United Nations

A/50/447


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

19 September 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Item 20 (b) of the provisional agenda*


         STRENGTHENING OF THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AND DISASTER
         RELIEF ASSISTANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INCLUDING SPECIAL
         ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE:  SPECIAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUAL
COUNTRIES OR REGIONS

Assistance for humanitarian relief and the economic and social
rehabilitation of Somalia

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................1 - 23

II.  RELIEF AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES .................3 - 333

  A.  General ..........................................3 - 53

  B.  Food security ....................................6 - 114

  C.  Agriculture and fisheries ........................12 - 145

  D.  Health ...........................................15 - 216

  E.  Water and sanitation .............................22 - 239

  F.  Education ........................................24 - 279


                       

     *    A/50/150.


95-28299 (E)   161095/...
*9528299*
CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

  G.  Refugees .........................................28 - 2911

  H.  Internally displaced persons .....................30 - 3211

  I.  De-mining and demobilization ..................... 3312

III.  RECONSTRUCTION STRATEGIES AND EFFORTS ................34 - 4213

IV.  COORDINATION ARRANGEMENTS ............................43 - 4615

V.  IMPACT OF SECURITY PROBLEMS ..........................47 - 5216

VI.  ASSISTANCE PROVIDED BY MEMBER STATES .................53 - 5918

VII.  CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS ..............................60 - 6419

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A/50/447
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I.  INTRODUCTION


1.    In its  resolution  49/21 L  of  20  December 1994  on  assistance for
humanitarian  relief and the economic and social  rehabilitation of Somalia,
the General  Assembly, inter alia,  noted with concern  that the failure  of
the  Somali  parties  to achieve  political reconciliation  and  to maintain
secure  conditions  in  some  parts  of  the country  had  impeded  the full
transition from relief  operations to reconstruction  and development.   The
Assembly  appealed  to  all  the  Somali  parties  concerned  to   terminate
hostilities and  to engage in a  national reconciliation  process that would
allow for  such  transition, and  called  upon  all parties,  movements  and
factions in Somalia  to respect fully  the security and safety  of personnel
of the United Nations and its  specialized agencies and of  non-governmental
organizations.

2.  The  General Assembly called upon  the Secretary-General to continue  to
mobilize   international  humanitarian,  rehabilitation  and  reconstruction
assistance for Somalia, to  apprise the Economic  and Social Council at  its
substantive session  of 1995 of the  progress made in  the implementation of
the  resolution and  to  report thereon  to  the  Assembly  at its  fiftieth
session.  As requested by the Assembly,  an oral report was delivered to the
Economic  and  Social Council  at its  substantive  session of  1995 by  the
Under-Secretary-General for  Humanitarian Affairs.   The present report  has
been prepared in response to the above request by the Assembly.


II.  RELIEF AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES

A.  General

3.   By  the end of  1994, the acute phase  of the emergency  in Somalia had
been overcome.    Owing largely  to  the  international relief  effort,  the
health and  nutritional status of the population has improved significantly,
contrasting dramatically with  the situation  at the peak  of the crisis  in
1992  when 3,000 men, women  and children were  dying daily from starvation.
Agricultural  and livestock  production has  increased owing  to  favourable
climatic  conditions  combined with  the  effective  distribution  of  food-
security  inputs.   Communitybased interventions  by the  United Nations and
its partners have vastly improved the  population's access to health,  water

and  education services in  the country.  A considerable  number of refugees
and internally  displaced  persons  have returned  to their  communities  to
resume a productive life and contribute to the reconstruction of Somalia.

4.   In spite of these  positive developments, the country  is still a  long
way  from  being  self-sufficient  in  meeting   the  basic  needs  of   its
population.   The devastating  civil war  scarred virtually  every aspect of
Somali  society, destroying  at least  60 per  cent  of the  country's basic
infrastructure and  causing an  estimated 1.5  million people  to flee  from
their home areas to neighbouring countries or elsewhere within Somalia.   In
view of  the tremendous scale of  the devastation, the recovery process will
require considerable time, an expansion  of international efforts  and, most
importantly, the  active support  and involvement  of the  Somali people  to
enable the agencies to  carry out their activities safely and securely.   In
addition, the  political instability and climate of insecurity that continue
to  characterize   Somalia  provide   a  prime   breeding  ground   for  new
emergencies,  with  vulnerable groups  being  the  most  at risk,  including
displaced  persons,  refugees,   women,  children  and  the  disabled.   The
situation  underlines  the   necessity  of  achieving  peace  and   national
reconciliation  to ensure that  humanitarian gains  are not  reversed and to
enable the country's full recovery.

5.   United Nations agencies and  their partners  require sufficient funding
and   resources   to  address   adequately   the   emergency   and   primary
rehabilitation  requirements in  Somalia.  Insufficient  financial resources
in  the first half of 1995 limited the ability of United Nations agencies to
provide  target  populations   with  adequate  food  and  non-food   inputs.
Emergency  and  rehabilitation requirements  for Somalia  for the  first six
months  of 1995,  as reflected  in  the  United Nations  consolidated inter-
agency appeal  of January 1995,  amounted to $24.8  million in  the food aid
sector and  $45.4 million in  the non-food sector.   As of  15 August  1995,
contributions for food aid totalled $10.3  million.  Contributions for  non-
food activities  amounted  to $3.7  million.    An estimated  additional  $6
million was  contributed to international non-governmental organizations and
other international organizations operational in Somalia  in the first  half
of 1995, outside of the framework of the United Nations appeal.


B.  Food security

6.    Drought  conditions  subsided  and  agricultural  production  improved
considerably  in 1994,  compared to  the  period  of the  1992/93 emergency.
Plentiful rains in 1994  led to two exceptionally good harvests in  Somalia.
The  August  1994 gu  (main)  season  harvest  reached  312,000 tons,  which
represents  about 65  per cent  of pre-war  levels,  and  the output  of the
January  1995 der  (secondary) harvest totalled 95,000  tons, which exceeded
the pre-war  average and  assisted in  improving the  general food  security
situation across the country.

7.  However,  assessments of the 1995 gu  season harvest indicate that  crop
output in  the rainfed areas  will be  diminished owing to  insufficient and
scattered rains.    While the  agricultural  output  in irrigated  areas  is
expected to be satisfactory, production in rainfed areas is  estimated at no
more  than  half  of  last  year's  harvest.    Barring  any  further   pest
infestations or  security constraints  in agricultural  areas, total  cereal
production  in the country is  estimated to reach,  at best,  80 per cent of
last year's  harvest.  Furthermore, in  spite of the  overall improvement in
the agricultural situation in 1994, the majority of  Somalis remain poor and
their  food  security levels  are  negatively  affected  by  the absence  of
institutions   of   governance,   widespread   unemployment,   and   limited
international recovery and development assistance in the country.

