relevant bodies of the  United Nations
system; and (d) review of the world social situation.

Decisions  of the Economic and  Social Council on the  Commission for Social
Development and other functional bodies

28.   The Economic  and Social  Council, in  considering the  report of  the
Commission, adopted the agenda the Commission  proposed for its thirty-fifth
session in 1997.  With regard to the role of  the Commission for the follow-
up  of the Summit,  the Council  in its resolution 1995/60  decided that the
Commission  should  review, on  a  periodic  basis,  issues  related to  the
follow-up and implementation of the  Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of
Action, and that such a  role would involve an  improvement of international
understanding of  social development making recommendations regarding social
development  to  the  Council and  elaborating practical  measures  aimed at
furthering the  Summit's recommendations; that  the Commission should  adapt
its mandate  so as to  ensure an integrated approach  to social development,
develop a  multi-year programme  of  work to  the year  2000, establish  the
practice of  opening its  debates to  experts and  the main actors  of civil
society,  review and update  its methods  of work  and review  the reporting
practices to and by  the Commission; and that  the Commission should  hold a
special session  in 1996  to review  its mandate,  elaborate its  multi-year
programme of work and review the frequency of its meetings.

29.   The Council was to decide, at its resumed substantive session of 1995,
on the substantive theme to be considered by the Commission.

30.  Also in  its resolution 1995/60, the Council stipulated that the review
by the Commission should  be done in a manner consistent with the  functions
and contributions of other relevant organs,  organizations and bodies of the
United Nations system.   In particular, the work of the Commission should be
coordinated with  the work of other  functional commissions  of the Council,
notably the  Statistical  Commission and  the Commission  on Population  and
Development.  Such harmonization  will require close cooperation between the
chairpersons and bureaux  of the various  intergovernmental bodies,  as well
as between secretariats.

31.  The Commission's  preparation of a multi-year programme of work to  the
year 2000 should be based on the relative  advantages of the Commission  for

Social  Development in the overall structure of intergovernmental bodies and
their current  mandates, one  of which  is its  capacity to  consider issues
pertaining  to social  integration.   This  could  mean that  the Commission
could  adopt a  social integration  or "society  for all"  perspective on  a
variety of issues, including poverty and unemployment (Programme of  Action,
chap. IV, para. 66).

32.  Governments that are members of  the Commission have traditionally been
invited to  send representatives  having expertise  in the  field of  social
development  and  integrated  social  policy  and  planning.    Notably,  in
accordance  with  Economic  and  Social Council  resolution  1139  IV (XLI),
Member States elected to the Commission  should nominate candidates who hold
key positions  in the planning or  execution of  national social development
policies  or other persons  qualified to  discuss the  formulation of social
policies in more than  one sector of development.   Member States  are urged
to   adhere  to  those  guidelines.     In  addition,  and  apart  from  the
participation of all non-governmental  organizations in consultative  status
with the  Economic and Social  Council, a  number of initiatives  to promote
greater participation of the private sector  and of representatives of civil
society in  the sessions of the Commission are envisaged,  starting with the
special session  in 1996,  in line with  the recommendation  of the  Council
regarding  the  opening  of the  debates of  the  Commission to  experts and
representatives of civil society.


C.  United Nations programmes

Recommendations made by the Social Summit

33.  The implementation of the outcome of  the Summit at the national  level
requires,  inter alia, the  assistance, upon  request, of  the programmes of
the  United  Nations  system.     This  is  stated  in  Commitment  10   and
recommendations are made on technical cooperation, technical assistance  and
operational activities  for development  in chapter  V of  the Programme  of
Action.

34.   The international support for  the formulation  of national strategies
for  social development  would  involve assisting  countries in  building or
strengthening  their  capacity for  the  design  and implementation  of such
strategies,  the  coordination  of  the  assistance  provided  by  different
agencies  and  the   development  of  improved  statistics  and   indicators
(Programme of Action, chap. V, para. 84).

35.   With regard to the  mobilization of financial resources, bilateral and
multilateral donors are  invited to coordinate their financing policies  and
planning  procedures in  order to improve the  impact and cost-effectiveness
of  their  contributions  to  social  development  in  developing  countries
(ibid., para.  88 (o)).   A similar  call for  coordination is made  for the
assistance  to countries  with economies  in transition  (ibid.,  para. 89).
Programmes of the  United Nations are also  invited to assist Governments in
ensuring  that structural  adjustment programmes  contribute to  employment,
the reduction of poverty  and social integration, including through reviews,
policy dialogues and new initiatives (ibid., para. 96).

36.  In  the general context of a  renewal, reform and revitalization of the
United Nations system and of its  operational activities in particular,  the
United   Nations   operational   activities   for   development  should   be
strengthened.  To  this  end,  the  Summit  called  on  the  United  Nations
Development  Programme (UNDP)  to  organize United  Nations  system  efforts
towards capacity-building  at the  local, national and regional  levels, and
to support the  coordinated implementation of social development  programmes
through  its network of field  offices.  At  the country level, coordination
to  implement the outcome  of the Social  Summit should  be improved through
the  resident coordinator system.   Such  development efforts  by the United
Nations  require  a  substantial  increase  in  resources  for   operational
activities (ibid., para. 99).

