United Nations

A/50/541


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

11 October 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH AND FRENCH


Fiftieth session
Agenda items 20 (b) and 26


          STRENGTHENING OF THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AND DISASTER
          RELIEF ASSISTANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INCLUDING SPECIAL
          ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE:  SPECIAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUAL
COUNTRIES OR REGIONS

THE SITUATION IN BURUNDI

Special emergency assistance for the economic recovery
and reconstruction of Burundi

Report of the Secretary-General


I.  INTRODUCTION

1.   The  present report  is  submitted  in  pursuance of  General  Assembly
resolutions 49/7 of 25 October and 49/21 C of 2 December 1994.

2.     In  its   resolution  49/7,   the  General   Assembly  requested  the
SecretaryGeneral, in close  collaboration with the Secretary-General of  the
Organization   of  African   Unity  (OAU)   and  the  United   Nations  High
Commissioner  for  Refugees,  to  continue their  efforts  to  normalize the
situation in Burundi, to mobilize resources for that purpose, to ensure  the
implementation  of  the resolution  and to  report  to the  Assembly at  its
fiftieth session.   The Assembly also fully endorsed  the wish of the  heads
of  State  and  Government  of  African  countries  to  convene  a  regional
conference on  assistance to  refugees, returnees  and displaced  persons in
the  Great Lakes region.   It invited the international  community to become
fully involved by providing substantial technical and financial support  for
the early implementation  of the plan of action to be produced by a regional
conference.

3.    In  its  resolution  49/21  C,  the  General  Assembly  requested  the
SecretaryGeneral, in  close cooperation with  the Secretary-General of  OAU,
to coordinate



95-30726 (E)  231095  251095/...
*9530726*
the activities  being implemented by  the United Nations system  to meet the

needs of the people  of Burundi adequately and to mobilize the assistance of
the  international community.   The  Assembly also  requested the Secretary-
General to  report to it  at its fiftieth  session on  the implementation of
the resolution.

4.   The  present  report contains  the information  received by  the United
Nations as at the  end of August  1995 regarding the implementation of  both
resolutions 49/7 and 49/21 C.


II.  LATEST POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS

5.   Although the situation in  Burundi remains precarious  and continues to
be  of  great   concern  to  the  international  community,  the   political
instability of the  past 16 months  has not yet  led to  a full-scale  armed
confrontation.   This  is due in  large part to  the international presence,
including  that of  the  Special Representative  of  the  Secretary-General,
representatives  of Member  States  and representatives  of  United  Nations
agencies and non-governmental organizations.

6.   Despite increasing  attempts by  extremists to  disrupt life throughout
the country, the  country's governmental institutions,  agricultural sector,
schools,  banks,   telephone  communications  and   public  transport   have
continued to function.

7.  Throughout the period under review, the Security Council has  repeatedly
deplored  the actions of  extremists.  Extremists on  both sides, inside and
outside   Burundi,  have  not  disarmed  and  continue  to  destabilize  the
Government in  order to  implement their own  agenda.  A  fresh outbreak  of
violence in Bujumbura  in June  1995 led  to the  announcement by  President
Sylvestre  Ntibantunganya of new security measures, but  these were rejected
by the  Parliament, as  the Front pour  la democratie  au Burundi  (FRODEBU)
majority voted against them.

8.  There has been some progress  in the preparation of the  national debate
planned  to advance  reconciliation in  the  country  and scheduled  to take
place in November-December 1995.   It is encouraging that one year after the
signing  on  10  September  1994 of  the  Convention  of  Government  by  12
political  parties  not  a  single  party  has  withdrawn  from  this  basic
agreement  promoting peace, security and power-sharing between  the Hutu and
Tutsi communities.

9.   The  presence in  northern  Burundi  of approximately  200,000  Rwandan
refugees adds to the complexity of the situation.  There have been a  number
of armed incursions into  Burundi from the Rwandan  refugee camps located in
eastern  Zaire. In  addition, there  are about 500,000  internally displaced
persons in Burundi, most of them Hutus.


 III.  INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS TO NORMALIZE THE SITUATION IN BURUNDI

A.  Activities of the United Nations system

              1.  The Secretary-General and the Office of the Special
                  Representative for Burundi

10.  Since his appointment in  November 1993, the Special  Representative of
the   Secretary-General  for   Burundi   has  actively   promoted   national
reconciliation in  the country through numerous  and constant contacts  with
all  the  parties concerned.   After  all  the political  parties, with  the
exception of  the Parti  pour le  redressement national  (PARENA), signed  a
power-sharing Convention  of Government, the  Special Representative of  the
Secretary-General sponsored  many projects, promoting  a permanent  dialogue
among the  various political actors and  others within  civil society, which
have  helped lessen tensions  in the  country. These  projects, organized by
the mission  alone or in cooperation  with other United Nations entities and

non-governmental organizations, have  included seminars on human rights,  an
exchange of  delegations between Burundi  and South Africa,  parliamentarian
and other  missions from Europe,  Africa and the  United States  of America,
and so on.

