United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

16 October 1995


Fiftieth session
Agenda item 108


Implementation of the Global Programme of Action adopted by
the General Assembly at its seventeenth special session

Report of the Secretary-General


  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION ..........................................1 - 12      3

  A.  Background ........................................1 - 4       3

  B.  Action taken by the Economic and Social Council and
    the Commission on Narcotic Drugs .................. 5         4

  C.  Evaluation of progress made and recommendations to
    improve implementation ............................6 - 11      4

  D.  Ways and means of improving the provision of
    information by Member States ...................... 12        6

  DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES .....................13 - 19      6

  DRUG ADDICTS ..........................................20 - 24      8

    SUBSTANCES ............................................25 - 44      9

95-31095 (E)   181095/...
 CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

  A.  Eradication and substitution of the illicit
    production of narcotic drugs and eradication of
    illicit processing of such drugs and of illicit
    production and diversion of psychotropic substances25 - 29      9

  B.  Licit production, manufacture and supply of
    narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances ........30 - 31     10

  C.  Cooperation at the multilateral level .............32 - 41     10

  D.  Monitoring and control mechanisms .................42 - 44     12

    AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES ...........................45 - 48     13

    USE OF THE BANKING SYSTEM .............................49 - 54     14

    INCLUDING LAW ENFORCEMENT .............................55 - 60     15

    AIRCRAFT AND VEHICLES .................................61 - 63     16

    THE YEARS 1991-2000 ...................................64 - 69     17

X.  RESOURCES AND STRUCTURE ...............................70 - 72     18

A.  Background

1.  The  General Assembly, at its seventeenth special session, by resolution
S-17/2, annex,  adopted the Political  Declaration and  Global Programme  of
Action  on  international  cooperation against  illicit  production, supply,
demand,  trafficking and  distribution of  narcotic drugs  and  psychotropic
substances.  The  Global Programme of Action  sets out a comprehensive  list
of measures  and activities  to be undertaken  by States and  United Nations
entities collectively  and simultaneously in the  fight against all  aspects
of  drug abuse  and illicit  traffic.    In the  Political Declaration,  the
Assembly declared the period  from 1991 to the year 2000 the United  Nations
Decade  against  Drug  Abuse,  to  be  devoted  to  effective  and sustained
national, regional and  international actions to promote the  implementation
of the Global Programme of Action.

2.   It is stated in paragraph 97 of the Global Programme of Action that the
Commission on  Narcotic Drugs  and the  United  Nations drug-control  bodies
should continuously  monitor progress  on the implementation  of the  Global
Programme  of Action  and that the Secretary-General  should report annually
to the General Assembly  on all activities relating  to the Global Programme
of Action and the efforts  of Governments.  In its resolution 4 (XXXVII)  of
20  April 1994, the  Commission on  Narcotic Drugs  requested the Secretary-
General to include  an evaluation of progress  in the implementation of  the
Global Programme of Action in future reports.

3.   To  facilitate  reporting,  the  Commission on  Narcotic  Drugs in  its
resolution 4 (XXXVII) requested the Secretariat  to send a questionnaire  to
all   Governments  soliciting   information  on   activities  undertaken  to
implement the Global Programme  of Action.  As of 1 September 1995,  replies
had been  received from the following 67 States and Territories:  Argentina,

Azerbaijan,  Bahrain, Bangladesh,  Belgium, Bosnia  and Herzegovina, Brazil,
Brunei  Darussalam,  Cambodia,   Chile,  Colombia,  Cook  Islands,   Cyprus,
Denmark, Dominican  Republic, Ecuador,  Egypt,  Estonia, Ethiopia,  Finland,
France, Germany Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic  Republic
of),  Iraq,   Italy,  Japan,  Jordan,   Kenya,  Kuwait,  Lebanon,   Lesotho,
Luxembourg, Maldives,  Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Namibia, Nigeria,
Norway,  Oman, Pakistan,  Papua  New Guinea,  Peru,  Philippines,  Portugal,
Romania, Saint  Lucia, Saudi  Arabia, Seychelles,  Sierra Leone,  Singapore,
Slovakia, South Africa, Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago,  Tunisia,
Turkey, United  Kingdom of Great Britain  and Northern  Ireland, United Arab
Emirates,  Uruguay,  Vanuatu  and  Venezuela.    The  Crime  Prevention  and
Criminal  Justice  Branch  of  the  Secretariat,  the  International  Labour
Organization (ILO), the  United Nations Educational Scientific and  Cultural
Organization   (UNESCO),   the  World   Health   Organization   (WHO),   the
International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the United Nations  Industrial
Development  Organization  (UNIDO)  also  informed  the  Secretariat   about
activities undertaken  to  promote and  implement  the  Global Programme  of
Action.   Information submitted  by States was  complemented by  information
from  other official  sources. The  present report covers  activities during
1994 and the first half of 1995.

 4.  The present  report is structured  thematically along the lines of  the
Global  Programme of Action.   Each  section contains a  general overview of
approaches and  policies developed by States individually and in cooperation
with other  States at the bilateral,  regional and  international levels and
international organizations.   Concrete examples of programmes and  measures
implemented  at the national  level have also been  included.  In accordance
with  General Assembly  resolution 49/168  and Commission on  Narcotic Drugs
resolution  4  (XXXVII),  the  present  report  contains  an  evaluation  of
progress  in  the implementation  of  the  Global  Programme  of Action  and
recommendations on ways and means of improving implementation.

     B.  Action taken by the Economic and Social Council and the
         Commission on Narcotic Drugs

5.  The Commission  on Narcotic Drugs at  its thirty-eighth session, and the
Economic and  Social Council  at its  substantive session  of 1995,  adopted
resolutions that  have a bearing  on the themes  of the  Global Programme of
Action.  Those  resolutions   deal,  in  particular,  with  the   following:
integration  of demand  reduction initiatives  into a  cohesive strategy  to
combat   drug  abuse   (Council  resolution   1995/16);  enhanced   regional
cooperation to reduce the risks of  drug abuse (Council resolution 1995/17);
promoting the use  of memoranda of  understanding to  facilitate cooperation
between  customs authorities  and other  competent administrations  and  the
international trading  community,  including  commercial  carriers  (Council
resolution 1995/18);  demand  for and  supply  of  opiates for  medical  and
scientific  needs  (Council  resolution  1995/19);  measures  to  strengthen
international  cooperation to prevent diversion of substances  listed in the
United  Nations Convention  against Illicit  Traffic in  Narcotic Drugs  and
Psychotropic Substances of 1988, 1/  and used in the  illicit manufacture of
stimulants and other psychotropic  substances (Council resolution  1995/20).
The 14  resolutions adopted by the  Commission at  its thirty-eighth session
in 1995  also address issues  that are relevant  to the  Global Programme of
Action such as demand reduction, supply reduction and money-laundering.