Initiatives taken since Copenhagen

37.   UNDP  has established  a Summit  follow-up  strategy  group, which  is
working with UNDP country offices and  country-level partners to assist them
in  elaborating specific  strategies  and programmes  for  implementing  the
Programme of Action.  Commitments and  recommendations of the Summit closely
parallel its  mission  and strategy  as  outlined  in its  "Initiatives  for
Change". 7/   Elements of  the UNDP  follow-up strategy  include support  to
countries  in  integrating  Summit  agreements  into  long-term  development
plans,  in  particular for  the eradication  of poverty;  promoting dialogue
among  international development  cooperation partners on  Summit follow-up,
in  particular in  relation to  aid  coordination  and cooperation;  and the
possible establishment  of a  "capacitydevelopment window" facilitating  the
mobilization of funds  for national capacity-building.  Two strategy  papers
have been circulated to resident coordinators:  "From Poverty to Equity"  8/
and  "Beyond Copenhagen".  9/   Feedback has already  been received  from 43
country offices on  specifics of national  follow-up.  UNDP is  also working
closely  with Governments  and United  Nations  system partners  on  several
post-Copenhagen  initiatives, including a proposed  international meeting on
the 20:20 formula  for funding social programmes; the possible establishment
of  a  consultative  group  on  the  poorest;  poverty  monitoring;  and the
Secretary-General's Special  Initiative for Africa  within the framework  of
the Administrative Committee on Coordination.

38.   Immediately following the Summit,  the United  Nations Population Fund
(UNFPA) informed its field  and headquarters staff of the highlights of  the
Summit, in  particular as they relate  to the  decisions and recommendations
of  the International Conference  on Population  and Development.   The Fund
will implement all relevant recommendations that  are within its mandate and
will serve  as an advocate  for recommendations  on other population-related
social  goals, objectives and commitments  adopted by the Summit.   The Fund
will keep its Executive Board informed of progress made in implementing  the
recommendations of the Summit. 10/

39.   In 1994, the Executive  Board of UNICEF  decided to include an item on
the follow-up to the  World Summit for Social  Development on the  agenda of
its 1995  session.  The  documents submitted by  the Executive Director  for
discussion  at the session in May 1995 noted that the Copenhagen Declaration
and Programme of  Action reaffirmed many of the objectives and goals adopted
by the World Summit for Children.   UNICEF is committed to playing an active
and supportive role in the overall  United Nations system follow-up process,
with a particular focus on action  at the field level.  The follow-up to the
World  Summit  offers   opportunities  to  strengthen  and  accelerate   the
implementation process  for the outcome of the World Summit for Children and
other related conferences. 11/

40.   Other  programmes,  notably the  Office  of  the  United Nations  High
Commissioner for  Refugees (UNHCR),  the United  Nations International  Drug
Control  Programme,  the   United  Nations  Centre  for  Human   Settlements
(Habitat)  and  the   United  Nations  Environment  Programme  (UNEP),   are
undertaking activities  that will  contribute to  the implementation of  the
Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action.


D.  Regional commissions

Recommendations made by the Social Summit

41.    The regional  commissions  are  invited,  through  Commitment 10,  to
participate in  a  strengthened cooperation  for social  development at  the
national,  regional and  subregional levels.    At  the national  level, the
regional  commissions could assist  countries to  take measures  and develop
mechanisms for implementing and monitoring the outcome  of the Summit.  They
could convene, in  cooperation with regional intergovernmental organizations
and banks and  on a biennial basis, a meeting  at a high political level  to
evaluate progress  made towards fulfilling  the outcome of the  Summit.  The

commissions should report to  the Economic and Social Council on the outcome
of such meetings and, in general, should assist the Council and the  General
Assembly  in  their review  and  assessment  of  the  implementation of  the
outcome of the Summit (Programme of Action, chap. V, para. 95 (h)).

42.   The emphasis  of the  Summit on  increased cooperation  at all  levels
implies  that  the  regional   commissions  are  expected   to  support  the
implementation  of the objectives  of the  Declaration and  the Programme of
Action, in particular to assist developing  countries, Africa and the  least
developed countries, and the countries with  economies in transition.   Such
support  should  apply  to  the  mobilization  of financial  resources,  the
orientation towards social development of  structural adjustment programmes,
as  well as  South-South  cooperation,  the  development  of  knowledge  and
indicators on  the implementation of  the Summit at  the regional  level and
the mobilization  of actors of  the civil society  at the  regional level in
the process of social development.

