United Nations

A/50/654


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

19 October 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH/FRENCH/SPANISH


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 20 (b)


STRENGTHENING OF THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AND DISASTER
RELIEF ASSISTANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INCLUDING SPECIAL    
ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE:  SPECIAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUAL
COUNTRIES OR REGIONS

Emergency international assistance for a solution to
the problem of refugees, the restoration of total  
peace, reconstruction and socio-economic development
in war-stricken Rwanda

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION...........................................13

II.  KEY DEVELOPMENTS FROM JANUARY TO SEPTEMBER 1995........2 -
303

  A.  Refugees  ...........................................2 -
103

  B.  Displaced persons..................................11 - 175

  C.  Justice  ............................................18 -
247

  D.  Rehabilitation and reconstruction and socio-economic
    development........................................25 - 309

III.  HUMANITARIAN DEVELOPMENT RESPONSES PROVIDED BY THE
  INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY................................31 -
9011
  A.  Assistance by Member States and other donors.......31 -
4411



95-31769 (E)   021195  151195/...
*9531769*
CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

  B.  Assistance by organizations of the United Nations
    system and intergovernmental organizations.........45 - 8315

  C.  Assistance by non-governmental organizations.......84 -
9022

IV.  CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS................................91 -
10224

Annexes

I.  Rwanda financial
update...........................................28

II.  Map of
Rwanda.....................................................41
/...  A/50/654
  English
  Page

A/50/654
English
Page

I.  INTRODUCTION


1.  The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly 
resolution
49/23  of  2 December  1994  on  emergency  international 
assistance for  a
solution  to  the problem  of  refugees,  the  restoration  of
total  peace,
reconstruction  and   socio-economic  development   in  Rwanda.   
 In   the
resolution, the Assembly  expressed its  grave concern  over the 
disastrous
humanitarian  situation  in  1994 of  the  Rwandan  population, 
including 2
million  refugees  and  displaced persons  who  must  be 
reintegrated  into
society  and employment;  urged all  States, United  Nations 
organizations,
specialized   agencies,   other   intergovernmental   and  
non-governmental
organizations and the  international financial and development 
institutions
to provide all possible financial, technical  and material
assistance with a
view  to facilitating the  restoration of basic services,
rehabilitating the
economy  and  ensuring   the  reconstruction  of  the  social 
and  economic
infrastructure  of Rwanda and  the return  and resettlement  of
refugees and
internally displaced persons in Rwanda; urged  all States, in
particular the
donor countries, to contribute generously to  the trust fund
established  by
the  Secretary-General on 14  July 1994  to finance  humanitarian
relief and
rehabilitation programmes in Rwanda;  and requested the
Government of Rwanda
and other  partners concerned,  including the  States of  the
subregion,  to
meet without delay to  consider the problems relating to Rwandan
refugees at
a subregional conference within the framework  of the plan of
action adopted
under the Arusha Peace Agreements (A/48/824-S/26915, annexes).


II.  KEY DEVELOPMENTS FROM JANUARY TO SEPTEMBER 1995

A.  Refugees

2.   The safe  return of refugees  is crucial  to stability  and
harmony  in
Rwanda and  the  region  as a  whole.   This  concept  was
accepted  in  the
Declaration of the  Regional Summit on Rwanda held  at Nairobi on
7  January
1995, in  the Plan of Action  of the Bujumbura  Conference
organized jointly
by the  Organization of  African Unity  (OAU) and  the Office of 
the United
Nations High Commissioner for  Refugees (UNHCR) from 15 to 17
February  1995
and  included  in  the  tripartite  agreements  between  Rwanda, 
UNHCR  and
neighbouring countries.

3.  The  OAU/UNHCR Regional Conference, which  was called for  in
resolution
49/23,  addressed the  problem of refugees, returnees  and
displaced persons
in the  Great Lakes region on  a humanitarian and  non-political
basis.   It
adopted a  Plan of  Action with  a primary focus  on voluntary 
repatriation

instead  of  care and  maintenance  of  camps  for  refugees and 
internally
displaced  persons. Participants  agreed  that the  camps could 
not sustain
their occupants  over a long  period without putting  them at 
serious risk.
There  was  concern  that  the  uncontrolled  elements  in  the 
camps could
destabilize  the  entire  central  African  region.    The 
Conference  also
recognized that  the problem  of refugees,  returnees and
displaced  persons
was a global one.   It therefore  emphasized the need for
equitable  burden-
sharing.    To  that  end,  the  Conference  requested  the 
United  Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) to convene a  round-table meeting of
donors and
the countries of the  region in order to coordinate actions to be
undertaken
in those areas affected by the presence of refugees.
 4.  UNHCR estimates  that, since January  1995, some 150,000
refugees  have
returned to  the country.   Out  of that  number, some 122,000 
are refugees
belonging to  an old case-load  dating back to  1959-1960 and  to
subsequent
years of conflict.   About 27,000 are refugees who fled in  the
1994 crisis.
Most  old case-load  refugees have not  found permanent
settlement.   A good
number of them are  lodged in  houses and use or  work on land
belonging  to
those who died  or fled in 1994.   Many are living  with friends
and family.
A significant number of more recent  refugees and formerly
displaced persons
are living in similar precarious conditions.

5.    Organized  repatriation of  Rwandans  who fled  to  Zaire,
the  United
Republic  of  Tanzania  and  Burundi  during  the events  of 
1994  has been
difficult.   This has  been  due mainly  to the  fact that 
elements of  the
former  Government control  and  intimidate the  population 
within  refugee
camps.   UNHCR  and the  Government of  Zaire signed  an
agreement  in  late
January  1995  to place  1,500  military  and  police  personnel
inside  the
refugee camps in  that country.   With that deployment, security 
inside the
camps has improved and intimidation  of refugees has decreased.  
The number
of refugees departing  from the Goma  camps rose  from 2,000  in
January  to
10,000 a  month later.   In March, however,  partly as a  result
of  reports
reaching the refugees about increased arrests  and detentions in
Rwanda, the
numbers  of  people  willing  to  leave the  camps  declined 
substantially.
Contributing  further to the  decline was  the reduction of  food
rations in
the  camps.  Although this was  due to overall  shortages of food
aid in the
region, it was  perceived by many  refugees to  be a  deliberate
measure  to
force their repatriation.

6.   On  22  May, the  Joint  Commission  for  the Repatriation 
of  Rwandan
Refugees was  officially launched.  The  Commission, mentioned 
in article 9
of  the  Arusha Protocol,  is  composed  of  five 
representatives from  the
Government of  Rwanda, two representatives from UNHCR, one
representative of
OAU,  one  person  representing   old  case-load  refugees  and 
one  person
representing new  case-load  refugees.    Its  principal 
functions  are  to
propose  repatriation  plans,  study  ways  of  putting  those 
plans   into
practice,  to assist the  Government in mobilizing resources and,
generally,
to facilitate cooperation among the various partners in the area.

7.    There have  recently  been some  encouraging  signs to 
indicate  that
largescale repatriation  of  refugees to  Rwanda  may  be
possible.    UNHCR
reports  that some  7,000 Rwandan  refugees  returned  from
Burundi  in June
either through organized programmes  or spontaneously, and  that
the numbers
returning in  July may be  much higher.   July has  also seen the 
return of
small but steady numbers of refugees from Zaire  and the United
Republic  of
Tanzania.   The trend  of spontaneous return  of large numbers 
of refugees,
however,  is  a concern.    Since  they  do not  register  with 
UNHCR,  the
provision  of  the normal  repatriation  package  of  emergency 
assistance,
including  food, is  extremely  difficult.   Many  of  the 
people who  have
spontaneously returned have  also not registered with the local 
authorities
in Rwanda and this renders them ineligible for general food
assistance.

8.   On 5  July,  UNHCR  resumed its  voluntary repatriation 
programme  for
Rwandan refugee camps in  Goma.  A tripartite  agreement has been 
signed by
Rwanda, the United Republic of Tanzania and UNHCR for  the
repatriation from
Tanzania. Confidence-building measures have been stepped  up in
Burundi.  As
part of those measures, refugees in camps in  Burundi have been
assisted  to

return to Rwanda to see conditions  in their home communes. 
There have also
been visits  by senior  Rwandan and  Burundian government 
officials to  the
camps.   However, as at the end of July, the camps  in Zaire
still held more
than one  million refugees, some  727,000 in Goma  and some
further  372,000
refugees  in Bukavu/Uvira.   The United  Republic of  Tanzania
hosts another
566,000 Rwandan refugees and Burundi 180,000.

