United Nations

A/50/664


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

23 October 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 97 (b)


OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT:  ECONOMIC AND
TECHNICAL COOPERATION AMONG DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Cooperation between the United Nations and the
Southern African Development Community

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

 I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................  1 - 32

II.  COOPERATION BETWEEN THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE
  SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY ...............  4 - 792

  A.  Action taken by Member States ...................  4 - 312

  B.  Action taken by the United Nations system .......  32 - 798
















95-32158 (E)   021195/...
*9532158*
I.  INTRODUCTION

1.   In its  resolution 48/173  of 21  December 1993,  the General  Assembly
welcomed   the   transformation  of   the   Southern   African   Development
Coordination  Conference  (SADCC)  into  the  Southern  African  Development
Community (SADC), aimed at deepening and  expanding the process of  economic
integration  and cooperation in  the region  and the  economic and political
reforms  under  way within  the  Community,  which  are  intended to  better
address the  challenges  of  regional  cooperation and  integration  in  the
1990s.

2.    The  General  Assembly  commended   the  Member  States  and   organs,
organizations and bodies of the United  Nations system that had  maintained,
enhanced  and  initiated development  cooperation  with  the  Community  and
called upon  the Member States and  organs, organizations and  bodies of the
United   Nations  system   that  had   not  yet   established  contact   and
relationships with the Community to explore the possibility of doing so.

3.  The  General Assembly requested  the Secretary-General,  in consultation
with the Executive Secretary of the Southern African Development  Community,
to  continue  to  intensify  contacts aimed  at  promoting  and  harmonizing
cooperation  between  the   United  Nations  and  the  Community;  and  also
requested  the Secretary-General to  report to  the General  Assembly at its
fiftieth session on the implementation of the same resolution.


                II.  COOPERATION BETWEEN THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE
                     SOUTHERN AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY

A.  Action taken by Member States

1.  Denmark

4.   In its  implementation of  General Assembly  resolution 48/173, Denmark
has been  channelling Danish assistance for regional cooperation in southern
Africa  in line  with  the  development priorities  of SADC.    The sectoral
orientation  of the  assistance has  been determined  through  consultations
with the SADC countries on  the basis of the SADC  Programme of Action.   In
1994,  Danish support  to SADC-related  projects and programmes  amounted to
140 million Danish kroner (DKr).

5.   Subsequent to the entry into force of the new SADC treaty, in 1991, the
focus of  Danish assistance has gradually  shifted from supporting  physical
investments  towards  institutional   capacity-building.    The  shift   has
involved  support to a  number of  sector coordination units of  SADC and to
projects  within  them,   including  the  Southern  African  Transport   and
Communications  Commission  (SATCC).     In  the  area  of  private   sector
development,  Denmark has  provided funds for the  Nordic/SADC (NORSAD) fund
established  with  a  view  to facilitating  trade  and  investments between
private businesses in the SADC countries and in the Nordic countries.

 6.  Within the overall objective of supporting democracy at all levels  and
creating  conditions for  enhanced  gender equality,  Denmark  is  providing
financial  and  technical  support  for  a  research  and educational  trust
entitled  Women and  Law in  Southern Africa  (WLSA).   Finally,  during the
severe drought in southern Africa in 1992/93, Denmark responded to the  SADC
appeal for  emergency assistance to the region by making available more than
DKr 50 million to individual SADC countries for emergency purposes.


2.  Finland

7.   Within  its  overall  development cooperation  programme,  Finland  has
supported  the following SADC  programmes:   a regional  development project
for forestry training colleges, the SADC gene  bank (Nordic project) and the
SADC consultancy fund (Nordic project).

3.  Greece

8.  In  order to assist  the southern African region to  fully implement its
Programme  of Action,  and  acting  both as  a  Member State  of the  United
Nations  and   of  the  European  Union,   Greece  has  undertaken   various
initiatives in the  region. In 1994, it contributed 50 million drachmas (Dr)
(approximately US$  230,000)  to  the  biannual Zambian  programme  for  the
construction of  a hospital  in the town of  Mkusi.  The programme  is being
assisted both  by the Government of Greece  and by the  Greek Section of the
non-governmental  organization  Medecins  sans  frontieres.  In  Malawi, the
Greek Section  of  Medecins sans  frontieres  participated  in 1994  in  the
rehabilitation of 150,000  Mozambican refugees.   The  Government of  Greece
contributed  Dr  13  million  (approximately  $60,000)  to  this  programme.
During  the  Mozambican  general  elections,  in  October  1994,  10   Greek
electoral observers were part of the  European Observer Mission which worked
in cooperation with the United Nations Operation in Mozambique.


4.  Italy

9.   At the  Conference  of Rome  on  Mozambique,  in December  1992,  which
followed the  signing of the Peace Agreement, in October 1992, Italy pledged
162 billion  lire towards  programmes to  be implemented  during the  period
1993-1995 for  the social  reintegration of displaced persons,  refugees and
demobilized soldiers, and to  finance the elections and electoral activities
of Mozambican political parties.