Initiatives taken since Copenhagen

43.   The ministers in charge  of social development  policy from 11  States
Members  of  the Rio  Group  (Argentina,  Bolivia, Brazil,  Chile, Colombia,
Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and  Venezuela) met at Buenos Aires
on 4 and 5 May 1995  and adopted a declaration on the follow-up to the World
Summit for Social Development  as well  as a set of  actions to be taken  at
the regional level. Three main orientations  have been chosen:   formulation
and management  of  social policies;  creation  of  a regional  database  on
social  projects,  programmes  and  initiatives; and  technical  cooperation
among  developing  countries for  social  development  activities  in  Latin
America.   A  regional meeting  of representatives  from the  Rio Group, the
United Nations system and lending institutions is to  take place in Quito in
November  1995.  In addition,  a regional project on  social indicators will
be launched for the  Latin American region with the Economic Commission  for
Latin America  and the Caribbean  (ECLAC) and UNDP  with the  support of the
World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank.

44.  At the  Summit itself in Copenhagen,  the Chancellor of  Austria issued
an invitation for a  meeting at the European level, to be convened in Vienna
in  1997,  which would  review  the  progress  made  towards fulfilling  the
outcome of the  Summit.  The Chancellor  indicated that the regional meeting
should include the development of  an appropriate framework to deal with the
specific  problems  of  the  countries  of  the  region  with  economies  in
transition.

45.     In  relation  with  the  implementation  of  Commitment  2,  on  the
eradication of poverty and  the observance of the International Year for the
Eradication  of  Poverty, all  regional  commissions  are planning  a  large
number  of  activities,   including  expert  group  meetings,  studies   and
publications,  the development  of  regional  programmes  of action  and  of
indicators and statistical profiles of social groups in poverty.


E.  Agencies of the United Nations system

Recommendations made by the Social Summit

46.   In Commitment  10, Heads  of State  and Government  decided that  they
would instruct their representatives to the  organizations and bodies of the
United Nations  system, as well  as international  development agencies  and
multilateral development  banks, to  enlist the support  and cooperation  of
those  organizations  to  take  appropriate  and  coordinated  measures   to
implement the goals  and commitments of  the Summit.  All  the organizations
of the system  are strongly invited, in a  spirit of partnership, to  foster
social development.  The specialized agencies  are invited to contribute  to
the  review and assessment of the outcome of the  Summit to be undertaken by
the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly.  Also, along  with
other  organizations  of  the  system,  the  specialized  agencies  might be

invited by Member States  to assist them in  taking measures and elaborating
mechanisms for the follow-up of the Summit.

47.    The specialized  agencies  and  the  Bretton  Woods institutions  are
invited,  together with the  United Nations  and its  various programmes, to
give particular  attention to  international cooperation  and assistance  to
developing  countries,  Africa  and  the  least  developed  countries,   and
countries  with  economies in  transition  (Programme  of  Action, chap.  V,
paras. 96 and 97).

48.    Together with  the  programmes  of  the  United Nations,  specialized
agencies  have  a  role  to  play  in  the support  that  the  international
community  might provide  to  Governments for  the  formulation  of national
strategies for social development (ibid., para. 84).

49.  The Programme  of Action includes a  large number of recommendations on
the role that  the specialized agencies, and in particular the Bretton Woods
institutions, should  play in  the mobilization of  financial resources  for
social  development  and  the  implementation of  the  commitments  made  in
Copenhagen.    With regard  to  debt  reduction  and on  the  basis  of  the
decisions taken  during the  course of  1994 by  seven major  industrialized
countries and  the governors  of the World  Bank and IMF,  the international
financial institutions  are invited to explore  ways of adopting  additional
and innovative measures to alleviate the  debt burden of developing and low-
income countries;  the  resources of  the  Debt  Reduction Facility  of  the
International  Development  Association (IDA)  ought  to  be  mobilized  and
alternative mechanisms  to complement that Facility  ought to be  considered
(ibid., para. 90).

50.  With regard to  structural adjustment programmes,  specialized agencies
and international financial institutions also have  a critical role to  play
in  order  to  gear  those  programmes  towards  the  objectives  of  social
development (Declaration,  Commitment 8).   All institutions are  invited to
assist Governments in  protecting basic social programmes and  expenditures,
reviewing the impact  of structural adjustment  programmes on  societies and
enabling small enterprises  and cooperatives to increase their capacity  for
income generation  and employment  creation.  The  World Bank,  IMF and  all
other  regional and  international finance  organizations are  requested  to
give  higher priority  to social  sector  lending.  All institutions  of the
system  are also invited to  cooperate with the  United Nations in assessing
the impact of  structural adjustment programmes (Programme of Action,  chap.
V, para. 91).

51.   The Summit also concluded  that consideration should  be given to  the
holding of  joint  meetings  of  the Economic  and  Social Council  and  the
Development  Committee  of  the  World  Bank  and  IMF.    In addition,  the
Secretary-General and  the heads of IMF,  the World  Bank, the International
Labour  Organization  (ILO), the  United  Nations  funds and  programmes and
other relevant agencies are invited to  consider the possibility of  holding
joint meetings  prior to the Development  Committee's session (ibid.,  para.
95 (g)).