9.  As at 7  July, and against needs which  total $205 million, 
$72 million
had  been  pledged  towards  the  Government's  resettlement 
programme  for
refugees and displaced persons.   It is hoped that additional
donor  funding
will  be  made  available  for the  specific  projects  that are 
now  being
prepared on the  basis of the  general Plan  of Action  for
resettlement  of
refugees and internally displaced  persons, presented by  the
Government  at
the round-table mid-term review.   The Plan of Action envisages a
series  of
actions  designed  to  meet  the  basic  needs  of  returnees 
with priority
initially  given   to  seven   sites  identified   by  the  
Government  for
resettlement.     Those  actions  include   the  rehabilitation 
of   social
infrastructure, the construction  of housing, the promotion of 
small-scale,
income-generating  activities and  the  reform of  existing  land 
ownership
legislation.  Specific components of the Plan of Action  will be
implemented
as donor  funding  becomes available.    In  recent months, 
United  Nations
agencies and non-governmental  organizations have increased their
assistance
to home communes. Without adequate donor  support, the Government
will  lack
the  means  to  ensure  that  conditions  in  the  communes  are
created  to
encourage refugees to return home.

10.   Equally important is action on the part of the Government
of Rwanda to
improve security  in Rwanda  and a  firm commitment  from the 
international
community, as  well as  the  Governments  of the  region, to 
support  those
efforts. Furthermore, the  institution of  asylum continues  to
face  severe
difficulties  in  the  Great  Lakes  region.    This  is  of 
deep  concern.
Countries  hosting Rwandan  and  Burundian refugees  have  shown 
increasing
signs of impatience.   The United Republic of  Tanzania, long
known  for its
generosity  to asylum-seekers, closed  its borders  to Burundian
and Rwandan
refugees in March.  Soldiers in  Burundi have regularly turned 
away Rwandan
refugees despite assurances  from officials in the capital,
Bujumbura,  that
their frontiers  are  open.   Zaire,  while  still admitting 
refugees,  has
threatened  to  keep them  out and  forcibly  expel those 
currently in  the
country.


B.  Displaced persons

11.   For  the first  four months  of  the year,  the problem  of 
displaced
persons living in some 20  camps, mainly in the south-west  of
Rwanda, was a
major focus  for the  Government of  Rwanda, the  United Nations 
Assistance
Mission for Rwanda  (UNAMIR), United Nations  agencies and
international and
non-governmental  organizations.   By  the  beginning  of January 
1995, the
camps  housed approximately 300,000 people,  many of whom lived
only a short
walk from their  original communes, to  which they were reluctant 
to return
for  reasons that  included the  loss  of their  homes,
insecurity  in their
communes and guilt or  fear of being falsely  accused in
connection with the
genocide.   Intimidation and  harassment by  members of  the
former Rwandese
Armed Forces and militia  within the camps contributed greatly to
the  fears
and tensions.
  12.  The  Government of Rwanda saw the  camps as sanctuaries
for  elements
of the  former government forces and  military, a source  of
instability and
an obstacle to restoration  of normalcy.  Although  there had
been  attempts
by UNAMIR and  UNHCR/International Organization for Migration
(IOM) in  1994
to  assist people to return  home voluntarily, the Government
appeared to be
frustrated with the slow pace of such efforts.

13.   The threat  of forced  camp closures and  a growing number 
of violent
incidents involving  the Rwandese Patriotic Army  (RPA) led  to
the creation
of new  mechanisms for more effective  coordination and  an
accelerated pace
of  voluntary return.   In November  1994, the  Integrated
Operations Centre

was established.   It brought together  officers of  the relevant
government
ministries,  UNAMIR, representatives  of United  Nations agencies 
and  non-
governmental  organizations to  coordinate  the day-to-day 
aspects  of  the
accelerated programme of voluntary return, code-named Operation 
Retour.  At
the  same time,  an Integrated Displaced  Persons Task Force, 
headed by the
Director-General of the  Ministry of Rehabilitation and Social 
Integration,
was established to determine policy concerning  displaced
persons.  The Task
Force comprised the Government of Rwanda,  including
representatives of  the
RPA,  the Ministries of Planning  and Justice, UNAMIR and  senior
members of
United Nations agencies.

14.  Within the first two months of  Operation Retour, some
40,000 displaced
persons were  transported back to their  home communes and  a
further 40,000
had left  the camps spontaneously.   However, by March  1995, the
number  of
people  willing to  return voluntarily  to  their  home areas 
had declined.
There  were also indications that  people from the communes were
moving into
the  camps,  some for  the  first  time.   Preparations  in 
April  for  the
commemoration  of the  anniversary of  the start  of the  1994
genocide also
heightened fears of reprisal  and led to increases  in camp
populations.  On
18  April, as negotiations were  ongoing with the Government  and
the United
Nations regarding  the voluntary  closure of  the camps,  the
Government  of
Rwanda  took action to  cordon off  and close the eight 
remaining camps, of
which  Kibeho was  the largest.   Seven  of the  camps were 
closed  without
serious  incident.    However,  at  Kibeho the  estimated  80,000 
displaced
persons in the camp spent five days herded  together without
adequate space,
shelter, water or  sanitation.  The limited delivery  of food and
water  was
used  as  an incentive  for the  internally displaced  persons to 
leave the
camp.  On 22 April, a large group of internally displaced 
persons broke the
cordon that  the RPA had established  around the camp  and tried
to  escape.
RPA  witnesses indicated  that  some internally  displaced 
persons  carried
rifles and  others were armed with traditional weapons such  as
machetes and
stones.  A large  number of deaths occurred  as a  result of the
RPA  firing
into crowds of  people.  Others were  trampled to death  and
crushed  as the
population panicked.

15.  Shortly after the  events of 18 to 22 April,  the Special
Envoy  of the
Secretary-General,  Mr. Aldo  Ajello, carried a personal  message
of concern
from  the Secretary-General to  the Government of Rwanda.   In
that message,
the  Government  was  urged  to  allow   unhindered  and  safe 
movement  of
humanitarian  convoys, as well  as protection  for people 
leaving the camps
and in  their home  communes.   An Independent  International
Commission  of
Inquiry, called for  by the Government  of Rwanda, was  also
established  to
investigate the events of 18 to 22 April,  including the role
played by  the
RPA.    The  inquiry  concluded  that the  tragedy  of  Kibeho 
was  neither
premeditated nor an accident that could not have been prevented.

16.   In  the  face of  the humanitarian  emergency  triggered by 
the  camp
closure, humanitarian  relief agencies responded  in a  fast and
coordinated
manner.   The prompt  reaction of  UNAMIR forces,  United Nations 
agencies,
non-governmental  organizations,  the  International  Committee 
of the  Red
Cross  (ICRC) and  IOM  both in  Kigali  and  in  the Butare  and 
Gikongoro
prefectures undoubtedly prevented further  unnecessary suffering
and deaths.
During  the initial phase of  the emergency, the transport 
assets of UNHCR,
IOM  and  UNAMIR,  along with  trucks  made  available  by  the 
World  Food
Programme (WFP)  and non-governmental organizations,  were pooled
to  enable
people  who had  left  the  camps to  be  carried to  their  home 
communes.
Medical  organizations set  up emergency  facilities,  mainly in 
Butare, to
attend to  the  sick  and  wounded.    Mobile  medical  teams 
ensured  that
assistance was also  available in the way stations.   At some way 
stations,
food  and  other  emergency  supplies  were  delivered  to  the 
former camp
populations as they made their way home.

17.   The initial  phase of  the emergency  has now  passed and
many  of the
former displaced persons have  settled back well into  their home
areas.  In
some  areas, however,  the problems  related to  the closures 
are far  from
solved.  The  massive return of  people, many  of whom were
forced  to leave

their possessions in the  camps, or were robbed  en route to
their communes,
has placed heavy strains on the  already fragile conditions in
the communes.
Land and housing disputes have intensified  and there are
continued  reports
from  some communes  of  harassment,  attacks  and 
disappearances.    Also,
because  of their  fear of being  arrested or ill-treated,  large
numbers of
people  have not  registered in  their home  communes and remain 
in hiding.
United  Nations  and   non-governmental  organization  efforts 
to   improve
conditions  in communes  have increased  in  recent  months.  
Those efforts
include  the provision of  office equipment  and vehicles  to
strengthen the
capacity  of  local administration,  as well  as  reconstruction
of  houses.
Nevertheless, further substantial  amounts of  assistance will be
needed  in
the  months  ahead  in  terms  of  relief support,  as  well  as
development
assistance.


C.  Justice

18.   The  restoration of  a  functioning judicial  system and 
the parallel
establishment   of   the  rule   of  law   are  prerequisites  
to  national
reconciliation,  sustained stability  and peace  in Rwanda.   The
Government
has stated that  the punishment of those  responsible for the
1994  genocide
is essential if aggrieved  survivors are to be prevented from
taking the law
into their own hands.  At the same time, the prevailing situation
points  to
the need  to break  with the  tradition of  impunity that  has
prevailed  in
Rwanda over the past  decades.  The challenges  are considerable,
given  the
devastating impact of the  1994 genocide and civil war, which
together  have
resulted  in  the  near total  destruction  of  Rwanda's 
existing  judicial
system.   Of the 750 magistrates  who were working before the 
war, only 256
are  still available  for  work.   The rest  have been  killed or 
have fled
abroad.    The  judicial  infrastructure   was  either  damaged, 
looted  or
destroyed during the war.

