United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

23 October 1995


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 107


Activities of the International Research and Training
Institute for the Advancement of Women

Report of the Secretary-General


1.  The  General Assembly, in  its resolution  48/105 of  20 December  1993,
requested the  Secretary-General to submit to  the Assembly  at its fiftieth
session  a  report on  the  activities  of  the  International Research  and
Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW).

2.   In the  same resolution, the  General Assembly, inter  alia, emphasized
the unique function of  the Institute as the  only entity within  the United
Nations  system  devoted  exclusively  to  research  and  training  for  the
integration of women in development, and  stressed the importance of  making
its  research findings  available for  policy  purposes and  for operational
activities;  commended the Institute  for its  efforts to  focus on problems
that constitute barriers  to improving the  status of women and  thus impede
overall  development  and  progress;  urged  the Institute  to  continue  to
strengthen   its  activities  in   the  areas   of  research,  training  and
information  aimed at  mainstreaming gender  in development  strategies  and
giving women  greater visibility by valuating  their contribution to  social
and  economic  development  as  important  means  of  empowering  women  and
improving  their  status;   requested  the  Institute  to  assist  with  the
substantive preparations for the Fourth World  Conference on Women:   Action
for Equality,  Development and  Peace, given  its key  role in the  areas of
research and training and its expertise  in gender statistics; and expressed
its appreciation for the continuing efforts  of the Institute to  strengthen
its  programmatic  linkages   with  other   United  Nations   organizations,
including  the  regional  commissions,  governmental  and   non-governmental
organizations,  research  institutes and  other  organizations  and  groups,
thereby  broadening the scope of  its operations, making optimum  use of its
limited financial resources and attaining a  greater outreach and impact  of
its work.

95-30498 (E)   301095/...
3.    Since  the  previous  report   of  the  Secretary-General  on  INSTRAW
(A/48/301),  other resolutions have been adopted that  have implications for
the  Institute's work  programme.  In  its resolution 48/111  of 20 December
1993,  the General  Assembly requested  the Secretary-General,  through  the
Advisory Committee on Administrative  and Budgetary Questions,  to submit to
the Economic and Social Council at its substantive session of 1994 a  report
on  the proposed merger of  INSTRAW and the United  Nations Development Fund
for  Women  (UNIFEM)  and  requested  the   Council  to  submit  its   final
recommendation to  the Assembly at its fortyninth session.  At that session,
the Assembly, in its  resolution 49/160 of  23 December 1994, requested  the
Secretary-General to submit to the Council, through  the Advisory Committee,
an updated  report;  requested the  Council to  re-examine  the  issue at  a
resumed session  to take place  after the Fourth  World Conference on  Women
and  before the Third Committee  of the General Assembly considered the item
on  the advancement of women;  and decided to  take a  final decision at its
fiftieth session on the proposed  merger of INSTRAW and  UNIFEM, taking into
account  the recommendations made  by the  Council and  the deliberations of
the Commission  on the Status of  Women at its  thirty-ninth session and  of
the  Fourth   World  Conference  on   Women  concerning  the   institutional
arrangements in the United Nations system for the advancement of women.

4.  In accordance  with its mandate and the  recommendations of its Board of
Trustees, the  Institute has made every  effort to  strengthen its research,
training,  information  and  advocacy  role  in   key  areas  affecting  the
advancement of  women, and in facilitating  their empowerment and  inclusion
as equal partners in development.


5.   The Institute viewed the biennium 1994-1995 as a  time of assessment of
past  and current  activities and  intensification  of  efforts to  bring to
fruition  the agenda  set  for  the  advancement  of  women in  the  Nairobi
Forward-looking  Strategies for the  Advancement of  Women 1/  and assist in
ensuring  that the  political, economic,  social and cultural  dimensions of
this agenda would be furthered at the Fourth World Conference on Women.

6.   Bearing in mind INSTRAW's mandate,  2/ which is "to serve  as a vehicle
on  the international  level for  the  purpose  of undertaking  research and
establishing  training  programmes to  contribute  to  the  integration  and
mobilization of women in development, to  raise awareness of women's  issues
world  wide   and  better  to  assist  women  to  meet  new  challenges  and
directions",  INSTRAW's  work  programme  for  the  biennium  1994-1995  was
structured towards  the specific objectives set  for the  Conference as well
as  towards  clarifying  the  strong relationship  that  exists  between the
advancement  of women  and sustainable  development.   That  relationship is
based  on the  premise  that  sustainable  development  cannot  be  achieved
without the full and active participation of women.

7.    The  need  to  understand  and  correct  the  societal  obstacles that
constrain  their participation and  to recognize  fully, value  and mobilize
women's  dynamic   involvement  in  the   development  process,  forms   the
conceptual framework  for the work of  INSTRAW.   Overcoming these obstacles
requires a comprehensive empowerment process, which  in turn is an essential
prerequisite to the implementation of equitable sustainable development.

8.   The period  following the United  Nations Decade  for Women,  Equality,
Development and  Peace, 1975-1984, has  witnessed fundamental changes in and
a  broadening   of  the  understanding  of   issues  related   to  women  in
development. Research  and experience since  the Nairobi Conference  clearly
demonstrate that the role of women in  development must be considered within
the  broader context  of  gender relations  in society,  the  State  and the
economy.  This broadening of perspective  also implies that desired  changes
in the status of women are inevitably tied  to the reorganization of  gender

relations in the household,  the community and the  nation.  It also implies
a  dynamic  role  for  women  in  shaping  the  course  of  development  and
influencing  the decisions  and processes  that  affect their  lives, rather
than a static notion of development into which women need to be integrated.