      C.  Evaluation of progress made and recommendations
          to improve implementation

6.  With respect to reducing the  illicit demand for drugs, the  most common
activities implemented by  Governments were prevention campaigns seeking  to
increase awareness  of  the dangers  of  drug  abuse.   Not  all  campaigns,
however, were  targeted and only very  few were  long-term sustained efforts
embedded  in a  comprehensive  national demand  reduction strategy.   States
should, therefore,  draw up  comprehensive and  sustainable national  demand

reduction  strategies that  encompass  prevention, education,  treatment and
rehabilitation  programmes and  allocate sufficient  resources to  implement
them.     States   should   also  carefully   monitor   implementation   and
effectiveness of national  demand reduction strategies and share  experience
thereon with other  States, either through the United Nations  International
Drug Control Programme  (UNDCP) or on a  bilateral basis. The involvement of
non-governmental  organizations  (NGOs)  in   developing  and   implementing
prevention  policies has shown  positive results.   States  should therefore
continue  to cooperate  with NGOs  in that  regard and  also  mobilize other
organizations of civil society.   In that  connection, it may be noted  that
the Executive  Director  of UNDCP  has been  requested by  the Economic  and
Social Council, in its  resolution 1995/16, to define  a global strategy for
demand  reduction  and  to develop,  in  consultation  with  Governments and
organizations,  a draft  declaration on  the  guiding principles  of  demand

7.   Although many  Governments report  offering treatment  to drug abusers,
that  treatment is in  many cases  confined to  detoxification under medical
supervision.  Consequently,   there  is  a   need  to  establish   treatment
facilities  where  drug  abusers  can receive  specialized  treatment.   The
efforts that  have been made by  some Governments  to provide drug-dependent
offenders  with access to  treatment and  rehabilitation and  to prevent the
transmission  of the  human  immunodeficiency  virus (HIV)  are  noted  with
satisfaction.   Rehabilitation  and social  reintegration of  drug  abusers,
however, are  areas  that have  not  received  adequate attention.    States
should therefore develop programmes to that  end and, in addition, endeavour
to  involve NGOs in  providing counselling  and long-term  support to former
drug abusers.

8.  In spite of successes achieved in some countries and in some aspects  of
dealing  with illicit cultivation and production, the  overall situation has
unfortunately  shown little  improvement.  However,  subregional cooperation
has emerged  as an  effective means of overcoming  cross-border drug-related
problems and  progress has been  made in several areas of  the world.  UNDCP
should  therefore  continue to  promote  subregional  cooperation  in  drug-
control  matters.  Steps  have  been  taken  by  Governments  and  competent
international  bodies to  prevent the diversion of  precursors and essential
chemicals  into the illicit  traffic.  Nevertheless, more  should be done to
strengthen mechanisms and procedures to  monitor the movement of precursors,
particularly  with  respect  to  data  collection  and  information-sharing.
Governments should  also, as  a matter  of urgency,  identify the  competent
authorities and their role in the implementation of  article 12 of the  1988
Convention  and provide  the International  Narcotics Control  Board  (INCB)
with that information, together with contact addresses.

9.   With respect  to suppression  of illicit  trafficking in  drugs, States
report having  taken  various  initiatives to  conclude both  bilateral  and
regional agreements  and arrangements to  facilitate operational cooperation
in  lawenforcement matters.   While  those activities  constitute  important
steps, they need  to be supported by  judicial processes such as extradition
or mutual legal assistance set out in the 1988 Convention.  There is also  a
need to  strengthen the  active intelligence  capacity of  States by,  inter
alia,  establishing databases  with intelligence information.   Furthermore,
States  are  encouraged  to  enhance   cooperation  between  law-enforcement
agencies at  the national level, in  particular with  regard to information-
sharing and joint operations.

10.    While  there has  been  some  improvement,  international cooperation
against money-laundering  in compliance  with the 1988  Convention is  often
impaired  by banking practices  in certain States.   States with strict bank
secrecy  laws that may  prevent or  hinder investigation of money-laundering
should  therefore  urgently consider  enacting  penal  provisions  on  drug-
related money-laundering offences  and comprehensive legislation that  would
enable the investigation of such offences  and provide for the  confiscation
of proceeds derived from illicit trafficking,  in accordance with articles 3
and 5  of the  1988 Convention. Governments  should also adhere  to existing

regional agreements  against moneylaundering  and should  draw up  bilateral
agreements  as required.   States should  consider the  possibility of using
forfeited proceeds  for drug-control  activities, including  contributing to
drug-related projects of the United Nations.

11.   Further  progress  has  been  made  in  the  adherence  of  States  to
international drug-control  treaties.   However,  it is  noted with  concern
that effective functioning of the 1971  Convention is hampered because  some
States  that manufacture  and export  psychotropic substances  have not  yet
become  parties to  the Convention.    States that  are signatories  to  the
international  drug-control treaties  should complete legislative  and other
enabling changes and  ratify the  international drug-control  treaties as  a

       D.  Ways and means of improving the provision of
           information by Member States

12.   By  September 1995,  67 Governments  had  informed the  Secretariat of
activities taken  to promote and implement  the Global  Programme of Action,
an increase  of 139  per cent compared  to 1993, when  only 28 replies  were
received.  To  ensure  that  the  provision  of   information  continues  to
increase,  copies  of the  questionnaire  will  be  mailed  directly to  the
competent authorities  to permit timely and conscientious reporting, in line
with Commission on Narcotic Drugs resolution 4 (XXXVII).


13.   Although States have  accorded higher priority  to the prevention  and
reduction of drug abuse (reflecting not only a  change in attitude but  also
an ever-increasing  abuse problem),  only  a few  Governments report  having
adopted or having implemented strategies against  drug abuse that  encompass
prevention, education,  treatment, rehabilitation  and social reintegration.
In  most  cases, demand  reduction  activities  are confined  to  prevention
campaigns  aimed at educating the public or specific target groups deemed to
be particularly vulnerable  to drug abuse,  such as high school  students or
college-aged individuals, on the dangers of drugs.