10.   In  1994,  Italy  contributed 15  billion lire  to the  United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) Trust Fund for  the financing of the elections;
3 billion lire  to the new  United Nations  Trust Fund  to assist  political
parties to meet their election expenses and a further 8 billion lire to  the
United Nations  Trust Fund  to assist the  Resistencia Nacional  Mocambicana
(RENAMO) to  transform itself  into a political  party.  In  addition, Italy
contributed  5  billion  lire   to  the  UNDP  Trust  Fund  for  the  social
reintegration of demobilized soldiers, 10 billion  lire to the Department of
Humanitarian Affairs  Trust Fund, and  3 billion lire  to the  Office of the
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

11.      During  the  past two  years,  Italy  has  been  assisting  in  the
implementation of a number  of projects in Angola.   At the end  of 1993,  2
billion lire was allocated for a nutritional  programme to help children  at
risk (six months  to five years  of age).   Thirty-four nutritional  centres
were set up to  help more than 6,600 children, in part through collaboration
with the  World Food Programme (WFP).   Food aid valued  at 10 billion  lire
has  been  distributed  through  the  programme.    In  addition,  Italy has
contributed  1  billion  lire  to  an  education  programme  for  school-age
children  implemented by  the  United Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

12.  Italy  has allocated 2 billion lire  to United Nations Children's  Fund
(UNICEF) programmes,  providing health and  nutritional assistance to  high-
risk populations.  A programme on mine  awareness will entail a contribution
of  1 billion lire  to UNICEF.   Italy  has also contributed  1 billion lire
towards  a World Health  Organization (WHO)  project establishing  a team at
Luanda to  serve as a coordination centre for emergency activities in health
care.   Finally, 6  billion lire  is earmarked  for 1995  for programmes  to
assist  demobilized  soldiers  and  their  families,  in  cooperation   with
relevant United Nations agencies.

13.   Cooperation activities in  South Africa that had been initiated before
the establishment of the new democratic  Government are continuing and  have
reached an  amount of approximately  30 billion  lire.  Funds  are currently
being  set aside  for a  new cooperation  programme  in  the context  of the
Reconstruction  and Development Plan  of the  South African  Government.  In
the meantime,  1.6 billion  lire will be  earmarked for  the United  Nations
Educational and Training Programme for Southern Africa (UNETPSA).


5.  Japan

14.  During the  five-year period 1990-1994,  Japan provided a total of  US$
1.37 billion in  assistance to the SADC countries.   Its development aid  to
those  countries increased  from $167.17  million  (21.1  per cent  of total
official development  assistance (ODA)  to  sub-Saharan Africa)  in 1990  to
$401.97  million (35.1  per cent)  in 1994.   The  following table  gives  a
breakdown of  Japanese bilateral ODA to  individual SADC  countries for 1993
and 1994.

    __________________________________________________________
                                   1993                  1994
                                                 (In millions
          Countries                       of United States dollars)
          __________________________________________________________

  Angola0.100.11
  Botswana1.683.04
  Lesotho0.131.38
  Malawi24.13100.26
  Mozambique18.9243.32
  Namibia14.289.78
  Swaziland3.307.13
  United Republic
    of Tanzania88.83104.65
  Zambia90.86106.71
  Zimbabwe28.2025.59
       Total270.43401.97
          __________________________________________________________


15.  In July 1994, Japan pledged US$ 1.3 billion  in financial assistance to
South Africa  over the next  two years.  The pledge  includes a $500 million
line  of credit  and  an  equal  amount  in  trade and  overseas  investment
insurance,  and $300  million in  assistance  financed through  the  Export-
Import Bank of Japan.   In January and April 1995, the Bank also approved  a
$300 million  loan  for  the South  African electric  authority  Electricity
Supply Commission (ESKOM)  and a $100  million loan for the  Southern Africa
Development Bank, respectively.

16.    On 25  August  1995,  on  the occasion  of  the SADC  summit  held at
Johannesburg, the  Government of  Japan announced  that it  would contribute
$200,000 to  SADC projects  in the areas  of regional integration  and human
resources  development,  particularly in  the  agricultural  sector,  to  be
implemented  by the Southern  African Centre for Cooperation in Agricultural
Research.   In November 1994, the Secretary-General of  SADC held talks with
Japanese  officials  in  Tokyo  with  regard   to  experts  from  the  Japan
International Cooperation  Agency (JICA)  visiting the  SADC secretariat  to
discuss issues related to aid coordination with SADC officials.