 19.    In  its Programme  for  National  Reconciliation and 
Socio-Economic
Rehabilitation  and Reconstruction, presented  at the  round
table at Geneva
in January  1995, the  Government set  out  its objectives  for
the  justice
sector:   the  reorganization of  the  judicial  system; the 
prosecution of
suspected perpetrators  of genocide;  law reform;  and the 
overhaul of  the
security  system.  A Plan of Action, prepared by  the Ministry of
Justice in
March, set out the  steps that needed to  be taken  in order to
reach  those
objectives.  As at the end of July 1995, the objectives were  far
from being
attained.  No  trials of genocide suspects have been held; no 
courts in the
country are  functioning normally; and while public prosecutors
and judicial
police inspectors are involved in the preparation of cases for
trial,  their
work is severely  constrained by a lack of resources.   By the
end of  July,
some 450 gendarmes had been  trained, yet were  not yet deployed
in all  the
prefectures.   In a  great many  cases,  arrests were  being
conducted  with
little regard for due process.

20.   Conditions in  Rwanda's prisons and other  places of
detention, caused
by overcrowding,  resulted in yet another  humanitarian crisis.  
Although a
government  decision  to  limit  arrests  has  reduced  the 
number  of  new
detainees  to roughly 600 a week, some 50,000 detainees are being
held in 12
prisons, with an official capacity of 12,250 and 198 detention
centres.   In
some places of detention,  overcrowding is so bad  that many
people  have to
stand  jammed  together in  unsanitary  conditions  day  and 
night.   Seven
screening  commissions (commissions de  triage) to  speed up  the
release of
those  for  whom  there  is   insufficient  evidence  of  
wrongdoing  began
functioning in July.  As yet, the number of releases is low, with
only  some
40 individuals freed during the  month of July.  Some  of these
same  people
have subsequently been rearrested.

21.   The dimension of the  problems in Rwanda  has prompted
United  Nations
agencies,  UNAMIR,  ICRC,  and  non-governmental  organizations, 
with   the
support  of donor  countries, to  rehabilitate and create 
additional prison
capacity.  A new  detention centre, with a capacity of 5,000
detainees,  was
constructed at Nsinda and  will open in  October.  Also at the
end  of July,

work began on the  conversion of four out  of seven facilities
identified by
the Government, including  warehouses, bus stations  and so  on
that can  be
converted into  other temporary detention  centres.   Other
initiatives have
been launched by the donor community,  in collaboration with the
Government,
in   an  effort  to  improve  the  prison  situation.    These 
include  the
establishment  of detention  structures  for children,  the 
elaboration  of
legal safeguards  for  minors, the  registration  of  all
detainees  in  the
country and the provision of food, water/sanitation  and medical
care to the
existing  prison population.   Additional  efforts have  been
undertaken  to
release children.

22.   The  situation  in  the prisons  calls  for urgent  and 
extraordinary
actions, if  the misery  and suffering  of  detainees is  to be 
alleviated.
Following his visit to Rwanda in  July, the Secretary-General
instructed the
Emergency Relief  Coordinator to  meet with  the international
community  to
find  innovative  and  concerted   approaches  to  address  the 
problem  of
overcrowding  in  prisons and  to  speed  up  the  processing of 
detainees.
Following  two  meetings  with United  Nations  agencies,  donors 
and  non-
governmental organizations, one  in New York and  one in Geneva, 
a detailed
plan of action is  now being prepared in cooperation with the
Government  of
Rwanda.

 23.   The restoration  of the  functioning of the  Rwandan
judicial system,
must  also  be  accelerated.    As  at  the  end of  July,  the 
offices  of
prosecutors, judicial  police inspectors, together  with court
buildings  of
all levels,  have  been  repaired  and  refurbished  and  office 
equipment,
vehicles and other needed materials are  being supplied to
judicial offices,
courts  and the Ministry  of Justice.   In order to  restore
staffing levels
within the system, among both professional  and secretarial
ranks, the donor
community organized  a series of training  programmes.   These
have targeted
all parts  of the judicial  and corrections  systems and  will
continue  and
accelerate  over the  second half  of the  year.   In order  to
build needed
capacity within  the systems as quickly  as possible, foreign
experts with a
wide variety of backgrounds  have been put  at the disposal of
the  Ministry
of Justice.

24.    With  the appointment  of the Deputy Prosecutor  of the
International
Tribunal  for Rwanda,  the process  of  investigating  acts of 
genocide and
other  serious violations  of international  humanitarian law 
committed  in
Rwanda has begun.  Investigations  are being carried out  inside
and outside
Rwanda, covering  400 identified suspects, most  of whom  have
sought refuge
abroad.  Under  article 28 of the statute  of the Tribunal,
States are under
an  obligation  to cooperate  with  it  and to  comply  with  its 
requests,
including the  arrest or detention of  persons and the surrender
or transfer
of suspects.  On  20 July, the General  Assembly approved $13.5 
million for
the Tribunal  to cover  costs through  31 October  1995.   In
addition,  the
Trust Fund  for the International Tribunal  for Rwanda  has
received pledges
worth $6 million.


D.  Rehabilitation and reconstruction
 and socio-economic development

25.   At the  round-table conference held  at Geneva  on 18  and
19  January
1995, organized  by UNDP in  cooperation with the Government  of
Rwanda, the
Programme for National Reconciliation and Socio-Economic
Rehabilitation  and
Recovery was  presented to the donor  community.   The
round-table programme
comprises three subprogrammes:  (a) financial support;  (b)
reintegration of
refugees and displaced persons; and (c)  rehabilitation and
development.  In
response  to   the  Government's   request  for   $764.1  million 
for   the
implementation of  the round-table  programme, international 
donors at  the
conference pledged  $586.8 million.   All of  these funds, except 
for $40.8
million, fell within the scope of the programme.  On 6  and 7
July 1995, the
round-table mid-term  review was  held at  Kigali as  a
follow-up.   It  was
noted that much progress  had been made in the re-establishment
of  physical
infrastructure in Rwanda and in  achieving pre-crisis levels  of
production.

Over  and  above  the  pledges  announced   at  Geneva  and  the 
additional
contributions  made between  January  and June  1995, donors 
announced they
would make  available further funds totalling  $128 million.  It
was decided
that the next round-table  conference for Rwanda would  be held
at Geneva in
January 1996.

26.  The Government  decision not to resort  to monetary creation
to finance
the budget  deficit will undoubtedly benefit  the economy  in the
long-term,
as will  its introduction  of a  market-determined exchange  rate
system  in
March 1995.   The implementation of  a sound  macroeconomic
policy framework
is  seen  as  a key  determinant  of future  financial  stability
and  rapid
economic recovery.  During the first half of  1995, the
Government has  been
working closely with the World Bank,  the International Monetary
Fund  (IMF)
and  UNDP  with a  view  to  strengthening  its  capacity for 
macroeconomic
management.

27.  In terms  of humanitarian assistance, the food aid pipeline,
which  was
becoming a source of concern at the beginning of the year, has
continued  to
improve over  the last  few months.   The  main food aid 
distributors, WFP,
ICRC  and  the  Catholic  Relief  Services   (CRS)  report  that 
they  have
sufficient  quantities of  food to  cover planned  distribution 
programmes.
Food stocks  in country are also  sufficient to meet new
emergencies, should
they arise.   However,  in spite  of the  massive amounts  of
emergency  aid
provided  in   1994  and  1995,  preliminary  results  from  a 
country-wide
nutrition  survey by UNICEF of children under five  highlight the
effects of
conflict, mass population movements and the  continued
vulnerability of  the
country.   From a pre-war  figure of 3.8  per cent,  the global
malnutrition
for children under five now stands  at 9.7 per cent and  the rate
of chronic
malnutrition, an  indicator of socio-economic conditions,  is as 
high as 44
per cent.

28.    The  plight  of Rwandan  children,  many  of  whom 
continued  to  be
traumatized by  the horrors  they witnessed in  1994, continues
to  remain a
concern. Nevertheless, there have  been a number of significant
improvements
in  their situation  in the  last two  months.   Of  the 45,000 
children in
Rwanda who are unaccompanied, over  28,000 are now in foster
care.  As  part
of its agreed policy,  the Government is continuing efforts to
make  similar
arrangements  for  some  12,000  other  children  who remain  in 
children's
centres.   The transfer  of 155 child prisoners aged  between 7
and 14 years
from various prisons in  Rwanda to a new centre especially for
children also
began  in the middle of June.   In addition to separating  them
from adults,
the  new centre is  providing the  children with  basic
education, community
services and development of practical skills.   Around 2,000
child  soldiers
have also been moved  to a residential compound on the outskirts
of  Butare,
with  the  objective  of gradually  reintegrating  them  into 
their  former
communities.