11.   Cooperation  with OAU  in the  field occurs  daily.   Examples of this
include a plan for  a rapprochement between the Burundian Army and the civil
population, which was initiated and financed  by the mission and implemented
by OAU,  and the invitation of the Special Representative  of the Secretary-
General  to participate  in a  meeting  of the  OAU Mechanism  for  Conflict
Prevention, Management  and Resolution at Addis Ababa on 10 and 11 September
1995.

12.   Radio broadcasts  that inflame  ethnic hatreds  and undermine national
reconciliation efforts are of serious concern.   The mission has  repeatedly
asked  Member  States  to  help  silence  inflammatory  broadcasts of  Radio
Democratie (formerly "Rutomorangingo"), especially in Kirundi.  The  mission
has so far been unable to obtain the required assistance.


2.  Security Council

13.  During the  period under review,  the Security Council remained  seized
of the  issue and  has been  regularly briefed  on developments  in Burundi.
Concerned  over  the lack  of  progress  towards  the  stabilization of  the
situation,  the  Council  has  repeatedly   issued  presidential  statements
deploring  the  violence and  calling  on  the  extremists  to refrain  from
activities that will destabilize the country.

14.  The Council dispatched to Burundi two  fact-finding missions, one on 13
and  14 August 1994 and the other on 10 and 11 February 1995.  Both missions
met and consulted with important national leaders, including the  leadership
of  the  security  forces, heads  of political  parties  and members  of the
diplomatic  corps. The mission  also met  with representatives  of OAU, non-
governmental organizations  and United Nations  agencies active in  Burundi.
The missions  recommended the establishment  of an international  commission
of inquiry  into the  October 1993  attempted coup,  in order  to break  the
cycle  of impunity.   They also recommended, inter  alia, that assistance be
provided  to  the Government  of  Burundi  to  build  an impartial  judicial
system,  that  civilian  police  be  trained  and  that  the number  of  OAU
observers  be increased.   The missions  encouraged the  United Nations High
Commissioner for  Human  Rights to  deploy human  rights monitors,  provided
their security could be guaranteed.

15.   The Secretary-General visited  Bujumbura on  16 and 17 July  1995.  He
met  and held  discussions  with  Burundi leaders.   In  his address  to the
Parliament of Burundi, he stressed that  Burundian society should adhere  to
the  principles  of  the  1992  Constitution  and  the  1994  Convention  of
Government.    He also  emphasized  that  all  parties  should work  jointly
towards the  convening of  a national  debate to  put an  end to the  tragic
confrontation that has devastated Burundi.

16.   Acting upon the request  of the Government  of Burundi calling for the
establishment  of  an international  judicial  commission  of  inquiry,  the
SecretaryGeneral  dispatched a Special Envoy, Mr. Pedro Nikken, to Bujumbura
from  28  June  to  9 July  to  discuss  with  the  Government  options  for
addressing the  problem of  impunity.   The Special  Envoy examined  various
options, including  the establishment  of a  commission for  the truth,  and
came to the conclusion that an international commission of inquiry could  be
a viable and a more appropriate approach.

17.   In  accordance  with  the  recommendations  of  the  Secretary-General
(S/1995/631), the  Security Council,  by its  resolution 1012  (1995) of  28
August  1995,  established   an  international  commission  of  inquiry   to
investigate the  assassination of  the President  of Burundi  on 21  October
1993 and the massacres and violence  that followed.  The commission is to be

composed  of five impartial  and internationally respected jurists who would
make recommendations to  prevent any  repetition of the violence,  eradicate
impunity and promote national reconciliation.

18.  On 15 August 1995, the Security Council adopted resolution 1011  (1995)
in part  A of  which it  requested the  Secretary-General to  report on  his
efforts to prepare and convene a  regional conference on security, stability
and development  in the Great Lakes region  of Central Africa.  On 25 August
the Secretary-General appointed Ambassador Jose Luis  Jesus of Cape Verde to
be his  Special Envoy  to facilitate the  preparation and  convening of  the
conference.   Ambassador  Jesus is  currently consulting  the Governments of
the region, including the Government of Burundi.