8.  Although no major cereal shortage  is expected, the anticipated increase
in  food prices  resulting from  reduced agricultural production  will lower
the  purchasing power  of vulnerable  groups in  the country.   Signs  of  a
deteriorating nutritional  status began to emerge in the second half of 1995

in some parts of  the country, particularly  in the Juba Valley of  southern
Somalia and  in Mogadishu, with an  increase in  malnutrition rates reported
among returnees, internally  displaced persons and other vulnerable  groups.
The  precarious  food supply  situation  in  the  country  is compounded  by
continuing  insecurity and  political instability.   The  major seaports  in
Somalia,   including  the   port   of  Mogadishu,   are   functioning   only
intermittently, limiting the potential  level of commercial  food imports to
the country.  Estimated food aid requirements  for 1995/96 amount to 129,500
tons.   Pledges  and carry-over  stocks of  the World  Food  Programme (WFP)
stand at 77,500 tons, leaving a shortfall of 52,000 tons.

9.  In view of the improved food supply situation in 1994,  WFP continued to
shift  the focus of  its assistance  from relief  to rehabilitation schemes.
Over 4 million people in Somalia benefited from  this assistance through the
implementation of  about 10,000 projects.   The programme consists primarily
of food-for-work schemes, which  WFP implements through an integrated multi-
sectoral  approach in the  areas of  health, education,  agriculture, water,
infrastructure   rehabilitation,  income  generation,  women's  development,
demobilization  and  resettlement.   WFP  reduced  the  amount  of food  aid
allocated for  relief  distribution to  approximately  10  per cent  of  its
assistance programme  by the end of 1994,  and it has remained at that level
in 1995.   With  the departure  of the  United Nations Operation  in Somalia
(UNOSOM)  and some  international  non-governmental organizations,  WFP  has
become  increasingly  reliant  on  national non-governmental  organizations,
regional  administrations  and local  community structures,  which comprised
about 90  per cent of  its implementing  partners by the  end of  1994.   In
total,  WFP  provided some  66,000 tons  of mixed  food commodities  in 1994
through its eight field offices.

10.     In  1994/95,  WFP   also  contributed   significantly  to  Somalia's
rehabilitation process  through its food  monetization programme.   Over  $5
million was generated  in Somalia through the sale  of nearly 7,000 tons  of
high-value food  commodities not produced in  the country.  These funds were
utilized  to  provide  non-food  inputs  to  240  rehabilitation   projects,
creating  about 4,000 jobs  and strengthening  general food  security in the
country.

11.    In January  1995, WFP  established a  Food Security  Assessment Unit,
supported by the United States Agency  for International Development and the
European  Union, to  monitor  weather conditions,  food  production,  market
prices,  consumption   and  food  availability  trends,   as  well  as   the
nutritional and health status of populations  throughout Somalia.  In  close
collaboration  with  other  United  Nations  agencies  and  non-governmental
organizations,  the Food  Security Assessment  Unit collects,  analyses  and
disseminates  data and  information required  for estimating  immediate  and
future  food requirements  and for  operationalizing a  comprehensive  early
warning system in Somalia.  In the event of natural disasters, WFP  provides
immediate food assistance  to affected  populations.   Nearly 50,000  people
affected by severe flooding  in parts of  the country in November 1994  were
provided with emergency  food rations.  WFP also provides regular support to
other  vulnerable  groups,  including  14,000  orphans  and  1,200  disabled
persons.


C.  Agriculture and fisheries

12.  As more and more people have returned to their farms, the  agricultural
sector has  shown encouraging  signs of  recovery.   At the  same time,  the
resumption  of farming activities  by returnees  has increased  the need for
agricultural rehabilitation efforts in the country.   During the civil  war,
agricultural machinery was looted,  and bore-holes, wells and nurseries were
destroyed.   To contribute  to the  process of  agricultural rehabilitation,
the Food  and  Agriculture Organization  of  the  United Nations  (FAO)  has
distributed  seeds and  basic agricultural  tools  to  tens of  thousands of
destitute  farmers  and  returnees,  in  collaboration  with  partner   non-
governmental organizations and local authorities.   About 6,000  farmers are

receiving assistance  through  WFPsupported  food-for-work schemes  for  the
rehabilitation  of  wells,  water  catchments  and  irrigation canals.    In
preparation for  the 1994 gu season,  WFP provided  pre-harvest food support
to over 8,000  farming families in  the bay  region.   In October 1994,  WFP
began  a  local  grain  procurement  programme  to  support  Somali  farming
communities and stimulate  local grain markets.  Some 11,000 tons of locally
produced cereals  had been  purchased  by  June 1995.   An  animal  traction
project  in the  north-east, executed  by  FAO,  has benefitted  800 farming
families by increasing their crop production  and relieving the workload  of
children  previously  engaged  in  ploughing.    FAO  continues  its  plant-
protection  activities   by  surveying   and  combating   locust  and   pest
infestations  throughout  the  country.    The  plant  protection   campaign
includes a component to train national personnel in pest control measures.

13.    FAO also  vaccinated  livestock,  rehabilitated  slaughterhouses  and
trained  nomads in basic veterinary skills in 1994/95.  Support was extended
to villagelevel  associations to reactivate  veterinary clinics, which  have
helped  to  reduce  the  incidence  of  disease  and  mortality  rates among
livestock.   FAO has provided assistance in animal certification procedures,
which has  made possible the resumption  of livestock  exports from Somalia.
In coastal  areas,  WFP has  supported  the  establishment or  expansion  of
several  fishing cooperatives. However, implementation of an  FAO and United
Nations Development  Programme (UNDP) fisheries  development project in  the
Merka-Adale  area  near  Mogadishu has  been suspended  owing  to continuing
insecurity in the area.

14.   In March  1994, the  International Fund  for Agricultural  Development
(IFAD)  commenced implementation  of the  32-month Beyond  Relief  Programme
designed to assist  in restoring  the agricultural and livestock  production
capacity of rural populations in the areas of  Baidoa, Wajid and the  Middle
and  Lower Shabelle districts of  Somalia.  The main  activities executed by
the Beyond  Relief Programme were contracting  local blacksmiths to  produce
50,000 harvesting  knives  and distributing  these to  rural communities  in
Baidoa and Wanle Weyne.  In  addition, an emergency Quelea-bird  eradication
programme was implemented and proved to  be highly successful, resulting  in
a satisfactory sorghum harvest.


