United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

9 October 1995


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 20 (b)


Assistance for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Liberia

Report of the Secretary-General


  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................1 - 123

II.  SUPPORT FOR THE PEACE PROCESS ........................13 - 275

  A.  Assistance for peace monitoring ..................  13 - 245

  B.  Initiatives for rehabilitation, reconstruction and
    national reconciliation ..........................  25 - 277


  A.  Food and nutrition ...............................  28 - 348

  B.  Agriculture ......................................  35 - 369

  C.  Health and medical care ..........................  37 - 459

  D.  Water and sanitation .............................  46 - 5311

95-30345 (E)   231095/...
CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

  E.  Education and training ...........................  54 - 5912

  F.  Specific target groups ...........................  60 - 7413


V.  CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS ..............................86 - 8918

1.   In  its resolution 49/21 E  of 20 December 1994,  the General Assembly,
inter alia,  called upon the  international community and  intergovernmental
organizations  to  provide  Liberia  with  technical,  financial  and  other
assistance  for the  repatriation  and resettlement  of  Liberian  refugees,
returnees and displaced persons and for the rehabilitation of combatants.

2.    The  Assembly  also  appealed   to  the  international  community  and
intergovernmental   organizations   to  provide   adequate   assistance   to
programmes identified in the report  of the Secretary-General  on assistance
for the rehabilitation  and reconstruction of Liberia (A/49/466),  including
the  preparation  of a  new  appeal  for  humanitarian  assistance to  cover
emergency assistance needs and to support the peace process.

3.   In  the same  resolution, the  Assembly reiterated  its appeal  to  the
international  community  to   contribute  generously  to  the  Trust   Fund
established  by  the Secretary-General,  in  order  to enable  the  Economic
Community of  West  African  States (ECOWAS)  Monitoring Group  (ECOMOG)  to
fulfil its mandate and to help defray the  cost of deployment of  additional
troops from outside the subregion.

4.   The  Assembly also  requested  the  Secretary-General to  continue  his
efforts to coordinate the  work of the United Nations system and to mobilize
assistance  for  the  rehabilitation  and  reconstruction  of  Liberia;   to
undertake,  when  conditions   permit,  in  close  collaboration  with   the
authorities of Liberia, an overall assessment  of needs, with the  objective
of  holding, when appropriate,  a round-table  conference of  donors for the
rehabilitation and reconstruction of Liberia; and  to report to the  General
Assembly at its fiftieth session on the implementation of the resolution.

5.  The  present report describes  activities carried out  in Liberia  since
the issuance of the previous report  of the Secretary-General (A/49/466)  in
October  1994.   Information  on  assistance  to  Liberian  refugees in  the
neighbouring countries  will be  incorporated in  a separate  report of  the
Secretary-General in accordance  with General Assembly resolution 49/174  of
23 December 1994.

6.   During the  past year,  most United Nations efforts  have been directed
towards supporting  the peace  process in  Liberia, delivering  humanitarian
assistance to victims of civil conflict,  providing for the emergency  needs
of  displaced  persons  and,   where  possible,  continuing   rehabilitation
activities. United Nations  agencies as well  as national  and international
non-governmental organizations  were all active in  the relief effort,  with
overall coordination  provided by the  United Nations Resident  Coordinator.
Priorities included: (a)  regaining access to  civilian populations in areas
controlled  by  factions;  (b)  preparing  a  new  appeal  for  humanitarian
assistance requirements; (c) meeting the emergency needs  of newly displaced
populations; and (d) developing  a cohesive and shared strategy to meet  the
needs of the greatest possible number of affected civilians.

 7.   In  September 1994,  humanitarian assistance  organizations  operating
outside ECOMOG-controlled areas  suffered serious losses when much of  their
equipment was  looted by warring  factions.   The immediate  effect was  the
cessation of virtually  all relief  activities outside the greater  Monrovia
and Buchanan  areas.  Repeated efforts  by the Special Representative of the

Secretary-General  and  by  individual  United  Nations  agencies  and  non-
governmental organizations  to have their  equipment and materials  returned
were unsuccessful. 

8.  The looting  of humanitarian assistance materials was said to have  been
reflective of a  breakdown in the control  exercised by faction leaders over
their fighters.   In addition to  severely restricting  the geographic scope
of relief efforts, the violence and  heightened insecurity that  accompanied
the looting  forced  tens  of thousands  of  civilians  to  seek  refuge  in
Monrovia  and Buchanan,  increasing the  population of displaced  persons in
both cities significantly.  Continued fighting during 1995, notably  between
the Liberia Peace Council  (LPC) and the National Patriotic Front of Liberia
(NPFL) and  between rival  branches of  the United  Liberation Movement  for
Democracy (ULIMO), resulted in further large-scale population  displacements
and prevented humanitarian assistance agencies from helping those  civilians
unable to flee the affected areas.

9.  In June 1995,  the reach of humanitarian assistance activities increased
somewhat  when ECOMOG secured  the roads  northeast from  Monrovia to Kakata
and Bong  Town, and north and west  from Monrovia to Tubmanburg and Bo.  The
newly secured  roads allowed for  preliminary deliveries  of relief supplies
from  Monrovia  to  affected areas.   A  study  undertaken by  Medecins sans
frontieres (MSF)-Belgium,  Save the  Children Fund  (SCF)-United Kingdom  of
Great Britain  and  Northern Ireland,  and  the  European Union  during  the
period  of increased access  gave an  indication of  the seriousness  of the
plight  of the  population.   The  study in  upper  Margibi and  lower  Bong
counties  revealed global and  severe malnutrition rates of  56 per cent and
42  per cent, respectively,  illustrating the  effects on  the population of
being cut off from sustained assistance of any sort.