9.   This change in perception is  central to the work of the United Nations
development agencies.  Research has  shown that the contribution of women is
crucial to the attainment of development  objectives and their exclusion  is
costly and detrimental to the process  of sustainable development.  Research
in this area needs to  be pursued through further studies on issues such  as
valuing women's  unpaid work and  related time-use studies.   The results of
those  studies must  be disseminated  to  national and  international policy

10.  Further research and analyses are required to challenge the  entrenched
belief that equality and efficiency are  mutually exclusive, that there must
be a  trade-off among those objectives  and that investment  in women is  an
economic burden that reduces the  efficiency of the economy,  and to advance
the  argument  that investment  in women  enhances economic  performance and
directly  contributes  to  poverty alleviation  and  balanced socio-economic

11.  It is  within this conceptual framework that INSTRAW has developed  its
research programme  on the linkages between  changes in the  status of women
and the achievement of equitable sustainable development goals.

12.    In  its  training efforts,  INSTRAW  has  developed  models  for  the
effective  transfer of the  knowledge gained  through research  and study to
various  groups that  can  influence the  course of  development, especially
women from  all walks of life  and at all levels.   Access to knowledge  and
information   is   empowerment;   INSTRAW   considers   its   training   and
communication activities  as part of the  empowerment process  to help women
and men to change and reorganize gender relations for mutual benefit.


13.  The Institute's programme for  the biennium 1994-1995 was  built around
three broad  themes:   empowerment of  women; statistics  and indicators  on
gender issues; and women, environment and sustainable development.

A.  Empowerment of women

14.  As listed above, experimental evidence and analysis  shows that women's
economic  and   political  empowerment   is  a   crucial  prerequisite   for
sustainable development.

15.   Individual or  collective empowerment  is based  essentially on access
to, ownership of and  control over economic resources.   These are, in turn,
basic factors  to allow  full participation  in processes  to advance  these
objectives and  need to be analysed in relation to the formal sector as well
as  the  informal  sector   and  the  conditions  prevailing  in  transition

1.  Gender impact analysis of credit projects

16.   Under this  programme element  a publication  on women and  credit was
prepared for presentation at the Fourth  World Conference on Women.   Credit
for Women  Why  is  it so  important? 3/  presents a  global  overview of  a
variety of  credit schemes  for the  rural and  the urban  poor designed  to
overcome  the constraints that  the poor,  particularly poor  women, face in
having  access to  institutionalized  financial schemes  and  to  facilitate
their  access to  financial resources.    This study  covers schemes  at the
design stage as well as schemes that  are under implementation in  different
countries.  The  study was published  under the joint  authority of  INSTRAW
and the International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW).

17.   A case study  on gender  impact analysis  of credit  projects will  be
finalized by  late 1995.  The  Dominican Association for  the Development of
Microentrepreneurs, which  is an internationally acknowledged  micro-finance
institution delivering  credit to  women and men micro-entrepreneurs  in the
Dominican  Republic, was contracted  by INSTRAW to carry  out a survey among
its clients.    The  United  States  Agency  for  International  Development
(USAID) also collaborated  in the design of the  survey.  The data from  the
survey are being analysed by  INSTRAW and a final report  on the survey will
be  prepared  in  collaboration  with  the  Economic  Research  Unit  of the
Autonomous University of Santo Domingo.

18.   During the  biennium under  review, INSTRAW  participated in  numerous
meetings relevant  to the credit projects,  which permitted  the exchange of
expertise, information  and experience between  INSTRAW and other  concerned
regional and international organizations.

 2.  Training on gender issues

19.   INSTRAW  has received  numerous  requests  for training  workshops  on
gender issues, particularly from national agencies, local organizations  and
international  development  agencies  located  in  the  Dominican  Republic.
During the present biennium, training workshops  or seminars have been  held
together with  the Directorate General for  the Advancement  of Women, Women
in Development, a  local organization that  carries out development projects
with women in rural areas and ENTRENA, Inc.,  also a local organization that
oversees non-governmental organizations receiving project  funds from USAID.
Subjects covered included gender and development, addressed to local  trade-
union leaders;  women and  rural development; gender and  domestic violence;
and gender  and women's human  rights, with the  participation of women  and
men  police officers.  Plans are  under way  to hold  a workshop  on  gender
issues to train personnel  from all United Nations  agencies with offices in
the Dominican Republic.

20.   INSTRAW continues to receive  several requests  for training workshops
on  gender analysis  from  government agencies,  academic  centres  and non-
governmental  organizations,  particularly  from  Central  America  and  the
Caribbean region, as well as United Nations agencies in the subregion.

B.  Statistics and indicators on gender issues

21.  Adequate and reliable statistics  are basic requirements for designing,
implementing, monitoring and evaluating programmes  and projects as  well as
for  resource allocation.    INSTRAW's programme  on  gender  statistics and
indicators is  aimed at improving data  collection and statistical  methods,
and  at developing new  concepts and  methodologies that  can better reflect
present working and living  conditions based on today's political, economic,
technological, cultural  and social realities,  particularly as they  affect
women, incorporating  such variables as the  impact of market  fluctuations,
economic recession, jobs and employment contraction.

1.  Methods for valuing the contribution of women

22.   Outputs  of  phase  I  of  this  programme  element  resulted  in  the
publication of  a monograph entitled  "Measurement and  Valuation of  Unpaid
Contribution:  Accounting Through Time  and Output".  4/   The monograph was
issued  as  a  sales  publication  and was  available  at  the Fourth  World
Conference on  Women.  The monograph  addressed three  major issues, namely:
(a) development  of improved  data-collection techniques  for capturing  and
measuring  paid  and  unpaid  contribution  of   both  women  and  men;  (b)
development   of  imputation  techniques  to  value  unpaid  work;  and  (c)
inclusion of household production in the  United Nations System of  National
Accounts through satellite accounts.