14.   Drug-abuse education programmes range from the traditional information
leaflet to television miniseries  or other forms  of broadcast:  in Peru,  a
miniseries was  televised and,  in Pakistan,  a six-episode  drama on  drug-
abuse  prevention was  broadcast.   Several  Governments report  using  mass
media as  a vehicle  for raising  awareness of  the dangers related  to drug
abuse.    Teachers   or  other  professionals  involved  in  drug  education
generally receive  training and  in Pakistan,  drug-prevention courses  were
introduced  at teacher training colleges.  Little is known of the success or
failure of prevention and education programmes.  However, Israel  attributed
the  recent decrease in drug  use among high  school students to educational
programmes that are conducted in 40 per cent of schools.

15.  Demand  reduction activities are usually  carried out by ministries  of
health  or education  and,  as  was reported  in a  number of  instances, by
entities that deal  primarily with law enforcement such  as the police.   An
increasing  number  of  Governments  involve  NGOs  in  carrying  out demand
reduction activities, and in  Mauritius, a trust fund  was set up to finance
non-governmental and other organizations working in the field of  prevention
of  drug  abuse.   Other measures  include enlisting  the help  of community
leaders or other well-known  personalities to transmit an anti-drug message.
Saint  Lucia reported, for  example, that  other organizations  of the civil
society such  as Kiwanis Club, Lions  International and Rotary  participated
in implementing demand reduction activities.  The increase in  the number of
organizations  involved   in  demand   reduction  in   many  instances   has
necessitated the creation of coordinating  bodies, and the  establishment of

such  bodies  has permitted  better coordination  of  governmental and  non-
governmental activities against drug abuse.

16.   UNDCP has  enhanced its  role as  a clearing-house for  information on
drug abuse.  Data on  patterns and trends of drug abuse have been  collected
through  the  international  drug abuse  assessment  system.   Although  the
extent   of  information   supplied  varies,   comparability  within   broad
analytical  categories  has been  accomplished  and  the  system has  proven
effective  in monitoring the  drug situation  at the  national, regional and
global  levels.   Nevertheless, more  effort  is  needed to  strengthen data
collection and  analytical capabilities  in many  countries.   To this  end,
rapid assessment  studies, designed to evaluate  the nature  and patterns of
drug abuse,  have been used and will continue to be used to assess the drug-
abuse  situation.     UNDCP,  WHO,  Member  States  and  selected   regional
organizations  have  joined   in  efforts  to  establish  an   international
epidemiology network, based on the electronic exchange of information.

17.   Implementation of the joint  UNDCP/ILO/WHO project  on the development
of   model  programmes  of  prevention  among  workers  and  their  families
continued in  Egypt, Mexico, Namibia, Poland  and Sri Lanka.   All of  those
countries are engaged in project activities  in the workplace, reaching some
250,000  employees. Similar  programmes are  expected  to  be launched  in a
number of  Central and  Eastern European countries.   Prevention  programmes
for the maritime industry are also  being developed in collaboration  with a
number  of  shipping  companies  and  the  Philippines  Overseas  Employment
Agency.   ILO provides assistance to  India, Jamaica,  Pakistan and Thailand
in  developing   workplace  prevention   and  communitybased  rehabilitation

18.  WHO is continuing work on  the Consolidated Epidemiological Manual  for
Substance  Abuse  with  a view  to  strengthening  national  capabilities to
describe patterns and trends  of substance abuse.  WHO has also finalized  a
project document on substance abuse among  street children and reviewed  the
situation of substance abuse in indigenous  populations.  UNDCP, the  Office
of  the  United Nations  High  Commissioner  for  Refugees  (UNHCR) and  WHO
initiated a joint project  on substance abuse among  refugees from Viet  Nam
in Hong Kong.

19.  IMO  has developed general guidelines concerning drug and alcohol abuse
and  its impact on  the health  and fitness  or the ability  of seafarers to
perform shipboard  functions.   The United Nations  Interregional Crime  and
Justice  Research Institute  (UNICRI) carried  out  the  final phase  of the
drug-abuse prevention  programme for Hungary,  which consisted of  follow-up
activities involving  a group of  multidisciplinary experts responsible  for
the  design  and   implementation  of  training  projects  for   educational

            OF DRUG ADDICTS

20.    Most  Governments   report  providing  treatment   to  drug  abusers.
Treatment is  usually  voluntary  and free  of  charge  to  the  abuser  and
provided  by  governmental institutions  in  specialized  treatment centres.
Where no such centres exist, treatment  is often confined to  detoxification
units in  hospital  or  alcohol rehabilitation  centres.   Many  Governments
report  planning to  expand  treatment facilities.    Methadone  maintenance
programmes are implemented in  some countries in Western  Europe.  In  cases
where private institutions offer treatment facilities to drug abusers,  care
is  taken that certain standards are maintained. In Israel, for example, all
institutions  providing  treatment to  drug  abusers  require  an  operating
licence.    Furthermore,  a  law  that  entered  into  force  in  1994  sets
professional and administrative  standards for institutions where  treatment
is provided.

21.  Since drug abusers account for a  significant proportion of the  prison

population,  efforts have  been made  to provide treatment  to drug-addicted
offenders.  In the  United States of America, the Violent Crime Control  and
Law  Enforcement  Act  of 1994  thus  provides  for  the  introduction  of a
residential  substance abuse treatment programme for prisoners  in state and
federal prisons. Sufficient funds were made available so that by the end  of
1997, all  prisoners in federal prisons  willing to  undergo programmes will
be able to do so.   As an incentive, federal prisoners who choose to receive
treatment are  eligible for  sentence reductions of  up to one  year.   More
attention has  been paid to  preventing the  transmission of  HIV and  other
blood-borne  infections  among  drug  abusers.    In  line  with  the Global
Programme  of Action, WHO  contributed to  or organized  training courses on
the prevention  of drug abuse and  HIV infection for  China and  Viet Nam as
well as Hong Kong and Macao.