10.   By  September  1995,  United  Nations  agencies  and  non-governmental
organizations were  working to benefit from  the road  openings by expanding
operations  into those  areas where  they  could  be provided  with credible
security  guarantees.   In  addition,  a number  of humanitarian  assistance
organizations continued to deliver relief supplies  from Cote d'Ivoire  into
Nimba and  Bong  counties, and  sporadically  from  Guinea into  upper  Lofa

11.  While maintaining a division of labour  based on mandate and expertise,
the humanitarian  agencies operating in Liberia  adopted a  number of shared
operating  principles  and  protocols  to  serve  as  the  basis  for  their
respective operations.  The principles  and protocols,  developed under  the
auspices of the Office  of the United Nations Resident Coordinator with  the
assistance of the Department of Humanitarian  Affairs of the United  Nations
Secretariat, emphasize the impartiality of humanitarian assistance work  and
the importance of operating in a coordinated manner.

12.    It is  estimated  that  1.8  million  Liberians require  humanitarian
assistance,  of  whom  1.5  million  are  currently   accessible  to  relief
organizations.   Though  the plausible  security guarantees  required for  a
rapid expansion of relief activities have not yet  been secured, a number of
gains have been made, particularly the opening of the roads from Monrovia.


A.  Assistance for peace monitoring

13.  In addition  to providing humanitarian assistance to Liberia since  the
inception  of  the crisis,  the United  Nations has  undertaken a  series of
initiatives to  promote  the peaceful  settlement  of  the conflict.    This
included the  fielding of  the United  Nations Observer  Mission in  Liberia
(UNOMIL) following the signing of the Cotonou Agreement in July 1993. 1/

14.  In  November 1994, pursuant to  Security Council resolution 950  (1994)
of 21  October 1994, the  Secretary-General dispatched  a high-level mission

to Cote  d'Ivoire,  Ghana, Guinea,  Liberia,  Nigeria  and Sierra  Leone  to
explore  avenues for advancing  the peace  process.   The mission concluded,
inter alia, that it was of central importance  that ECOWAS members harmonize
their policies on Liberia. Deliberations at  Accra in November and  December
and the signing  by factions of the Accra  Agreement on 21 December 1994  2/
signified progress in the peace process.

15.   In a further  effort to consolidate peace, the  Third Meeting of Heads
of State  and Government  of the  ECOWAS Committee  of Nine  on Liberia  was
convened  at Abuja  from  17 to  20  May 1995.    The meeting  stressed  the
importance  of  enforcing  the  arms  embargo  established by  the  Security
Council  in its resolution  788 (1992)  of 19 November  1992, and monitoring
the cease-fire agreement signed  by factions on 28 December 1994.  The Abuja
summit  was followed  by bilateral  consultations  in the  Nigerian  capital
between Nigerian officials and a number of faction leaders.

16.    Mr. Anthony  Nyaki  succeeded  Mr.  Trevor  Gordon-Somers as  Special
Representative of  the Secretary-General in January  1995.   Mr. Nyaki began
consultations  with Governments  in the  region  to  determine how  best the
United  Nations could  complement ECOWAS  efforts to  achieve peace.    As a
result  of these consultations  and consistent  with the  conclusions of the
ECOWAS  meeting  held  at  Abuja in  May  1995,  Mr. Nyaki  regularized  the
activities of the  cease-fire monitoring committee, a representational  body
assembled to investigate allegations of cease-fire violations.

17.   Despite these developments, the  peace process  continued to encounter
serious  problems.    Fighting  continued  in  many  areas  of  the country,
preventing  the extension  of Government jurisdiction and  the initiation of
comprehensive rehabilitation  and resettlement schemes.   By its  resolution
1001  (1995)  of  30  June  1995,  the  Security  Council  established  four
conditions for the  renewal of the  mandate of the  United Nations  Observer
Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)  beyond 15 September 1995:  (a) installation  of
the Council of State; (b) re-establishment  of a comprehensive and effective
cease-fire;  (c) disengagement of  all forces;  and (d)  establishment of an
agreed timetable  for the implementation of  all other aspects  of the peace

 18.  In July,  two meetings were held at Monrovia between Liberian  parties
as  a follow-up to the Abuja summit.  The first meeting,  held from 13 to 17
July, was sponsored by  the Women's Groups of  Liberia.  The second meeting,
facilitated   by   ECOWAS,  the   Government   of   Nigeria,   the   Special
Representative of the SecretaryGeneral and the  Carter Center, was held from
19 to 23 July.

19.    These  consultations  resulted,  inter  alia, in  the  adoption  of a
resolution  endorsing  a six-member  Council of  State  and reaffirming  the
factions'  commitment to disarmament,  the creation  of safe  havens and the
reopening of  roads and  ports.   The parties  also discussed  the issue  of
power-sharing  between the two  wings of  the United  Liberation Movement of
Liberia  for  Democracy  (ULIMO)  and  decided  to  establish  a   technical
committee to facilitate an agreement between them.

20.   The Chairman  of ECOWAS  convened a  meeting of the  factions at Abuja
from  16 to  19 August,  which culminated  in  the  signing by  the Liberian
parties of  an  agreement 3/  amending  and  supplementing the  Cotonou  and
Akosombo Agreements, as subsequently clarified by  the Accra Agreement.  The
Abuja  Agreement  provided  for  and  resulted  in  the  establishment  of a
comprehensive  cease-fire on 26 August 1995 and a  new six-member Council of
State, which  was installed  on 1  September 1995.   The  new Council  would
remain in power for a period of one  year, until the holding of elections on
20 August 1996.   The Agreement  also included a schedule  of implementation
and  a formula for the  distribution of government  posts, which the parties
have implemented.

21.   The new Council of  State held its first session immediately after its
installation  on 1 September.   Reports  indicate that  the new transitional

government enjoys  the full  support  of all  the key  political leaders  of
Liberia, as well as the population at large.

22.   The Council  of State  has already  announced new appointments  to the
Cabinet  and assigned oversight responsibilities  for Ministries, autonomous
agencies  and public corporations  to Council  members.   Nominations to the
Supreme Court have also  been made, and consultations  are under way to fill
the  few remaining posts  in the  Transitional Legislative  Assembly and the
Electoral Commission.