29.   The problem of  mines, as people return and begin  to till
their land,
has continued to be  a concern.  Following a bilateral agreement
between the
United States Government and the Government  of Rwanda, a
national  demining
programme was  established in  July.   Under the  terms of  the
agreement  a
national demining office will  be opened and  a mine database
created.   The
office will  also act as a  focal point for  a mine-awareness
programme  and
demining training, beginning with an initial 80 RPA soldiers.

30.  Notwithstanding the many achievements in 1995, the road to
recovery  is
a long and hard one  and there remain a wide range  of issues for 
which the
Government, with the support of the United  Nations system,
non-governmental
organizations  and international  organizations,  need to 
prepare.    These
include  the possibilities  of  new emergencies  resulting  from 
escalating
conflict in  Burundi or  actions that  may be  taken by the 
former Rwandese
Government in  exile. Presently  a contingency  planning 
exercise is  being
undertaken in  Rwanda  to review  possible  scenarios  and to 
constitute  a
United Nations  disaster management team.  This team will  work
closely with
the   Government  and   non-governmental  organization  
community  in   the
preparation of contingency plans.

  III.  HUMANITARIAN DEVELOPMENT RESPONSES PROVIDED
      BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY            

A.  Assistance by Member States and other donors

31.  On 8  May 1995, the Secretary-General  invited Member States 
and other
donors to  provide  information on  assistance  extended  to
Rwanda  in  the
framework of General Assembly resolution 49/23.   Replies were
received from
the following States:


China

32.   On  22 March  1995,  the  Government of  China signed  an
exchange  of
letters with the Government  of Rwanda by which  China would
grant  Rwanda a
total value of  Y 5 million  (US$ 601,419) of general goods  to
be delivered
upon receipt of a requisition list.


Cyprus

33.  Cyprus has contributed to the Rwandan crisis as follows:

  (a)  Pharmaceutics of LC 31,765 on 26 January 1995;

  (b)  Voluntary contribution of $1,000  for the United Nations
consolidated
 inter-agency appeal for Rwanda.


Finland

34.   Finnish  contributions to  Rwanda/Burundi,  as at  June
1995,  are  as
follows:

Organization
Amount  
(Markkaa)  
Decision
WFP

4 000 000

    5 April 1994UNHCR
2 000 000
    4 April 1994World Vision
210 000
    4 April 1994Free Foreign Mission
215 000
   29 May 1994ICRC
1 200 000
    6 June 1994IFRC
1 000 000
    6 June 1994UNICEF
   449 742
     Total
9 074 742



Germany

35.   In 1994 and 1995,  the amount of  humanitarian assistance
provided  by
the  Government  of  Germany  to  Rwandan  refugees  and 
displaced  persons
totalled  DM 312,797,669,  DM  155,100,000 of  which  constitutes 
Germany's
portion  of  the  assistance rendered  by  the  European  Union 
(EU).    In
addition, Germany pledged another  DM 150 million in  April 1995
to  be used

towards long-term  rehabilitation programmes  in Rwanda, 
especially in  the
following  sectors:   health,  water and  sanitation, the 
judiciary system,
education, the reintegration  of refugees and displaced persons, 
protection
of natural resources and assistance to orphans and single women.


India

36.   India provided transport equipment worth Rs 15  million,
consisting of
buses,  trucks,  jeeps, motorcycles  and bicycles,  to  Rwanda as 
emergency
relief  supplies  to facilitate  refugee  rehabilitation and 
reconstruction
efforts.


Italy

37.  In 1994,  the Government of  Italy allocated a total of Lit 
24 billion
to emergency operations, requiring the establishment of an
Italian  logistic
base  in Kigali  to support  programmes  being  implemented by 
Italian non-
governmental organizations in the framework of multinational
operations.

38.  In 1995, further emergency  programmes are planned worth 
approximately
Lit  5  billion, to  be  allocated  through  multilateral 
channels.   These
include  an  Italian  contribution to  the  United  Nations
Children's  Fund
(UNICEF) worth Lit 1.6  billion that will  also be utilized to
expand  basic
health services  and improve  the conditions of  some primary 
schools.   In
addition plans  are  in place  to  implement  through bilateral 
channels  a
project worth Lit 2 billion to fight tuberculosis and leprosy.

39.    Finally,  Italy has  worked  to  implement  the  decision 
of the  EU
Development  Council,  adopted on  25  November  1994,  for  a
joint  action
programme worth ECU  60 million.  The  programme includes the
deployment  of
50  observers  to  monitor  respect  for   human  rights, 
support  to   the
educational sector and rehabilitation of basic structures.


Japan

 40.  During  fiscal year 1994 special assistance provided by the
Government
of Japan was as follows (including relief operations in Burundi):

United States dollars
Relief operation for persons affected by conflict in Rwanda
(through UNHCR)

        42 750 000Transport cost of crackers (151 tons) (through
WFP)
           650 000Relief operation (through WFP)
approx. 11 000 000Relief operation (through ICRC)
         4 600 000Relief operation (through ICRC)
         1 400 000 a/Relief operation (through UNICEF)
         1 000 000Relief operation (through WHO)
           950 000Relief operation (through IOM)
           900 000Assistance for human rights operation (through
the  Centre
for Human Rights)
           500 000Relief operation (through UNHCR)
           300 000Relief operation (through UNV)
           200 000

  a/  In Swiss francs.


Luxembourg

41.   In  1994, Luxembourg  provided humanitarian  and emergency 
assistance
totalling $851,636.

Republic of Korea

42.  The Government of the Republic of  Korea participated in
United Nations
assistance activities as follows:

  (a)  Provision of motor vehicles to UNAMIR ($671,000);

  (b)    Financial assistance  through  UNHCR  to  the  Rwanda
Special  Fund
($100,000);

  (c)  Provision of medicine through UNHCR ($132,000);

  (d)  Provision of six personnel to assist in water/sanitation
projects;

  (e)  Photo exhibition of refugees from Rwanda;

  (f)  Provision of further apparatus in 1995 ($77,000);

   (g)   In addition,  the Korean  private sector,  including
national  non-
governmental organizations, provided cash and relief good
contributions,  in
the amount of$1.3 million. Sixty medicalvolunteers weredispatched
toRwanda.


Spain

43.  In 1995,  Spain funded humanitarian and emergency assistance
to  Rwanda
as follows:

  (a)    In cooperation  with  UNHCR,  a  repatriation  project
for  Rwandan
refugees (Ptas 325 million);

  (b)   Repatriation project for  children in refugee  camps in
Goma,  Zaire
(Ptas 5,138,000);

  (c)     Project  funding   the  International   Tribunal 
established   to
investigate crimes committed in Rwanda (Ptas 19 million);

  (d)     Contribution  to  the  Trust  Fund  for  Rwanda,  to 
support  the
rehabilitation  of  the  judicial  system  and  other  basic 
programmes  in
cooperation with UNDP (Ptas 26 million);

  (e)   Contribution to the  programme of  human rights  monitors
in  Rwanda
(Ptas 19.5 million).


Switzerland

44.    Below  is a  list  of  contributions  of  Switzerland  to
assist  the
population in Rwanda:



1994  1995(Millions of Swiss francs)


Cooperation and development
0.51
0.74Humanitarian assistance
 26.42
7.40Search for a political solution
0.50
0.10Civil society, media
0.70
0.20Restoration of the judicial system
 0.01
0.20Restoration of  the rule of law,  promotion of human rights
and national

reconciliation subtotal
 1.21
0.50     Total
 28.14
8.64

/...  A/50/654
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A/50/654
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B.  Assistance by organizations of the United Nations
    system and intergovernmental organizations      

45.   As  the  crisis began  to abate  in the  later  part  of
1994,  it was
recognized by the United Nations and  its humanitarian partners
that,  while
it was  important to maintain emergency relief programmes for 
those in dire
need,  there  was  an  urgent  need  to  move  beyond  relief  to 
recovery.
Following  extensive  consultations  with  the  Government, 
United  Nations
agencies,  non-governmental  organization  representatives, 
ICRC,  IOM  and
other  intergovernmental   organizations,  the  Department  of 
Humanitarian
Affairs of the Secretariat  sent a team to Kigali  in November
1994  to help
prepare a new  United Nations consolidated  inter-agency appeal 
for Rwanda.
The  appeal,   which  also   included  some  non-governmental  
organization
projects, requested $208 million for programmes  inside Rwanda. 
The  appeal
was  launched in January  1995, covering  programmes and 
activities for the
whole of 1995.  So far, some $91 million has been  received or
pledged.  The
shortfall has led to some important programmes either not 
starting or being
curtailed.