D.  Health

15.  By the end of  1994, most of the standard  indicators of the health and
nutritional status  of  the population  showed considerable  stability.   In
spite of this overall  improvement, the health status  of a large segment of
the population  in Somalia remains precarious  owing to a number of factors,
including  restricted access to  food on  the market, poor  access to health
care services  and the heavy workload  of many women.   Diarrhoeal diseases,
malaria and  pneumonia are among the  leading causes  of childhood morbidity
in  the country.    To improve  health  conditions in  the  country,  United
Nations   agencies  and   their   partners  in   1994   strengthened   their
interventions in  the  health and  nutrition  sector.   The  United  Nations
Children's  Fund   (UNICEF),  in   collaboration  with   the  World   Health
Organization (WHO) and non-governmental  organizations, continues to support
health-care  facilities, expanding  its coverage  to include  129  maternity
healthcare centres,  93 out-patient  dispensaries, 391 health  posts and  24
hospitals. Some 790 community health workers, traditional birth  attendants,
nurses, auxiliaries,  trauma counsellors and  vaccinators have been  trained
since September 1994.

16.   UNICEF continues  to provide supplementary  feeding to  an average  of
22,000 malnourished  children, pregnant  women and  lactating mothers  every
month, targeting  those areas  of the  country where  malnutrition persists.
An  average of  20,500 children  a  month receive  vitamin A  supplements to
assist with disease prevention.   More than 1,500  tons of Super  Unimix was
distributed  to 34 UNICEF-supported  feeding centres in central and southern
Somalia.   Nutrition  surveys,  conducted regularly  by UNICEF  and  several
international  non-governmental  organizations,  serve  to  ensure  a  rapid

response in  areas affected by  malnutrition, particularly among  vulnerable
groups such  as displaced  persons and  returnees,  as well  as drought-  or
conflict-affected populations.

17.  An outbreak of cholera that began in parts of Somalia  in February 1994
declined  in  the  last  months of  1994.   However,  cholera  resurfaced at
Kismayo and Mogadishu in February  1995, indicating a seasonal  cycle of the
epidemic.  Concerted  action  by  WHO,  UNICEF,   WFP,  the  United  Nations
Educational,  Scientific  and Cultural  Organization  (UNESCO)  and  partner
organizations,  including  Somali non-governmental  organizations, succeeded
in rapidly  containing the renewed  cholera outbreak in 1995.   WHO provided
over  54 tons of  treatment drugs  and other supplies,  and consolidated the
information  to  monitor  the  cholera  situation  throughout  the  country.
UNICEF,  in  collaboration with  its  partners,  established  isolation  and
treatment centres,  chlorinated  water  sources, provided  oral  rehydration
salts and  other supplies  and carried  out intensive  health education  and
social mobilization campaigns in affected areas.   Educational materials  on
cholera prevention, designed and produced  by UNESCO, were used in the anti-
cholera campaign.  WFP food incentive schemes  also contributed to the anti-
cholera activities.   Medecins sans frontieres  (Belgium) operated a cholera
treatment centre  at Kismayo and  assisted in monitoring  the outbreak.   By
June 1995,  the situation had been  brought under control, and water samples
collected from  wells continued to test  negative for cholera.   A total  of
10,496 cholera  cases were identified in  the country during  the first half
of 1995, and 197  deaths were reported, representing a case fatality rate of
1.88 per cent. These  figures indicate an improvement over the 1994  cholera
outbreak,  when  a total  of 28,334  cases  were reported  and 1,206  deaths
recorded,  representing a case  fatality rate  of 4.26 per cent.   To ensure
preparedness for  responding to any renewed  outbreak of  the disease, there
is  an  urgent  need  to  replenish  the  country's  cholera  prevention and
treatment supplies.

18.    WHO  continued  to  expand  its  support  to  tuberculosis  treatment
programmes  in  various parts  of  the  country.    Some 4,000  tuberculosis
patients completed therapy during 1994, and  a total of approximately 10,000
cases were  expected to be treated  in 1995.  WHO  assistance to blood  bank
services  has improved  the safety  of  blood transfusion  in parts  of  the
country.    The  multisectoral  community-based  WHO  Basic  Minimum   Needs
programme,  which has resumed in Somalia and is expanding at the rate of one
village  per  month,  has  positively  impacted   the  quality  of  life  of
populations in the target areas.  To combat malaria, a major health  problem
in rural  and coastal areas, WHO  has continued  to distribute anti-malarial
drugs and  to develop  malaria  control strategies  with local  authorities.
WHO  is  also  working  with  Somali   researchers  on  the  development  of
chemotherapy protocols  for  malaria treatment  in  the  country.   An  NGO-
operated  leprosy treatment  centre  benefiting 300  patients  is  receiving
technical advice, drug supplies and laboratory support from WHO.

19.  To  guard against a  recurrence of  the 1992 tragedy  in which tens  of
thousands of children  died from measles in Somalia, UNICEF has vaccinated a
cumulative  total   of  900,000  children  against  the  disease.    Between
September 1994  and July 1995, over  95,000 children  were immunized against
measles,  125,000 against  tuberculosis  and another  143,000  against  four
other  preventable diseases.   In  addition,  over  106,000 women  of child-
bearing  age  were vaccinated  against  tetanus.   To  improve  immunization
levels   in  urban   areas,  UNICEF,   WHO  and   partner   non-governmental
organizations  are  expanding outreach  activities  from  health  posts  and
maternity   health-care  centres.      A  reproductive   health   programme,
implemented  by  WHO  in  collaboration  with  UNICEF,  the  United  Nations
Population  Fund  (UNFPA) and  several  non-governmental organizations,  was
initiated in March  1995 in  response to high  levels of maternal  morbidity
and  mortality  associated  with  nutritional  deficiencies,   complications
during birth and  limited access  to pre-  and post-natal  care in  Somalia.
WHO  continued  to provide  essential  drugs  to 56  local  non-governmental
organizations and 12  international non-governmental organizations from  its
Somalia  Central  Pharmacy at  Mogadishu  and  satellite warehouses  in many

parts  of  the  country.    UNICEF  supplied  drugs,  vaccines  and  medical
equipment  to health  facilities  and distributed  basic and  renewable drug
kits to all maternity health care  centres and most out-patient dispensaries
and  health posts  in  the  country.   Between  January and  June 1995,  the
International  Committee of  the Red Cross  (ICRC) provided over  66 tons of
medical supplies to hospitals and health posts throughout the country.