17.  During  1993, Japan  contributed $20,000  to the  United Nations  Trust
Fund for  South  Africa,  $10,000 to  the  United  Nations  Trust  Fund  for
Publicity against  Apartheid, and $660,000 and  $700,000 to  UNETPSA in 1993
and  1994, respectively.  In addition,  Japan contributed  $500,000  towards
UNHCR projects  for the settlement of  South African  political refugees and
$360,000  for International Committee  of the  Red Cross  (ICRC) projects in
South   Africa  during  1993.    Japan  contributed   $7.5  million  towards
vocational training for black South Africans under the Japan-European  Union
joint  programme  during  1993-1994, $1.5  million in  grant  assistance for
grass-roots  activities and  $2.7  million  for the  participation of  black
South  Africans  in JICA  seminars  on  the  development  of vocational  and
agricultural skills.

 6.  Luxembourg

18.   During the period under  review, Luxembourg's  emergency assistance to
Angola included a contribution  of 5 million francs in food aid and  medical
projects implemented by ICRC,  and 380,000 francs in  food aid for  children
in Huambo during 1994.   In 1995, Luxembourg contributed 6 million francs in
food aid projects  implemented by WFP and 4  million francs to the Food  and
Agriculture Organization  of the  United Nations (FAO) for  its agricultural
rehabilitation programme in Angola.

19.   During  1994,  Luxembourg contributed  4 million  francs  in  food and
health projects  for  Mozambican refugees.    It  also provided  10  million
francs  in  emergency  assistance  and 5  million  francs  in food  aid  and
development assistance to Namibia.  Luxembourg  and Namibia have concluded a
number  of  agreements regarding  the  financing  of  seven  projects to  be
implemented  over the  next  two to  three  years  and  costing 135  million
francs.


7.  Netherlands

20.  In  1995, cooperation of the Netherlands  with SADC will be  maintained
at  the current  disbursement level  of  approximately 350  million guilders
(f.)  to  the  region as  a  whole.    The main  emphasis  is  on structural
development,  through  cooperation  in  food  security,  rural  development,
development of human resources and the  transport sector, and protection  of
the environment.

21.   Since  the  inception  of  the  then  SADCC,  the  Government  of  the
Netherlands has recognized the crucial importance  of the development of the
Beira Corridor Transport System.   Therefore, the larger part of its support
to SADC  has been  allocated to  the transport  sector.   Over  the past  15
years, accumulated support to the port of Beira has reached f. 100 million.

22.   From the annually  disbursed f. 350  million, about  f. 12  million is
disbursed  to  regional projects.    For  instance,  the  Government of  the
Netherlands has contributed and still contributes annually approximately  f.
1 million to the SADC early warning system and will start financing an  SADC
programme in  energy services  for small-scale  users.   The Netherlands  is
also  providing f.  10  million annually  to support  regional emancipatory,
energy, research, health and veterinary programmes.


8.  Sweden

23.   Swedish  cooperation with SADC has been mainly directed at  supporting
the two areas considered to be priority sectors  by the SADC countries, that
is, infrastructure and transport and communications.   Support has also been
given to the energy  sector.  About two thirds of Sweden's disbursements  of
1.7 billion Swedish  kronor (SKr) since 1981/82  has been allocated for  the
rehabilitation of the transport system in  Mozambique, Zambia and the United
Republic of Tanzania, and the Beira and Dar es Salaam corridors.

 24.   Within the  telecommunications sector,  Sweden, together with Norway,
is  financing four microwave  links between  Botswana, Zambia  and Zimbabwe;
between Malawi,  Mozambique and Zimbabwe; between  Namibia and Botswana  and
between Malawi  and the United Republic  of Tanzania.  Additional support is
being  given for  the  installation of  an  international  telecommunication
switchboard in Mozambique.

25.  With regard to the railway system, equipment for telecommunication  and
signal systems has been delivered to  Botswana, while railway cars, produced
by  a  factory in  Zimbabwe,  have  been  delivered  to the  Tanzania-Zambia
Railway  Authority   (TAZARA).    Large  rehabilitation  schemes,  including
activities related to  harbours, railway tracks, embankments and roads,  are
under  way in Dar es Salaam and Beira.  Activities  are also planned for the
Lobito corridor.

26.    In  the  energy  sector,  studies have  been  financed  on  the power
distribution between Malawi  and Mozambique.  Power distribution from Cabora
Bassa in  Mozambique to  Harare is  also an  important part  of the  Swedish
contribution. Swedish support has also been  given for the reconstruction of
the power plant Kafue  Gorge in Zambia and to training activities linked  to
this project.

27.  With  regard to  natural resources,  Sweden has  financed, among  other
activities, the creation of a regional gene bank and  has provided technical
support  to the SADC  secretariat for  environment and  soil conservation at
Maseru.  A  consultancy  fund  has  also   been  established  for  the  SADC
secretariat at Gaborone.


9.  United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

28.  The United Kingdom has supported SADC over many years, particularly  in
the area  of transport infrastructure,  including capital  aid.  The  aim of
many  of the  projects has  been  to reduce  the dependency  of SADC  on the
transport routes  through South Africa.   During  the period  1991 to  1995,
United Kingdom aid was as follows:

    _____________________________________________________________
    Year       Financial aid    Technical cooperation    Total
                     (In thousands of pounds)
    _____________________________________________________________

  1991/923 9885 1139 101
  1992/931 7604 2416 001
  1993/941 2393 1804 419
  1994/953 000 a/
       Total6 98712 53422 521
  _____________________________________________________________

       a/   Estimate.