3.  Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

19.  The presence in the Great Lakes  region of about 2.5 million  refugees,
many of them armed, makes an already unstable  situation more volatile.   To
address the multifaceted problems of refugees in  the region, UNHCR and  OAU
jointly organized  an International  Conference on  Assistance to  Refugees,
Returnees  and Displaced Persons,  which was  held at  Bujumbura in February
1995.   The result of the  Conference was the adoption  of a  Plan of Action
(see sect.IV of the present report).



                 4.  Office of the United Nations High Commissioner
                    for Human Rights

20.    This Office  has  given  particular  attention  to  the human  rights
situation  in Burundi  since May  1994.   On 15  March 1994,  an office  was
opened in Bujumbura to carry out  programmes related to technical assistance
and advisory services in the field of human rights.

21.   The  Commission on  Human Rights  in its  resolution 1995/90  and  the
Security   Council  in   its  presidential   statement  of   9  March   1995
(S/PRST/1995/10)  encouraged   the  Office  of   the  United  Nations   High
Commissioner  for  Human  Rights  to  consider,  in  consultation  with  the
Government  of  Burundi and  the  Special  Representative of  the Secretary-
General,  the  deployment  of  observers  in  the  country,  provided  their
security could  be guaranteed.   On  17 July,  the President  and the  Prime
Minister  of   Burundi  welcomed  the   intended  deployment  of  the  first
contingent of five observers in the capital.   It is hoped that 10 observers
will be deployed  in Bujumbura in October 1995  and that the overall  number
will reach 35.  The European Union (EU) is making arrangements for them.

22.   The Special Rapporteur on  the situation of  human rights in  Burundi,
Mr. Paulo  Sergio Pinheiro (Brazil), accompanied  by two  officials from the
Centre for Human Rights, paid his  first visit to Burundi from  21 June to 2
July.

23.   The Special  Rapporteur made  certain preliminary  findings during his
visit: three to four military personnel  are killed daily and  approximately
200 civilians  are killed each  week, representing a  total of  800 deaths a
month.    The  inability  of  the Burundi  authorities  to  take  action  is
encouraging  and perpetuating  the impunity  against which  the procedure of
the  international  judicial  fact-finding  mission  provided  for  in   the
Convention on Governance seems to be the last resort.


B.  Organization of African Unity

24.   OAU has continued, in  coordination with  the international community,
to  pursue  intensive political  and diplomatic  efforts to  prevent further
instability and civil strife in Burundi.

25.   At  its meeting on  27 March  at Cairo, the  Central Organ of  the OAU
Mechanism for  Conflict Prevention,  Management and  Resolution, meeting  at
the ministerial level, decided to send  a ministerial delegation to  Burundi
to  express  concern over  the  continued  loss of  innocent  life  and  the
displacement of  Burundi's population.   The ministerial delegation  visited
Burundi on 12 April and  again on 30 May for  discussions with the country's
leaders as to how  OAU could assist in defusing tension, ending violence and
insecurity, and sustaining political dialogue between  the various groups in
the country.

26.   The  mission held  wide-ranging  discussions  with the  leadership  of
Burundi. In the interim and as a further  step reflecting the principled and
determined  effort  of  OAU  to  help  stem   Burundi's  declining  security
conditions, the Central Organ of the Conflict Management Mechanism,  meeting
on  19  April at  Tunis  at the  level  of Heads  of  State  and Government,
increased  the military component of  the OAU Mission in Burundi (OMIB) from
47 to 67 officers.   It was also agreed that funds reserved for the civilian
component of  the  Mission  should  be  increased  to enable  it  to  deploy
constitutional  legal experts,  human rights monitors and  mediators, and to
facilitate the process  of dialogue and  national reconciliation in Burundi.
Measures have  also been  taken to  ensure a  regular OMIB  presence in  all
provinces.    The  OMIB  military  teams   have,  among  other  things,  (a)
established   a  dialogue   between   local  administrative   and   military
authorities;  (b)   reactivated  provincial   and  district-level   security
committees that had not been in use; (c)  established security committees in
all districts where they did not exist before; and (d) within the  framework
of the pacification campaign, participated in  all field outings carried out
by the  national and  regional authorities.   In  addition, despite  limited
means, OMIB doctors have worked substantially  in local communities.   These
efforts have helped reduce suspicions and fears in the country.

27.   At the  recent thirty-first ordinary  session of the  OAU Assembly  of
Heads of  State and Government, the  situation in Burundi constituted one of
the major areas of  discussion.  Confronted with the near permanent state of
insecurity and  killings  in  Burundi  and  the  extreme  polarization  that
characterizes inter-group relations  in that country, the Assembly  mandated
its  current  Chairman, President  Meles Zenawi  of  the Federal  Democratic
Republic of Ethiopia, and SecretaryGeneral Salim  Ahmed Salim to convene, as
a matter of  urgency, a meeting of  Burundi's political and military leaders
at Addis Ababa to discuss the future of their country.