23.    On 4  September,  the  Cease-fire  Violations  Committee, chaired  by
UNOMIL, met to review  with the factions plans for monitoring the cease-fire
and  the implementation  of the  other  provisions  of the  peace agreement,
including disarmament and demobilization.  A Disarmament Committee,  chaired
by ECOMOG, has also been established to draw  up plans for the disengagement
of forces, disarmament and the exchange of prisoners of war.

24.   With the conclusion of  the Abuja Agreement, the  entry into force  of
the  cease-fire and  the installation  of the  Council  of State,  plans are
being prepared for the  further expansion of UNOMIL.  UNOMIL was invited  to
attend  the  ECOWAS  Chiefs of  Staff  Meeting  held at  Accra  on  4 and  5
September to  work out the modalities for the implementation of the military
aspects of the Abuja Agreement.   The international community, in particular
the  United  Nations, was  urgently  requested  to  support  ECOMOG and  the
disarmament,  demobilization  and  reintegration  of  combatants.    It  was
strongly felt that failure to focus on the requirements of combatants  could
adversely  affect the peace process,  and that the momentum generated by the
Abuja Agreement should be maintained.

              B.  Initiatives for rehabilitation, reconstruction and
                  national reconciliation

25.    During  the  reporting  period,  the  food-for-work  and  institution
strengthening activities of the World Food  Programme (WFP) increased by 100
per cent.  The WFP emergency school feeding  programme was expanded to cover
550 schools  in  Montserrado, Margibi  and  Buchanan,  reaching a  total  of
182,000  school children.   Food-for-work  incentives were  also provided to
teachers and support  staff in  schools and orphanages,  as well as  medical
and  support staff  in clinics  and  hospitals.   In addition,  the National
Volunteer Programme, which  was established to support the reintegration  of
ex-combatants into  civil society through  food-for-work schemes,  benefited
1,800 demobilized fighters before its suspension in early 1995.

26.  In  the agricultural sector,  five pipeline  projects of  the Food  and
Agriculture Organization  of the United Nations  were approved  for 1995 and
are  now under  way.   They are  aimed at  improving food  security  through
cassava  production  and  processing,  distribution  of  seeds  and   tools,
training in extension methods and development  of artisanal fisheries.   FAO
is  also planning sectoral  review and  crop assessment  missions, for which
United  Nations Development  Programme (UNDP)  funding has  been  earmarked.
The missions will provide a basis  for the rehabilitation and reconstruction
plan  to  be formulated  in  collaboration  with  UNDP  and the  Government.
Efforts are also under way to develop a sustainable food security  strategy.
FAO is  also planning a  review of current agricultural  statistics in order
to facilitate the distribution of farm inputs as access increases.

27.    In  anticipation  of  the  longer-term  rehabilitation  of  Liberia's
education sector,  the United Nations  Educational, Scientific and  Cultural
Organization (UNESCO)  and UNDP have worked  with the  Ministry of Education
and local  and international  non-governmental organizations  to develop  "A
Basic Education  and Training Sector  Reconstruction Programme (1995-2000)".
The programme  will focus  on the  rehabilitation of  primary and  secondary
schools  and   Learning  Centres,  which   will  provide  non-formal   basic
education; upgrading  the  skills of  staff  members  from the  Ministry  of
Education    and    county    education    offices;   decentralization    of

responsibilities  to  the  grass-roots  or  county  level;  improvement   of
curricula; and restructuring of the existing education systems.


A.  Food and nutrition

28.   During  the  period under  review,  WFP  and  other  relief  agencies,
particularly  Catholic Relief  Services  (CRS),  addressed emergency  relief
food needs  in all accessible  areas of Liberia.   Food commodities provided
were rice,  bulgur wheat,  corn soya  blend, beans  and vegetable  oil.   In
1994, more  than 87,000  metric tons  of relief  food was distributed.   WFP
provided  60 per  cent of  the  food,  CRS provided  30 per  cent and  other
organizations, including  Save the Children  Fund, provided the remaining 10
per cent.

29.   Food commodities  are  shipped to  Monrovia  and  to San  Pedro  (Cote
d'Ivoire), where they are directly delivered to designated  non-governmental
organizations,   including  the   Lutheran  World   Service/Lutheran   World
Federation (LWS/LWF), at  regional warehouses.  Internal transport,  storage
and  handling costs are met by WFP.  Field distribution  of WFP and most CRS
food commodities  is performed  by several national  and international  non-
governmental organizations at more than 1,500 distribution points.

30.  During the first six months of 1994, the level of  food distribution in
Liberia  increased  from 6,250  metric tons  to an  average of  7,600 metric
tons,  as  the  security  situation  allowed  for  the  expansion  of relief
distribution into  Nimba, Bong and Bomi  counties.  In  Bomi and Cape  Mount
counties, emergency  distribution was possible only  in a  few towns secured
by ECOMOG.   In  areas occupied  by the  NPFL, WFP  organized 28  cross-line
convoys from Monrovia carrying a total of 6,000 metric tons between  January
and  August  1994.   Over  the same  period,  non-governmental organizations
dispatched 25  convoys carrying  a total of  1,400 metric tons  of food.   A
total of  17 metric tons was also  delivered across the  border to Ganta and
Gbarnga from Cote d'Ivoire,  in order to meet  the emergency food  aid needs
of  approximately  425,000 beneficiaries.    During  that same  period,  850
metric  tons  of emergency  relief  food  were  also  delivered to  Maryland
county, from Tabou, Cote d'Ivoire.

31.   From  September  1994 onward,  delivery of  food  aid to  those  areas
outside ECOMOG  control was largely  suspended, following a renewed outbreak
of  fighting  and  the theft  of  large  amounts  of  property  from  relief
organizations  as  described above.    Distribution  of  emergency food  aid
continued,  however, in  Montserrado, lower  Margibi and  lower Grand  Bassa
counties   for  a  case-load  of  1.3  million  persons,  including  830,000
displaced.  Fighting in areas outside  ECOMOG control continued to  displace
Liberians  into  Monrovia and  its  environs,  Harbel and  Smell-No-Taste in
lower  Margibi county  and  Buchanan  in Grand  Bassa county.   WFP  and CRS
carried out  monthly food distributions of  approximately 2,500 metric  tons
to 35 centres for displaced persons in those areas.