 52.  Since one of the  three core issues of the Summit was the expansion of
productive employment, ILO has a special role to play in the  implementation
and follow-up of the  Declaration and Programme of Action.  In Commitment 3,
the goal of  full employment and the respect  for workers' rights  are to be
supported at the international level through  a variety of measures  (paras.
(j) and (k)).   In chapter III of the  Programme of Action, it is  indicated
that  Governments should  enhance the  quality  of  work and  employment by,
inter  alia, promoting the  role of ILO, in  particular as regards improving
the level of employment and the quality of work (para. 54 (e)).   In chapter
V,  in the  context  of ensuring  coherence in  the  efforts of  the  United
Nations  system, the General  Assembly is  invited to  give consideration to
requesting  ILO, whose mandate,  tripartite structures and expertise give it
a  special role  in  the field  of  employment and  social  development,  to
contribute to the implementation of the Programme of Action (para. 98 (c)).

53.  In the Programme of  Action, the World Trade Organization is invited to
consider  how it might  contribute to  the implementation  of the Programme,
including in cooperation with the United Nations system (para. 98 (b)).

54.    In Commitment  6,  pertaining  to  the attainment  of  the  goals  of
universal  and equitable  access to  quality  education  and to  the highest
standard  of physical and  mental health,  the specialized agencies, notably
the  United  Nations   Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural  Organization
(UNESCO) and  the World  Health Organization  (WHO), are  requested to  take
measures to promote the  specific objectives of the Summit on education  and
health  and  to  give  greater  emphasis  to  the  eradication  of  poverty,
promotion  of  full  and  productive  employment  and  fostering  of  social
integration.

Initiatives taken since Copenhagen

55.  In  April 1995, the  Development Committee  of the  World Bank and  IMF
decided to consider at its meeting in October  1995 the implications of  the
World  Summit for Social  Development for developing countries and countries
with economies  in transition.   IMF  and the  World Bank  prepared a  joint
paper  on  activities of  the  two  organizations in  the  area  of  poverty
reduction, with  particular emphasis on the role of public expenditure.  The
paper  identifies  aspects  of  the  work  of  the two  institutions  to  be
strengthened  and  considers  ways  of  enhancing  cooperation  between  the
Bretton  Woods institutions and  other multilateral  and bilateral donors in
support of  the poverty-reduction  strategies of  developing and  transition
economies.

56.  The ILO  Governing Body, at its session in March/April 1995,  requested
the Director-General to ensure that  ILO research, operational and standard-
setting  activities  were  geared  closely  to  the  implementation  of  the
Copenhagen  Declaration and  Programme of  Action.   At the  request of  the
Governing Body, the  Director-General of ILO informed the  Secretary-General
that ILO  wished to  be  fully associated  in the  monitoring and  reporting
arrangements for  the follow-up  of the  Summit.   The  Governing Body  also
requested the Director-General to  submit to it at  its session in  November
1995 detailed  proposals concerning  actions to be  taken by  ILO in  giving
effect  to  the  decisions  or recommendations  of  Copenhagen,  taking into
account resolutions of the Economic and  Social Council and other  competent
organizations of  the United Nations  system.   In response to  Commitment 3
(i)  of  the Copenhagen  Declaration,  the  ILO  Governing  Body decided  to
consider  at  its  session  in  November  1995  the  questions  of promoting
universal  ratification of  the ILO  fundamental human  rights  conventions,
combating child labour  and improving the  effectiveness of  ILO supervision
of labour standards. 11/

57.   At the session of  the International Labour  Conference in June  1995,
the Director-General  submitted a report  on promoting employment,  focusing
on the  follow-up to  the Summit.   An  informal tripartite  meeting at  the
ministerial  level considered  another  paper,  on follow-up  to  the  World
Summit for Social Development,  on the role of  ILO.  The  meeting concluded
that ILO, with its  tripartite structure, must play a leadership role in the
activities of  the international system, at  the country  and global levels,
in  the  fields of  employment  and  labour policies  and  the  defence  and
promotion  of workers'  rights, while  respecting the  overall  coordinating
role  of the  Economic  and Social  Council.   ILO  also intends  to  assist
Governments  and  social partners  in  formulating  national  strategies  to
attain the goal of fuller and  high-quality employment, and will  strengthen
its capacity to monitor the employment  situation and relevant global trends
that affect employment, underemployment and unemployment.   To that end,  it
will be publishing a  regular review of the world employment situation.  The
Governing Body will be examining at its session in November 1995 a  document
containing more  detailed proposals  on the  action to  be taken  by ILO  in
giving effect to the outcome of the Summit. 12/

58.   In addition  to the  World Bank,  IMF and  ILO, specialized  agencies,

including  UNESCO,  the Food  and  Agriculture  Organization of  the  United
Nations  (FAO)  and  WHO,  are  developing  activities  in  response  to the
requests made in Copenhagen; other  agencies, notably the International Fund
for  Agricultural Development  (IFAD),  are also  directly  involved  in the
follow-up  to the  Summit, in  particular with regard  to the  reduction and
eradication of poverty.