28.  The OAU  Assembly also requested the  Central Organ at  the ministerial
level and  the Secretary-General  of OAU,  who had  visited Burundi  several
times in the course of 1994, to follow the situation closely and to  explore
the  possibility of  military intervention  in cooperation  with the  United
Nations,  should the situation  in Burundi  degenerate into  massive loss of
life  and displacement of innocent civilians.  In  that respect, it mandated
the Central Organ to take decisions as appropriate.

29.   Pursuant to  the  decision of  its Assembly  to convene  a meeting  of
Burundi's political  leaders at  Addis Ababa,  the Secretary-General of  OAU
dispatched  a   mission  to   Bujumbura   to  extend   invitations  to   the
participants.  The mission was in Burundi from  8 to 12 July, meeting with a
cross-section of political  leaders and party representatives.  The  outcome
was mixed.   FRODEBU  and the  majority parties  had no problems  with Addis
Ababa  as the proposed  venue; the  Union pour le  progres national (UPRONA)
and  the  opposition  parties,  however,  indicated  that  they  would  only
participate in such a  meeting if it were held at Bujumbura. They emphasized
that  convening   the  meeting   at  Addis   Ababa  would   only  serve   to
internationalize their country's problems.

30.   Given the reaction  of the  opposition parties regarding  Addis Ababa,
the  meeting would  not have  produced the  kind  of participation  that was
envisaged by OAU and would consequently  not have produced positive results.
In  view of the foregoing and  of the fact that conditions at Bujumbura were
not propitious  for the  convening of such  a meeting, the  proposed meeting

scheduled for 27 and 28 July was called off.

 31.  Subsequently,  a delegation led by a  Special Envoy of the Chairman of
OAU, including  representatives of  the Secretary-General  of OAU,  departed
for the Great  Lakes region on 11 August  for consultations with leaders  of
the  neighbouring  countries and  Burundi  to  discuss  the  next course  of
action.   The  delegation visited  Zambia,  Kenya,  the United  Republic  of
Tanzania,  Uganda,  Zaire and  Rwanda.    An  extraordinary  session of  the
foreign ministers of the  Central Organ was scheduled  and took place  on 11
September at Addis Ababa to deliberate on the situation in Burundi.


          IV.  REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON ASSISTANCE TO REFUGEES, RETURNEES
               AND DISPLACED PERSONS IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION AND ITS
               FOLLOW-UP

32.  The sixtieth ordinary session of the OAU Council of Ministers,  meeting
at  Tunis in  June 1994,  adopted a  resolution (CM/RES/1527)  calling for a
regional  conference on  assistance  to refugees,  returnees  and  displaced
persons in the Great Lakes region.  The United Nations General Assembly,  at
its forty-ninth session, adopted resolution 49/7,  in which it endorsed  the
OAU resolution.

33.  OAU  and UNHCR jointly  assumed the  task of coordinating  preparations
for the  Conference, including  establishing a  Preparatory Committee  under
their co-chairmanship.    In addition  to  OAU  and UNHCR,  the  Preparatory
Committee  is  comprised  of  representatives  of  Burundi,  Kenya,  Rwanda,
Tunisia (the  current  Chairman of  OAU),  Uganda,  the United  Republic  of
Tanzania, Zaire  and  Zambia, EU,  observers  to  the Arusha  Peace  Process
(Belgium,  France, Germany and  the United  States of  America), Canada, the
Netherlands,  the  Nordic countries,  as  well  as  the  secretariat of  the
Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries and various observers.   The
Preparatory Committee  held three meetings, two  at Addis Ababa and the last
at Bujumbura, before the Conference itself.

34.  The Conference was planned:

  (a)    To highlight  the  problem  of  refugees,  returnees and  displaced
persons in the region;

  (b)  To consider the following with regard to the repatriation and  safety
of refugees and returnees:

  (i)  How to guarantee security and order within the camps;

    (ii)How to  devise and implement plans  for the safe  return of refugees
and safe integration of returnees and displaced persons;

   (iii)The  roles of  the countries  of asylum and  countries of  origin in
promoting and facilitating repatriation;

  (c)   To  sensitize the  international  community  to the  adverse  socio-
economic and environmental impact of the  problem of refugees and  displaced
persons in the region;

   (d)   To address the root  causes of the  problem of refugees,  returnees
and displaced persons in the region and to find durable solutions;

  (e)   To  examine the  impact of  the civilian  population caused  by  the
presence  of   military  personnel   and  militia   in  refugee  camps   and
settlements, and to formulate plans to guarantee security in the camps;

  (f)  To mobilize resources in support of  the affected countries in  order
to strengthen their economic and social  infrastructures and to redress  the
environmental damage;

  (g)   To appeal  to the  international community  to provide material  and
human resources to assist the refugees, returnees and displaced persons;

  (h)  To appeal  to the international organizations and agencies that  have
programmes in  the  region to  mobilize  additional  resources in  order  to
assist refugees, returnees and displaced persons.