23.   Highlights  and  conclusions  of  this  study  were  presented  at  an
intergovernmental work session of statisticians for the Economic  Commission
for  Europe  (ECE)  region,   which  was  held  from  6  to  8  March  1995.
Participants recognized the  value of  this publication as  a basis for  the
eventual development of  international guidelines, norms and techniques  for
defining,  measuring  and   valuing  "satellite   accounts"  for   household

24.   On the  basis of  the recommendations  in the  monograph, INSTRAW  has
initiated the second phase  of the project  on the revaluing techniques  and
methodologies  developed  in  several  countries,  including  Nepal, Canada,
Hungary  and Finland. Results  of these  exercises will  be consolidated and
published as a complementary document to the original monograph.

25.  INSTRAW  and the National  Statistics Office of the  Dominican Republic
are currently collaborating in the conduct of a national survey on time  use
of women  and men in  the Dominican Republic.   This is  a follow-up to  the
pilot survey conducted  in 1993 in  five small communities  in the  country.
The survey is expected to be concluded in  late 1995 and will be followed by
training  of  team  leaders and  surveyors, thus  promoting  local capacity-

          2.  Contribution to the second edition of the World's Women
              Publication and the 1995 Human Development Report

26.   At the  invitation of  the Statistical Division of  the United Nations
Secretariat (UNSTAT)  and the United  Nations Development Programme  (UNDP),
INSTRAW participated  in the preparatory work for the second  edition of The
World's  Women and  the 1995  Human  Development  Report, respectively.   In
addition to the financial contribution provided  by INSTRAW for The  World's
Women, through  which  INSTRAW  became  one of  the  major sponsors  of  the
publication, the Institute has also contributed  substantively.  As for  the
1995 Human  Development Report, INSTRAW's  contribution has concentrated  on
substantive  areas,  such  as  valuing   women's  work.     The  Institute's
participation in the meetings was financed by UNDP.

                    3.  Subregional workshop on statistics and
                        indicators on women in Asia

27.    In  collaboration with  the Statistical  Institute  for Asia  and the
Pacific and  the Japan International  Cooperation Agency, INSTRAW  organized
and conducted a workshop at  Osaka and Tokyo from 8 to  25 March 1994.   The
workshop  was designed as  a follow-up  to the  six national  workshops that
INSTRAW had  conducted in the region since 1985, and focused  on a review of
the  set of  indicators recommended by  the Division for  the Advancement of
Women of the  United Nations Secretariat to countries for the preparation of
their national reports for the Fourth World Conference on Women.

28.   Within the framework of the workshop, a  public session was held where
participants  were  requested  to  make  a  general presentation  on  gender
statistics  from their respective  countries.   The session  was attended by

local  experts, researchers and government officials, among others.  INSTRAW
presented two  papers,  one of  which  addressed  the importance  of  gender
statistics for  policy design,  implementation,  monitoring and  evaluation;
and the other provided  information on the programmes and activities of  the
Institute in the area of gender statistics.
                       4.  Development of training materials on
                         gender statistics and policy

29.   In consultation  with UNSTAT  and UNIFEM,  INSTRAW is  working on  the
development  of  a training  package  on  gender statistics  in  development
planning, to provide  development planners with  statistical and other tools
to enhance  their capacity to relate  gender statistics,  policy targets and
resource  allocation.   As part  of  this  activity, INSTRAW  carried out  a
mission to Nairobi  in October 1994  to review  the results of a  project in
this   area  being  implemented   by  the   Women's  Bureau   in  Kenya,  in
collaboration  with UNSTAT.   The mission confirmed the  need for and served
to  orient  the  further  development  of  the  training  package,  which is
expected to be completed in late 1995.

30.   Since 1990,  INSTRAW has  been working  at the  development  of a  new
conceptual framework for  collecting and  analysing data  on elderly  women.
The  INSTRAW   publication  entitled  "The   Situation  of  Elderly   Women:
Available  Statistics and  Indicators", 5/  aimed at  promoting the  further
development  and  use  of  statistics  and  indicators  in  order  better to
understand the  situation, problems  and constraints  that older  people are
facing in  both industrialized and developing  societies, was  taken note of
with  appreciation by  the General Assembly  in its resolution  49/162 of 23
December 1994.  It was reprinted  in 1995.  This work,  in which INSTRAW has
collaborated with  UNSTAT, will  be further  developed.   In its  resolution
47/5 of  16 October  1992, the  Assembly proclaimed  1999 the  International
Year of Older Persons.

5.  INSTRAW/ECE joint work session on statistics on women

31.   The INSTRAW/ECE joint  work session on  gender statistics  was held at
Geneva  from 6 to  8 March  1995, as approved by  the Conference of European
Statisticians.   This  session  was   the  fifth   in  a   series  of  joint
meetings/sessions   undertaken  since   1985   by  INSTRAW   and   ECE,   in
collaboration   with  UNSTAT.      It  provides   the   only   occasion  for
intergovernmental consultations and discussions on gender statistics in  the
region.  The importance of maintaining and continuing such  a joint activity
was recognized in the recommendations of  the Regional Platform for  Action,
adopted  by  the  High-level  Preparatory  Meeting   for  the  Fourth  World
Conference on Women, held at Vienna from 17 to 21 November 1994.

32.  Another joint  INSTRAW/ECE session will be held in 1997/98 to  consider
the gender dimensions of the following topics:

  (a)    Economic well-being,  career  mobility  over  the  course of  life,
poverty,  private and public financial  transfers and equal  pay for work of
equal value;

  (b)   Caring  activities:   who  cares  for  whom  over the  life  course,
recognition of caring activities;

  (c)  Unpaid work:  developments in the measurement of unpaid work and  its
inclusion in satellite account systems;

  (d)  Progress in the statistical measurement of violence and crime.