20.  The re-establishment of laboratory  services and surgical  capabilities
has been supported  through the provision of technical assistance,  reagents
and  training  activities.   Since September  1994, 33  Somali professionals
have benefited from  hands-on laboratory training under WHO supervision, and
4  hospital laboratories  have been  provided  with equipment  and supplies.
WHO, UNICEF  and international  non-governmental organizations are  planning
to  strengthen the disease  surveillance system  in Somalia.   WHO technical
guidelines and other health education literature  in the Somali language are
being printed and distributed in collaboration  with UNESCO.  United Nations
agencies,  non-governmental organizations  and Somali  health  professionals
are cooperating in the design of a joint  health and nutrition strategy with
a  view   to   improving   standardization,   coordination,   planning   and
sustainability in the health sector in Somalia.

21.  WFP continues to support the  health sector in the country  through its
various  food-for-work and  food incentive  schemes.    On a  monthly basis,
7,000 health-care  workers in nearly  100 hospitals, clinics, leprosy camps,
health posts  and maternity  health-care centres  receive WFP  food-for-work
allowances.    Approximately   8,000  in-patients  a   month,  as   well  as
malnourished  children  and  pregnant  and  lactating  women,  benefit  from
special   feeding  programmes.     WFP  also  provides  food  incentives  to
instructors and participants in community health worker training courses.


E.  Water and sanitation

22.   The  prevalence  of  unsafe drinking  water  and poor  sanitation  and
hygiene practices continues to affect the  health and nutritional status  of
people  throughout  Somalia.    A  large  segment  of  the  population lacks
adequate  water and sanitation facilities, owing to massive displacement and
destruction  of  infrastructure  during  the  civil  war.    To  address the
problem, United  Nations agencies and  their partners  have been undertaking
efforts to  improve the  population's access  to safe  drinking water,  thus
reducing exposure  to  waterborne diseases.    Over  the past  year,  UNICEF
rehabilitated 145 open wells,  of which 50 were  fitted with handpumps.   At
Boroma, two  boreholes  and a  water  storage  tank were  rehabilitated  and
reconnected  to  the  town's water  supply system.    In addition,  some 120
latrines  were  constructed to  improve  sanitation  conditions  in  schools
throughout the country.   By the end of 1995, UNICEF expects to rehabilitate
an additional  100 open wells and 100  small urban water systems, as well as
complete the rehabilitation of the major water supply system at Baidoa.

23.  In  many villages, WFP  supports the rehabilitation and  maintenance of
water  systems through  food-for-work schemes  for technicians  and  support
staff.   The building  of protective fences  to combat  the contamination of
water  sources is  also  supported.   FAO, in  collaboration  with  UNDP, is
assessing  the pesticide residue  level in  water from  drinking wells along
the  Hargeisa  river,  which  is  suspected   of  having  been  polluted  by
pesticides when a major warehouse containing  pesticides was damaged in  the
town during the  civil war.   UNDP continued  to support the  rehabilitation
and operation of the Mogadishu water supply system,  which provides water to
about half  of the city's population.  In June 1995,  however, the supply of
water from the station  came to a halt  because of  lack of fuel to  operate
the  station's main  generators.   In  addition, funds  for the  project are
exhausted  and  UNDP  is  seeking  urgent   contributions  to  continue  its
assistance.   UNICEF  expanded its  training  activities  in the  water  and
sanitation sector.   A total of  800 mechanics  received on-the-job training
in   handpump   maintenance,  and   personnel   from   30   non-governmental
organizations  were trained  in  pump  installation.   In  addition,  UNICEF

trained  55 people to repair water  systems, and a  total of 175 people were
trained in social mobilization for improved water and sanitation practices.


F.  Education

24.   To assist  in  the revitalization   of  the  education  sector and  to
restore a  level  of stability  to  the  lives  of school-aged  children  in
Somalia,  United Nations  agencies continued  efforts to  improve access  to
basic education.   UNICEF and its  partners supported  the rehabilitation of
44 schools and  distributed 1,865 education kits to  a total of 585  primary
and Koranic schools throughout the country.   UNESCO, in collaboration  with
its  partners, has  so  far produced  one  million  primary-level textbooks.
Twenty-four  titles  and  their  corresponding  teacher  guides  have   been
introduced to  schools.   About 15,000  teachers and  support staff  receive
monthly  food baskets from  WFP in  exchange for their services  in over 500
schools, and about  80,000 students are  provided with daily meals  or high-
protein snacks to  boost their nutritional levels and encourage  attendance.
WFP also supports the rehabilitation of  school buildings through its  food-
for-work and monetization schemes.

25.   UNESCO continues to support the rehabilitation of the education sector
through  its  education   development  centres  at  Mogadishu,  Baidoa   and
Hargeisa, its  emergency action  response centres at Garbaharey  and Hoddur,
and a regional programme  centre at Nairobi.  A total of 87 teacher-training
workshops have  been conducted by UNESCO  in 12 regions  of the country,  as
well  as in  Somali refugee  camps in Djibouti,  Kenya, Ethiopia  and Yemen.
Teacher-training  guides   developed  by  UNESCO   have  been  utilized   in
collaboration with  UNICEF  to  provide refresher  training courses  to  744
primary and  Koranic schoolteachers and  60 headmasters.  In addition, 4,000
copies of "Child Care  in Islam" were  printed by UNICEF and distributed  to
schools in  the north-east, and  another 12,000 copies  are under print  for
distribution in other areas of the country.

26.   As  part  of  UNESCO's  Somalia  Open  Learning Unit,  practising  but
untrained  teachers  are receiving  in-service  training  in  pedagogic  and
administrative  subjects,  leading to  a diploma.    An emergency  education
package  developed  by UNESCO  has been  distributed in  rural areas  and in
camps  for internally  displaced  persons  to  provide the  basic  materials
required to  enable effective  learning to  take place  in situations  where
school buildings  do not exist  or are in disrepair.  In  a joint UNICEF and
UNESCO programme, over  90 trainers, inspectors and administrators  received
training,  with the goal  of ensuring  that educational  officers capable of
exercising training, supervisory  and inspectorate functions are present  in
each region of the country.   Some 86 teachers were trained in the provision
of  psycho-social support to  war-traumatized children  as part  of a UNICEF
pilot  project  in  Baidoa.    WFP  continues  to  support  teacher-training
programmes through the  provision of  food incentives  for participants  and
instructors.