35.  The Conference was held  at Bujumbura from 15 to  17 February 1995.  It
was co-chaired  by the Secretary-General of OAU, Mr. Salim  Ahmed Salim, and
the United Nations High  Commissioner for Refugees, Mrs. Sadako Ogata.   The
Conference  was attended  at the  ministerial level  by representatives from
over 40  countries.   Representatives from  international organizations  and
non-governmental organizations also attended.

36.     The  Conference   reviewed  the   social,  economic  and   political
consequences  of the presence  of refugees,  returnees and displaced persons
in the Great  Lakes region.  Noting the  high number of refugees,  returnees
and displaced persons and that the refugees were  mainly in camps in  Zaire,
Rwanda, Burundi  and Uganda,  the Conference  reaffirmed that  the right  of
return applies to all refugees.

37.   The Conference  stressed that  the problem of  refugees and  displaced
persons  in  the  region had  reached  alarming  proportions,  calling  into
question  the  very  survival  of  hundreds  of  thousands  of  persons  and
threatening  the stability of countries in the region.   The adverse effects
on the  development  of affected  countries  of  the continued  presence  of
refugees and  persistent movements of displaced  persons were  also a source
of  great  concern,  in  particular  the  situation  of  many  refugees  and
displaced women and the tragically large numbers of unaccompanied children.

38.  The  Conference adopted a Plan of  Action outlining a strategy for  the
peaceful resolution  of  the problem  of  displacement  in the  Great  Lakes
region, including  the voluntary  return and  reintegration of refugees  and
internally displaced persons.  The Plan included measures of various types.

(a)  Measures to be taken in and/or by the countries of origin

39.   Burundi and Rwanda were  urged to create  conditions conducive to  the
voluntary repatriation  of refugees and the  return of  displaced persons to
their places of habitual residence under conditions of safety and dignity.


 (b)  Measures to be taken in and/or by the countries of asylum

40.   The  Conference  reaffirmed  the humanitarian  character  of  granting
asylum  to refugees, urging  the countries  hosting refugees  from the Great
Lakes region  to  continue  to  grant  asylum  to  and  assist  refugees  in
accordance with relevant  conventions relating  to the  status of  refugees.
Attention was also drawn to the fact that the granting of asylum should  not
be seen  as an  unfriendly or  hostile act, but  as a responsibility  and an
obligation under international law.

(c)  Measures to be taken by the international community

41.   The Conference  expressed appreciation for the humanitarian programmes
financed and undertaken  by various  countries, United Nations agencies,  in
particular   UNHCR,   intergovernmental  organizations,   the  International
Federation  of Red  Cross and  Red Crescent  Societies  and non-governmental
organizations. However, the magnitude and persistence of the problem  placed
great  demands  on  all  concerned.    Additional  material  resources  were
required  to provide urgent  relief to  the refugees  and displaced persons,
whose very survival remains a  major concern.  The assistance was considered
temporary, in anticipation of the early repatriation of refugees.

42.  The Conference also requested  the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP)  to hold a donor's round  table on countries  of the region that have

been affected by the  presence of refugees and displaced persons.  The round
table would provide a framework for coordinated and integrated approaches. 

43.  The Conference established a Follow-up Committee, which held its  first
meeting, co-chaired  by OAU  and UNHCR,  on 26  May at  OAU headquarters  at
Addis Ababa.  The meeting  noted that very little progress  had been made in
the implementation of  the Plan of Action  and that in  some areas,  such as
repatriation  and asylum, the  situation had  deteriorated.   None the less,
the meeting  reaffirmed the validity  of the Plan  of Action  as a framework
for  humanitarian  action in  favour of  refugees,  returnees and  displaced
persons in the region.  The following was thus agreed at the meeting:

  (a)    That the  follow-up  process  of  the  Bujumbura Conference  should
continue;

  (b)   That political consultations and  discussions by  all parties should
be encouraged in order to promote political accommodation;

  (c)  That the convening of an  international conference on peace, security
and development  in the region, as proposed by the  Secretary-General of the
United Nations  and encouraged  by the  Security Council,  would provide  an
impetus to humanitarian action in the region.