32.  General distribution  of emergency food aid in Monrovia is carried  out
three times  per year.   Approximately 9,000 metric  tons of  relief food is
distributed  to  900,000 beneficiaries,  based on  an established  system of
registered  beneficiaries per  household unit.   This  general  distribution
will be phased out during 1995 in favour of targeted feeding.

 33.  The overall case-load  for emergency food aid in  Liberia for 1995  is
1.5  million  persons,  including  100,000  Sierra Leonean  refugees.    The
standard ration  for displaced persons and  refugees, as  recommended by WFP
and  the  Office  of  the  United  Nations  High  Commissioner  for Refugees
(UNHCR), remains  at 200  grams  of cereal  per person  per day.   In  rural
areas, the daily ration  includes 60 grams of pulse  and in urban  areas, 25
grams  of oil.   The normal ration is supplemented  with 100 grams of cereal
and 125 grams of corn soya blend for vulnerable groups.

34.   Ongoing fighting  and the consequent population displacement seriously
reduced agricultural activities in 1994 and  the first nine months  of 1995.
Agricultural populations  in Bong, Nimba, Lofa,  Bassa, Cape  Mount and Bomi
counties were displaced and  prevented from planting.   As a result, WFP has
projected a continued  need for emergency food aid  for 1996 in the  Liberia
Regional  Protracted  Operation  (covering  Liberia, Cote  d'Ivoire,  Sierra
Leone and  Guinea),  more  than  80  per  cent of  whose  beneficiaries  are

B.  Agriculture

35.    During the  reporting  period,  FAO  activities were  focused  on the
acquisition and  distribution of farming inputs  to increase household  food
security  for  accessible  agricultural  communities.    FAO  also  provided
displaced persons,  ex-combatants and,  in  some cases,  refugees with  seed
rice,  vegetable  seeds and  farm  tools  through  its Technical  Assistance
Programme and contributions  from the European Community.  In  collaboration
with non-governmental  organizations, FAO was  able to distribute  vegetable
seeds and farm tools to 50,000 farming families in  Montserrado, Grand Bassa
and Margibi counties.

36.      FAO's   collaborating   partners   include   the   non-governmental
organizations Africare,  CRS and  LWS, as  well as  a number  of local  non-
governmental  organizations.   International  non-governmental organizations
have  played an instrumental  role in  the agricultural  sector by providing
vegetable and rice seeds and tools to targeted populations.

C.  Health and medical care

37.    Efforts  to  rehabilitate  the  health  sector  continue  through the
collaboration of  the World  Health Organization  (WHO), the United  Nations
Children's  Fund  (UNICEF),  the   Ministry  of  Health   and  national  and
international non-governmental organizations.  During the reporting  period,
the inaccessibility  of many parts  of the country  limited the  delivery of
health  sector  services  and  reduced  the  number  of  functioning  health
centres.   Thanks to  recent improvements  in security,  agencies working in
the health sector have begun  rebuilding the shattered health infrastructure
in  Bong and  Cape  Mount  counties.   They have  also continued  to provide
curative and preventative health care in all accessible areas.

38.  Increased displacement  and overcrowded living  conditions have further
increased  the population's  vulnerability to  epidemic diseases.    Malaria
continues to be a  problem of  major concern as it  is the leading cause  of
morbidity  and  mortality  in  all  age  groups.    WHO,  UNICEF  and  other
organizations active in  the health sector have initiated several community-
based malaria control programmes.

39.  The incidence of diarrhoeal  diseases and acute respiratory  infections
is  also  high,  particularly  for  young  children.    WHO and  UNICEF  are
expanding  programmes for  control of  diarrhoea diseases,  particularly  in
Monrovia  and Buchanan.  UNICEF  is also supporting the  establishment of an
organized programme for acute respiratory infections by providing  essential
drugs  to all  mothers  and  child health  clinics in  Monrovia.   This drug
supply is supplemented by  WHO.  The results  of three Expanded Immunization
Programme  (EPI)  surveys  conducted  in  accessible  areas  show  a  steady
increase in immunization coverage for children under one year old.

40.   Acquired immunodeficiency  syndrome (AIDS)  has also  become a serious
health problem.  At  the end of 1993, surveillance data indicated that about
5  per cent of  persons surveyed  (mainly from  Monrovia) were seropositive.
In  1994,  human  immunodeficiency  virus  (HIV)  prevalence  studies   were
undertaken on  selected populations  in accessible  areas and  12 new  cases
were  reported.   As at December  1994, 44 cases  of AIDS were  reported for
Liberia.  The National AIDS Programme,  largely supported by WHO,  continues

to  focus on public  awareness activities, training, condom distribution and
blood-safety examination.

41.  WHO is also sponsoring programmes to combat other diseases,  especially
epilepsy and  onchocerciasis (river  blindness).  The  beneficiaries of  the
river  blindness   and  epilepsy  programmes  number  about  1,500  and  150
respectively. Along with several non-governmental organizations and  UNICEF,
WHO  participated in the  control of the  cholera outbreak  between July and
November 1994  by providing US$  6,000 worth  of intravenous  fluids and  by
supporting an information campaign.

42.  To combat  psycho-social ailments, WHO  facilitated the opening of  the
only  mental  health  facility  in  the  country.    This  facility provides
psychiatric  care  for patients  and  consultative  services  to  the J.  F.
Kennedy Hospital  and to various  non-governmental organizations engaged  in
programme  support to  young people  (including UNICEF-supported  programmes
for abused women and girls; the  Children's Assistance Programme; Don  Bosco
homes; and  the work of the  non-governmental organization Liberians  United
Against Drug Abuse).