59.  Executive  heads agreed  that monitoring  the follow-up  by the  United
Nations system to  recent global conferences  would continue to  be a  major
concern  of  the Administrative  Committee  on  Coordination in  the  period
ahead.  In order to promote an integrated follow-up to the conferences,  the
Administrative Committee  decided that, in  future, it  would undertake such
reviews  on the  basis of  a  thematic  approach, bringing  together related
results of  recent  global conferences,  and  drawing  for that  purpose  on
relevant  inter-agency  mechanisms.  The selection  of the  themes  for such
reviews  will  take  into  account the  need  to  monitor  progress  in  the
implementation of conference results and to  provide the Economic and Social
Council,  in  particular at  its  coordination  segment,  with  consolidated
information, analyses  and assessment of  system-wide activities in  support
of the Council's own thematic review.

60.   The  Administrative  Committee  on  Coordination  concurred  with  the
proposal  that  coordinated  support  for  country-level  action  should  be
organized,  in the first  instance, around  three interrelated  themes:  (a)
the  enabling  environment  for   social  and  economic  development;  (b)  
employment and sustainable livelihoods; and (c)   basic social services  for
all.    It  considered that  these  themes  were especially  relevant  to  a
concerted  attack on poverty which constituted a major, overarching priority
objective underlying all the conferences.

 61.    With  regard  to  arrangements   for  pursuing  these  themes,   the
Administrative  Committee  agreed  that  the  existing  task  force  on  the
International   Conference  on   Population  and   Development,   under  the
chairmanship  of the  Executive Director  of  UNFPA,  should be  expanded to
focus more broadly on  social services for all, and that task forces  should
be set up to  address respectively the enabling  environment for social  and
economic  development, and  employment  and sustainable  livelihoods.    The
World Bank  agreed  to serve  as  lead agency  for  the  task force  on  the
enabling  environment for social  and economic  development and  ILO for the
one on employment and sustainable livelihoods.

62.   During the discussions,  several suggestions were made  with regard to
the scope of work of each of the  task forces.  It was agreed  that the lead
agencies  would  consult members  of  the  Administrative  Committee on  the
definition of the work of  and participation in  the task forces and on  the
contribution  different organizations  could make  to their work  from their
varying perspectives.

63.    The Administrative  Committee  noted  that  the  Platform for  Action
adopted by the  Fourth World Conference  on Women 13/ encompassed,  but went
well beyond, the above themes.  The gender  dimension should be taken  fully
into  account in  the work of each  of the thematic task  forces.  Following
the relevant decisions by the General  Assembly, consideration will need  to
be given to the best means of promoting sustained and coordinated  follow-up
to the  Platform for  Action and  of ensuring  that the  improvement of  the
status of women in all its  aspects is placed in the  mainstream of the work
of the system.

64.    With  regard  to  regional-level  arrangements,  the   Administrative
Committee noted  that the executive secretaries of the regional commissions,
in  consultation  with  the  Administrator  of  UNDP,  would  work  with the
concerned agencies and programmes, drawing on the strengthened  inter-agency
consultative arrangements  put in place  further to the  Secretary-General's
letter of 4 March  1994 in order  to develop concerted action programmes  at
the regional level in support of conference objectives.

65.  At the  country level, resident coordinators, in close cooperation with
United  Nations  system  partners,  should  take  the lead  in  establishing
thematic groups that would draw on but not  necessarily be identical to, the
inter-agency  task  forces referred  to  above,  reflecting  the  particular
situation,  priorities and needs  of the country in  question.  These groups
should fully  involve national  and local  authorities and  non-governmental
organizations,  and  work  with  all  concerned  agencies  and   programmes,
including those not having field representatives.

66.    In  the  context  of  the work  of  the  Administrative  Committee on
Coordination, the Subcommittee on Statistical Activities has established  an
expert group to follow up the statistical implications  of the Summit.  This
expert group has a  work programme and has  recommended that an expert group
on the  measurement  of poverty  be created.  14/    Also, the  Consultative
Committee on  Programme and  Operational Questions  has a  working group  on
poverty  evaluation and  reviewed the follow-up  to the World  Summit at its
session in September 1995.


 F.  Secretariat

67.   Within  the Secretariat  of the  United Nations  at Headquarters,  the
contribution  to  the  implementation  of  the  Copenhagen  Declaration  and
Programme of  Action  will be  provided  mainly  through the  technical  and
substantive servicing  of the  relevant intergovernmental  bodies -  notably
the Commission for Social Development, the  Economic and Social Council  and
the  General  Assembly -  by  the  Department  for  Policy Coordination  and
Sustainable Development.   That Department, together with other  departments
within their mandates,  will ensure the  provision of relevant documentation
to  the  intergovernmental  bodies  that   will  review  and   appraise  the
implementation of the outcome of the Social Summit.