44.   The Follow-up  Committee is  expected to meet again  at Addis Ababa in
October to address the following issues among others:

  (a)  How to improve stability in both Burundi and Rwanda;

   (b)   How to  help all  parties in  Burundi implement  the Convention  on
power-sharing and how to isolate the  extremists and halt the  proliferation
of militias and the flow of arms in the country;

  (c)   How  to create  an atmosphere  that  would  encourage the  return of
refugees  and also  halt  the  intimidation, disappearance  and killings  of
refugees returning to Rwanda;

  (d)  How to promote reconciliation as well as justice.

45.  In connection  with preparations for a  round table in  accordance with
paragraph 33 of  the Plan of  Action, in  April 1995, UNHCR and  UNDP agreed
that the  preparation of subregional consultations  with donors  should be a
joint  UNHCR/UNDP undertaking,  in close  consultation  with  OAU.   In that
connection,  UNDP dispatched a  preliminary mission  to the subregion, which
identified priority  needs, gauged the response  of the donor community to a
call for financial assistance  and other forms  of support, and assisted  in
the preparation of  the terms of  reference for  a more comprehensive  needs
assessment and programme  project identification and formation mission.  One
important finding of the preliminary mission  confirmed the likelihood of an
environmental  catastrophe  in the  subregion,  should  the  current  trends
continue unabated.

46.   UNDP and  UNHCR, in  close collaboration with OAU,  agreed to dispatch
the comprehensive needs assessment and programme project identification  and
formulation mission in September 1995.  The mission will concentrate on  the
areas in  Zaire and the  United Republic of Tanzania  most severely affected
by the presence of  refugees in order  to identify and formulate  programmes
and projects  that could  alleviate the  impact of  the mass  influx of  the
refugees on the already fragile environment of those  countries.  The impact
of displaced persons in Rwanda and Burundi on the local environment and  the
social  and economic infrastructure will  be addressed in the context of the
round-table  conference  for the  two  countries  and  its  follow-up.   The
mission  will   also   elaborate  a   medium-and  long-term   comprehensive,
multisectoral,  national  and  regional  approach;  mobilize  resources  and
identify regional, national and local coordination mechanisms to  implement,
monitor and evaluate immediate and long-term rehabilitation and  development
activities.

47.   The  types  of  programmes the  mission will  formulate  for immediate
implementation would  assess the impact of  refugees on  the environment and
on  social  and  economic  infrastructure,  including  their  impact  on the
sustainable livelihood  of local communities.   The  mission will  establish
priority  programmes and  activities as  an immediate  response to  problems
such as deforestation, deterioration of social and economic  infrastructure,
energy and  water shortages, pollution,  insecurity and the  marginalization
of certain groups.   The mission will also  prepare a comprehensive plan  of
operation   for   the   programmes,   addressing   financial   requirements,
implementation arrangements and a timetable.






           V.  ASSISTANCE FOR THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION
              OF BURUNDI

48.    Most  of  the countries'  contributions  earmarked  for humanitarian,
economic, technical, human rights and other  assistance to Burundi have been
channelled  through  the United  Nations  consolidated  appeal  for  persons
affected by  the crisis  in Rwanda or  as pledges and  contributions to  the
Rwanda/Burundi emergency (see A/50/654).

49.  The summary  of activities below reflects the concrete response of  the
United Nations system in providing assistance  for the economic recovery and
reconstruction of Burundi.


A.  United Nations Development Programme

50.   In May  1994, UNDP  approved the  continuum programme  for Burundi  of
close to  $3.4 million.   The  support to  the coordination of  humanitarian
assistance  and  the rehabilitation,  reconstruction  and  economic  revival
programme  covers a wide  range of  emergency and  developmental needs, from
peace initiatives to sectoral development.   This UNDP programme supports  a
number of initiatives relevant to General Assembly resolution 49/21 C.

51.  UNDP is  also helping the Government of Burundi plan reconstruction and
developmental projects.   Together  with the  World Bank,  UNDP has  jointly
sponsored   decentralized    seminars   to    develop   reconstruction   and
rehabilitation  plans for  each region,  which  have now  been agreed  at  a
national  level   as  part  of   decentralized  approaches  to   development
activities  and will be  implemented with  the assistance  of United Nations
Volunteers (UNVs).