Department of Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat

46.  The Department  of Humanitarian Affairs, through its field
office,  the
United  Nations Rwanda  Emergency Office  (UNREO), has  continued
to support
the  United  Nations   Humanitarian  Coordinator  in  order  to  
facilitate
effective  coordination of  humanitarian assistance  in Rwanda.   
UNREO has
provided  weekly  and  monthly  situation  reports  and  analysis 
for   the
humanitarian  and  donor  communities  so  as  to  ensure  a 
more effective
humanitarian response.  Throughout  the first half of 1995, UNREO
served  as
focal point  for  the integrated  efforts  established  to assist 
displaced
persons  return to their  home communes,  providing staff  to the
Integrated
Operations  Centre  and   the  Integrated  Displaced  Persons 
Task   Force,
established within the Ministry of Rehabilitation and Social
Integration.

47.    In December  1994, the  Department also  worked with  the
Government,
United    Nations    agencies,   non-governmental    and  
intergovernmental
organizations in  the preparation  of a  United Nations
consolidated  inter-
agency appeal.  The  appeal, which was launched in January 1995,
covered the
emergency and  initial rehabilitation needs of the country until 
the end of
December.

48.  The  sudden and continued expulsion of  Rwandan refugees
from Zaire  in
August and its impact on  both Rwanda and the region continues to
require  a
substantive  humanitarian coordinating system on the ground.  
UNREO assumes
this  responsibility,  while   rapidly  assisting  to  train  the 
 Resident
Coordinator's office to assume the role at a later stage.

49.   Viewing the problems  in the Great  Lakes region
cross-sectorally, the
Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs is  currently establishing 
a  Regional
Integrated Information Unit (RIIU), in line  with the
recommendations of the
Inter-Agency Standing Committee.  Based in Nairobi, the Unit will
fill  gaps
in   the  flow   and  analysis   of   information,  thereby  
enhancing  the

international humanitarian community's capacity to develop and
implement  an
integrated approach.
 
Department for Peace-keeping Operations of the Secretariat

50.  On  29 December  1994, UNAMIR began  Operation Retour, an 
inter-agency
initiative  aimed  at  facilitating  the  safe  resettlement  of 
internally
displaced persons  (see paras.  13 and 14  above).  The 
operation used  the
combined assets of the United Nations  system, such as
transportation, food,
security and  other confidence-building  incentives, including 
the presence
of human rights  officers, to provide assistance not  only in the
camps  but
at the commune level as well.

51.  The mandate of UNAMIR was unanimously extended by the
Security  Council
in  its  resolution  997 (1995)  of  9  June  1995.    The
Security  Council
authorized a reduction of  its force to  2,330 troops over three
months  and
to  1,800 troops  over four  months.   UNAMIR is  now mainly 
assisting  the
Rwandan  authorities  to promote  national  reconciliation,  the 
return  of
refugees and the  setting up of a national police force.  UNAMIR 
is also in
charge  of  the  protection  of  humanitarian  organizations, 
human  rights
observers and members of the International Tribunal.


United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

52.  There are  presently 114 human rights field officers from 45 
countries
working in 11 field offices in Rwanda.   Sub-offices, which cover
a  smaller
number of communes,  will be part of the next phase, which  has
already been
initiated in the Cyangugu and Kibungo  prefectures.  Throughout
1995,  field
officers  have continued  to travel  from  commune  to commune 
meeting with
civil,  judicial and  military authorities  and local 
populations  to learn
about the general conditions of each  commune, including
security, access to
property,  the   material  needs  and  the  functioning  of  the 
judiciary,
conditions  of  detention  centres  and  alleged  human  rights 
violations.
Allegations are  investigated and solutions are  sought with 
local, or when
needed, national authorities.

53.   During the High  Commissioner's visit  to Kigali  from 31 
March to  3
April a  large collection of grass-roots  information gathered 
by the Human
Rights Field  Operation for Rwanda Special  Investigative Unit 
was given to
the Deputy Prosecutor of the International Tribunal  for Rwanda. 
During the
same   period,   relations  with   the   Government   of   Rwanda 
 improved
significantly.  Recent initiatives of the  Human Rights Field
Operation  for
Rwanda have been supported by the Government.

54.   The structure of the operation has been modified  to
address the needs
in the  field.  It currently  consists of a  Field Coordination
Unit,  which
manages information  gathering and  field support,  a Technical 
Cooperation
Unit  supervising human rights promotion and assisting  in the
establishment
of permanent structures  that will safeguard human  rights in
Rwanda and the
Legal   Analysis   and   Coordination   Unit,   which   conducts  
 in-depth
investigations  into the genocide  and present  human rights
violations, and
analyses information coming from the field.   The Technical
Cooperation Unit
has  developed a  number of  projects  with the  Government to 
address  the
daunting  problem  of  ending  the  cycle  of  impunity  in  a
post-genocide
society.  At present  the Technical Cooperation Unit in
cooperation with the
Government, is organizing a conference to  promote a viable
Rwandan response
to  genocide.   Experts  from  several parts  of  the world  are
invited  to
compare methods  of fostering  national reconciliation  after
massive  human
rights  violations.   The Human Rights  Field Operation for 
Rwanda has also
been  distributing  equipment  donated  by  various  Governments 
and   non-
governmental organizations to judicial authorities around the
country.


United Nations Development Programme

55.   UNDP  supports the  implementation  of  the Government's 
Programme of
National  Reconciliation  and  Socio-Economic  Rehabilitation 
and  Recovery
(round-table programme)  in three key  areas:   (a) state
capacity-building;
(b) support for rehabilitation  of the judicial system; and (c)
support  for
the resettlement  and reintegration of refugees  and displaced 
persons.  It
uses two  funding mechanisms  for this  purpose:  cost-sharing 
arrangements
under  which UNDP and IPF  funds are combined  with donor
contributions, and
the  UNDP  Trust  Fund for  Rwanda.    As at  5  July,  UNDP had 
programmed
virtually all of the funds it had  received through the Trust
Fund  over the
preceding four months ($12.8  million) and had disbursed  58 per
cent of the
total.

56.    In the  area  of  state  capacity-building, the  most 
important UNDP
project,  budgeted at approximately  $9.5 million,  with IMF  and
World Bank
participation, is  designed  to enhance  the economic,  financial
and  human
resource management  capacity of  the  Government through  the
provision  of
training,  equipment and  short-term  consultancies to  six  key 
government
ministries.

57.  In  the judicial sector, UNDP  has drawn up  a Framework 
Programme for
Support to the Rehabilitation  of the Rwandan Judicial  System. 
Phase  I of
the  Framework   Programme  seeks,  in   part,  to   relieve  the 
 critical
overcrowding in  Rwanda's prisons  by rehabilitating  existing
prison  space
and  constructing  new  detention  centres  in  order  to 
increase  overall
capacity.  In order  to remedy the  acute shortage of judicial
personnel  in
Rwanda, UNDP is  implementing a programme under  Phase II that
provides  for
the  training of  Rwandan  judicial  and administrative 
personnel  and  the
deployment of 50  expatriates in support roles.   An additional
objective of
both  Phases I  and  II of  the Framework  Programme  is to 
strengthen  the
administrative capacity  of the  Rwandan judicial  and
corrections  systems.
To  that  end,  vehicles  and  office  equipment  worth  $378,000 
are being
supplied to courts and judicial police inspectors.

58.    In  the  area  of  resettlement  and reintegration  of 
refugees  and
displaced  persons, UNDP  has implemented  a  project  designed
to  meet the
basic needs  of this  group, including housing  requirements, and 
reinforce
local administrative capacity in target communes.


United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

59.   Throughout the year  UNHCR has been promoting  conditions
conducive to
the return of  Rwandan refugees.  In  addition to monitoring the 
conditions
of return  of  refugees, UNHCR  has  continued  to provide 
direct  material
assistance  to   both  organized  and   spontaneous  returnees 
to   Rwanda.
Returnees,   internally  displaced  persons   and  needy  local 
communities
continue to benefit  from the  UNHCR community assistance
programmes,  which
cover water, health, education and institutional projects.

60.    As  a  result of  relatively  more promising  security 
conditions in
Rwanda, organized  repatriation of Rwandan refugees resumed from
Zaire after
the twomonth lull that  followed the closure  of Kibeho and other
camps  for
internally displaced persons inside Rwanda.   Repatriation of the
"new case-
load" continues  to gain  momentum from  Burundi.   Two
tripartite  meetings
(Government  of Rwanda,  UNHCR and  Government of
Burundi/Government  of the
United Republic  of Tanzania)  were held  in June  and July
respectively  to
find ways and means of accelerating repatriation of refugees.

61.  Direct material assistance to all categories of returnees
continues  to
be  provided when returnees  enter Rwanda and at  transit centres
until they
reach their home communes.   Between August 1994  and June 1995,
UNHCR, with
IOM  and  UNAMIR, transported  275,508  people  returning  from
outside  the
country and 229,701 displaced persons from several  camps within
Rwanda.  In
addition  to transportation,  returnees are  provided with a 
one-month food
ration, essential non-food items, seeds and agricultural tools.