29.  United Kingdom  funding of SADC has steadily  declined from its peak in
1991/92,  with an estimated  expenditure for 1995/96 of  L2.5 million.  This
reflects the changing role of SADC  within southern Africa, and particularly
the entry into  SADC of the  Republic of  South Africa.  The  United Kingdom
believes  that  SADC  is  changing  from  a  channel  for  donor  funds  for
infrastructure projects to  an organization committed to enhancing  regional
cooperation.  It is up to SADC member  States, not donors, to determine  the
pace and priorities of integration and cooperation.

30.   The United  Kingdom considers  SADC as  one of  a  number of  possible
conduits for regional activities and United  Kingdom aid to southern Africa.
Future  United  Kingdom  assistance  will  be  based  entirely  on technical
cooperation grants, and no new financial  aid projects are being considered.
The United Kingdom  will seek to  support projects that can  deliver genuine
short-term benefits  from regional  cooperation and that cannot  be achieved
more effectively through national-level support.

31.  Nevertheless,  the United Kingdom remains  a strong supporter of  SADC.
The United  Kingdom played a  positive role in the  1994 European Union/SADC
Conference  in  Berlin, which  was  attended  by  the  Minister of  Overseas
Development.   The United  Kingdom remains  willing to  consider support for
practical, actionoriented programmes identified by SADC.


B.  Action taken by the United Nations system

               1.  Department for Development Support and Management
                   Services of the United Nations Secretariat

32.    At  the present  time,  the Department  has  118 ongoing  development

cooperation projects in the SADC countries.   These activities cover  public
administration  and  governance,   electoral  assistance,  support  to   aid
coordination, development programming, energy,  water and natural  resources
for  development.    The  focus  of  the  projects  is  on  human  resources
development and institution-building.


2.  United Nations Children's Fund

33.   In October 1994, UNICEF  and SADC held a  joint symposium on  national
programmes of  action and goals for  children, at which ministers and senior
officials from  10  of  the  11 SADC  countries  discussed progress  in  the
implementation  of  their  respective  national  programmes  of  action  for
children  and the  Convention  on the  Rights  of  the  Child.   Resolutions
adopted at the meeting  called upon SADC to  play a major  role in  southern
Africa in  monitoring the progress of  national programmes  and advocacy for
children, facilitating multi-country  action in key  areas such  as pandemic
disease control,  product standardization and  regulating the iodization  of
traded  salt.  In  addition, salt producing  and importing  countries held a
follow-up  meeting in  late 1994,  under  the  auspices of  the Preferential
Trade Agreement (PTA), with the participation of SADC.

34.  Although  the SADC Council of Ministers  did not decide to establish  a
sector  programme  on children,  it  welcomed  the  initiative  by the  SADC
secretariat and  UNICEF to  facilitate a  review of  progress towards  child
goals on an inter-country basis.  A symposium is under discussion for  1996,
with  possible focus on the Convention  on the Rights  of the Child.  During
1995, the UNICEF  Regional Office continued to  work with the secretariat in
developing analytical materials  on major issues affecting southern  African
children,  including human  immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and is exploring possible collaboration  with the human
resource development sector in the area of basic education.  UNICEF  country
offices in  the region have been  assisting Governments in the assessment of
health, nutrition and water  needs arising from  the 1994/95 drought and  in
preparation  for  the  launching  of  a   regional  drought  programme   and
consolidated appeal by SADC during 1995.


3.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

35.  During the  period under review, the secretariat of the United  Nations
Conference on  Trade and  Development (UNCTAD)  assisted in  drawing up  the
SADC draft protocol on trade cooperation,  which is currently being reviewed
by member  countries, and provided advisory services at the 1995 SADC annual
consultative conference  on matters related to  rules of origin,  enterprise
cooperation and institutions.

36.  In  1994, UNCTAD completed  activities in  Mozambique in  the field  of
multimodal transport and trade facilitation.   These activities were part of
the "Intermodal Transport  and Customs Facilitation Programme" component  of
the World Bank Road and Coastal Shipping (ROCS)  project.  The objective  of
the programme was to foster sustainable  growth of Mozambican foreign  trade
by correcting the  inefficiencies of the  transport and trade  system.   The
programme compiled,  reviewed and implemented  measures to facilitate  trade
flows,  promote   national  transport  activities,   increase  awareness  of
efficient commercial  practices in  international trade,  and modernize  the
customs administration.


4.  United Nations Development Programme

37.   Since  1982, the  United  Nations  Development Programme  has provided
assistance to  SADC for  a  total value  of  US$  16,415,636 in  support  of
various sectors, especially transport, petroleum, mining, food security  and
education. These projects  were designed to  complement the Community's main
objectives during those years.