          6.  Participation in the twenty-eighth session of the Statistical
            Commission and regional conferences of statisticians

33.   At the  invitation of ECE,  INSTRAW participated  at the  forty-second
plenary session of the Conference of  European Statisticians, held in  Paris

from 12 to 16  June 1994.   Primarily, INSTRAW's participation was aimed  at
the further development  of regional gender  statistics in  the work of  the
Conference, taking  into account the  needs for assistance  in this  area of
countries with economies in transition.

34.  Strong  interest was expressed by all participants in further expansion
of  gender  statistics.    It  was   recommended  that  INSTRAW,  in   close
collaboration  with   ECE,  organize  a   subregional  workshop  on   gender
statistics   specifically  designed   for   countries  with   economies   in
transition.   This proposal  will be  submitted by ECE to  the Conference at
its next plenary session.

35.   During  the period  under  review,  INSTRAW also  participated in  the
following meetings addressing  issues relevant to the development of  gender
statistics: the  twenty-eighth session  of the  Statistical Commission  (New
York,  27  February3 March  1995); the  ninth  session of  the Economic  and
Social Commission for Asia and the  Pacific (ESCAP) (Bangkok, 28  November-2
December 1994);  the twenty-third  General Conference  of the  International
Association  for  Research in  Income and  Wealth (Brunswick,  Canada, 21-27
August 1994); and the Nihon University  International Symposium on Work  and
Family  Life of  International Migrant  Workers  at the  University Research
Centre, Nihon University (Tokyo, 5-8 December 1994).

C.  Women, environment and sustainable development

36.   The  emergence of sustainability  as a development  criterion, and new
insights on linkages between population growth, environment and  development
will demand adaptation  and new approaches  to natural resources management,
including the provision of reliable energy  services and clean water  supply
and food  security and  the extension  of social  services to attend  to the
basic needs of more than one billion people living in extreme poverty.

37.   These  are some  of  the  considerations underlying  INSTRAW's  cross-
sectoral programme on women, environment and sustainable development,  which
constitutes one  of the four  main pillars of  the Institute's  research and
training  activities.  Since  1982, INSTRAW  has been  carrying out research
and training on water supply and sanitation, and the development of new  and
renewable sources of energy, in the perspective of  the status of women  and
their contribution to socio-economic development.

              1.  First national training seminar on women, water
                  supply and sanitation held in Guyana

38.   In cooperation with Red  Thread Women's  Programme, a non-governmental
organization  in  Guyana, INSTRAW  conducted  the  first  national  training
seminar on women, water supply and sanitation at Georgetown from 31  January
to  4 February 1994.  The  seminar was conducted  on the basis of a training
package  developed  jointly  by  INSTRAW,  the  Department  for  Development
Support and  Management Services  of the  Secretariat and the  International
Training  Centre of  the International  Labour  Organization  (ILO).   A new
modular  unit on women and  waste management was tested  during the seminar.
The  seminar  involved  45  participants,  including  development  planners,
engineers, trainers  and representatives  from women's and  non-governmental

                 2.  National training workshop on women, water
                     supply and sanitation held in Ecuador

39.  INSTRAW conducted a  national training workshop on  women, water supply
and  sanitation at Quito  from 27  June to  1 July  1994.  The  workshop was
carried  out  in  collaboration  with  UNDP,  the  Ecuadorian  Research  and
Training Institute  for Women,  INSTRAW's focal  point in  Ecuador, and  the
USAID  Regional Housing  and  Urban  Development  Office in  Ecuador,  which

provided  additional  funds.   The  workshop  used  the  Spanish version  of
INSTRAW's modules on Women, Water Supply and Sanitation.

40.  In  order to ensure that the  workshop would have  a multiplier effect,
INSTRAW, in cooperation with the Ecuadorian Research and Training  Institute
for Women and  with the financial support of UNDP, arranged for participants
at the  workshop to conduct additional  workshops aimed  at different target
groups  and community  leaders in  different provinces  of  the country.   A
total  of  155 persons  (mostly  women)  from  five  provinces were  trained
utilizing  INSTRAW's training  modules, which  were summarized in  the local

              3.  National training workshop on women, water supply
                  and sanitation held in Namibia

41.  INSTRAW  conducted a national training  workshop on women, water supply
and sanitation  at Windhoek from 20  to 25 November 1994.   The seminar  was
organized  in  cooperation  with  Namibia's  Department  of  Water  Affairs,
Ministry  of Agriculture,  Water and  Rural Development,  the Department for
Development  Support and  Management  Services  and  the German  Agency  for
Technical Cooperation.  It was based on the training package on women, water
supply and sanitation  referred to in paragraph 39  above.  It was  attended
by  43   participants,  including   development  planners,   extensions  and
community  development workers,  training officers and  representatives from
various United Nations bodies and agencies. 

42.   A  modular  unit  on women  and  waste management,  tested during  the
workshop,  endeavours to  promote an  integrated approach  to  environmental
sanitation and  stresses the importance of  the full  participation of women
in these projects.

43.   As follow-up to  the national workshop, Namibia's  Department of Water
Affairs and the Ministry of Community  Development expressed interest in the
organization  of  two additional  training  workshops  in  the northern  and
southern regions of Namibia utilizing INSTRAW's training packages.

               4.  Modular training package on women, environmental
                  management and sustainable development

44.  INSTRAW, in cooperation with the International Training  Centre of ILO,
prepared  a  training   package  on  women,  environmental  management   and
sustainable  development.   The  training  package  has  been developed  for
senior officials of ministries;  development planners; engineers, university
professors;   and  trainers,  practitioners   and  representatives  of  non-
governmental organizations.