22.  Few activities  were reported with respect to the social  reintegration
of  drug abusers, which  is vital in preventing  relapse and fostering long-
term abstinence.   All too often  that important  task is  left to the  drug
abuser's  immediate  family  or  friends.    Cases,  such  as those  in  the
Philippines  where rehabilitation  centres have  established ties  with  the
private  sector  in  order  to  facilitate  job  placement  for  former drug
abusers,  are  not  very  numerous.  Likewise,  the  provision  of  adequate
training to  professionals active  in the field  of treatment of  drug abuse
and  the  rehabilitation  of  former  drug  abusers  has  been  difficult to
achieve.    In  developing countries,  training is  mainly  provided through
bilateral assistance.

23.   ILO published  a monograph on the  principles of effective programming
for  addiction  rehabilitation  in  developing  countries  in  1994,   which
constitutes  the  basis  for  ILO  advice  and  training  in  the  field  of
vocational  rehabilitation and  social  reintegration.   Technical  advisory
missions  were undertaken to the Bahamas, Barbados,  Bermuda, Chile, Jamaica
and Trinidad and  Tobago to review needs  and formulate plans and  proposals
for follow-up action.

24.   Under the  Regional Training  Programme  on Addiction  Rehabilitation,
ILO,  in  cooperation  with UNDCP,  the  International  Federation  of  Non-
Governmental  Organizations  and the  National Drug  Research Centre  of the
University of  Science of Malaysia, conducted  training courses  for a total
of  50 participants  from  20 countries  from the  Asia and  Pacific region.
National  training courses  for rehabilitation  and after-care  workers  are
scheduled  to be held  in India,  Indonesia, Pakistan,  the Philippines, Sri
Lanka  and Thailand.   It  is expected  that the  establishment  of resource
centres on rehabilitation and  workplace initiatives in Malawi, Namibia, the
United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia will be completed in 1995.


    A.  Eradication and substitution of the illicit production of
        narcotic drugs and eradication of illicit processing of
        such drugs and of illicit production and diversion of
        psychotropic substances

25.     Several   Governments  report  efforts  to   eradicate  the  illicit
cultivation of narcotic plants  which, in most cases,  relate to the illicit
cultivation of cannabis.  Various methods  are used to determine  the extent
of  illicit cultivation, including aerial surveys.   Where licit cultivation
of  the opium  poppy takes  place,  Governments report  implementing  strict
control measures to prevent the diversion  of licitly produced opiates  into
the illicit  traffic. Some Governments, such  as Colombia  and South Africa,
report using aerial spraying to eradicate illicit crop cultivation.

26.   UNDCP continued  its alternative  development activities  aimed at the
reduction  of illicit  opium cultivation  in Afghanistan,  Cambodia, the Lao
People's  Democratic  Republic, Myanmar  and  Pakistan.   A  new alternative

development project by UNDCP  was initiated in October 1994 in the Wa region
of  Myanmar  that accounts  for  the  majority  of the  opium  production in
Myanmar.  The project will help to develop  alternative sources of income by
developing  diversified cropping practices and added value  to the resulting
production  and, together  with other  United  Nations agencies,  assist  in
providing health care and opportunities for  primary education.  The  socio-
economic  survey  conducted during  the  pilot  phase  of  the project  will
constitute the groundwork for the full project  phase, which is to  commence
in 1996.  In Thailand, after many  years of assistance, UNDCP has phased out
its direct  support to alternative development,  which is  now being managed
by the  Thai Government.  A  project in Afghanistan  developed a system  for
monitoring opium  cultivation and  produced significant  information on  the
extent of opium cultivation in that country.

27.  Following the  eradication of opium poppy and cannabis cultivations  in
1992, UNDCP  initiated the  first  phase of  the Baalbeck-Hermel  integrated
area development programme  in Lebanon, which  aims at  preventing reversion
to illicit  cultivation by,  inter alia,  generating income  based on  licit
crop cultivation.  The  second phase of the  programme, expected to begin at
the end of  1995, will involve activities such  as support to the  community
at the  technical, organizational and  social levels  and the establishment,
funding and operation of a multipurpose rural credit scheme.

28.   UNDCP  continued its  alternative development  activities in  Bolivia,
Colombia  and Peru and  approved a  new alternative  development project for
Peru in 1994.   A subregional workshop  on alternative development was  held
at Lima  from  25  to  29  October  1994.   The  workshop  was  attended  by
government  officials and  donor country representatives as  well as project
and  UNDCP  staff  from  Bolivia,  Colombia   and  Peru,  and  reviewed  the
rationale, role and drug-control achievements of alternative development  in
the Andean region,  based on the  experience of UNDCP  in Bolivia,  Colombia
and  Peru  during the  period  1984-1994.  The  workshop  also reviewed  the
experience acquired  by UNDCP in  Asia and that  of bilateral  donors in the
Andean region.

29.  Activities related  to drug control by  UNIDO continued in  the Chapare
region   of  Bolivia  with  the  second  phase  of  alternative  development
projects.    It  was  reported that  12  industrial  plants  that  had  been
restructured  during the  first  phase were  profitably  processing  various
agricultural  products.    UNIDO  further  continued  technical  cooperation
projects on  processing  of medicinal  and  aromatic  plants to  yield  high
value-added products  in India,  the United  Republic of  Tanzania and  Viet

      B.  Licit production, manufacture and supply of narcotic
          drugs and psychotropic substances

30.  While the  consumption of opiates exceeded the production of opiate raw
materials in 1993,  rising production of poppy straw in Australia and Turkey
nearly restored the balance between  the demand and supply of opiates during
1994.   However,  the global  production  of  opiate raw  materials remained
below the level of consumption by  about 13 tons in morphine equivalent.  As
a result  of a considerable  increase in the  total area under  cultivation,
INCB expects  that the production  of opiate raw materials  will surpass the
consumption of opiates by approximately 28 tons.

31.   INCB is concerned about the considerable  decrease in the availability
of opium  in India during 1994.   According to  the Government, the  country
may  have difficulty in meeting  its domestic and export requirements in the
period  immediately prior to  its next  harvest as a result  of the combined
effects  of  increased  opium  exports  since  1990,  two  consecutive  poor
harvests in  1993 and  1994 and,  above all, the  fact that opium  stocks in
India were actually considerably lower than had been reported.