62.  UNHCR is  also rehabilitating 60  school buildings in four 
prefectures
by making  basic  repairs,  providing school  equipment and 
promoting  non-
formal education  and training programmes  for women and  young
girls.   Ten
district  hospitals and 42  health centres  were also 
rehabilitated and, at
most sites,  equipped.  Training of  medical staff  in
diagnostics, maternal
and paediatric  care, nutrition  and trauma  treatment were 
offered at  the
hospitals  and  clinics  where  UNHCR  was  involved  in 
physical  repairs.
Limited amounts of  medical supplies, including  drugs, were 
also purchased
to support isolated centres and hospitals.   Immunization and
related triage
activities  were carried  out at  primary health  care stations 
at the  six
official  points  of  entry  into  Rwanda.  UNHCR  is  also 
implementing  a
programme  of  shelter  construction  that  will  provide  28,500 
homes for
returnees to  Rwanda and  will ease  some of  the pressure on 
potential new
returnees,  whose houses  are  frequently  occupied, in  their 
absence,  by
others.  UNHCR is also  involved in the repair of  old water
systems  and in
establishing new ones where possible.   Three existing water
supply  systems
have been rehabilitated; in addition, springs  were captured in
many  places
and water is being piped to different locations in the rural
areas.

63.   Several ministries involved  in the implementation of
refugee/returnee
programmes have benefited  from UNHCR  institutional assistance.  
To  date,
UNHCR has  provided 47 vehicles and  34 motor-cycles  to various
ministries,
with a view to building their capacity.


United Nations Children's Fund

64.   As a  result of  the events  of 1994,  some 95,000 children 
have been
separated  from their families, over  12,000 of whom  have been
sheltered in
unaccompanied  children's  centres.    As  the  designated  lead 
agency  on
unaccompanied  children, UNICEF has  promoted the  use of  the
Convention on
the Rights of the Child  as an instrument for the  design of
social policies
and programmes benefiting  unaccompanied children.  Children's
centres  have
been provided with safe  water, sanitation facilities,  health
care services
and supplementary food.  UNICEF has  supported its partner 
non-governmental
organizations in the  registration, documentation, tracing and
reunification
of unaccompanied  children.  Since late  February 1995,  over
7,000 children
have  been reunified  in Rwanda.    Through  its trauma  recovery
programme,
UNICEF has trained  over 2,600 Rwandan social  agents in trauma
healing, who
have been  able to  reach some  67,000 children.   UNICEF has 
also provided
technical assistance to the Government for  the creation of
national  policy
guidelines  for  psychosocial  trauma  interventions.    A 
National  Trauma
Recovery Centre  opened in  June to  serve as  a focal  point for 
training,
research, documentation,  as  well  as  an  out-patient  clinic 
for  direct
treatment of severely traumatized children.

65.   In addition  to supplying water  to camps for  the
displaced prior  to
their  closure, UNICEF  has continued  in  1995  with the 
rehabilitation of
water  and  sanitation facilities  in  both urban  and  rural
areas.    Such
projects have  benefited over 2.5 million  people.  Because  of
the lack  of
expertise and  manpower at  both the  national and  regional
levels,  UNICEF
will now  concentrate on  training and  capacity-building until 
the end  of
1995.

66.  Over  one million Rwandan children are  attending school as
a result of
efforts  by  the  Government,  UNICEF and  the  United  Nations
Educational,
Scientific  and Cultural  Organization  (UNESCO) in 
re-establishing primary
education.   UNICEF has  introduced "Education  for Peace"  into
the  school
system, which aims  to foster capacities of mutual understanding, 
tolerance
and  peaceful conflict resolution.  As in other sectors, UNICEF
is assisting
the  Government in  becoming  self-reliant through  provision  of 
technical
support, equipment and vehicles.

67.  Since January  1995, UNICEF and  the Ministry of Health have 
completed
the repair  of 21 health facilities,  participated in  policy
development of
major  disease control  programmes  and  continued  the training 
of  health

personnel at national level.  Health  and nutrition promotion
campaigns such
as  Operation Clean  Hands,  cholera awareness  and HIV/STD 
prevention have
been  launched. Vaccination results for the first quarter  of
1995 show that
coverage is gradually increasing to its pre-war levels.

68.    UNICEF  and partner  non-governmental  organizations  have
also  been
supplying  and  distributing key  agricultural  inputs.   
Income-generating
projects  targeted at  rural women's  groups  have  been
initiated  as pilot
schemes.   However, community-based groups are  still embryonic 
as a result
of the breakdown of social  structures during the war.  During
the past  six
months, UNICEF has helped the Government  re-launch a national
programme  to
combat  vitamin A, iron  and iodine  deficiencies.   Technical
expertise was
provided in  the development of a  national nutrition policy, 
which will be
finalized by the end of the year.

69.    Some  80  per  cent  of 266  damaged  nutritional  centres 
have been
rehabilitated in  1995.  UNICEF has  also distributed 
supplementary food to
nutritional  centres as  well as  to  unaccompanied children's 
centres  and
vulnerable  returnee  families.  For  the  rest  of  the  year, 
UNICEF will
continue  with  national-capacity  building  and will  work 
towards  a more
community-based approach to nutritional problems.


 United Nations Volunteers  

70.  UNV has  fielded 42 human rights  monitors in Rwanda and  a
further  64
UNV specialists to support ongoing programmes  in Rwanda and the 
subregion.
UNV specialists have  been attached to UNHCR,  the United Nations
Office for
Project Services, FAO,  UNICEF and  the Department of
Humanitarian  Affairs.
UNV air traffic  controllers, aeronautical information service
officers  and
communications officers have also assisted the International
Civil  Aviation
Organization (ICAO) to ensure the functioning of Kigali airport.


World Food Programme

71.  During the  first half of 1995, WFP  distributed 28,726
million tons of
food  aid to  a monthly average  of 520,000 beneficiaries 
throughout the 10
prefectures of  Rwanda.  These  beneficiaries include returnees, 
vulnerable
persons  in home  communes,  hospital patients,  orphans  and 
unaccompanied
children.   All WFP  projects implemented during  the period 
have been both
emergency assistance and to a certain  extent rehabilitation. 
Since January
1995,  WFP has  also been  feeding  3,300 refugees  from Burundi 
and  1,700
internally displaced persons  still awaiting return  to and 
resettlement in
their communes of origin.

72.  In order  to assist Rwandan farmers and their families
during  planting
seasons and to stop them from resorting to  eating seeds when
food shortages
arise,  WFP has been implementing a seed protection programme
during the two
last  planting seasons.   This has  benefited some  318,000
beneficiaries on
each  occasion,  thus   supplementing  distributions  of  seeds 
and   tools
undertaken  by other  aid agencies.   Between  January  and March 
1995, WFP
assisted  18,000  primary  school  teachers  who   were 
receiving  low  and
irregular  salaries through  the foodfor-work  programme.   The
food  ration
distributed was adequate to support 72,000  of the teachers'
family members.
The project restarted  in June and is expected  to continue for
two  months.
During 1995, a  monthly average of  62,000 civil  servants and
their  family
members also benefited from a similar project.

73.     In  order   to  assist   the  Rwandan   society  in  
post-emergency
rehabilitation and reconstruction  programmes and to create
additional  jobs
for the  unemployed,  WFP  implemented  a  variety  of  other 
food-for-work
projects throughout the  country. These have focused primarily on 
increased
food   production,   including   land   terracing,   swamp 
drainage,   seed
multiplication,   rehabilitation  of   fish  ponds   and  
income-generating
activities  such as production  of vegetables,  poultry and 
livestock.  The

projects have been targeted at women's  groups in particular.
Other projects
have  a  focus   on  the   rehabilitation  of  basic 
infrastructure   (road
rehabilitation  and  construction  of  houses  and  schools).   
Some 29,000
workers and  their family  members were  assisted between 
January and  June
1995 on a monthly basis.

74.   To  streamline the  overall  land  transportation of  food 
deliveries
within the subregion,  WFP has created a  special section within 
the Rwanda
Country  Office,  the   Transport  Coordination  Unit,  whose 
task  is   to
coordinate  all  WFP transportation  assets and  food deliveries 
within the
subregion.   The Unit has also  been involved in facilitating
other overland
movements into and within Rwanda, and in transit  to other
locations in  the
subregion.   Subsequent to the  establishing of  the Transport 
Coordination
Unit and signing of a protocol  with the Government of Rwanda, 
WFP has been
able to increase  the trucking capacities  by 30  per cent  and
to  decrease
unnecessary  movements of the  trucks between  loading points
outside Rwanda
and delivery  points inside  the country.   In addition, the 
Unit has  also
been useful  in coordinating with IOM  and UNHCR the use  of WFP
trucks  for
the transportation of returnees.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

75.   With the funding  support of several  European donors,  the
World Bank
and   a  large   number  of  non-governmental   organizations, 
agricultural
materials in the  form of seeds, tools  and fertilizers were
distributed  to
farm households by the Ministry of Agriculture and  FAO.  Timely
rains  have
helped harvests to reach about 60 per cent of normal, which  has
resulted in
an encouraging food  and seed supply for the  1996 "A" season
commencing  in
September.   At the  same time,  seed multiplication  activities
have begun,
especially for beans, sweet  potatoes and cassava,  with broader 
programmes
planned in collaboration with international research  centres. 
In spite  of
improvements  in crop production,  large areas  of land  lie
uncultivated by
their absent owners, who  are either refugees  outside Rwanda or
victims  of
the genocide.