43.   The  supply of  medical drugs  in Liberia  is being  addressed by  the
National Drug  Service (NDS)  which is  supported by UNICEF.   NDS  provides
essential drugs, equipment, other medical supplies and training for  medical
personnel.  There  were 70 health  facilities supported  by NDS  as of  mid-
1995.   An  NDS  sub-station  located  in  Grand  Bassa  county  serves  the
increasing number of  non-governmental organizations  and health  facilities
operating in that area.  In addition, a  recent contribution of US$  140,000
from the  Government of  the United  States of  America will  allow for  the
provision of  essential drugs and medical  supplies to  help control malaria
and diarrhoeal  and respiratory infections  in camps  for displaced persons,
refugee centres  and recently  accessible areas  of western  Liberia.   This
contribution  will also allow  for resettlement  of health  workers to their
original places of work for at least six  months, and provide direct support
to victims of the conflict.
  44.  Community mobilization and health  education, training of traditional
birth  attendants and  family planning  and child  survival programmes  have
also begun in Bomi and  Cape Mount counties.  An initial 207 cycles of  oral
contraceptives  were provided to health  centres and five kits to two groups
of traditional  birth attendants in  targeted camps.   WHO will  work with a
local   non-governmental  organization   to  train   52   traditional  birth
attendants  in  Tubmanburg.    Locally  made  kits  for  traditional   birth
attendants will be provided upon completion  of the training from  emergency
funds donated by the Government of the United Kingdom.

45.   The WHO  programme for  the remainder  of 1995  foresees, inter  alia,
provision of basic health services to  approximately 1.3 million persons  in
ECOMOGcontrolled areas.    This  includes populations  in Monrovia  and  its
environs, as well as displaced persons in Buchanan, Harbel and the  recently
accessible areas in Bomi and Cape Mount counties.

/...  A/50/522


D.  Water and sanitation

46.   The  provision  of  safe  drinking water  and  improvement of  general
sanitation continue  to be  among  the more  critical  needs  to be  met  in
Liberia.    The  situation  is being  addressed  through  the  collaborative
efforts  of  UNICEF and  non-governmental  organizations,  principally  MSF-
Belgium,  the  International  Committee  of  the  Red  Cross  (ICRC), Action

internationale contre la faim (AICF) and the African Muslim Agency (AMA).

47.  Prior to  the civil war, approximately 90 per cent of the population of
Monrovia relied on the  supply of treated  pipe water from the White  Plains
water  treatment plant.  During clashes in October 1992, the treatment plant
was extensively  damaged.  Following  repairs undertaken with the assistance
of UNICEF,  the plant  resumed operations  in late  1993.   Since then,  the
plant has been supplying about one third of the population of Monrovia.

48.    From  a  country-wide  perspective,  the  general  situation  has not
dramatically  improved  during   the  reporting  period.    This  is  partly
attributable to the renewed fighting  and heightened insecurity  that struck
many parts of the country, making  them inaccessible for relief  operations.
Currently, a  significant portion  of the  population is  being serviced  by
natural sources and  the 350 shallow and  hand-dug wells equipped with  hand
pumps   constructed   by   UNICEF    and   international    non-governmental
organizations,  including MSF-Belgium, AICF  and AMA.   UNICEF  continues to
provide  regular  maintenance and  spare  parts  for  these  hand pumps  and
closely  monitors  the delivery  of emergency  water supplies  to hospitals,
clinics, orphanages and one shelter for displaced persons.

49.    In  support  of  the Monrovia  shallow  wells  programme,  UNICEF  is
conducting  mass well  chlorination campaigns  to  reduce the  incidence  of
diarrhoeal disease. Under the campaigns conducted  in 1994 and January 1995,
approximately 4,800 open and  protected wells were chlorinated.  Information
on self-chlorination using locally available household  bleach is also being
disseminated  to   communities  to  further  control  water-borne  diseases.
Initial surveillance  reports show  that the  chlorination intervention  has
been effective,  and therefore  two additional  mass chlorination  campaigns
are planned for 1995.

50.  In  the absence of a functional  government body responsible for  rural
water supply  and sanitation, UNICEF assistance is implemented through local
non-governmental organizations and communities.   In 1994,  UNICEF water and
sanitation programmes in the rural areas  resulted in the rehabilitation  of
160 hand pumps and the construction of 18  hand-dug wells equipped with hand
pumps,  4  group latrines  at  schools  and health  centres  and  36  family
latrines.  Currently, security  conditions in  the rural  areas have reduced
UNICEF  chlorination activities.   In  peri-urban  areas, 22  hand-dug wells
equipped with  hand pumps and  38 family  latrines were provided  along with
health  and  hygiene  education.    UNICEF  intervention  in  the  water and
sanitation sector  has reached about 60,000  beneficiaries in  the rural and
peri-urban communities.

51.   UNICEF  is also  implementing  sanitation  activities at  shelters for
displaced persons in Monrovia and Buchanan.   In 1994, in collaboration with
local non-governmental organizations and shelter sanitation groups, a  total
of  19 shelter  latrines and  13  hand-dug wells  equipped with  pumps  were
constructed.  In addition, 28 shelter latrines  were de-sludged continuously
to  maintain  sanitary  conditions.    To  improve  the  efficiency  of this
activity, UNICEF has purchased a small sewage truck.

52.   Owing to the increase  in the number  of displaced persons arriving in
Buchanan, beginning  in  February 1995,  and  the  acute shortage  of  water
during the  dry season, UNICEF  gave support to AICF  in providing emergency
water supply  for new arrivals.   UNICEF is also  supporting the health  and
hygiene education programme at 12 shelters  for displaced persons through  a
local non-governmental organization by disseminating messages on  diarrhoeal
control, personal hygiene, breast-feeding and EPI.

53.  UNDP,  through its emergency project,  plans to support a micro-project
intended to upgrade 25 of the existing wells which are in poor condition  in
Tubmanburg.   UNICEF, through HOPE,  a local non-governmental  organization,
plans to  construct eight  new wells  and rehabilitate  two existing  wells.
WHO and the United Nations Office for Project Services are collaborating  to
protect five  wells to help  control diarrhoeal disease at  Bo, where 35,000

displaced persons and refugees are concentrated.