68.   The Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis
intends in  particular  to  establish,  in relation  with  the work  of  the
Administrative  Committee  on  Coordination's  Subcommittee  on  Statistical
Activities,  a  United  Nations  common  data  system  task  force  aimed at
developing  a coordinated  and consistent  methodological approach  to  data
collection across  the United  Nations system  in response  to the  requests
made  by  different conferences,  including  the  Social Summit,  for better
statistics  and indicators.   In the  same Department,  research and studies
will be conducted  on such issues as  the dimensions and  characteristics of
poverty, forms  and causes of social  exclusion, policies  to enhance social
integration  and   policies  to   encourage  the   creation  of   employment
opportunities.   The  results of  those studies  will be  made available  to
Member States, notably through  the Report on the World Social Situation and
the World  Economic  and Social  Survey.    The Department  for  Development
Support and Management Services, in addition to developing  a system for the
monitoring  of the  effects  of adjustment,  is  carrying out  a  number  of
technical  cooperation projects and  workshops in  the field  of poverty and
social integration that are relevant to  the implementation of the  Summit's
recommendations.   In  addition, it  is assisting  countries in  formulating
social development  or  human  development  strategies in  response  to  the
specific recommendation made in this connection at the Summit.  The work  of
the  General  Assembly  on public  administration  and  development  at  its
resumed  fiftieth  session in  April 1996  (see General  Assembly resolution
49/136)  will  be  of  direct  relevance  to the  creation  of  a favourable
environment for social development.

69.    Since the  scope  of  the  Declaration and  Programme  of  Action  is
extremely  broad,  notably in  relation  to  the  creation  of a  supportive
environment in  the economic  and political  spheres, most  entities of  the
United  Nations Secretariat will have  to play a  role in the implementation
of the outcome of  the Summit. This  applies to the Centre for  Human Rights
and  the  United Nations  High  Commissioner  for  Human  Rights, the  Crime
Prevention  and Criminal  Justice Branch,  the United  Nations Conference on
Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the  Department of Humanitarian  Affairs and

the Department of Political Affairs.


IV.  ROLE OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

A.  The recommendations made by the Social Summit

70.   The first  role and function  that the General  Assembly, the  highest
intergovernmental body in the United Nations system, is expected  to play is
to  stimulate,  orchestrate and  lead  an  effective implementation  of  the
Copenhagen  Declaration  and  Programme  of  Action,  by  the  international
community as a whole, including  Governments, organizations and  agencies of
the  system, the private  sector and the actors of  the civil society.  This
means that  the General Assembly  ought to keep  social development  and the
objectives  and  commitments  of the  Summit  high  on  the  agenda  of  the
international community,  as decided  by Heads  of State  and Government  in
Copenhagen (Programme of Action, chap. V, para. 95 (a)).

71.    Secondly, the  General Assembly  is  responsible  for the  review and
appraisal of the implementation of the outcome of the  Summit, including the
consideration of further actions and initiatives that might be required:

  (a)   The  Assembly is  invited by  the  World Summit  to hold  a  special
session in the year  2000 for an overall review and appraisal of its outcome
(ibid., para. 95 (b));

  (b)  The Assembly is also  invited to include the follow-up  to the Summit
in  its  agenda   every  year,  starting  in   1995,  as  an  item  entitled
"Implementation of the outcome of the  World Summit for Social  Development"
(ibid., para. 95 (a));

  (c)  In 1996, the  Assembly is invited to review  the effectiveness of the
steps taken to implement  the outcome of the  Summit with regard  to poverty
eradication, as  part of the activities  relating to  the International Year
for the Eradication of Poverty.  In  that regard, the Assembly is  asked, at
its fiftieth session, in  1995, to declare the  first United Nations  decade
for the eradication of poverty (ibid., paras. 95 (a) and (c));

  (d)    To  fulfil  this  function of  review  and  appraisal, the  General
Assembly  will benefit from the  review and assessment  on the progress made
by the international  community to implement the  outcome of the  Summit, to
be undertaken by  the Economic and Social Council on the basis of reports of
national  Governments,   the  regional   commissions,  relevant   functional
commissions and  specialized agencies.   In  Commitment 10,  the Council  is
requested to  undertake that  review  and assessment  and to  report to  the
Assembly  for its appropriate  consideration and  action.   The frequency of
the review by the Council is not stipulated in the Copenhagen text.

72.   Related  to  this  second function  of  review and  appraisal are  the
activities  of  the  General  Assembly  on  the  follow-up  of  other  major
conferences,  on the  elaboration of  an  agenda for  development and  on an
integrated  consideration  of  the  themes  common  to  major  international
conferences.  One  of the seven  crucial and essential  requirements for  an
effective implementation of the outcome of the Summit is the integration  of
goals,  programmes and  review mechanisms that have  developed separately in
response  to specific  problems  (ibid.,  para. 82).   In  that  regard, the
conclusions  elaborated by  the Economic  and  Social  Council in  July 1995
include  the recommendation, also made in the Programme  of Action, that the
Assembly  address such  integrated follow-up  within  the framework  of  the
discussions  on  an agenda  for  development (ibid.,  para.  95 (e)).    The
objective  given  by  the  Council  is   to  promote  better  coherence  and
harmonized and integrated policy guidance.   The Council also suggested that
the Assembly might consider improving the  coherence of its Main  Committees
to  ensure that  the  system  is  equipped  to  follow  up  effectively  the
integrated approach related  to the  outcomes of United Nations  conferences
(see A/50/3, para. 22, agreed conclusions, sect. I.A).