C.  Cooperation at the multilateral level


32.  UNDCP  organized a legal workshop, held  at Pretoria in November  1994,
on subregional  cooperation against  drug trafficking  that was attended  by
representatives  of 14  Governments.   Following a  review of  the status of
cooperation on the  investigation of drug-trafficking cases and  prosecution
of  offenders,  including related  technical  assistance  requirements,  the
workshop adopted  a plan  of action  that outlined  measures to be  taken by
Governments  to  facilitate cooperation  and to  strengthen drug-trafficking
interdiction in the Eastern and Southern African subregion.

33.   In  West Africa,  UNDCP organized  a  workshop  of representatives  of
National Coordinating Committees of West African  Countries and a meeting of
coordinating  ministers for drug  control in the subregion  at Abidjan.  The
workshop resulted in the creation of  a subregional technical committee  for
West Africa that will coordinate with  national technical committees and act
as  UNDCP  counterpart  for  the  development  of  subregional  drug-control
activities.    The   final  document  adopted  at  the  ministerial  meeting
reaffirmed commitment to dealing with drug  control and contains an  outline
of a subregional plan of action.

34.  UNDCP  and the Organization  of African  Unity signed  a memorandum  of
understanding that  provides for cooperation  between the two  organizations
and  foresees,  inter alia,  the  exchange  of  information  and sharing  of
expertise as well as joint activities.

Asia and the Pacific

35.  A  memorandum of understanding  was signed between  UNDCP, the  Islamic
Republic of  Iran and  Pakistan  in  May 1994.   A  project began  aimed  at
enhancing interdiction  capabilities in border areas of the Islamic Republic
of Iran and Pakistan.  Technical  consultations between India and  Pakistan,
held  under the auspices  of UNDCP,  resulted in  increased collaboration in
drug-control matters at both the policy and the operational levels.

36.   In  the context  of the 1993  subregional memorandum  of understanding
concluded between China, the Lao  People's Democratic Republic,  Myanmar and
Thailand,  meetings of  the  joint executing  committees  were  convened for
further discussions  on ongoing and future  subregional initiatives in  drug
control. Support continued to the China/Myanmar border area  law-enforcement
project  aimed  at reducing  illicit  drug  trafficking.   In  May  1995,  a
protocol  was  signed  expanding  the  number  of  signatories  of  the 1993
memorandum of understanding from  four to six  by the accession of  Cambodia
and Viet Nam.

37.  UNDCP launched a subregional project for  the control of precursors and
essential  chemicals  in South-East  Asia  in 1994.    The project  aims  at
creating  awareness among  national  authorities  in the  subregion  on  the
importance of precursor  control.  One  of the  next phases  of the  project
will  be  implemented  in  the  context  of  the  subregional  memorandum of
understanding   between  Cambodia,   China,  the  Lao   People's  Democratic
Republic,  Myanmar, Thailand  and Viet  Nam.    A similar  precursor control
project was developed for South and South-West Asia.

38.   The Committee on Narcotics  Abuse Control of  the Economic Cooperation
Organization (ECO) finalized a comprehensive regional plan  for drug control
in the region  of the organization.   UNDCP and ECO  signed a  memorandum of
understanding that provides the framework for  cooperation in areas such  as
information exchange,  demand reduction and  law-enforcement activities.   A
further  memorandum of understanding  with the  South Asian  Association for
Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was prepared and  is expected to be  conclude`d
by the end of 1995.

Europe and the Middle East

39.  In order  to foster subregional  cooperation between the Central  Asian
countries  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Independent  States, which  are  being
increasingly  affected  by  the  drug  problem,  UNDCP  organized  a meeting
involving    representatives    of   Kazakstan,    Kyrgyzstan,   Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in April 1995.  A draft text was elaborated  and
is expected  to be  signed  by  the Heads  of State  or Government  and  the
Executive Director  at a political summit to be held in  November 1995.  The
summit is  also expected  to adopt  a  subregional drug-control  cooperation
programme  for Central  Asia.   In  addition,  UNDCP launched  a large-scale
technical assistance  project aimed  at strengthening  drug-control measures
along the common borders of the countries involved.

40.   The changing political situation in the Middle East has created a more
favourable  climate for subregional  drug control.   A  meeting was  held in
March 1995  with representatives of Egypt,  Israel, Jordan  and Palestine on
possible cooperation  arrangements with respect  to interdiction of  illicit
drug traffic, institution-building and sharing of  expertise in the area  of
drug control.  A subregional drug-control meeting was  held at Cairo in July

Latin America and the Caribbean

41.   A  memorandum of  understanding  on  subregional drug  cooperation was
signed  in April 1994  by Argentina,  Bolivia and Peru.   In that context, a
programme  on harmonization  of  drug-abuse  data collection  systems and  a
programme on  joint  training in  drug  law  enforcement were  selected  for
implementation.  The lawenforcement programme includes modules on  precursor
control, money-laundering investigation  and procedures for the  development
of judicial cases on drugrelated crimes.

D.  Monitoring and control mechanisms

42.   Most  Governments where  large  volumes  of precursors  and  essential
chemicals are manufactured  reported having stepped  up control  measures to
prevent  the  diversion of  those  substances  into  illicit  channels.   In
Germany, a strict law  was passed in 1994 that made the manufacture and sale
of chemicals  with  the intention  to  manufacture  illicit drugs  a  crime.
Several other regional or international  agreements on precursor control are
in place, such as the  European Union directive on  precursor control, whose
provisions  are binding  on States  members of  the  European Union,  or the
recommendations  adopted   by  the   former  Chemical   Action  Task   Force
established by the Heads of State or Government  of the Group of Seven major
industrialized nations  and the President of  the European  Community at the
sixteenth annual  economic summit,  held at  Houston, Texas,  in July  1990,
which are currently monitored by the INCB.

 43.   Governments  have  established  specialized  units that  monitor  the
movements  of  substances  frequently used  in  the  manufacture  of illicit
drugs.  Importers of those substances must report the purpose for which  the
substances  are  to be  used;  often  Governments  inspect  the premises  of
importers to verify  whether they are used  for legitimate purposes.   Close
contact is maintained with the chemical  industry, which informs Governments
of  suspicious transactions,  through  a voluntary  or  mandatory  reporting
system.   Countries where  only small volumes  of those substances  are used
resort to other measures:  in Kuwait and  Tunisia only the State may  import
such chemicals.