38.  In support  of private sector  activities in southern Africa, UNDP  has
recently launched  new initiatives through various  channels.   In 1994, the
United  Nations  Industrial  Development  Organization  (UNIDO)  published a
study  entitled  "Industry in  southern  Africa:    the  impact of  change".
Similarly,  UNDP   and  the  African  Business   Round  Table  organized   a
subregional African executive forum in Botswana in June 1995.


5.  United Nations Environment Programme

39.    The  United Nations  Environment Programme  (UNEP)  is involved  in a
number of joint activities  with the Environment and Land Management Unit of
SADC.     Nearly  all  member  countries   of  SADC   suffer  from  critical
environmental  problems  that continue  to  undermine  development  efforts.
UNEP has responded to these concerns  by strengthening its partnership  with
the Community.

40.     UNEP   support  for   the  implementation   of  the   Kalahari-Namib
Desertification  Control  Action  Plan  complements   the  Community's  land
management   efforts.     UNEP   is  also   providing  assistance   for  the
implementation  of the  Integrated Development  Action  Plan on  the Zambezi
River.  In the area of  environmental monitoring, assessment and  reporting,
UNEP is  assisting in expanding the  Community's environmental networks  and
establishing    geographical/environmental    information    systems,     in
strengthening  environmental impact  assessment practices and  in developing
guidelines  and methodologies  to integrate  environmental  preservation and
development.    UNEP  is  providing  substantial  assistance  in  developing
national  environmental legislation  and  in strengthening  the  Community's
capacity to negotiate and implement international  agreements, as well as in
the training of personnel through its fellowship programme.


6.  World Food Programme

41.   The value of WFP  food aid to  SADC countries in 1994  amounted to US$
226  million.    Assistance  to  agricultural,  rural  and  human  resources
development  absorbed $23  million  and emergencies  and  displaced  persons
operations absorbed $203 million.  An  additional $39 million was channelled
through WFP for extrabudgetary expenditures.

42.  In response  to the devastating crop failure in several SADC  countries
in  1992,  WFP  committed approximately  $350  million  for commodities  and
transport for the relief  effort.  Although the 1994/95 crop season  started
poorly in many SADC  countries, the overall drought was less severe than  in
1992.  WFP has committed $49 million for  commodities and transport in  five
of the  most seriously affected countries.   WFP is  building mitigation and
recovery mechanisms into emergency operations and development activities  as
drought conditions seem to recur with frequency in the SADC region.

43.  In Mozambique, a major portion of the displaced population returned  to
their places of origin during 1994.  WFP  and other United Nations  agencies
worked  closely  with  Governments  in  the  region  and  the  international
community  to   provide  food   assistance  in   support  of   reintegration
programmes.   WFP continues  to provide  the displaced  population with food
assistance in Angola and  is working with  the Government in support of  the
peace process and in  reintegration programmes.  WFP is assisting the United
Republic of Tanzania in providing food  for Rwandan refugees and  supporting
logistics projects  that will  have a  long-term development  impact on  the
country's transport infrastructure.

44.  WFP also procures cereals and  other commodities in the region  for use
in feeding  operations in the region  and elsewhere.   From January 1994  to
June 1995, WFP purchased commodities worth $108 million from the region.


 7.  United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)

45.  In 1995,  the Centre's missions  to Angola undertook human  settlements
analyses and proposed  a community-based rehabilitation programme,  screened
project proposals  and finalized them for  consideration at  the round table
held  at Brussels in  September 1995.   The Centre also  fielded missions to
South Africa to  assess the priorities of the  new Government and to  assist
in formulating an effective housing finance system.

46.  The Sustainable  Dar es Salaam Project (SDP) supports the City  Council
in developing  sustainable solutions to  priority environmental issues  such
as solid  waste, servicing urban land,  air quality,  surface water, coastal
area resources,  recreational and tourism  resources and urban  agricultural
production.   The Centre  also assisted  the United Republic  of Tanzania in
conducting a  human settlements review  and needs  assessment, which  formed
the  basis for  the national  programme for  human settlements  development.
Similarly, the  Centre has  provided technical assistance to  the Government
of Mozambique in the  formulation of a long-term programme of support to the
housing  and urban development  sector.   The Centre  also participated with
UNDP  in   the  formulation   of  an  area-based   integrated  approach   to
rehabilitation in war-torn areas.

47.   The Centre is  helping to execute  the UNDP  National Shelter Strategy
and Implementation  of a National Housing  Programme for  Namibia, which won
the Habitat  Award for  1993.   Several  projects focusing  on helping  poor
urban communities  to improve their living environment have been implemented
in Zambia  with  support  from  UNDP and  the  Government  of Denmark.    In
Zimbabwe, the  Centre  has  participated  in  developing  the  public  works
programme component of  the National Poverty Alleviation Action Plan,  using
sectoral support funds.