27.   UNICEF continues to  promote the  introduction of a  primary education
curriculum in community-based Koranic schools in  order to expand access  to
basic education in the country.  UNICEF also increased its efforts to  raise
the  community's  awareness  of the  importance  of  educating  young  girls
through  the  organization  of  workshops and  the  distribution  of  18,000
posters  throughout  the   country.     UNESCO  continued  to  support   the
establishment of regional boards of education  in several areas, and  UNICEF
assisted  in  the formation  of  school  committees  in  115 communities  to
improve the management and sustainability of  local education systems in the
absence  of  central authority.   In  addition,  in 1994  UNESCO launched  a
comprehensive  adult literacy  programme  in  Somalia.   The United  Nations
Development  Office  for Somalia,  a  UNDP  project,  in collaboration  with
UNESCO  is  conducting  surveys  and  undertaking  data  collection  on  the
education sector in all regions of the country.

 G.  Refugees

28.  Although some  refugee camps  in Kenya were closed  as a result of  the
large  number of Somalis who were repatriated,  approximately 157,000 Somali
refugees  are still  registered in camps  in Kenya.   Another 300,000 Somali
refugees were registered  in camps in  Ethiopia, Djibouti and Eritrea  as of
June  1995.   In addition,  the outbreak  of fighting  in north-west Somalia
since November 1994 has caused a renewed exodus of people from the  country.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for  Refugees (UNHCR) and
its  partners  continue  to  implement  voluntary  repatriation  programmes,
prepare the  ground  in Somalia  for  returning  refugees and  assist  local
communities  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  returnees  and  the  communities
themselves.

29.   Over 500 quick  impact projects have  been designed  to facilitate the
rehabilitation of  essential infrastructure  that was  destroyed or  damaged
during  the  civil war.    Under  this  programme,  public and  agricultural
infrastructure,  schools  and veterinary  services are  being rehabilitated,
thus  contributing  to  the  reintegration  of  returning  populations   and
improving  the absorptive  capacity of  recipient communities.   From Kenya,
over  60,000 refugees were  voluntarily repatriated  from camps  to the Gedo
region.   Voluntary  repatriation from  the  Kenyan  coastal camps  began in
December 1994,  and over  12,000  Somalis returned  to the  Kismayo area  of
Lower Juba over a  10-week period.  WFP  continued to facilitate  the return
of    refugees   through   community   reintegration   projects   and   farm
rehabilitation schemes.   Seeds and agricultural  tools were  distributed to
needy  returnees and residents of the recipient communities.  In March 1995,
ICRC  provided mosquito  nets, seeds,  fishing materials and  other non-food
items  to over  30,000 returnee  and resident  families in  the Juba Valley.
With crop failure resulting in a deterioration  of the nutritional status of
returnees  in the Marere  area of  Lower Juba, ICRC began  an emergency food
aid  programme benefiting  over 1,000  families  and established  a  feeding
centre for  malnourished children  in April  1995.  UNHCR  and its  partners
will continue efforts to  enhance coordination for repatriation and returnee
programmes  and  to  ensure  the  stability  of  returning  populations  and
recipient communities.


H.  Internally displaced persons

30.   The presence of a  large number of  internally displaced persons,  who
are among  the most  vulnerable groups  in the  country, continues  to be  a
major concern for United  Nations agencies and their partners.  In  addition
to the  substantial hardships  faced by displaced  persons owing to  lack of
food,  inadequate   health  services  and   security  problems,  the   large
population of  internally displaced  persons presents  serious obstacles  to
rehabilitation  and  reconstruction  efforts  in  the  country  and   brings
significant  pressure to bear  on already  highly stressed  towns and cities
where the displaced are  concentrated.  A  survey is being conducted by  the
International Organization  for Migration  (IOM) at Mogadishu.   The  survey
has identified a total of 96 camps for  internally displaced persons in  the
city  and suggests a  total population  of some  70,000 internally displaced
persons in Mogadishu.  There are an estimated 300,000  to 400,000 internally
displaced persons country-wide.

 31.  Assistance has  been extended to  internally displaced persons in  the
form of  food and non-food humanitarian  relief as well  as resettlement and
reintegration   support.     Between  September   and  December   1994,   25
resettlement  operations  were  carried  out,  assisted  by  UNOSOM,  United
Nations agencies  and non-governmental  organizations, in  which a total  of
14,211  internally displaced  persons  were  returned to  their villages  of
origin  in 12 regions of  the country.   The returnees received resettlement
kits from UNICEF,  in-transit and interim food  rations from WFP,  and seeds
and tools from  FAO.  WFP  also provided substantial  support for  community
reintegration projects in  areas of resettlement  which benefited over 7,000
returnee families  from Mogadishu  alone.   During the  phaseout of  UNOSOM,

responsibility  for the  general  coordination of  return-to-home programmes
for internally displaced persons was shifted  to IOM.  In mid-December 1994,
a  further 1,680 internally  displaced persons  were returned  to the Bakool
region,  with substantial logistical and other support  provided by national
non-governmental  organizations   as  well   as  elders   from  within   the
communities  of  the  internally  displaced  persons.    All  return-to-home
programmes for internally displaced  persons have been suspended since March
1995  because of financial  constraints and  insufficient donor  response to
resettlement appeals. IOM  is planning a return and reintegration  programme
for internally displaced persons presently in Mogadishu, but  implementation
of  the programme  will  require additional  support from  the international
community.

32.   UNICEF, in cooperation with other United  Nations agencies and partner
non-governmental  organizations   established  emergency   health  posts  in
villages around  Hargeisa and  at Kismayo  to provide  medical treatment  to
displaced  persons  and  returnees,  as  well  as  potable  water  and  oral
rehydration  salts.  UNICEF  also provided  tools, latrines  and other water
and  sanitation  assistance to  displaced  persons  in  coastal  communities
affected by cyclones and  flooding in late 1994. WFP has initiated a  number
of income-generation projects benefiting displaced families living in  camps
around  Mogadishu.  The  second phase  of the IOM survey  in Mogadishu camps
involves collecting information on the health  and educational status of the
internally displaced  persons.  IOM also  intends to conduct  surveys of the
camps, as well as  return and reintegration operations in other areas of the
country.   Between  January and  June  1995,  ICRC provided  non-food relief
items to  over  35,000 displaced  families  in  Mogadishu, Galcayo  and  the
north-west.  IOM,  in collaboration  with United  Nations agencies  and non-
governmental  organizations,  is  monitoring  the  reintegration efforts  of
returnees  in  areas  of  resettlement.    Some  185,000  people  have  been
displaced since November 1994  as a result of renewed conflict in the north-
west, and  WFP has  provided emergency  food rations  to a  portion of  this
conflict-affected population.