44.   Technical assistance enabling States  to develop  their drug detection
and  pharmaceutical  control  laboratories  was  provided  by  UNDCP  to  46
national laboratories  in 39  countries and  69 chemists  from 43  countries
were trained  in the  analysis  of  controlled drugs.   In  addition,  2,251
reference samples of drugs under international  control were provided to  73
national  laboratories and  1,042 field  drug-testing kits were  provided to
the national authorities of 64 countries.  Currently, 73 laboratories in  57
countries  are  participating  in   the  international  proficiency  testing

scheme, which was instituted in 1994 to assess national laboratories.


45.   Several Governments reported the  conclusion of  bilateral or regional
agreements or  other arrangements aimed  at suppressing illicit  trafficking
in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.  One example  was a bilateral
agreement  concluded  between  India  and Pakistan  aimed  at,  inter  alia,
facilitating  the   immediate  transmission  of  operational   intelligence.
States reported sharing information on methods  and routes used for  illicit
drug  traffic  through  the network  of  the  International  Criminal Police
Organization  (INTERPOL) and  the  World Customs  Organization  or  regional
organizations such as the Drug Offences Monitoring Desk of SAARC.   Exchange
of  operational information is also  carried out at the regional meetings of
subsidiary  bodies of the  Commission on  Narcotic Drugs.   Several European
countries    reported   exchanging   law-enforcement   information   through
specialized computerized  databases.  Some  Governments have also  appointed
liaison officers  to other  countries in  order to  facilitate the  swiftest
possible exchange of information.

46.     Governments  have  taken  several   measures  to  strengthen   their
interdiction  capabilities.   Many have  established specialized  drug  law-
enforcement units,  usually within the police  forces, that  deal with drug-
trafficking offences. Improvement of cooperation  between different national
organizations  that have  a role to  play in drug  law enforcement increases
the effectiveness of operations. Several approaches to improve  coordination
between law-enforcement agencies at the  national level have been used:  the
establishment of  coordinating bodies that  comprise personnel of  different
agencies, the signing  of memoranda of understanding where  responsibilities
of the different agencies are outlined  and programmes to exchange  officers
between agencies.

47.  Laws were  amended in order to implement effectively the provisions  of
the 1988  Convention  and to  provide  more  stringent penalties  for  drug-
trafficking  offenders.    Governments  also  reported  strengthening  their
interdiction capability using law-enforcement  techniques such as controlled
delivery,  electronic  surveillance   and  use  of  undercover  agents   and
informants.  Technical assistance has been  provided to States in  equipping
and  strengthening  their  lawenforcement authorities  and  criminal justice
systems.   Personal contacts that  are established at international meetings
that deal with law-enforcement  issues, such as the meetings of the heads of
national drug law-enforcement agencies, have contributed to better  regional
cooperation in law-enforcement matters.

48.  UNICRI completed a two-year research project  on the characteristics of
the  market  for  cocaine in  Western  Europe  and  its  influence  on  law-
enforcement  organization and  policy.   Research activities  included  data
collection  in  the  region and  field  investigations  in  four  countries:
France, Italy, Netherlands and United Kingdom  of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland.   A  two-year research  study  on  the standardization  of  illicit
cocaine  sample  analysis for  the  identification  of  impurities was  also


49.   An  increasing number  of States  have enacted  legislation that makes
moneylaundering a criminal offence and permits confiscation of the  proceeds
derived  from, and the  instrumentalities used in, illicit drug trafficking.
Many States have  introduced mechanisms that permit disclosures by financial
institutions. Nevertheless,  certain countries  still lack  the basic  legal

framework within which to exercise financial  control.  Some States reported
encountering  difficulties  in the  adoption  or  implementation  of  money-
laundering  legislation. In  recognition of  the importance  of  cooperation
between Governments and financial institutions, some States have  introduced
a  requirement   for  financial   institutions  to   report  on   suspicious
transactions or have developed voluntary systems.

50.   States  reported adopting  the  recommendations  on strengthening  the
efforts of the international community against money-laundering, adopted  by
the Financial Action Task  Force (FATF) established by the Heads of State or
Government of  the  Group of  Seven  major  industrialized nations  and  the
President of the Commission of European  Communities at the fifteenth annual
economic summit,  held in Paris in July  1989.  The 15 States members of the
European Union must comply with the  European Union directive on  prevention
of the  use of  the financial system  for the  purpose of  money-laundering.
States  have also  made use  of other international  agreements such  as the
Model Regulations concerning  Laundering Offences connected to Illicit  Drug
Trafficking  and Related  Offences, adopted  in 1992  by the  Inter-American
Drug  Abuse  Control Commission  of  the  Organization of  American  States.
Efforts are  being made in other regions to develop  regional instruments to
prevent and  reduce money-laundering.  The  Council of  Arab Ministers plans
to issue  a unified  Arab law  on confiscation  of money  derived from  drug
trafficking.    In  addition, several  States  reported  the  conclusion  of
bilateral agreements  covering the  forfeiture and  confiscation of  assets.
Asset-sharing arrangements were also reported.
  51.  Governments reported creating special  investigation units to prevent
and reduce  money-laundering activities.   Those units  receive and  analyse
information  on suspicious  transactions  reported by  banks  and  financial
institutions.  Usually,  they do  not  deal  exclusively  with  drug-related
money-laundering but also investigate other economic and financial crimes.

52.   Only  very  few States  direct confiscated  proceeds  to be  used  for
drugcontrol  activities,  although in  Argentina,  confiscated  proceeds are
directed  to  the  Secretary  of  State  for drug  control  and  Saint Lucia
reported  that efforts were  being made  to channel  confiscated proceeds to
Police and Customs  Departments.  One  of the  reasons put  forward is  that
drug-control  activities  should receive  a constant  level  of funding  and
should not  be subject to variation  because of successes  or failures of  a
particular year's investigations and prosecutions.

53.    UNDCP has  continued  to  implement  its  three-year  action plan  on
moneylaundering.   The assistance  and advice  provided to Governments  have
focused on  legal aspects  of the  problem.   An increased number  of States
have received assistance  in drafting drug-control legislation, including  a
money-laundering  component.     The   model  money-laundering   legislation
developed by UNDCP  was reviewed by  an expert  workshop and now  integrates
all   provisions  concerning  confiscation  of   drug-related  and  criminal
proceeds as well as mutual legal assistance.