8.  International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/GATT)

48.     The   International  Trade   Centre  (ITC)   has  maintained   close
collaboration  with  the SADC  secretariat.    In  1988,  ITC initiated  two
interrelated projects for the SADC subregion:   RAF/26/50 Direct  Assistance
in Export Packaging (financed by the  Government of Finland); and  RAF/37/06
Development  of Effective Quality Control Standards and Testing Services for
export  products and packaging (financed by the Government of Italy).  These
two projects were completed by early 1994.


9.  International Labour Organization

49.  Until February 1995, SADC had no activities in the areas of  employment
and labour, as those  areas were the domain  of the Southern  African Labour
Commission  (SALC).    The  International  Labour  Organization  (ILO)   has
maintained  close  links with  SALC  since  1980,  when  the Commission  was
established.  ILO, together with the  Economic Commission for Africa  (ECA),
has provided secretariat services for SALC,  pending the establishment of an
independent secretariat.   During the same  period, SALC cooperated  closely
with SADC.

 50.  The  SADC Council of Ministers, meeting  at Lilongwe in January  1995,
decided to establish a new Employment and Labour  Sector and to absorb  SALC
in  the  SADC  Human Resources  Development Sector.    Zambia is  to provide
permanent and  full-time  secretariat services  to  the  Sector.   ILO  will
continue its cooperation with the new Employment and Labour Sector.

51.   Over the years, ILO has provided assistance to  the SADC countries and
to liberation movements through technical cooperation projects and  research
and advisory  services.   These have  included employment  planning and  the
creation of jobs  and infrastructure through labour-intensive public  works,
vocational training  and rehabilitation, migrant  labour questions,  workers
education, management development  and cooperatives.  These initiatives  are
expected to continue.

52.   At the  February 1995  meeting of  SALC at  Maseru, ILO  was asked  to
prepare a  study on  the application  of national  and international  labour
standards in the export processing zones  from a subregional perspective  by
1995/96.  ILO was also asked to formulate  a subregional code of conduct  on
HIV/AIDS in the workplace.  Reports on these two issues are to be  submitted
at the next meeting of the new Sector.  ILO was  also requested to carry out
studies on child  labour in member States.   An ILO  study on  labour market
issues in  southern Africa in the 1990s  and beyond was also discussed.  The
study  will  cover  migrant labour,  mobility  of  high-level  manpower  and
development of human resources as the  highest priority for the  formulation
of future SADC policies on labour markets.


10.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

53.   FAO  maintains regular contact  with the SADC  Food Security Technical
and Administrative Unit  at Harare.  In consultation  with the Unit, FAO  is
reducing  its direct technical  support to  the SADC  Regional Early Warning
System  for  Food Security  (REWS) after  capacity-building support  to SADC
member States at both the national and the regional levels.

54.   Through its Global  Information and Early Warning  System (GIEWS), FAO
fielded, jointly with  the World Food Programme, a  series of crop and  food
supply assessment  missions to  the drought-affected  countries of  southern
Africa.  These missions were conducted in cooperation  with the regional and
national early  warning units  in the SADC  region.  The  findings of  these
missions  have been  disseminated  to the  international  community  through
special reports.   In addition, GIEWS  has cooperated closely with  the SADC
Regional  Early  Warning  Unit  (REWU)  on  the  establishment  of  a cereal
supply/demand monitoring module and on plans  to transfer the GIEWS computer
workstation software and databases to the SADC early warning systems.

55.  At the end of 1993, FAO started the implementation of  the second phase
of a project entitled  "Remote Sensing Component to  the SADC Regional Early
Warning System",  financed  by the  Government  of  the Netherlands,  for  a
period of three years.  Cooperation between FAO  and SADC has also continued
in the area of  health and nutrition.  A subregional workshop on the control
of mycotoxins other than  aflatoxins in foods was held at Gaborone, from  12
to  16  December  1993.  Sixteen  participants  from  eight  SADC  countries
attended the  workshop.   A  quality  assurance  sample programme  is  being
organized in cooperation with the University of  Botswana and will cover all
mycotoxin laboratories in the SADC countries.

56.   The SADC Regional  Training Centre for Middle-level  Personnel for the
Control of  African Animal Trypanosomiasis, supported  by FAO, continues  to
function effectively.   Various  country-based courses  provided support  to
institutional strengthening and  trypanosomiasis control  programmes in  the
region.

57.  In  addition to projects assisting the  development of the seed  sector
in almost all SADC countries,  FAO organized a regional workshop on improved
on-farm seed production for  the SADC countries,  at Mbabane, from 22 to  26
November  1993,  with  financial  support  provided  by  the  Government  of
Austria.

58.  FAO participated  in the 1994  consultative conference at Gaborone  and
presented  a paper  on "Promoting  cooperation  and integration  in southern
Africa".  FAO  also  participated in  the  1995  consultative  conference at
Lilongwe   and  contributed   to   developing  SADC   programmes   for   the
implementation  of  its  agricultural integration  strategy for  1995.   FAO
participated in  a joint  SADC/UNICEF  symposium on  national programmes  of
action and goals for children, held in August 1994.