52.  Current technical assistance initiatives include:

  (a)  A  cooperative initiative with WHO to provide technical assistance to
support  the rehabilitation  of the  health  system and,  in the  absence of
qualified local personnel, to deploy UNVs to help staff the health clinics;

  (b)   Cooperative efforts  with the  Food and  Agriculture Organization of
the   United  Nations   (FAO)  to   provide  technical  assistance   in  the
rehabilitation of  agricultural production  and to  establish an  integrated
rural development programme;

  (c)   Cooperative  initiatives with  the  United Nations  Population  Fund
(UNFPA) to study the situation of female victims of violence;

  (d)    Mobilization   of  joint  teams   of  national   and  international
volunteers,  working   with  local  communities,   to  plan  and   implement
rehabilitation activities and strengthen local skills and capacity.

53.    UNDP,  working with  the  Government, is  attempting  to establish  a

network  of committees at  the provincial  level to serve as  a catalyst for
the  participation   of  local  communities   in  resolving  conflicts   and
preventing the escalation of violence.  UNDP is  also providing workshops on
conflict resolution and reconciliation to youth and women's groups.

54.    As  part of  its efforts  to  prepare for  the round  table,  UNDP is
assisting  the  Government  to  create  a  system  for  the  coordination of
development  aid from  donors and  multilateral  agencies.   In  addition to
working  closely  with  United  Nations  bodies  (WHO,  the  United  Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), UNV, UNCHR,  the
United  Nations  Capital  Development  Fund,  FAO  and  the  Department  for
Development  Support  and Management  Services  of  the Secretariat)  in the
implementation  of the continuum  programme, UNDP  is in  close contact with
the  Special  Representative  of  the  Secretary-General  and  the  Observer
Mission and representative of OAU in Burundi.


B.  Department of Humanitarian Affairs of the Secretariat

55.  The humanitarian  needs that surfaced after the events in October  1993
in Burundi  were, to  a very  significant extent,  met by  September/October
1994.  The general consensus of the  relief community in Burundi is that the
humanitarian  crisis is  over.   However,  health and  educational  services
remain  impaired by  continuous ethnic  turmoil, forcing  the  international
community  to  set   up  parallel  administrative  structures.     Dwindling
international emergency resources  and the absence of follow-up  development
assistance pose questions  about the Government's capacity to provide  basic
services.

56.  Given  the problem in Burundi,  the Department of  Humanitarian Affairs
undertook an  assessment  of  the situation  in  March  1995.    Noting  the
political  nature  of  the  conflict  and  the  difficulties  faced  by  the
humanitarian partners in addressing the situation,  the Department is in the
process of seconding two  humanitarian officers to the office of the Special
Representative of the Secretary-General.  These  officers are to assist  the
Special Representative in the coordination of the international  community's
humanitarian efforts.


C.  United Nations Children's Fund

57.  UNICEF has spent over $10 million over the past  year in its efforts to
reinforce the existing health network, including integrating preventive  and
curative health and nutritional services.  It has also dealt with the  water
supply and  environmental sanitation,  supported basic  and peace  education
and provided assistance to 8,000 unaccompanied children.


D.  Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

58.   In  addition to  providing  its  standard assistance  to approximately
200,000  refugees,  UNHCR  has  assisted  220,000  returnees  and  displaced
persons  and 5,000 urban poor.   Secondary school education  for refugees is
also provided  and repatriation operations for  former refugees  from and to
Rwanda  implemented.  Approximately $30  million has  been raised  for these
tasks.


 E.  World Food Programme

59.  WFP  continues to provide emergency food supplies to 220,000 internally
displaced persons  and returnees,  as well  as 200,000  Rwandan refugees  in
Burundi,  and  150,000  Rwandan  and  Burundian  refugees  in  Zaire.    The
reduction  in  regional  food  availability  has  led  WFP  to  implement an
accelerated reintegration programme for the internally displaced.

F.  Centre for Human Rights

60.   In 1994,  the United  Nations Centre  for Human  Rights established  a
technical  assistance  project   for  Burundi,  covering  1994-1996.     Its
objectives are to encourage the development  in Burundi of an  institutional
infrastructure  capable  of  creating  conditions  for  the  promotion   and
protection of human rights  and peace.  The  project also promotes a culture
of  human rights through  the education  of government  officials, political
party leaders,  socio-professional groups and the  public at  large.  Having
completed  the  activities planned  for 1994,  the  1995 programme  includes
activities  in  the  diverse  fields  of  justice, education  and  training,
information  and publications, the  media and  assistance to  the police and
the armed forces.

61.   The  human  rights field  office  in Burundi  received  financial  and
administrative support from UNDP.  The  Centre for Human Rights  coordinated
its  efforts with UNDP  and UNESCO  offices in  Bujumbura to  use a  camp to
educate  youth  on  human  rights  and  to  hold  a  seminar  on  peace  and
reconstruction  in Bujumbura from  10 to 12  October 1994.   UNICEF assisted
the  Centre for  Human  Rights  to publish  a  manual on  human  rights  for
children aged  6 to  11.   It also  helped produce  various educational  and
training materials.