76.   Action is  under way  by FAO to enhance  disease control
and livestock
management,  in particular in  the Mutara  region, where  cattle
numbers far
exceed forage capacity and environmental sustainability.

77.    The Global  Information  and  Early  Warning  System 
(GIEWS) of  FAO
constantly monitors the crop prospects and food supply situation 
in all the
countries of  the  world, including  those  affected  by
conflicts.    These
assessments are disseminated to the international community
through  regular
reports  "Foodcrops  and   Shortages",  "Food  Supply  Situation 
and   Crop
Prospects in Sub-Saharan Africa" and "Food  Outlook".  GIEWS has
fielded two
joint FAO/WFP crop and food supply assessment missions  to Rwanda
and issued
special reports on 21 December 1994 and 24 March 1995,
respectively.


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

78.  UNESCO, especially through the  Programme of Education for 
Emergencies
and Reconstruction and  its continuing close collaboration with
UNICEF,  has
sought to  assist  the recovery  of basic  education inside 
Rwanda and  the
provision of emergency  educational services  in refugee camps.  
Particular
attention has  been paid  to in-service  teacher  training by 
means of  the
Teacher Emergency Package, of which 8,500 copies have  been
distributed.  By
the end of March,  12,000 teachers had received training related
to the  use
of the package.

79.   In addition, UNESCO and  UNICEF have sponsored  a number of 
workshops
and conferences,  including  a conference  on  the  policy and 
planning  of
education in Rwanda, to stimulate policy  development and the
improvement of
educational programmes.   Jointly with UNICEF, technical
assistance has been
provided regarding a database management system  in the Ministry
of  Primary

and Secondary Education.
  World Health Organization

80.  WHO has  continued to assist the  Government to re-establish
or improve
a  wide range of health programmes.  This has included material,
operational
and personnel assistance  for the review of pharmaceutical
policy.  With the
Ministry  of Health, WHO  has undertaken  a comprehensive 
assessment of the
health  system and helped  develop a  national health  system
rehabilitation
plan.

81.    Support for  the  rehabilitation  of  hospitals  and
health  centres,
especially  Ndera Hospital,  has  also been  extended,  including 
financial
support,  provision of  materials,  technical equipment  and 
drugs  and the
training of personnel.   A computerized data-collection system
and  analysis
has been  established to  assist the  national epidemiological 
surveillance
and  a  review of  the  blood  transfusion  programme  has been 
undertaken.
Particular attention has  been given to  improve mother and child 
health at
all levels of the national health system.


World Bank

82.    In  late  1994,  the  World  Bank initiated  consultations 
with  the
Government on  an emergency assistance  programme to support
Rwanda's socio-
economic rehabilitation and recovery.  As a result,  a $50
million emergency
reconstruction credit was agreed with the Government in February
1995.   The
first tranche of the credit, $18  million worth of support to the
balance of
payments, was released to the National Bank of Rwanda at the end
of July.

83.   Since the  formal reopening of the World Bank's Kigali
offices at  the
end  of January 1995,  several missions  have visited Rwanda with 
a view to
restructuring the project  portfolio in place before  the 1994
crisis so  as
to  match   current  circumstances   and  needs  better.    
Following  that
assessment, 11 development projects have been  restarted.  They
are designed
to support activity in  key sectors of the national economy. 
These  include
education,  communications,  transport,  energy  and 
agricultural  services
within the private sector  as well as in state companies. 
Together with the
$50  million credit, the  total value of the  World Bank's
project portfolio
is $233 million  as at 31 July  1995.  The report  of a World 
Bank mission,
sent  to Rwanda in early 1995  to study the  problem of the
repatriation and
reintegration of refugees, helped the Ministry of Rehabilitation
and  Social
Integration in its preparation of a plan of action for the
sector.


C.  Assistance by non-governmental organizations  

84.  Throughout  1995, non-governmental organizations have
continued to play
a major  role in  the relief effort in  Rwanda.  A number  of
United Nations
programmes have  been implemented  in collaboration  with
international  and
national non-governmental organizations to address immediate
needs, as  well
as lay the groundwork for  rehabilitation and recovery.  There
are currently
some   110   international   and   around   80   national  
non-governmental
organizations working  in Rwanda  on a  wide range  of
programmes,  covering
food  distribution,   medical  assistance,   family  tracing,  
agricultural
assistance,  income-generating activities and  education.  As has
the United
Nations   system,   many   non-governmental   organizations  
have   focused
increasingly on rehabilitation and development  assistance. 
Among  the most
active were ICRC and IOM.


International Committee of the Red Cross

85.  ICRC has  had a permanent presence in Rwanda since 1990,
protecting and
assisting  victims of  the conflict  and  the  civilian
population  at risk.
During  the  tragic  events  of  1994,  the  ICRC  established 
an emergency
hospital in  its delegation  compound and  surgical teams  worked
round  the

clock  to save 9,000 lives.   Following the events  at Kibeho in
April 1995,
ICRC  set up  an operational  surgical  unit  at Butare  Hospital
within  48
hours.

86.   ICRC provided emergency food  relief to  vulnerable groups,
internally
displaced people and returnees in various  regions. 
Distributions peaked in
November  1994  with 1.3  million  beneficiaries  receiving  ICRC 
aid.   In
addition, an  agricultural programme, which  supports 270,000
families,  has
been  carried out  since September  1994.   ICRC water  engineers 
helped to
repair  water  treatment  facilities  and rural  water  supplies 
have  been
rehabilitated in three prefectures.

87.    With  regard  to  detention-related  problems,  ICRC  has 
taken  the
exceptional measure of providing food, water,  wood for cooking
and  medical
treatment to about 39,000 detainees held in the 14 main prisons 
in order to
ensure  their survival.   Furthermore,  ICRC  supplied  a minimal 
amount of
water  and  installed  sanitary  facilities  to   prevent  the 
outbreak  of
epidemics.   ICRC has also  agreed to work  with the  authorities
and United
Nations  agencies to  set  up  a new  detention site  at Nsinda 
designed to
accommodate 5,000 detainees.

88.  As a means  of restoring ties between members  of families
split  up by
the conflict or by detention, over one million Red Cross messages
have  been
exchanged via  the ICRC network since  August 1994.   Another
major activity
of  ICRC in  Rwanda is  the  dissemination  of information  on
international
humanitarian  law,  especially  that  intended  for  the  armed 
forces  and
government officials.


International Organization for Migration

89.     IOM has  been  providing assistance  to displaced 
persons,  Rwandan
nationals and third-country nationals since 1994.   Together with
UNHCR  and
in close  coordination  with the  Government  of  Rwanda, IOM 
has  provided
transport and resettlement assistance to the  communities of
origin for both
displaced persons and repatriating Rwandan refugees.

90.   Many Rwandan  nationals have  professional experience 
needed by their
Government but are currently residing in  other African
countries, Europe or
North America.  Those who are  interested in returning but are
not always in
a position  to find employment in advance  or to pay the costs of
travel and
re-establishment  are being assisted  by IOM.   Based  on similar
programmes
that IOM has  implemented in other countries,  IOM is preparing a 
programme
for  assistance  in  the  return  and  reintegration  of 
qualified  Rwandan
nationals who  could fill vacancies in  high-priority jobs  in
Government as
well as parastatals and private enterprises.   Together with the 
Government
of  Rwanda,  270  candidates  will  be   matched  with  vacancies 
that  are
considered most important for the rehabilitation process.


IV.  CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS

91.  Since  the adoption of  General Assembly resolution  49/23
in  December
1994 significant progress has been made by the  Government of
Rwanda and its
international partners to restore the country  to a semblance of 
normality.
Thanks  to   substantial  amounts  of   emergency  relief  and  
development
assistance in 1994 and 1995, the humanitarian crisis  has been
averted and a
good start has been made on  rehabilitation and reconstruction. 
Electricity
and water supplies have been partially  restored, schools have
reopened  and
the national  banking system  is once  more functioning.   With 
substantial
deliveries of donated seeds, tools and fertilizers, agricultural 
production
in 1995 looks promising. Substantial pledges  of bilateral and 
multilateral
assistance have also  been made  in support  of the  country's
recovery  and
lasting stability.   Although the pace remains slower than  many
would wish,
the disbursement of pledged assistance has picked up since the
early  months
of 1995.