E.  Education and training

54.    The  previous  report  indicated that  education  opportunities  were
available  in many  counties.   The renewed  hostilities have  wiped out the
gains made in this domain.   There are now only  a few schools  in operation
outside Monrovia, in areas controlled by ECOMOG.

55.   In Monrovia, 554  schools are functional, though  many are handicapped
by shortage of supplies and equipment.  Large  numbers of schools have  been
burnt down  and looted,  while others  are being  used as  shelters for  the
displaced.  In rural  Liberia, the fighting in September 1994 in and  around
Gbarnga reportedly left the  few remaining schools in that area damaged  and
  56.      In  collaboration   with   WFP   and   several   non-governmental
organizations,  UNICEF   has  initiated   a  feeding   programme  and   free
distribution   of  school  supplies.    These  activities  are  designed  to
encourage schoolchildren and teachers to return to schools.   In areas where
people  can afford  to pay  the  minimum fees  for school  supplies,  UNICEF
supports a local  non-governmental organization, Christian Related Education
Development Organization (CREDO), in the implementation of a revolving  fund
project  for  school supplies  and  equipment.    In  Monrovia, 400  schools
benefit  from the fund.   About 300  schools in  other areas  of the country
participate in the revolving fund.

57.   UNICEF is  funding teacher  training workshops to cover  areas such as
the development  and improvement of the  core curriculum  for elementary and
junior high  schools, war trauma,  educational psychology, lesson  planning,
production of educational materials, coping with stress and related topics.

58.   UNICEF and CREDO facilitated  the reopening of the Buchanan curriculum
materials  centre by  providing  educational  supplies and  equipment.   The
centre, which was closed down two  years ago as a result  of the war, caters
to about 58 schools  with an enrolment of  20,000 students and  500 teachers
in the  city of  Buchanan.   The Salesian Fathers  of Don Bosco  undertook a
one-year literacy project for street children  in Monrovia funded by UNICEF.
Five hundred children participated in the  programme.  The Salesian  Fathers
are also managing a children's transit  home facility serving 112  children.
An additional  47  children benefit  from  a  street literacy  programme  on
Benson Street in central Monrovia.  Don Bosco  has also introduced a courier
service meant to provide employment opportunities  for young people who have
recently been reunited with their families.

59.   Additionally, UNICEF and the  New Breed Painters  Association (a local
artists' group  in Monrovia)  are implementing  a children's  art and  music
project at three  shelters for displaced persons.   A mobile school  library
project is  also being  implemented by  LWS on behalf  of UNICEF.   The  two
projects are benefiting a total of 1,350 children.

F.  Specific target groups

1.  Refugees

60.  At  the end of 1994, UNHCR  was providing protection and assistance  to
794,000  Liberian  refugees  in neighbouring  west  African  countries.   In
Liberia itself, the office also continues  to provide assistance to refugees
from  Sierra  Leone  as well  as  to  Liberian returnees  and  some  100,000
internally  displaced persons.    The deteriorating  security  situation  in
Liberia  has limited the  assistance provided  to refugees  and returnees to
areas controlled by ECOMOG.

61.  While no large-scale organized  repatriation of Liberian refugees  took
place  during  the  reporting  period,  spontaneous  repatriation  continued

despite  the volatile political  situation.   In 1994,  UNHCR assisted 6,700
spontaneous  returnees, the  majority from  Guinea  and  Cote d'Ivoire.   In
1995, the security situation in neighbouring asylum countries,  particularly
Sierra Leone, has caused  more Liberian refugees to  repatriate.  By the end
of  May 1995,  UNHCR in  Monrovia had received  4,123 returnees  from Sierra
Leone.  It is expected that this trend will continue.

62.   The security  situation has also  blocked the  implementation of plans
for  reintegration and rehabilitation  activities.   It is  hoped that, with
the extended deployment of  ECOMOG along the roads to Tubmanburg, Bong  Mine
and  Kakata,  UNHCR  will be  able to  introduce  quick impact  projects for
returnees, as well as participate  in community rehabilitation projects with
other relief agencies.  Such projects  will benefit refugees, returnees  and
internally displaced  persons.   A planning  figure of  35,000 refugees  has
been  established   for  the  UNHCR   repatriation  programme  and   related
reintegration activities.  This will be  reviewed regularly to take  account
of the evolution of the political situation.

63.    Of an  estimated  120,000  refugees  from  Sierra  Leone residing  in
Liberia,  UNHCR currently  assists 25,000  on  a  regular basis  and another
35,000 when security permits.   The remaining 60,000 refugees in upper  Lofa
have been cut off from any relief  activities since December 1993.   A joint
assessment  mission  to  upper  Lofa  in  August  1994  reported  widespread
malnutrition and  a deteriorating  health situation.   It  is also  reported
that agricultural activities in the area had been  curtailed and most social
and administrative infrastructure destroyed.

2.  Internally displaced persons

64.   Fighting  in  a  number  of  locations  during  the  reporting  period
increased the  number of  internally displaced  persons in  Liberia to  over
800,000.    This  group  is  often   the  hardest  hit  among   war-affected
populations.   Forced to  flee with  few or  no belongings  and without  the
unique international status of refugees, displaced  persons must be provided
with  basic survival needs.  In Liberia, an  inter-agency effort has allowed
for improvement in the delivery of relief items to this vulnerable group.

65.  Those  displaced persons who are  absorbed by local populations receive
food aid from WFP or CRS  and benefit from the multisectoral programmes of a
number of United  Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations.   The
nearly  600,000 displaced  persons who  have sought  refuge in  91  camps in
secure areas of the  country also benefit from  an agreed division of labour
among  United Nations  agencies,  non-governmental organizations  and  local
officials.   The United Nations Office  of Project  Services, UNICEF, UNHCR,
WFP, CRS, SCF-United Kingdom, AICF, MSF-Belgium, MSF-France and  MSF-Holland
are each  involved  in  supporting displaced  shelters in  their  respective
areas of specialty.