73.   Also related to the review and appraisal of  the outcome of the Summit
by the General Assembly  are the items that are regularly before its  Second
and Third  Committees.  The  Third Committee has  a standing  item on social
development  that includes  the situation  of  specific  groups, as  well as
every other year  a discussion on the social  situation in the world on  the
basis of the Report on  the World Social Situation and the interim report on
the same subject; through its  items on human rights,  advancement of women,
crime prevention, drug control, refugees, the  Third Committee touches  upon
subjects that are relevant to the implementation of  Commitments 1, 4, 5 and
10.  The Second  Committee considers the question of poverty eradication  as
well  as  a  large  number  of economic  and  social  issues,  for  instance
population, which are  related to Commitments 1  to 3, 5 and  7 to 10.   The
Assembly may wish to review these  practices, as part of the rationalization
of  its  agenda,  with  a  view  to  ensuring   an  integrated  and  focused
consideration of the issues involved.

74.  The  General Assembly is expected  to promote an international dialogue
on critical  social  issues and  on  policies  for addressing  them  through
international  cooperation.  It  is stated in  the Programme  of Action that
the Assembly,  as well as  the Economic  and Social  Council, could  convene
meetings  of  high-level  representatives  for  the  purpose  (Programme  of
Action, chap. V, para.  95 (d)). The  Assembly, and the Council, would  have
to decide,  as appropriate,  on the convening  of such meetings  and on  the
topics to be discussed.   It can  be assumed, however, that the  core issues
of the  Summit, the 10  Commitments and the  related recommendations  in the
Programme of  Action, would  delineate the  scope of  such an  international
dialogue.

75.   The  fourth  function of  the General  Assembly  as envisaged  by  the
Copenhagen Declaration  and Programme of Action  is to  consider measures to
ensure  the  coherence of  the  activities of  the  entities  of  the United
Nations system  involved in the promotion  of international cooperation  for
social development.  The Assembly is invited  by the Summit to consider four
types of action:

  (a)    Promotion and  strengthening  of  the  coordination  of the  United
Nations   system,  the  Bretton  Woods  institutions  and  the  World  Trade
Organization,  at   all  levels,   for  economic   and  social   development
programmes.   This  could be  achieved, inter  alia, through reports  to and
meetings of  these entities  with  the  Economic and  Social Council.    The
Assembly was therefore invited by the Summit to request the Council to  take
action in this regard (ibid., para. 98 (a));

  (b)  Invitation to  the World Trade Organization to consider how it  might
contribute to  the implementation of the  Programme of  Action, including in
cooperation with the United Nations system (ibid., para. 98 (b));

  (c)    A  request to  ILO  to  contribute  to  the  implementation of  the
Programme of  Action, in  the field  of employment  and social  development,
notably because of  its mandate, tripartite structure and expertise  (ibid.,
para. 98 (c));

   (d)  A request to the  Secretary-General to ensure effective coordination
of  the implementation of  the Declaration  and Programme  of Action (ibid.,
para. 98 (d)).

76.   Given the scope  of the recommendations  in the World  Summit and  the
involvement of a wide  range of actors,  the review by the General  Assembly
in the  year 2000  would be assisted  by complementary  consideration in  an
independent  expert forum of the issues arising in the implementation of the
outcome of the Summit.

77.   The  implementation of  the  Copenhagen  Declaration and  Programme of
Action  in developing  countries, in  particular  in  Africa, and  the least
developed  countries, will  need  additional financial  resources  and  more
effective development cooperation and assistance  (ibid., para. 88).   Among

the  15 requirements  to  achieve  this objective  is agreeing  on  a mutual
commitment between interested  developed and developing country partners  to
allocate, on average, 20 per cent of official  development assistance and 20
per cent  of the national budget,  respectively, to  basic social programmes
(ibid., para.  88 (c)).  Interested developed and  developing countries  may
like to consider how to move this agreement  forward, especially in the area
of methodological and conceptual standardization.


B.  Decisions that the General Assembly might wish to take

78.  Apart from making recommendations  and taking decisions on  substantive
and other aspects of  the report of the World Summit for Social Development,
the General Assembly may wish to take the following decisions:

  (a)   To hold a special session in the year 2000 for an overall review and
appraisal of the outcome of the Summit;

  (b)   To include in  its agenda,  between 1996 and 2000,  an item entitled
"Implementation of the outcome of the  World Summit for Social Development",
and to consider the implications for the treatment  of related items on  its
agenda;

  (c)  In addition to the above, consideration  could be given to convening,
in  1997, a  meeting of  high-level  representatives  to consider  issues of
social development, with particular emphasis on  the 10 Commitments  adopted
in Copenhagen in March 1995.