I.  De-mining and demobilization

33.   An  essential component  for the full  recovery and  reconstruction of
Somalia  is  an  effective  process   of  de-mining  and  demobilization  of
combatants.   Towards this end, United  Nations agencies  and their partners
are pursuing initiatives  aimed at supporting this process and  contributing
to  a climate  of  peace and  security in  the country.   Some  2,000 former
combatants  are assisted  per  month in  WFP-supported  farm  rehabilitation
projects as well  as vocational training  programmes that  enable ex-militia
to acquire income-earning skills.  UNESCO and UNHCR continue  implementation
of a mine awareness  programme covering 36 towns  and villages in the north-
west.   The mine awareness package developed by  UNESCO for Somalia contains
cloth  charts,   leaflets  and  other  mine-warning  educational  materials,
including a  low-cost video.  As  part of  its education-for-peace strategy,
UNESCO commissioned a  play promoting demobilization and disarmament,  which
has so far been  staged in 15 district headquarters  in four regions,  for a
cumulative  total  audience of  69,200  people.    The  play  is also  being
distributed in the  form of video  and audio  tapes.  UNDP is  formulating a
project that  will support the  socio-economic reintegration of  demobilized
militia  and  other war-affected  populations  in  Somalia.   The  project's
participatory  community-based  approach  will  encourage  the  process   of
voluntary  demobilization   and  sustainable   reintegration  of  ex-militia
through the creation of viable economic alternatives.


III.  RECONSTRUCTION STRATEGIES AND EFFORTS

34.   While recognizing that the  humanitarian situation  in Somalia remains
fragile,  United  Nations agencies  are committed  to  undertake efforts  to
begin the  process  of  rehabilitation and  reconstruction even  before  the
achievement of national  reconciliation, without prejudice to the  provision

of  emergency relief assistance  wherever and  whenever required.   One year
after the adoption of the Declaration  of the Fourth Coordination Meeting on
Humanitarian Assistance  for Somalia, held at  Addis Ababa  from 29 November
to  1 December  1993, which  defined the  conditions for  aid activities  in
Somalia, donors and  other international partners reviewed the criteria  for
continuing their rehabilitation  and development assistance to the  country.
That  review resulted in the  adoption by the  Somalia Aid Coordination Body
(SACB)  on  17  February  1995  of  a  Code  of  Conduct  for  International
Rehabilitation  and  Development  Assistance  to  Somalia.  SACB   comprises
donors, United Nations agencies  and international organizations,  including
international non-governmental organizations.

35.   The  Code of  Conduct  reaffirmed  the willingness  of donors,  United
Nations  agencies   and  international  non-governmental  organizations   to
consider rehabilitation  and development assistance  in areas where a number
of conditions  are fulfilled, and stressed  the necessity  of moving towards
the establishment of  a more stable environment which will permit Somali and
international organizations  to operate  in safety  and security,  and at  a
lower operational cost.  Such an environment  will ensure that resources can
be used  to maximum  effect to  promote the  welfare of  the Somali  people,
especially  the  most vulnerable  groups.    In the  Code  of  Conduct,  the
collective  membership of SACB also agreed that  international assistance to
Somalia is  founded  on the  basic  principle  that responsibility  for  its
effective  execution   shall  remain   with  the  Somali  people   and  that
responsible  Somali  authorities are  therefore  expected  to  assume  their
proper  role   to   ensure  that   conditions   exist   for  the   effective
implementation of aid activities.

36.   The  Code  of Conduct  outlines a  set of  principles that  define the
circumstances required for the successful and sustainable implementation  of
rehabilitation and development assistance.  For their  part, the responsible
Somali authorities  must guarantee  that secure conditions  prevail for  aid
agencies and their staff and that they will pursue and  bring to justice the
perpetrators of  criminal acts.    The responsible  Somali authorities  must
also   provide  the   necessary  conditions   for  the   implementation   of
rehabilitation   and  development   activities   by  providing   office  and
residential premises to agencies (where available),  as well as by  allowing
agencies  to  decide how  to meet  their  own transport  and local  staffing
needs.

37.  The Code of Conduct further calls on responsible Somali authorities  to
exempt all aid personnel and aid-related cargo from duties,  taxes and other
forms of levy and to publish a scale  of reasonable tariffs for the  payment
of services  rendered at the demand  of an agency for  the clearance of  aid
cargo at ports and  airports.  In return, international aid agencies working
with the  Somali people will maintain  impartiality in the  conduct of their
activities, develop a  coordinated approach to programme implementation  and
pay due regard  to local social customs  and cultural and religious  values.
SACB is closely monitoring  the implementation of the Code of Conduct with a
view  to advising  donors and  international  partners to  take  appropriate
action whenever deemed necessary, including suspension of activities.

38.  To  pursue rehabilitation in the absence  of a central government,  the
United  Nations  strategy  in  Somalia  focuses  on  the  implementation  of
community-based interventions  aimed at rebuilding local infrastructures and
increasing  the self-reliance  of the  local population.   Implementation of
the UNDP-funded Somalia Rural Rehabilitation Programme continues, with  area
offices established at Boroma, Burao, Bossaso  and Baidoa and sub-offices at
Gabiley and  Hargeisa. The Programme strives  to revitalize local  economies
and  build  the  capacity  of  communities  through  the  introduction  of a
multisectoral  package  of  sustainable  rehabilitation  projects  in  which
community  members  participate  fully  at  all   stages  of  planning   and
implementation.  The Programme has had  considerable positive impact on  the
daily lives of people in the  target communities through the  rehabilitation
of public buildings,  schools, community centres,  water supplies and health
centres.   This has led to  a boost of  community confidence manifested in a

return of refugees and a higher  level of private investment. Implementation
of a similar  project, executed by  the United  Nations Volunteers, for  the
integrated agricultural and area development of  the Juba Valley started  in
December 1994.