66.  In order  to respond to the sudden  large influxes of displaced persons
that  occurred  in  early  1995,  the United  Nations  Resident  Coordinator
established a number  of emergency task forces.   Emergency task  forces for
Buchanan  and Tubmanburg both  sought to  ensure an  appropriate division of
labour  among relief  agencies in  order to  provide a  rapid and  effective
response to these sudden influxes.

 3.  Children in difficult circumstances

67.   Children in  difficult circumstances  are assisted  by UNICEF directly
and  through  UNICEF-supported networks  of  local  and  international  non-
governmental  organizations.   The  programme  for  children  in  especially
difficult circumstances offers  social and counselling services, as well  as
material assistance  to orphanages  and institutions  caring for  abandoned,
displaced and  refugee  children.   Tracing  the families  of  unaccompanied
children and reuniting  them are top  priorities for  UNICEF.   In 1994,  95

children  in  Monrovia  were  reunited  with  their  families;  30  reunited
children received US$ 6.00 each to  cover initial tuition, uniform  cost and
copy  book  expenses,  while  29  others  received  resettlement   packages,
including food and non-food items.

68.  UNICEF  also supports 2,000 orphaned  and abandoned children in Gbarnga
and Monrovia.  Hundreds  of these orphans  are now trapped in battle  zones.
UNICEF  provides   basic  maintenance  to   allow  orphanages  to   continue
operating,  as well  providing food  supplements, beds,  blankets,  clothes,
soap and other basic relief items.

69.   The  continued  fighting  in Liberia  has intensified  the  severe war
trauma suffered  by children.   In  response to  this phenomenon,  UNICEF is
currently implementing  a war  trauma counsellors' training  project at  the
American Methodist  Episcopalian (AME) Zion  Community College in  Monrovia.
By  the end  of July  1995, the  project had  trained 133 counsellors.   The
College  will eventually develop  a full  trauma research  and documentation

70.   In addition, UNICEF has finalized a treatment  and rehabilitation plan
to assist  275 disabled children.  Most of the children are between the ages
of 7  and 15 and are affected  by polio.   The Benedict Menni Rehabilitation
Centre for Children,  which was destroyed in the  war, has been rebuilt  and
is serving  as a referral centre  for physically handicapped  children.  The
orthopaedic workshop of the Centre has  been renovated and is  manufacturing
artificial limbs. Training  of physiotherapy and orthopaedic assistants  has
also  begun.   A nine-month  physiotherapy training with  10 trainees,  5 of
them females, has just  ended.  In addition, a mobile unit assesses injuries
and disabilities  in rural areas.   At the beginning  of 1995, UNICEF  began
extending the services to young adults, especially young women.

71.   UNICEF is  also offering  over 300  street children  and former  child
combatants  vocational and  agricultural training  coupled with  a  literacy
programme  and food  assistance.   When  security  permits, UNICEF  plans to
establish similar vocational/literacy  training centres in Kakata,  Gbarnga,
Klay  and  Voinjama  for some  6,000  child  soldiers  who  are  expected to
demobilize in those areas.

 4.  The elderly

72.   The plight of  elderly displaced persons  continues to  be the special
concern of a  local non-governmental organization, Special Emergency  Relief
for the  Elderly (SERE).   With assistance  from UNDP, other  United Nations
agencies  and a number  of non-governmental  organizations, SERE  is able to
provide this  forgotten vulnerable  group with  shelter and  basic needs  in
food, health, water and sanitation.

5.  Abused women and girls

73.  Evidence  continues to indicate that  the Liberian conflict  involves a
high incidence of rape and sexual abuse.  UNICEF, in collaboration with  the
National  Women's Council  of Liberia,  has established  centres for  abused
women and girls  in Monrovia  and Buchanan.  There  are plans to extend  the
centres  to  Tubmanburg  and  Gbarnga.    The centres,  referred  to  as "My
Sister's Place", offer trauma counselling,  medical and legal  services, sex
education,  HIV/AIDS  counselling   and  income-generation  training.     In
addition to  counselling at  the centres,  mobile teams  visit shelters  for
displaced  persons and  offer services.   To date, 28,000  abused women have
been reached through direct  counselling centres for  displaced persons both
in Monrovia and  Buchanan.  In response to  the influx of displaced  persons
into Buchanan in  early 1995, UNICEF increased  the number of  female trauma
counsellors working with the  population, 70 per cent  of which is women and

74.  Women and  girls also benefit  from UNDP assistance in the  development
of micro-enterprises.  Currently, out of  838 micro-enterprises, 65 per cent
are owned by women  and girls, some of whom  fall in the above target group.
This income-generation scheme helps to decrease dependence on food aid.


75.    The  humanitarian  assistance  effort   in  Liberia  has  relied   on
contributions  from  the  international  community  -  both  bilateral   and
multilateral  - in  response to  several  appeals  issued by  the Secretary-
General since  1990.   Contributions for  the period  from November 1990  to
December 1994 amounted to US$ 232.4 million.

76.   In January 1995, the  Secretary-General issued  an inter-agency appeal
seeking US$ 65  million in assistance for the period through June 1995.  The
appeal was later extended to the  end of August 1995.  As of 30 August 1995,
contributions of US$ 53  million had been made  to this most  recent appeal.
In  addition,  US$  7.7  million  is  known  to  have  been  contributed for
humanitarian  assistance to  Liberia  outside the  framework of  the appeal,
bilaterally,  through  non-governmental  organizations  or directly  through
United Nations  agencies.  As has  traditionally been the case, the response
to food sector requirements  of the most  recent appeal has been  excellent.
Support  for  non-food-sector  activities,  while  improved  from  the  last
appeal, remains relatively weak.