79.   In relation  to the  three proposals  referred to  above, the  General
Assembly may wish:

  (a)  To  invite the Economic and  Social Council to consider  arrangements
to maximize  its contribution  to the  review of the  implementation of  the
outcome  of the  Summit  and  the preparations  for the  overall  review and
appraisal in the year 2000, including  an assessment of the  operational and
other activities of technical assistance provided  by the United Nations and
its system.  The  contribution of the  Economic and Social Council would  be
centred on specific aspects of the  Copenhagen Declaration and Programme  of
Action  and would be based, as envisaged in Commitment 10, on reports from a
variety  of sources.  The  feasibility of convening  a meeting of high-level
representatives  on the  subject  of international  cooperation  for  social
issues  and   policies,  in  1999,  from   the  viewpoint   of  the  overall
coordination of  the  relevant  activities  of the  United  Nations  system,
should also  be considered.   The  Commission for  Social Development  would
play  a  central  role,  in  particular   from  the  perspective  of  social
integration; the Secretariat would report to  the Council on the  activities
and  findings of  other  relevant functional  commissions; in  deciding, the
year before,  on the  contents of  its review  the Council  would take  into
account the related choice of theme(s)  for the integrated consideration  of
the  follow-up  of  major  conferences.   The  Council would  report  to the
Assembly on the results of its reviews;

  (b)  To invite the regional commissions, which have been requested in  the
Programme  of Action  to convene  on a  biennial  basis,  a meeting  at high
political level to review progress made  towards implementing the outcome of
the Summit (ibid.,  para. 95 (h)), to hold  such a meeting  between 1996 and
1998, in  order that the results  could be used by  the Economic and  Social
Council in 1999 and the  Assembly itself in  the year 2000.  The  invitation
from the Government of Austria for a European meeting in  1997 would be seen
in this context;

  (c)  To invite the  Secretary-General, the Economic and Social Council and
the  Commission   for  Social  Development,  as   well  as  other   relevant
intergovernmental  bodies  of  the  United  Nations  system,  to  ensure  an
effective representation and  participation of all actors of the development
process,  including the  private sector,  the  media and  representatives of

civil society;

  (d)  With  regard to the  participation of  the private  sector and  civil
society in the implementation  of the outcome of the Summit, to consider the
convening  of special  forums in  1997, prior to  the meeting  of high-level
representatives mentioned above.

80.  In addition, the General Assembly may wish:

  (a)   To  encourage Governments,  in  addition to  the fulfilment  of  the
commitments  taken in  Copenhagen,  to prepare  periodic  national  reports,
outlining successes, problems and obstacles,  as envisaged in  the Programme
of  Action (chap. V,  para. 83  (j)), in particular with  regard to defining
time-bound goals  and targets for reducing  overall poverty and  eradicating
absolute  poverty,  expanding   employment  and  reducing  unemployment  and
enhancing social  integration, within  each  national context,  and to  make
those reports available  to the United  Nations.  The Commission  for Social
Development would be the  main forum for the  exchange of experience  on the
implementation at the national  level of the  outcome of the Summit and  the
Economic  and Social Council and  the General Assembly would  be apprised of
the results of the exchange;

  (b)  To encourage  Governments as well as  public and private institutions
to take  initiatives to  promote activities  relevant to  the high  priority
attached by the Summit  to social development and  to the implementation  of
the objectives and Commitments adopted in Copenhagen;

  (c)    To request  the  Secretary-General  to  prepare  an integrated  and
comprehensive  report on  the implementation  of  the  outcome of  the World
Summit for Social Development for consideration  by the General Assembly, in
the year  2000, and in  1997, in the  context of its  meeting of  high-level
representatives; and to  request the Secretary-General also to prepare  such
an integrated and comprehensive report for  the Economic and Social  Council
in 1999, from the  viewpoint of the activities  of the United Nations system
to promote international cooperation for the  implementation of the  outcome
of the Summit.


Notes

  1/  Report  of the World Summit  for Social Development,  Copenhagen, 6-12
March 1995 (A/CONF.166/9).

  2/  Ibid., chap. I, resolution 1, annexes I and II, respectively.

  3/  E/1995/86.

  4/  Official Records of the Economic and Social Council, 1993,  Supplement
No. 4 (E/1993/24).

  5/  Ibid., 1995, Supplement No. 4 (E/1995/24), chap. I, sect. E.

  6/  Ibid., sect. B.

  7/  DP/1994/39.

  8/  E/1995/89.

  9/  DP/1995/39.

  10/  E/1995/55.

  11/  ITM/1/1995.

  12/  GB.264/5.

  13/   Report  of  the  Fourth World  Conference  on Women,  Beijing,  4-15
September 1995 (A/CONF.177/20), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.

  14/  ACC/1995/14, chap. II, sect. F.


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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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