39.   To complement  these rural-based  efforts, UNDP  and the International
Labour Organization (ILO) are cooperating in  the formulation of a programme
to support income-generation and training activities  at Baidoa, Bossaso and
Kismayo.    The  programme  will  address   the  problems  of  poverty   and
unemployment  among specific  sections of  the urban  population,  including
women, youth,  internally displaced  persons and the  disabled.  As  soon as
security  conditions permit, UNDP  and the  United Nations  Centre for Human
Settlements  (Habitat) are  planning  to begin  implementation  of  an urban
settlement and  management programme at Hargeisa,  to provide assistance  in
shelter   reconstruction,   low-cost   housing  and   capacity-building  for
municipal authorities.

40.  UNDP, in collaboration with the United  Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD), continues  to provide management support to  Somalia's
main ports.   While project activities  at the port  of Mogadishu have  been
suspended for  security reasons since the  withdrawal of  UNOSOM, support to
the  ports  of  Kismayo,  Berbera  and  Bossaso  has  expanded.   Assistance
activities include the  provision of equipment, training of port  management
personnel and  support in establishing recognized port authorities that meet
international   standards.  Similarly,  UNDP  and  the  International  Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO)  continued efforts  to re-establish  acceptable
standards for safe civil  aviation in the country.   Since the  cessation of
operations at Mogadishu airport in early  1995, assistance has been extended
to upgrade  other  airports in  the  country  and to  establish  sustainable
revenue-generating airport systems in collaboration with local authorities.

41.   The United  Nations Development Office  for Somalia,  a UNDP  project,
continues its  efforts to establish  the necessary institutional capacity on
which to base a future national  planning and economic management mechanism.
Towards  this  end, the  Office  is  conducting  socio-economic surveys  and
collecting  additional information  for the  purpose of  creating  databases
that will  assist in  the planning  and coordination  of rehabilitation  and
development activities  in the country.   The Office,  in collaboration with
several  non-governmental organizations,  is also  undertaking a  series  of
studies  on  local administrative  structures  in  Somalia  with  a view  to
assisting  local  bodies to  develop  responsive,  equitable  and  efficient
systems of governance.  The Office  continues to provide secretariat support
for SACB and its Standing Committee.

42.   In preparation for  the Fourth World  Conference on  Women at Beijing,
UNDP assisted  Somali women to prepare  a country paper  for presentation at
the  Conference in September 1995.  UNDP also  organized and coordinated the
participation  of Somali  women  at  the  Conference and  supported  several
preparatory workshops  held at different  locations in  Somalia, which  made
the selection  of participants possible and  identified priority issues  for
presentation  at  Beijing.    The  preparatory  workshops  also  led  to the
creation  of an  umbrella non-governmental  organization called  the  Somali
Women's Organization for National Development.   A symposium on the  culture
of peace  in Somalia  was organized  by UNESCO  at Sana'a,  Yemen, in  April
1995, in  which 70 Somali intellectuals from within and outside Somalia took
part.


IV.  COORDINATION ARRANGEMENTS

43.  As  described in preceding sections of this report, continued political
instability and the absence of central  authority in Somalia have  increased
the importance  of close coordination and  cooperation among United  Nations
agencies and their partners.   The withdrawal of UNOSOM in March 1995 marked
the end of a  number of coordination, logistical and other support  services
previously  available to  relief  and rehabilitation  organizations  in  the

country.   In the  months prior  to the  final departure  of UNOSOM,  United
Nations  agencies and  organizations recognized  the need  for  establishing
effective coordination  mechanisms for  the  post-UNOSOM transition  period.
Towards this  end, the United Nations  Coordination Team  was established in
October 1994, composed of senior representatives of United Nations  agencies
and organizations operational in Somalia.

44.  The  United Nations Coordination Team is  chaired by the UNDP  Resident
Representative for Somalia, who also serves  as the United Nations  Resident
Coordinator   and  Humanitarian   Coordinator   for  the   country.      The
establishment of the United Nations Coordination  Team as the United Nations
inter-agency coordination mechanism for Somalia  was endorsed by  the Inter-
Agency Standing Committee on  Somalia (IASC) in November  1994.  In a letter
to the  SecretaryGeneral dated  7 December  1994, 1/  the  President of  the
Security Council, on behalf of the members of the Council, took  note of the
IASC  statement and  welcomed the  commitment  of  the agencies  to continue
emergency and rehabilitation activities in post-UNOSOM  Somalia.  The United
Nations Coordination Team  provides a weekly forum for information  exchange
and  decision-making  on the  programmes  of  United Nations  agencies,  and
provides guidance on  achieving greater coherence in policies and approaches
in order  to maximize efficiency in  the implementation  of agency mandates.
The   United  Nations   Coordination   Team  also   cooperates   with   both
international and national  consortia of non-governmental organizations  and
works  in close collaboration  with SACB.   The  United Nations Coordination
Unit, administered  by  UNDP, was  created to  serve  as  a small  technical
secretariat to the  Team, as well as  to contribute to policy  harmonization
and  to develop  systems for  information  management  and the  provision of
common services to operational agencies, including an inter-agency  security
system.

45.  In order  further to strengthen  inter-agency cooperation,  specialized
sectoral  analysis  and coordination  of  activities  among  United  Nations
agencies  and the  community  of non-governmental  organizations  are  being
carried out under the  leadership of the organization with the most relevant
mandate  and experience  in the  specific  sector.   In  the health  sector,
UNICEF  has   organized  coordination   forums  involving   non-governmental
organizations,  United Nations  agencies and  donors, aimed  at  formulating
common  health strategies and an agreed work plan incorporating the views of
all  health  agencies.    Similar  efforts  are  being  undertaken  for  the
education sector  under the lead  of UNESCO.   The Food  Security Assessment
Unit  established by  WFP collaborates  closely  with other  United  Nations
agencies  and  their  partner  organizations  to  monitor  the  agricultural
situation and provide  comprehensive early-warning information  for Somalia.
IOM  provides  the  multisectoral  coordination  necessary  for  return  and
reintegration efforts relating to internally displaced persons.  The  United
Nations  Development  Office   for  Somalia  is  laying  the   institutional
foundations  to facilitate  the coordination  of  longer-term rehabilitation
and development activities in the country.

46.    Coordination  of  technical  support  services,  including  security,
medical evacuation,  communications and  logistics, is being pursued  with a
view to improving the  cost-effectiveness of operations  through the pooling
of United Nations agency resources.   In the area of air  transport, a total
of three light  aircraft operated by UNICEF,  UNDP and WFP, with  additional
aircraft under the aegis of the  European Community Humanitarian Office, are
available to transport the personnel and  cargo of United Nations  agencies,
non-governmental organizations and donors to and  from Somalia, and a system
is in place to coordinate the flight schedules of these aircraft.