45.  The major aims of the training package are:

  (a)   To  contribute to  an  integrated approach  in the  organization and
management of environmental policies and programmes through the  integration
of women's needs and their participation;

  (b)  To  increase the awareness of the  need to involve women in planning,
management, implementation  and evaluation of  environmental programmes  and

46.   In  addition to  capacity-building  programmes, the  training  package
consists of four parts:  women and environmental  health; women as agents of
change in the  development sector; women as managers of the environment; and
women,  environmental  indicators.    The  package   is  supplemented  by  a
trainer's guide  and colour  transparencies to be  used simultaneously  with
the training text and videos.

47.   INSTRAW's contribution  to sustainable  development and  environmental

management  included participation in a meeting of the Collaborative Council
Group  on Gender  Issues (New  York, 27  and 28  October 1994);  the  second
session of  the Commission on Sustainable  Development (New  York, 16-27 May
1994); the special session  of the Committee on New and Renewable Sources of
Energy  and Energy  for Development (New  York, 6-17 February  1995); the Ad
Hoc Inter-sessional Working Group on Sectoral  Issues of the Commission (New
York, 27  February-3 March  1995); and  the Ad  Hoc Inter-sessional  Working
Group on Finance of the Commission (New York, 6-9 March 1995).

48.  INSTRAW participated  in the 4th  meeting of the Steering Committee  on
Water Supply and Sanitation, at the World Bank, Washington, D.C., on 19  and
20  September  1994,  and  the   fifteenth  session  of  the  Administrative
Committee on  Coordination Subcommittee  on Water  Resources, at  Washington
D.C., from 21 to 23 October 1994.

49.   The  Steering Committee focused  on inter alia  monitoring progress in
implementing  the  follow-up  to  Agenda  21;  requirements  for  mid-decade
reporting in 1995 to the General Assembly on the status of water supply  and
sanitation and developments since the last  report; and the preparation  for
global conferences.

50.  The Subcommittee  focused on matters arising from the second session of
the Committee on Natural  Resources and the second session of the Commission
of Sustainable  Development; strengthening  cooperation and  coordination in
the   field  of   water  resources;   cooperation  and   coordination   with
organizations  outside  the   system;  monitoring  and  assessment  of   the
freshwater resources of the world; World  Water Day; other issues  requiring
system-wide cooperation; Global Environment Facility; and other matters.

            D.  Special project on the development of communications
                materials for women and development

51.  A project entitled "Development  of Communications Materials for  Women
and  Development"  was  initiated  in  1991   with  funds  provided  by  the
Government of  Italy  and carried  out  in  collaboration with  the  Italian
Association for Women in Development.  It was completed in 1995.

52.  The  second phase of  the project,  completed during  the period  under
review, involved actions aimed at:

  (a)  Enhancing the image of women in the mass media;

  (b)    Disseminating the  research  findings  on  the  situation of  women
employed in the media;


  (d)   Bridging the gap between women's  non-governmental organizations and
mass media professionals;

  (e)  Sensitizing students on the gender bias in the media.

53.   INSTRAW has prepared a  synthesis paper of the project,  which will be
published in-house.

54.    Outputs  from  individual  countries  participating  in  the  project
included the following:

  (a)   The Centre  for Women's Studies, Argentina,  a national women's non-
governmental organization selected to  carry out this  project in Argentina,
developed an ambitious plan of action  called "Satelite Eva" which consisted
of:  the production in  Spanish of  five sets of documents  for the press on
issues such  as human rights,  political participation, reproductive  rights
and the media; a multimedia exhibit on women and communications; a  training
seminar presenting  the major theoretical  issues related to  communications

and women and development and aimed  at developing guidelines for evaluating
the image of women in television  and advertising; workshops conducted  with
officials  from the women's programme of the Ministry  of Education; and the
production of a book entitled Mujeres  Comunicando Argentina:  Inventario de
Materiales  de   Comunicacion  Alternativos,  which   is  an  inventory   of
alternative media outputs on and by women;

  (b)    Cine  Mujer  in  Colombia  produced  a  30-minute  pilot television
programme on  prostitution in Colombia,  containing testimonies,  interviews
and panel  discussions moderated by  a renowned woman  reporter.  The  pilot
programme was  presented on Colombia regional  television.   An inventory of
communications materials on women and  development available in Colombia was
published in Spanish;

  (c)  The Centre for Women's Research and  Action in the Dominican Republic
produced a photographic portfolio  illustrating various aspects  of women in
development and guidelines for group discussions  on issues related to women
and the media.  An educational kit was  produced, containing six booklets on
topics  such as:   economy,  sustainable development,  health,  legislation,
international  organizations  and  events,  and  communications.    A   book
synthesizing the results of the diagnostic  research conducted in the  first
phase of the project was published in Spanish.

                      E.  Activities relating to the Fourth
                          World Conference on Women

1.  Preparatory conferences

55.   INSTRAW participated in all  five regional  preparatory conferences to
the  Fourth  World Conference  on  Women  organized  by  the United  Nations
regional commissions in 1994.  These included:  the Second Asia and  Pacific
Ministerial Conference  on Women in Development,  held at Jakarta, from 7 to
14 June  1994, organized by ESCAP;  the Regional  Preparatory Conference for
Latin America  and the Caribbean for  the Fourth World  Conference on Women,
held at Mar del  Plata, Argentina, from 26  to 30 September  1994, organized
by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC);  the
High-Level  Preparatory Meeting  for the  Fourth World  Conference on Women:
Action for  Equality, Development and  Peace, held at  Vienna from  17 to 21
October 1994,  organized by ECE; the  Arab Regional  Preparatory Meeting for
the Fourth World  Conference on Women, held at Amman, from 6  to 10 November
1994,  organized by  the Economic  and  Social  Commission for  Western Asia
(ESCWA); and the Fifth  African Regional Conference on Women, held at  Dakar
from  16  to  23 November  1994, organized  by  the Economic  Commission for
Africa (ECA).  At each regional  preparatory conference, INSTRAW presented a
paper   emphasizing  areas  where   research,  training,  communication  and
information  dissemination would  be crucial  for the  implementation of the
regional plans of actions and the platform  for action to be adopted  at the
Conference.  The Institute also called  for stronger commitments to research
on gender issues and expressed interest  in continuing its collaboration and
coordination with the regional commissions.