92.   The situation  in Rwanda  nevertheless remains  very
fragile, with  no
significant advances in the process of  national reconciliation
and some 1.8
million  Rwandan  refugees   still  to  be  repatriated  from  
neighbouring
countries.    The  former Government's  military  forces  remain 
present in
neighbouring countries and are reported to  have been rearmed and 
retrained
in preparation for an armed invasion.  The  forced closure by the
Government
of Rwanda in  April 1995 of camps  for displaced persons  in
Rwanda  and the
resulting tragic and heavy  loss of life in Kibeho, the largest
camp,  serve
to  underscore  the tensions  and  fears  that  remain  just
underneath  the
surface.   The grossly  overcrowded prisons, arbitrary arrests
and continued
human  rights abuses  also serve  to  highlight  the frustrations 
caused by
delays in bringing to justice those responsible for the 1994
genocide.

93.   One year  after the  genocide claimed  the lives  of more
than  half a
million Rwandans,  none of the leaders  of that  campaign,
including members
of  the former  Government and armed  forces, have been  brought
to justice.
The International Tribunal  has been established and  is expected
to try its
first cases  by the end  of the year.   The Rwandan  justice
system  remains
largely  non-functioning and the  difficulty the Government has
in providing
basic   public  services   and   the  relatively   slow  pace  
of  national
reconstruction and development  add to the tension.   The
scarcity of  human
resources also continues  to limit government administrative and 
management
capacity, both  at the national  and regional levels.   As a 
result of  the
genocide or  the flight  into exile,  the  lack of  skilled
workers  affects
every sector  in its ability to  respond to the  complex and 
great needs of
populations  traumatized  by  conflict,  massacres,   genocide 
and  massive
population movements.

94.   Internal  tensions within  Rwanda are  a source  of
concern.   A major
destabilizing threat comes  from the  rearmed former  government
forces  now
based  largely in  Zaire.   These  irregular  forces operate 
with impunity.
Increased infiltration and terrorist activities have been noted
over  recent
months  and banditry, allegedly  by former  government elements, 
is a daily
occurrence.

95.  Repatriation,  reconciliation and reconstruction are under
way,  albeit
slowly,  at the grass-roots level, but sustained international
donor support
is required to accelerate the process  and build needed
government capacity.
The progress  made with regard  to the improvement  of security 
in camps in
Zaire remains insufficient to ensure the  voluntary repatriation
of all  the
refugees.  Ultimately such repatriation  will depend  on the 
efforts of the
Government of Rwanda to promote national  reconciliation and to
ensure  that
people can  return to  their home communes  without fear  of
persecution  or
false accusations  regarding  genocide.   In  that  respect,
rebuilding  the
justice system remains critical and must  be hastened for the
implementation
of Security Council resolution  978 (1995) of 27 February 1995,
in which the
Council  urged  States to  arrest  and  detain  persons  found
within  their
territory and against whom there  was sufficient evidence  of
responsibility
for  the acts  within the  jurisdiction  of  the International 
Tribunal for
Rwanda.  Implementation  of the resolution will  also enhance the
process of
national reconciliation and hence an early return of refugees.

96.   The present conditions in Rwanda's prisons and  detention
centres have
become a humanitarian concern.  As at mid-August  1995, there
were more than
51,000 detainees  in over  200 places of  detention.  Hundreds 
of detainees
have already died as  a result of overcrowding.  Consultations
were held  in
New York, Geneva and Kigali  to develop a plan to  address the
problem  in a
comprehensive manner.  A two-pronged strategy was agreed  upon: 
firstly, to
alleviate  severe overcrowding  and to  improve detainees' 
conditions  and,
secondly, to  accelerate  restoration of  the  justice  sector
and  the  due
process  of  law,  in   particular  the  Government's  capacity 
to  process
detainees' files.  The international community  is strongly urged
to provide
adequate  and immediate  financial and  material  support to 
alleviate  the
situation.

97.   Much progress  was made  during  the first  half of  1995
towards  the

resumption of normal economic  activity in Rwanda.   At the same
time, many,
although   not  all,   of  the   foundations  for   the 
rehabilitation  and
reconstruction of vital economic and  social infrastructure have 
been laid.
The  commitment of  the  donor  community  to  Rwanda's 
sustained  recovery
appears positive, as evidenced by the  Geneva round-table
conference and the
Kigali round-table  mid-term review. Nevertheless,  pledges of
support  need
to be translated quickly into  tangible development assistance. 
The rate of
disbursement and  delivery of  promised funds,  though rising, 
needs to  be
sustained  at  high  levels  in  order  to  ensure  full  
support  for  the
Government's efforts to achieve  national reconciliation and 
socio-economic
rehabilitation and recovery.

98.   A recent  transport capacity  analysis carried  out by  IOM
showed  an
insufficiency  in the private transport sector.  Although  there
has been an
increase in the number of vehicles,  their service focuses on 
international
heavy goods transport and  in-town commuting.   UNHCR and IOM,
which have  a
combined  fleet  of   130  buses  and  trucks,  are  now 
assisting  in  the
distribution of  food and  non-food items  to the  home communes. 
 This  is
limited in time, for the  first priority will be given  to the
assistance of
returning refugees.  Since the lack of domestic private 
transport may prove
to be a serious obstacle to  both rehabilitation and development
programmes,
IOM and the Ministry of Transport  are designing a transport 
rehabilitation
plan for Rwanda, which needs further financial support.

99.  As Rwanda  slowly advances on  the road to recovery, close 
cooperation
and coordination between the Government and  its partners remains
essential.
In  that respect the  widening gulf  between some  government
ministries and
their  international partners  is deeply disturbing.   The
relationship with
non-governmental  organizations, in  particular,  is now  so poor 
that many
international organizations are  considering leaving  Rwanda.  
Many of  the
current tensions stem from misunderstandings and,  in part, also
reflect the
Government's   limited  knowledge   of  the  mandates   of 
non-governmental
organizations.   However, many of the current difficulties are
the result of
the moral dilemma that  the whole of the humanitarian community
has faced in
dealing   with  both  the   victims  and   the  perpetrators   of 
genocide.
Considering the important role that non-governmental
organizations can  play
in the  future development  of Rwanda,  it would  be tragic if 
the valuable
work that has been  undertaken were to be lost.  It would be
helpful to both
parties   if  a  forum   could  be   found  to   facilitate 
closer  working
relationships and a better understanding of mutual concerns and
problems.

100.   Equally disturbing  is the  situation in  the Great  Lakes
region  in
general and the possibility  of further mass turmoil  and
conflict.  In this
respect, the  Secretary-General, during  his visit  to the 
region in  July,
made it very clear  that despite his own appeals for increased
international
support in  terms of  military assistance,  the leaders  of the 
region must
find their  own solutions to many  of their grass-roots 
problems.  He  also
stressed that the  international community no longer  had the
funds to  deal
with  the  myriad  problems in  the  region  and that  donor 
fatigue  would
continue to  deepen unless the leaders  of the region  began to
address  key
issues.

101.  Subsequently the Secretary-General requested  the United
Nations  High
Commissioner for Refugees to visit Burundi,  Rwanda, the United
Republic  of
Tanzania and  Zaire in  order to  identify solutions  to the
problem  of the
massive number of refugees  in the region resulting from the
recent forcible
repatriation of Rwandan and Burundian refugees  by the Government
of  Zaire.
After having  consulted  with the  Governments  of  the region, 
Mrs.  Ogata
emphasized  that only  political  solutions could  effectively 
address  the
underlying causes. Humanitarian  action could only contribute to 
supporting
political solutions and not replace them.

102.   In that  context the Secretary-General  appointed a 
Special Envoy to
the Great  Lakes region to initiate preparations for a 
conference on peace,
security and development in  the region.  In order to secure the 
acceptance
of all  the relevant  countries  for the  idea  of  a Great 
Lakes  regional

conference, the  Special Envoy  is conducting  intensive
consultations  with
the  Governments  of   Rwanda,  Burundi,  Uganda,  the  United 
Republic  of
Tanzania,  Zaire  and  Kenya  in  order  to  ascertain  their 
readiness  in
principle  to   participate  actively  in   the  conference   and 
to   take
responsibility for  its success.   The role  of the United 
Nations and  OAU
will be  to coordinate the  efforts of those  nations and  to
facilitate the
process leading to the convening  of the conference, the  major
objective of
which will  be  to achieve  a  regional  agreement  on measures 
to  promote
lasting security, stability and sustainable development in those 
countries.
Furthermore,   the  conference  will   seek  to  identify  and 
address  the
underlying causes  of conflict  in the region  and the current 
situation in
the political, humanitarian, military, economic  and social
fields,  as well
as developments that have  led to the  increase of tension among
the  States
of the region.
n

 

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