59.   FAO  assisted  SADC  to set  up  and operate  a technical  cooperation
network  on  plant quarantine.    Assistance  included  the  provision of  a
computer  and an  electronic  database  to  each national  plant  quarantine

service in the SADC  area in order to facilitate the exchange of information
on  all  aspects  of  plant  protection  and  quarantine  and  the  eventual
harmonization  of related  legislation,  inspection  procedures and  control
measures.

60.     Aquaculture   for  Local   Community  Development   (ALCOM)  is   an
interregional  programme funded by  Sweden, Belgium  and FAO,  which aims at
improving the standard  of living  of rural  smallholders in  the SADC  area
through fish  production from  small water bodies  and through  aquaculture.
The programme  is  officially included  in  the  SADC Programme  of  Action,
although  it is  not  an SADC-operated  project.   The  third phase  of  the
programme is expected to end in December 1996.


11.  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

61.  Through  its field offices in the  SADC region, UNESCO  has carried out
regional and  subregional programmes  in several  areas reflecting  regional
priorities.  In December  1994, a field office was also established in South
Africa following the establishment of the new Government.

62.  In accordance  with General Assembly resolutions, and at the request of
SADC member  States represented  on its  Executive Board,  UNESCO has  taken
steps to  formalize its  relations with  SADC.   In October  1994, the  SADC
Executive Secretary made his  first official visit to  UNESCO.  In  February
1995,  UNESCO  was  represented for  the  first  time  at  the  annual  SADC
consultative  conference, held in Malawi.   A focal point for SADC relations
and  coordination has  been appointed  in  the  Directorate attached  to the
Office of the Director-General.  Missions  and contacts take place regularly
between UNESCO and the SADC secretariat.

63.   UNESCO  and  SADC  officials are  working  on a  draft  memorandum  of
understanding, which  is expected to be  ready for  signature after approval
by  the  Executive  Board  at  its  147th session,  in  October  1995.   The
agreement  will define broad  areas of  cooperation and  set down modalities
for joint action and regular consultation  between the two organizations  in
areas of common interest.

64.  In support of the SADC draft  agreement for shared watercourse  systems
in  the southern  African  region,  which was  to be  discussed at  the SADC
Summit held  in South  Africa in August  1995, UNESCO has  been designing  a
regional  programme for  training  and research  in the  area  of  water use
management in  collaboration with  the Government  of South  Africa for  the
benefit of all SADC member States.


12.  World Health Organization

65.   In  1995,  WHO  and SADC  discussed  the possible  establishment of  a
health,  population  and  social  welfare  sector  at  the  regional  level.
Together with other agencies and  the donor community, WHO  attended an SADC
appeal  conference  at  Geneva  in  June  1995.    An  intercountry workshop
organized  by WHO  called for  the setting  up of  an SADC  health  learning
materials resource and training centre in 1996.

66.   At  a country  level, WHO  continues to  support the  formulation  and
implementation  of  health   policies  of  SADC  member  States,   including
consultations with the chief nursing officers  of several SADC countries and
national workshops on  human resource development and health sector  reform,
as  well   as  emergency   and  rehabilitation  assistance  to   Angola  and
Mozambique.   WHO also collaborates  with governmental and  non-governmental
organizations in South Africa on substance abuse prevention.


13.  World Bank

67.   The World  Bank's total  commitments to SADC member  countries for the
period   1991-1995  were   US$   4.5  billion   (International   Development
Association: $4.1 billion).   Of this, $1.9 billion was in the form of fast-
disbursing assistance to  support structural adjustment programmes in  those
countries. Apart from structural adjustment, lending priorities include  the
following: private  sector development, poverty alleviation, and development
of human resources and physical infrastructure.

68.   The  World  Bank is  currently  assisting  in  the  implementation  of
structural adjustment programmes in Malawi, Mozambique, the United  Republic
of Tanzania,  Zambia and  Zimbabwe.  As  Angola resumes its  normal economic
life,  the  World  Bank  will  re-engage  itself  in  the  rehabilitation of
shattered infrastructure  and promote accelerated  capital investment.   Aid
coordination  to these  countries  is being  provided  through  consultative
groups  chaired  by the  World  Bank.   For  Lesotho,  aid  coordination  is
provided  through United  Nations-sponsored roundtable  meetings.   Although
lending  activities to  South Africa  have  not  yet taken  place, necessary
preparations  have been  completed  to  permit swift  response  to  possible
government  requests  for  assistance  in areas  such  as  human  resources,
housing,  infrastructure, and  small  enterprise development.   A  change is
imminent in  the nature and volume of World Bank assistance to Namibia.  The
Government  has  recently requested  assistance  in  the  restructuring  and
privatization   of  a   large  parastatal   and   in  the   development   of
infrastructure for its export processing zone around Walvis Bay.