2.  Inter-agency meetings

56.   As  part  of  its effort  to  disseminate its  analysis  and  research
findings is sharing them with all  the concerned agencies within and outside
the United Nations system, INSTRAW attended on a  regular basis and provided
substantive inputs to all ad hoc  inter-agency meetings, on women  organized
under  the   aegis  of  the  Administrative  Committee  on  Coordination  in
preparation  for the  Fourth World  Conference  on  Women, organized  by the
Secretary-General of  the Conference. INSTRAW  prepared position papers  for
these meetings on the role of research and  training for the advancement  of

 57.    Other  inter-agency  meetings   attended  by  INSTRAW  included  the

Administrative Committee on  Coordination Subcommittee on Rural Development,
held in Rome from 11 to 13 May 1994.

3.  Panels

58.   INSTRAW organized the following panels for the NGO  Forum on Women and
the Fourth World Conference on Women.

Time Use Statistics and Recognition of Women's and Men's Contribution,
31 August 1995, Huairou

59.   The objectives  of this panel were: (a)  to identify further needs and
data gaps  in making women  visible in statistics;  (b) to  discuss measures
and  techniques for  capturing,  measuring and  valuing  women's  productive
contributions  to all aspects and sectors of development; and (c) to reflect
better these  contributions in  national accounts  and economic  statistics.
The  panel was attended by  experts in the  field of statistics, development
planners and  scholars  on gender  issues,  many  of  whom were  in  Beijing
attending the fiftieth  session of the International Statistical  Institute.
This panel was jointly organized by INSTRAW and UNSTAT, in cooperation  with
the Swedish International Development Agency.

60.   At this panel, three new  publications were presented, entitled  "Time
Use  of Women  in  Europe  and North  America", joint  study with  ECE; "The
Migration of Women,  Methodological Issues in  the Measurement  and Analysis
of Internal and International Migration"; and "Measurement and Valuation  of
Unpaid Contribution: Accounting Through Time and Output".

Women, Water and Environmental Sanitation, 2 September 1995, Huairou

61.   INSTRAW  organized jointly  with  the  United Nations  Children's Fund
(UNICEF) a  panel on Women,  Water and Environmental Sanitation.   The panel
focused  on  the  roles   and  problems  of   women  in  water  supply   and
environmental  sanitation  projects, programmes  and  policies  and  overall
water  resource management in the various regions.   Strategies in water and
environmental sanitation to the year 2000 were discussed.

Economic and Political Empowerment of Women, 4 September 1995, Huairou

62.  This  panel focused on  the complementarity of  the two  prongs of  the
empowerment  of women - economic  and political - from  the perspective that
empowerment requires  a holistic approach.   Emphasis was  placed on women's
access  to  financial resources  and  women's  participation  in policy  and
decision-making. The  publication entitled "Credit for  women, why  is it so
important?" (see para. 16 above) was launched.

 Media and  Communications for  the  Advancement  of Women:   Models  for  a
Global Reach, 7 September 1995, Huairou

63.   This panel provided  an opportunity for  mass media professionals  and
producers of  women's alternative media to design new strategies for the use
of media in sustainable development with regard to gender equity.

64.   During the panel,  INSTRAW's experiences in  its project  conducted in
three Latin American  countries on "Development of Communications  Materials
for  Women  in  Development", and  the  INSTRAW  booklet entitled  "Content-
Discontent:    Towards  a  Fair  Portrayal  of Women  in  the  Media",  were

               4.  Special events at the Fourth World Conference
                   on Women, Beijing

65.    INSTRAW  organized  two  special   event  panels  for  the   official
delegations to the Conference on 12 September 1995:

  (a)  The Women  and Natural Resources Management  panel focused on ways to
enhance  the   role  and  participation  of   women  in  natural   resources
management.  Topics  discussed  included:   women and  access  to resources;
disaster preparedness; women and new and  renewable sources of energy; women
and water supply; and women and environmental sciences;

  (b)   The Economic  and Political  Empowerment of  Women and the  Need for
Gender Statistics panel  focused on  the economic and political  empowerment
of  women  as  prerequisites   for  the  full  inclusion  of  women  in  the
development process and the role of statistics and indicators.

5.  Translation of publication

66.  INSTRAW 1995,  a general informative book  about the Institute  and its
work,  was translated  into Chinese for distribution  during the Conference,
in  compliance with a recommendation  of INSTRAW's Board of  Trustees.  This
is the first  time material has been  translated into Chinese.   Translation
into  other   official  languages  will   depend  on  additional   financial

                 F.  Activities for the fiftieth anniversary of
                     the United Nations

67.  As  part of the  celebration of the fiftieth anniversary  of the United
Nations,  INSTRAW initiated  in 1995  a  series  of colloquiums  focusing on
international  days or on topics  currently on the development  agenda.  The
purpose of these colloquiums is to provide a forum for local  organizations,
both governmental and non-governmental, and research institutes, to  discuss
the role  and participation of women  in selected  development issues, which
can  later  be brought  to  the  attention  of  authorities for  appropriate

68.  The  first colloquium, held in June,  focused on World Environment  Day
(5  June) and the  International Day  to Combat  Drought and Desertification
(17 June).    The  second,  held in  August,  dealt  with women's  image  in
publicity, an issue  which will be on the agenda of the  fortieth session of
the Commission on  the Status of  Women, in 1996.  The  next colloquium will
centre on the International  Day for the Reduction of Natural Disasters  (11
October), of which the  theme is "Women and children:  priority in  disaster
mitigation".    The  papers  presented  on  these  occasions  and  the  main
recommendations  resulting from the  discussions will  be part  of a special
commemorative publication.