54.  Awareness-raising activities continued and included the development  of
basic  training instruments  such as  a  video  on money-laundering  and the
drafting of a training manual for financial  investigators.  UNDCP has  also
associated  itself  with  awareness-raising activities  organized  by  FATF.
UNDCP  further pursued  the establishment  of  a depository  of  anti-money-
laundering information,  in cooperation with  FATF and other  organizations.
That depository would contain information on  laws and regulations on money-
laundering, currency reporting, bank secrecy  and forfeiture of property and
proceeds  as well as  procedures and  practices designed  to prevent banking
systems  and  other  financial  institutions  from  being  used  for  money-


55.   During  1994,  5 States  became  party  to  the Single  Convention  on

Narcotic  Drugs, 1961, as  amended by  the 1972 Protocol, 7  became party to
the Convention on Psychotropic  Substances of 1971, 2/ and 12 to the  United
Nations  Convention   against  Illicit   Traffic  in   Narcotic  Drugs   and
Psychotropic Substances of 1988. 1/  States have continued to make  progress
in enacting  the necessary legislative and  administrative measures to  give
effect to the conventions;  others that have not  yet become parties  to the
conventions have adopted appropriate  measures to comply  with its provision
while completing the comprehensive legislation required for ratification  or
accession.   By 1  September  1995, 151  States  were  parties to  the  1961
Convention as amended by  the 1972 Protocol, 136  States were parties to the
1971 Convention and 114 States were parties to the 1988 Convention.   Twenty
States were parties to the 1961 Convention in its unamended version.
  56.   Effective  implementation  of the  provisions  of  the international
drugcontrol treaties, however, is not as universal as  the number of parties
to them would  suggest.   The fact that  a State  is party  to a  particular
Convention   does  not  necessarily   mean  that   it  has   the  legal  and
administrative infrastructure in place to carry  out all the obligations  it
has assumed.  Whereas some  States become parties before  they implement all
the  necessary changes  in domestic law and  administration, others postpone
the formal  act of  accession or  ratification until  all enabling  domestic
measures  are  in  place.    Another  concern  is  that  some  States   that
manufacture and export psychotropic  substances have not  ratified the  1971
Convention, which has hampered its effective functioning.

57.  UNDCP continued to provide legal assistance  in advocacy supporting the
adoption  of adequate  drug-control legislation,  assessment  of legislative
needs,  drafting of new  or amended laws and  the provision of post-adoption
implementation  or problem-solving  advice.   Assistance was provided  to 24
States in 1994-1995.  UNDCP also  organized four subregional legal workshops
aimed  at enhancing  subregional cooperation  in  legal matters.   Workshops
also served to train personnel in the implementation of new laws.

58.  The lack of a network for  continuous dialogue often impedes  effective
cooperation  between the  police  and  the judiciary,  and some  Governments
reported planning measures to bridge the  communication gap between the two.
For  example,  in  Bangladesh,  under  a  project  assisted  by  UNDCP,  the
Department  of   Narcotics  Control  organizes   training  and   orientation
programmes  for judges,  magistrates  and prosecutors  that deal  with drug-
related  offences;  Belgium and  Kenya  reported  taking  similar  measures.
Within UNDCP, work  was done on  a special  project for the training  of 100
prosecutors  and magistrates  on the  prosecution and  adjudication of  drug
offences.  UNDCP also developed a training manual  for African judges of the
civil  law system  and  continued  to develop  a range  of working  tools to
assist States in  implementing the conventions, including model  legislation
on money-laundering and precursor controls.

59.   Several States  have made efforts  to protect the  judiciary from  any
form  of  exposure   and  intimidation  threatening  its  independence   and
integrity.   In  the United Kingdom,  the Criminal Justice  and Public Order
Act 1994 makes it an offence to harm or intimidate  a person who assists the
police or who acts as a witness or juror in any criminal proceedings.

60.  Some States have revised and updated  their penal codes with a  view to
facilitating  the  prosecution  of  drug-related  cases.    One  feature  of
recently enacted legislation is the permission to use undercover agents.


61.   Most Governments  report having  strict legislative  measures in place
that control the import  and export of weapons and explosives with a view to
preventing  diversion of  them into  illicit  markets.   The  European Union
directive on  acquisition and  detention of arms  has to be  applied by  all
States members  of  the Union.   The  Government of  Mexico reported  having

designed   a  programme  for   the  prevention,  detection  and  control  of
trafficking in  arms aimed, inter alia,  at coordinating action  in the area
of arms trafficking.

62.  With  respect to measures to prevent  the unlawful use for the  illicit
drug  traffic of  means of  transport  operated  by commercial  carriers, in
accordance  with  article 15  of  the  1988  Convention,  the World  Customs
Organization has promoted the use of  concluding memoranda of  understanding
between  customs authorities  and the  international transport  and  trading
community, setting out joint objectives and  approaches.  As regards illicit
traffic  by  aircraft,   several  States  report  the  training  of  airline
personnel in order to prevent drug smuggling.

63.    The  challenge  posed  by  illicit  drug  traffic  by  sea  and   the
difficulties  in countering  it were  the subject  of the  Working Group  on
Maritime Cooperation, convened by  the Executive Director  of UNDCP pursuant
to Commission on Narcotic Drugs resolution 9 (XXXVII).  At the two  meetings
held in  1994  and 1995,  the  Working  Group developed  recommendations  to
enhance global  implementation of article 17  of the  1988 Convention, which
were subsequently endorsed  at the  thirty-eighth session of the  Commission
on Narcotic  Drugs.   The  States members  of  the  Council of  Europe  have
concluded the Agreement on Illicit Traffic  by Sea, Implementing Article  17
of the 1988 Convention.

             COVERING THE YEARS 1991-2000

64.     The  high  priority   attached  by  Member   States  to  the  speedy
implementation  of the  Global Programme  of  Action  was emphasized  in the
Political Declaration  that accompanies  the Global  Plan of  Action in  the
annex to General  Assembly resolution S-17/2.   In order to give  expression
to this sense of  urgency within a time-frame  for action, the  Assembly, in
the Political Declaration, proclaimed  the period from 1991 to the year 2000
the United Nations  Decade against Drug  Abuse, to  be devoted to  effective
and sustained  national, regional  and international action  to promote  the
implementation of the Global Programme of Action.