69.   The World  Bank has for many years  been engaged in activities related
to  economic  integration.   Projects  have  included  major  infrastructure
development and  execution of regional  studies with significant  investment
and  efficiency  implications.    Studies  in  progress  cover  hydrological
management, indigenous  knowledge systems in  agriculture and forestry,  and
environmental management. Direct  technical assistance has been provided  to
SADC headquarters to enhance its professional capacity.

70.   The  Cross-Border Initiative  (CBI)  is  a significant  programme  co-
sponsored with  the European  Union, the  African Development  Bank and  the
International  Monetary  Fund.   CBI  is  aimed  at  creating  a  policy and
institutional framework  for facilitating  cross-border private  investment,
as  well as direct foreign  investment, through reforms in the trade regime,
exchange and  payments systems,  investment promotion  and financial  sector
reforms, and relaxation of crossborder labour  movements.  CBI has  received
wide  support  among the  SADC member  States  and  is currently  in various
stages  of preparation  and implementation  in Malawi,  Namibia,  Swaziland,
Zambia and Zimbabwe.


14.  International Monetary Fund

71.  Consistent with  the present focus of  SADC on market  integration, the
policy  work carried  out by the  International Monetary Fund  (IMF) in SADC
countries has  focused  on opening  their  economies  to the  advantages  of
larger  markets, regionally  and globally.    In the  context of  the Fund's
country  work   on  surveillance   and  structural   adjustment  programmes,
important  reforms, notably those  relating to  the liberalization  of trade
and  exchange systems  and the  financial  sectors,  are aimed  at fostering
market integration.

72.   In this regard, IMF  has sought to address  the regional dimension  of
reforms relating to trade, investment and payments  through the Cross-Border
Initiative (CBI), which is being sponsored  by IMF, the African  Development
Bank, the  World Bank and the Commission  of the European Union.  In helping
the participating countries  to develop their  CBI policy, IMF has  tried to
harmonize the scope and pace  of reforms among countries.   Malawi, Namibia,
Swaziland, the United Republic of Tanzania,  Zambia and Zimbabwe are already
participating in CBI and  other SADC member countries are welcome to join in
the initiative.

73.   With regard  to institutional  links between  SADC and  IMF, the  SADC
secretariat is undertaking a review of  areas in which IMF  assistance could
be beneficial.


 15.  Universal Postal Union

74.  For the period 1990-1994, SADC  countries benefited from the  technical
assistance programme provided by the Universal  Postal Union (UPU).   Multi-
year integrated  projects  for postal  development  were  funded by  UPU  to
provide   fellowships   and  consultants   to  Botswana,   Lesotho,  Malawi,
Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

75.   UPU  implemented  a UNDP-funded  project  in  the  United Republic  of
Tanzania and has recently  drawn up a postal development project for  Angola
which  will  be submitted  for funding.    UPU has  also awarded  individual
fellowships to Angolans in the past few years.


16.  World Meteorological Organization

76.   Cooperation between the  World Meteorological  Organization (WMO)  and
SADC has  been conducted mostly through  the Southern  African Transport and
Communications  Commission,  which  is   responsible  for  the   coordinated
development of  meteorological services within the  SADC region.   The major
development efforts include the following:

  (a)   The  Finnish  International Development  Agency  (FINNIDA)/SATCC/WMO
Meteorology Project,  started in  1987 and  ended in  1995.   Funds for  the
project  amounting to  approximately US$  15  million  were provided  by the
Finnish Government  through its development  agency, FINNIDA.   These  funds
were used for fellowship training of  SADC nationals in various  specialized
fields of  meteorology for  the purchase and installation  of meteorological
instruments and equipment and for field experts and consultants;

  (b)   WMO contributed  to the  establishment of  institutions that  foster
regional integration, particularly in support of the various  socio-economic
development initiatives.  The Drought Monitoring  Centre (DMC) at Harare was
established in 1991  with UNDP  support and provides  early warnings to  the
SADC  countries on  the occurrences  of  drought  and other  adverse weather
conditions.  Other institutions  in southern  Africa  that  are part  of WMO
centres are  the Regional Telecommunication Hub (RTH) at Lusaka,  the RTH at
Pretoria and the Regional  Instrument Calibration and  Maintenance Centre at
Gaborone.


17.  World Intellectual Property Organization

77.  The World  Intellectual Property Organization  (WIPO) provides  various
advisory services and training to the region.

78.   In July  1993, in cooperation with the  Government of Namibia and with
the assistance  of  the Government  of  Sweden,  WIPO organized  a  regional
general  introductory course  on industrial  property.   During  the  period
under  review, WIPO  granted training  fellowships to  government  officials
from all 11 SADC countries.


 18.  United Nations Industrial Development Organization

79.   While the United Nations  Industrial Development  Organization was not
in a  position to  take  major  initiatives at  the subregional  level,  its
technical  assistance services  to SADC  member  countries at  the  national
level has been significant.

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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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