69.   INSTRAW is  hosting a  multimedia interactive  exhibit as part  of the
global programme  for the fiftieth anniversary.   This  exhibit was launched
in San Francisco and  has also been shown in  cities around the  world where
there  is  a major  United Nations  presence.    The Institute  has received
support from the UNDP office in Santo Domingo in hosting the exhibit,  which
will run for a period  of six months to one year.   Contents of  the exhibit
include a  compact disc interactive (CDI)  story entitled  "Countdown to the
Future", consisting of 13 modules with  video footage of general information
about the  United Nations and its  work and a video  entitled "The World  We

G.  Information, documentation and communication

70.    The  objectives of  this  programme  are:    to  compile and  process
information on the role of women in development; to  strengthen the channels
for dissemination of information on women  in development and on  activities
carried out by INSTRAW; to reinforce  networking and liaison activities with

organizations  and  institutions with  interest in  women's  issues; and  to
develop appropriate communication  support in order  to facilitate access to
information and communications systems by  other bodies and organizations in
the United Nations system  and wherever possible to explore and develop  new
and more  effective means of communicating  information and  ideas about the
inclusion and the empowerment of women.

71.  During the  period under review, the internal printing facility of  the
Institute   maintained  its   pace   of  production.      Sixteen   separate
publications,  including research  studies,  reports  of training  seminars,
various Board  documents (in three languages),  four issues  of INSTRAW News
(in three languages) and  a major public information publication, as well as
flyers and brochures (three languages) were  printed in-house (see annex  to
the present  report).   In addition, 15  forms or types  of stationery  were
also printed.

72.  As for  the production of public information materials, there were  two
issues of  INSTRAW News during  1994.  The  first dealt with  women and  the
family  and was part  of the  Institute's contribution  to the International
Year of  the Family.   The second covered the topic of  time-use and drew on
the INSTRAW  research project on  this topic.   A special  issue focusing on
the World Summit for  Social Development was printed in the first quarter of
1995 and presented  at the Summit.  A second  issue was printed in 1995  and
centred  on future  directions of  research  and  training after  the Fourth
World Conference on Women.

 73.   During 1995, INSTRAW began  work on a  CD-ROM disk which will contain
the full texts of its core  library in English.  Utilizing  this new form of
technology  should broaden  the outreach  of the  Institute's  publications.
The project was widely promoted at the Fourth World Conference on Women.

74.  INSTRAW participated in  an ad hoc meeting of  the Joint United Nations
Information Committee  on 15 and  16 February 1994  at which  it was decided
that a joint travelling  exhibition would be  prepared as part of a  system-
wide information  programme for the  International Conference on  Population
and  Development, the  World Summit  on  Social  Development and  the Fourth
World Conference on Women.   INSTRAW is recognized as one of the sponsors of
this exhibit.   The  exhibition was  inaugurated in  the main  lobby of  the
United Nations Secretariat  building in New York  and presented to the World
Summit  for Social Development  (Copenhagen) and  later to  the Fourth World
Conference on Women (Beijing).

75.    The Institute  also  participated,  together  with  other bodies  and
agencies of  the United  Nations system,  in  the International  Information
Fair, organized by the  Department of Public Information  and held at United
Nations Headquarters in New York.


76.   By  its nature,  mandate,  statute  and operating  principles, INSTRAW
relies on  networking in  innovative ways  and implements  its work  through
cooperative  arrangements with United  Nations programmes, organizations and
agencies  and   other  governmental   and  non-governmental   organizations,
academic  institutions and  women's organizations and groups.   An important
element in the  Institute's methods of work is  its network of focal  points
and correspondents at the  national level.  There  are now 40  INSTRAW focal
points in  countries all  over the  world.   Several activities such  as the
organization   of  seminars   and   meetings  have   been   implemented   in
collaboration with these focal points.

77.   The Institute  considers that  networking and  mainstreaming have been
instrumental in enabling it to carry out  its mandate in research,  training
and information  on  gender, women  and  development  in an  innovative  and
multidisciplinary  manner;  to  increase  the scope  of  its  operations; to
optimize the  use of its limited  financial resources; and to attain greater

outreach and impact.

78.  Networking  and mainstreaming have  been and  will continue  to be  the
main  pivots of  the Institute's  mode  of operation.   The  Institute  will
continue in its  efforts to seek new ways  and strategies to strengthen  its
mode of operation.


79.   INSTRAW  is  funded solely  from voluntary  contributions.   Since its
establishment, the  Institute has  received pledges from  72 Member  States,
both developed and  developing countries.  Voluntary contributions  received
by the United Nations  Trust Fund for INSTRAW for the biennium 1994-1995  as
of the  date of  the present  report, including  specific contributions  for
special  projects and  programmes, amount  to  $2,180,273.   This  amount is
expected  to increase  before the  end  of  the biennium  through additional
contributions to  be received from those  donor countries  that have pledged
and have not yet paid their contributions.

80.    The Institute  wishes to  express  its appreciation  to those  Member
States that  have steadily supported INSTRAW  by their  contributions to the
Trust Fund since its inception.

81.    Furthermore,  in  keeping  with   the  recommendation  of  the  Joint
Inspection  Unit concerning  autonomous institutes  of the  United  Nations,
INSTRAW has  attained a financial reserve of $1 million, which should enable
the  Institute to  meet any  shortfall  in  expected pledges,  thus ensuring
continuity in its work.