62.  Cooperation with other United  Nations agencies in Bujumbura  include a
joint project with UNDP regarding human  rights education; a joint  training
seminar with  the International  Labour Organization  (ILO) regarding  human
rights and  population issues; joint projects  with UNICEF  related to youth
training in the  field of peace  and human rights; and  anticipated projects
with UNESCO related to the promotion of women's issues.


G.  World Health Organization

63.  WHO is implementing a  four-pronged assistance effort, totalling nearly
$3.9 million.  The effort seeks  to strengthen the National  Epidemiological
Surveillance  Network,   to  assist  in  the   prevention  and  control   of
communicable  diseases  and epidemics,  to support  the provision  of health
services to  the most affected provinces  and to aid  in the prevention  and
control of sexually transmitted diseases.


H.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

64.   FAO  has concentrated  its  efforts  on providing  displaced  persons,
returnees and refugees with  agricultural tool kits and seeds.  In addition,
the Organization has assisted in reforestation  and stock breeding.  A total
of $12 million has been allocated for these tasks.


                VI.  RESPONSE FROM INDIVIDUAL MEMBER STATES ON THE
                     IMPLEMENTATION OF RESOLUTION 49/21 C

65.   By  the  end  of  August  1995,  the  Secretary-General  had  received
information  regarding the  implementation of  resolution 49/21  C from  two
States.


A.  Germany

66.  The humanitarian emergency assistance  of Germany provided through  the
Federal Foreign  Office in  1994-1995  amounted to  1,522,178 deutsche  mark
(about $1  million).   Its  bilateral  financial  and technical  cooperation
assistance  through  the  Federal  Ministry  for  Economic  Cooperation  and
Development amounted  to DM  40.3 million  (about $27  million).  As  far as
multilateral  emergency  aid  is  concerned,  Germany  contributed  DM  41.3
million  (about 27.8 million)  to the  international food  aid programme for

refugees in the Central  African region in and  around Rwanda and Burundi in
1995, and DM 7 million (about $4.7 million) in 1995 for  refugees in Burundi
alone.


B.  Switzerland

67.  The  Swiss assistance went mainly  towards reconstruction in  the areas
of agriculture, health and justice.  The main  purpose of the assistance was
to provide  food and restore  legal security in  order to create  conditions
for the safe return of refugees to both  Rwanda and Burundi.  This  was done
through contributions  to  international  organizations  and  national  non-
governmental  organizations  on the  one  hand  and  missions  of the  Swiss
Disaster Relief  Unit to  the region  on the  other.   The total  assistance
amounted to 33,614,750 Swiss francs (about  $25.2 million).  Thirteen  Swiss
Disaster Relief Unit members are stationed in the region.


VII.  CONCLUSIONS

68.   The  activities of  OAU, agencies  of  the  United Nations  system and
departments   of  the  Secretariat  have  demonstrated  a   high  degree  of
cooperation and coordination in  dealing with the crisis  in Burundi and its
consequences.

69.   It is  evident that the Rwandan crisis  has affected all the countries
of the Great Lakes region, including  Burundi.  The international  community
should continue to  give its constant attention  to the present situation in
the region. In that connection,  the convening of the Regional Conference on
Security, Stability and Development in the  Great Lakes region has  acquired
a special significance.

70.  The  United Nations and OAU  will have a  special role  of coordinating
the efforts  of all  nations in  the region  willing to  participate in  the
Conference and  to facilitate  the process  leading to  its convening.   The
Conference  is  called  upon  to  achieve  a  regional  agreement  among the
countries of the region on measures  to promote lasting security,  stability
and sustainable  development in those  countries, with particular  reference
to Burundi and Rwanda.

71.  As stability cannot be  achieved in the region if  the problem of the 2
million refugees is not solved, full implementation by all  countries in the
region of the Plan of Action adopted by the Bujumbura Conference,  including
the creation  of adequate  political and  security conditions  for the  safe
return of refugees, remains a vital undertaking.

72.    As far  as  the  internal  situation in  Burundi  is  concerned,  the
international  community,  which  has  so  far  played  a  positive  role in
preventing  a wider  conflict  there,  should  continue  to  coordinate  its
efforts  so  that  the  message  to  the political  leaders  of  Burundi  is
consistent  and unanimous.   It  is hoped  that the  planned national debate
later  in 1995 will  help the parties  move from  confrontation and violence
towards  peace and  reconciliation,  while discouraging  and  deploring  the
actions of extremist elements.


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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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