65.    An  international  conference  on  "Sports  against  drugs",  jointly
organized  by  UNDCP  and the  International  Olympic  Committee  within the
context of the United Nations Decade against Drug Abuse was held  at Rome on
20 and  21 February  1995 to  review the  status of  knowledge and  existing
experience on the  use of sports as a  means of reducing  the illicit demand
for drugs.    The Conference  was  addressed  by international  experts  and
world-famous  athletes  and was  attended  by  representatives  from  United
Nations bodies and agencies, national Olympic Committees, the  international
media, government authorities and NGOs.

66.   The  second International  Private Sector Conference  on Drugs  in the
Workplace and the Community  took place at Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 24  to
26  April 1995.   Organized  by UNDCP,  in  collaboration  with ILO  and the
Social  Service for Industry of Rio Grande do Sul, the event was attended by
84 participants  from  16 countries  in  Latin  America and  the  Caribbean,
Europe and  North America, representing enterprises,  unions and  NGOs.  The
Conference aimed  at promoting close interaction  in the  area of drug-abuse
prevention  between  representatives   of  the  business  world  and   other
components of society.

67.   The Drug Abuse  Prevention Centre in  Tokyo has  undertaken to  hold a
series of  public awareness and fund-raising campaigns throughout Japan each
year during the Decade against Drug Abuse.   Funds received so far have been
used  to establish  a special  fund  to support  activities to  prevent drug
abuse organized  by  NGOs in  developing  countries.    In 1994,  this  fund
supported 30 small projects;  a further 30 grants have been approved for the
current year.  It is hoped  that US$ 500,000 can be raised for UNDCP in each
remaining year of the Decade.

68.   As part  of its  Goodwill Ambassador  Programme, UNDCP will  appoint a
Champion Sumo  Wrestler in October 1995.   UNDCP continues  to count on  the
services of other Goodwill Ambassadors  such as the internationally renowned
Chung  Trio, which  promoted awareness  of  the problem  of drug  abuse  and
activities of  UNDCP by concert appearances  in different  countries, or the
Tahuichi  Aguilera  Football Academy  of  Bolivia,  which  encourages  young
people to adopt a drug-free healthy lifestyle by involvement in sports.

69.   On the  occasion  of the  International  Day  against Drug  Abuse  and
Illicit Trafficking  on 26 June, the  network of  United Nations information
services  or  centres   and  UNDCP  field  offices  distributed   brochures,
leaflets, video  cassettes and posters.   Three  television spots containing
drug-awareness  messages by United States athlete Carl  Lewis were broadcast
world wide.  Many Member States produced videos,  posters, T-shirts or other
material to mark the observance of the International  Day.  Messages by  the
Secretary-General of the United Nations and  the Executive Director of UNDCP
were disseminated.   At  the national  level, statements  made by  ministers
responsible for drug-control matters received wide attention.


70.   In  adopting  the  Global Programme  of Action,  the  General Assembly
decided that higher priority should be  accorded, within the United  Nations
system, to  the allocation of the  necessary financial,  personnel and other
resources for drug-control activities.  For  the United Nations proper,  the
Assembly recognized  the need  for additional resources  in the  expectation
that that  would  be  reflected in  the higher  priority  accorded to  drug-
control activities in the medium-term  plan for the period  1992-1997 and in
the corresponding biennial budgets.

71.  The  budget of  UNDCP has  two separate and  complementary parts:   the
regular budget  concerned with treaty  implementation and legal affairs; and
the Fund  budget supported by voluntary  contributions and  geared to assist
developing  countries in drug  control.   UNDCP headquarters  is funded from
both  the regular  budget and  the budget  of the  Fund.   In addition,  the
budget of the Fund  covers the costs of the field office network and project
activities in Africa, Asia  and the Pacific, Europe and the Middle East  and
Latin America and  the Caribbean.  The total budget  for the biennium  1994-
1995  amounts to  $205.3  million,  of which  $190.6, or  92.8 per  cent, is
funded from voluntary contributions under the budget  of the Fund and  $14.7
million, or  7.2 per cent,  from the regular  budget of  the United Nations.
The main share of  the voluntary funds, namely $161.7 million, was  utilized
to fund  approximately 300  projects in 50  countries. The largest  share of
spending is  in Latin America  and the Caribbean,  followed by  Asia and the
Pacific.   A smaller  share of  projects is  implemented in  Africa, Central
Asia, Eastern  Europe and the Middle East.   The expenditure for the Fund is
not likely to reach  the budget targets for 1994-1995, with expenditure  for
1994  amounting to  $73.1 million.   For the biennium  1996-1997, the budget
outline for the  Fund amounts  to $151.2 million,  reflecting a decrease  in
real terms of 26.2 per cent.  The  substantial reduction is necessitated  by
a decrease in available  resources caused by a gradual depletion of the Fund
balance and a projected overall decline in voluntary contributions.

72.    UNDCP  instituted  a  number  of  new  administrative  and structural
arrangements during the biennium 1994-1995.   In May 1995, UNDCP  introduced
on  a  provisional  basis  a  policy  for  the  rotation  of  staff  between
headquarters and field offices.  The policy aims at  ensuring that UNDCP  is
staffed  in  the  most  effective  manner  whereby  each  staff  member  can
contribute his  or her  best to the  objectives of the  Programme.  In  June
1995,  the rationalization  of  the  accounting and  treasury functions  for
UNDCP was  approved by  the Under-Secretary-General  for Administration  and
Management, based on proposals elaborated by  UNDCP.  Within the  Programme,
the  Office for  External Relations,  Strategic Planning and  Evaluation was
established in June 1995, bringing together  the former Policy, Planning and
Evaluation  Office   and  the   Resources   Mobilization  and   Inter-agency

Coordination   Office.      Decentralization    of   responsibilities   from
headquarters to the field was approved  with the establishment in  July 1995
of  project review  committees in  the  Regional  Centre, Thailand,  for the
South-East Asian  region  and in  the  Regional  Office, Barbados,  for  the
Caribbean region.


  1/  Official Records  of the United Nations Conference for the Adoption of
a  Convention against  Illicit  Traffic in  Narcotic Drugs  and Psychotropic
Substances, vol. I (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.94.XI.5).

  2/  United Nations Treaty Series, vol. 1019, No. 14956.



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