82.  INSTRAW is responsible for providing administrative support to all  its
programmes.   This  includes financial  management and  budgetary  controls,
monitoring   of    financial   commitments,    recruitment   and   personnel
administration, procurement and  other activities, within the delegation  of
authority granted by  the Secretary-General.  Despite the constraints  faced
by  external  circumstances  and  insufficiency  of  qualified  Professional
staff, INSTRAW has successfully carried out  the biennium programme and  has
a sound financial base.

83.   The need for sustained funds that would permit  the Institute to carry
out its  mandate of independent  research, the results  of which  would feed
into  policy formulation and  coordination on  the one  hand and operational
activities on the other,  cannot be underestimated.   If the Institute is to
continue  to  be  effective  in  its   mandate  of  research,  training  and
information  on  issues  related to  women  and  development, the  financial
commitment of Member States to the Trust Fund must be ensured.


84.   INSTRAW's activities are  an integral part  of the  overall efforts of
the United Nations to  combat poverty, which has a strong negative impact on
the lives of women world wide.

85.      The  World  Summit  for Social  Development  and  the  Fourth World
Conference on  Women reinforced the  importance and  urgency of the  need to
eliminate  all forms  of discrimination  against women  and highlighted  the
linkage between  the empowerment  of women  and the  progress of women  as a
whole.  A reinforced  commitment to research and training is fundamental  to
further  progress   towards  sustainable   socio-economic  development   and

advancement of women.


  1/    Report   of  the  World  Conference   to  Review  and  Appraise  the
Achievements of the United Nations Decade  for Women:  Equality, Development
and Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985  (United Nations publication, Sales  No.
E.85.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.

  2/  For the statute of the Institute, see A/39/511, annex.

  3/  R. Mehta et al., 1995.  INSTRAW/SER.B/51.

  4/  United Nations publication, Sales No. E.95.III.C.3.

  5/  INSTRAW/SER.B/44.

/...  A/50/538



Publications and public information material
printed by the Institute, 1994-1995

Compilation  of  Statistics on  Women  in  the  Informal  Sector in  Gambia.
Report of the National  Training Workshop, Kombo Beach,  8-16 May 1991.  160
p. Santo Domingo:  INSTRAW 1994.

Women,  Water Supply and  Sanitation.  Training Seminar, Georgetown, Guyana,
31 January-4 February 1994.  85 p.  Santo Domingo:  INSTRAW December 1994.

Women, Water Supply and  Sanitation.  National  Training Seminar,  Windhoek,
Namibia, 20-25 November 1994.  59 p.  Santo Domingo:  INSTRAW March 1995.

Training Users  and Producers in  Statistics on Gender  Issues in the  South
Pacific.   Seminar, Rarotonga,  Cook Islands,  30 November-3  December 1992.
120 p. Santo Domingo:  INSTRAW May 1995.

The  Situation  of  Elderly  Women:   Available  Statistics  and Indicators.
Joint  publication of  INSTRAW and  the  Statistics  Division of  the United
Nations.  80 p. Santo Domingo:  INSTRAW 1993.  Reprinted 1995.

The Migration  of  Women:   Methodological  Issues  in the  Measurement  and
Analysis of Internal  and International Migration.   120 p.   Santo Domingo:
INSTRAW 1994. ISBN No. 92-1-127005-7, Sales No. E.95.III.C.1.

Measurement  and Valuation of  Unpaid Contribution:  Accounting Through Time
and Output.  124 p.   Santo Domingo:  INSTRAW 1995.  ISBN No. 92-1-127007-3.
Sales No. E.95.III.C.3.

Women,  Environmental   Management  and  Sustainable  Development,   Modular
Training Package.   INSTRAW  in cooperation with the  International Training
Centre  of  ILO,   April  1995.     ISBN  No.  92-1-127006-5.     Sales  No.

Content-Discontent:  Towards a Fair Portrayal of Women in  the Media.  60 p.
Santo Domingo:  INSTRAW 1995.

Gender Concepts  in Development  Planning,  Basic Approach.   35  p.   Santo
Domingo: INSTRAW 1995.

Credit  for Women:    Why is  it  so  important?   119  p.   Santo  Domingo:

INSTRAW 1995.  Santo Domingo:  INSTRAW 1995.

INSTRAW News No. 20, first semester 1994.  Women and the Family.

INSTRAW News No. 21, second semester 1994.  Women and Time.

 INSTRAW  News No.  22, first semester 1995.   The Social Summit:   A Gender

INSTRAW News No. 23,  second semester 1995.   Women and Development:  Future

Flyer:   1440 Minutes in a Day:  Knowing how a woman spends each one reveals
how much of her productive contribution is concealed.  Santo Domingo, 1994.

Flyer:  INSTRAW and its Water Programme in Africa, Santo Domingo, 1994.

Flyer:  Women and Energy, Santo Domingo, 1994.

Flyer:   What  do we know  about women's migration  and the plight  of women
migrants?, Santo Domingo, 1994.

Flyer:    Communications   Panel  -   "Media  and  Communications  for   the
Advancement  of Women:  Models  for a Global  Reach", NGO  Forum on Women, 7
September 1995.

Brochure:   INSTRAW Workshop/Panels, NGO  Forum on Women, Beijing, September

Brochure:  INSTRAW Special Event Panels,  Fourth World Conference on  Women,
Beijing, 4-15 September 1995.

Brochure:   Women and the UN, 1945-1995.  INSTRAW and UNIFEM, New York,     

Poster:  Keys to Gender Equality.   INSTRAW/Department of Public Information
of the Secretariat, New York, 1995.

Poster:   Women:   United for  a Better  World, Fourth  World Conference  on
Women, INSTRAW, 1995.



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