 77.   On 4  October, the  Secretary-General issued  a further  inter-agency
appeal  for Liberia.   The appeal  covers the period from  September 1995 to
August  1996  and  seeks  US$  110   million  required  by  United   Nations
humanitarian  assistance  agencies  to  carry  out  their  work  in Liberia.
Activities  reflected  in the  appeal  are  designed  to  address the  acute
humanitarian crises that continue  to affect Liberia, as well as to  provide
essential  services  in  the war-ravaged  country.   Wherever  possible, the
appeal looks beyond the  short term and seeks  to initiate programmes with a
longer-term view, emphasizing community-level initiatives.

78.   On 27 October,  the Secretary-General will  take additional action  in
support of  the peace  process by convening  a meeting of  Member States  to
address   Liberia's   rehabilitation,  reconstruction   and   demobilization

79.  By  its resolution  49/21 E of 20  December 1994, the General  Assembly
reiterated its appeal  to the international community and  intergovernmental
organizations to contribute generously to the  Trust Fund established by the
Secretary-General, in order to  enable ECOMOG to  fulfil its mandate and  to
help defray the  cost of deployment  of additional  troops from outside  the
subregion. Response to this appeal continues to be weak.  The Government  of
the United States is the only significant contributor, with a commitment  of
approximately US$ 22.2 million  to the Trust  Fund as of 13 September  1995.
Other  contributions include  US$ 1  million  from  the United  Kingdom, US$
294,616  from Denmark,  US$ 291,056  from  Norway and  US$ 261,584  from the

80.  On 8  May 1995, the Secretary-General  invited Member States  and other
donors  to provide  information on  assistance  extended  to Liberia  in the
framework  of General Assembly  resolution 49/21  E.   Replies were received
from the following States.


81.   Finland  contributed  1 million  markkaa to  Liberia  in 1995  through


82.   Humanitarian  assistance provided  to  Liberia  by the  Government  of

Germany was as follows:

    Year             Amount (deutsche mark)

    1992          364,900
    1993        1,705,835
    1994        1,001,322
    1995          567,000 (as of 6 July 1995)

83.    In  addition,  in  1995,  Germany  has  sponsored  rehabilitation and
development projects in the amount of 2.5 million deutsche mark.


84.   Ireland  contributed 50,000  Irish  pounds  for programmes  in Liberia
during 1995,  including 35,000  pounds for  displaced Liberians  in Buchanan
and 15,000 pounds  for a mobile  medical clinic for abandoned  and displaced


85.    During  fiscal  year  1994, the  Government  of  Japan  provided  the
following assistance:

    Organization      Amount                  Programme

    ICRC  SwF 300,000  Relief operation for refugees
    UNHCR  US$ 500,000  Repatriation of Liberian refugees
    WFP  US$ 1,900,0004,933 tons of rice as food assistance
          for persons affected by the conflict
          in Liberia


86.   Humanitarian assistance activities are  beginning to  recover from the
set-backs suffered in late 1994, when  warring factions looted the equipment
and vehicles of relief organizations operating  in their areas of influence.
These  events  reflected  a deterioration  in  the  security  situation that
forced the  suspension of most humanitarian  assistance activities in  areas
outside  ECOMOG control.  Since  then, advances have been  made in regaining
access  to areas  that  had  been cut  off.   A  number of  non-governmental
organizations, on  behalf  of WFP,  have  been  delivering food  across  the
border from  Cote d'Ivoire.  Other  relief organizations  are exploring ways
to reach areas in  Lofa county that have  been cut  off from aid since  late
1993.  The  securing of roads from Monrovia inland to a number  of key towns
has also  had a positive  impact on relief operations.  As  a result of this
development  it  is   now  possible  to  consider  delivering   humanitarian
assistance to these areas directly from  Monrovia, rather than through time-
consuming and  costly cross-border operations.   A number  of United Nations
agencies and non-governmental organizations, including UNICEF, WHO and  WFP,
have taken initial steps to this end.

87.     Despite   these  gains,  security  constraints   continue  to  limit
humanitarian assistance programmes.   The  relief community in Liberia  will
continue to  address this  issue by  seeking  access to  greater numbers  of
Liberians,  based   on  the  humanitarian   principles  of  neutrality   and
impartiality.    Increased  access,  however,  requires  minimum  levels  of
security.   In  view of  the recent  cease-fire,  it  should be  possible to
expand the  reach of humanitarian assistance  fairly quickly.   However, the
problem of food shortages among combatants may complicate this effort.

88.  It is increasingly clear that any plan  for sustainable progress in the
rehabilitation  of  Liberia  must  include  a  credible  programme  for  the
demobilization  and   reintegration  of   combatants  into   civil  society.

Estimates indicate there are  50,000 to 60,000  fighters of whom as many  as
15,000 are  children.   After more than  five years  of war,  many of  these
fighters know no other  way of life.   The demobilization and  reintegration
programme  for  Liberia  must, therefore,  be  tailored  to  accommodate the
specific  needs of  underaged fighters.   The United Nations  system and its
partners  in   Liberia  must  continue  to  devote  themselves  to  creating
opportunities   for  fighters   to  take   up  productive   and   fulfilling
alternatives  to their current,  violent existence.   If  combatants are not
offered such  alternatives, Liberia could  remain destabilized, despite  any
progress   in   peace   negotiations.      Successful   demobilization   and
reintegration of  fighters into civil society is a critical component of the
transition to normalcy in Liberia.

89.  The recent positive developments in the  peace process have highlighted
the  important role  to be  played  by the  humanitarian community  in  this
effort. United  Nations agencies, non-governmental  organizations and  their
partners  are developing  a programme  to  assure  the smooth  and permanent
reabsorption of  demobilized fighters  into civilian society.   The  initial
components of such a programme have been  incorporated in the latest  inter-
agency  humanitarian appeal  for  Liberia, launched  in early  October 1995.
Efforts  are  under  way  to  complete  the  comprehensive   demobilization,
disarmament and reintegration programme.


  1/  S/26272, annex.

  2/  S/1995/7, annexes I and II.

  3/  S/1995/742, annex.



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