V.  IMPACT OF SECURITY PROBLEMS

47.  The withdrawal of United Nations  military contingents from Somalia  in
the   first  months  of   1995  necessitated  the  temporary  evacuation  of
international  personnel  for  security  reasons.    However,  a  return  to
widespread anarchy  and disorder following the  departure of  UNOSOM did not

materialize  in the size  and scope  predicted.  As  a result, international
agency personnel  were able to return  to most areas  of the country  within
weeks after the final departure of United Nations  troops.  In general,  the
security situation in most  parts of the country has remained stable  enough
to  allow the  continuation of  relief  and rehabilitation  activities,  and
United  Nations assistance  programmes are  being carried  out in 15  of the
country's 18 regions, with a  total of about 40 United Nations international
personnel posted in different locations at any one time.

48.  In spite  of the relative stability, inter-clan conflict, violence  and
banditry  are  unfortunately  regular  occurrences  in  some  areas  of  the
country, disrupting relief and recovery  efforts and endangering  the safety
of  civilians as well  as humanitarian  personnel in those areas.   Over the
past year, several national relief workers have been  killed in Somalia, and
kidnappings,  armed  attacks,  threats  and  the  looting  of  vehicles  and
equipment  have  persisted,   affecting  both  national  and   international
personnel.   As a  result, United  Nations agencies  and international  non-
governmental  organizations  have been  forced  temporarily  to  suspend  or
withdraw operations  in several  locations. Conflict  in north-west  Somalia
forced United  Nations  international  staff to  relocate from  Hargeisa  in
November  1994 for  a  five-month period,  and  from Burao  in  March  1995.
United Nations operations at  Bossaso, Baidoa and  Kismayo were  temporarily
suspended  pending the  satisfactory  resolution of  security  threats.  The
offices of  United  Nations agencies  at  Bardera,  Belet Weyn  and  Galcayo
remained closed over most of the past year owing to security concerns.

49.   In  Mogadishu, the political  and security situation  since the UNOSOM
withdrawal  has not stabilized  sufficiently to  allow the  return of United
Nations international staff on a permanent basis.  Based on the findings  of
a security assessment mission to the city in  April 1995, the United Nations
Security Coordinator  decided to allow  the return  of a  limited number  of
essential  and emergency-related  international staff  to Mogadishu  on  the
condition that the personnel  remain for a period  not to exceed  three days
per   week.    Since   then,  the   security  situation   in  Mogadishu  has
deteriorated,  with   increased  incidents  of   banditry  and   lawlessness
perpetrated  by  armed  groups on  the  streets  of  the  city.   The  tense
atmosphere in Mogadishu is compounded by  widespread unemployment and by the
political  developments  of June  1995.   In view  of the  situation, United
Nations agencies  maintain the  operation of  their programmes  in the  city
through their national officers.  While some international  non-governmental
organizations continue to  operate in Mogadishu, the presence of  expatriate
staff is minimal.

50.  In March 1995, the main political factions in Mogadishu formed a  joint
committee to take over the operation and management  of the seaport and  the
main international airport in the city.   The airport has, however, remained
closed since  the UNOSOM withdrawal.   The seaport  has remained operational
under the  supervision of the  joint committee,  but inter-factional clashes
and  labour  disputes  have   resulted  in  frequent   cessations  of   port
operations.  The  first United Nations  vessel to arrive in  Mogadishu since
UNOSOM left the city,  a UNICEF-chartered ship, docked  at the port  in late
April  1995 and  was able  to unload  its  medical and  educational supplies
safely.  The  continued closure of the airport  and the uncertain future  of
seaport operations  severely affects the ability  of the  United Nations and
its partners  to deliver  relief and  rehabilitation supplies  to the  city,
which in turn  impacts operations  throughout Somalia, particularly for  the
south-central  regions.   As  a  result,  creative  and  alternate means  of
transporting commodities to Somalia are required.

51.   In  the face of  political instability and  insecurity, United Nations
agencies in  the  post-UNOSOM  period  have adopted  common  strategies  for
protecting  the  safety  and  security  of  personnel  and  property  in the
country.   These  strategies include  maintaining a  constant dialogue  with
local   authorities,  seeking   acceptance  of  the  Code   of  Conduct  for
International  Rehabilitation  and Development  Assistance  to  Somalia  and
other guarantees  of security from community  leaders in  areas of operation

and  taking collective action  when confronted  with security  threats.  For
example, as  a result  of threats made  to personnel of  one United  Nations
agency at Bossaso in April 1995, the offices  of all United Nations agencies
in  the town  were  closed.   This  concerted action  by the  United Nations
agencies  had the effect of convincing community leaders to take measures to
ensure the protection  of United Nations personnel, and the offices were re-
opened three weeks later.

52.  As part of efforts to coordinate  technical support services, a  common
security  network  has been  developed, utilizing  the  shared resources  of
United  Nations  agencies,   under  the  direction  of  the  United  Nations
Coordination Team.  The inter-agency security  plan includes  the posting of
security  officers of  the United  Nations  Coordination  Team to  cover all
areas where  Nations agencies  are operational, the  regular monitoring  and
assessment   of  the   security  situation   throughout  Somalia   and   the
establishment of  adequate evacuation  and  preparedness plans  in cases  of
emergency.   While  these security  measures  are  undertaken to  enable the
provision of  assistance to  affected populations,  United Nations  agencies
will only operate  in areas where reasonable  assurances of security  can be
obtained.   In this regard,  the responsibility for ensuring  the safety and
security of staff  members and  property of  the humanitarian  organizations
rests primarily with the Somali people.


VI.  ASSISTANCE PROVIDED BY MEMBER STATES

53.   In addition  to the activities described  above, several Member States
have  provided  information on  assistance  to  Somalia in  compliance  with
General Assembly resolution 49/21 L.

Finland

54.   As  of  June 1995,  the  Government  of  Finland had  contributed  Fmk
1,000,000 in assistance to  Somalia under the auspices  of ICRC.  Finland is
processing a contribution to Somalia via UNHCR.

Germany

55.  From  1992 through 1994, humanitarian assistance to Somalia provided by
the  Government of  Germany totalled  DM  137,256,376.   Of this  amount, DM
53,833,800 constitutes Germany's  portion of the assistance rendered by  the
European  Union.  A  contribution under  the current  United  Nations inter-
agency consolidated appeal is under consideration.
  Ireland

56.   In 1994,  the Government  of  Ireland contributed,  through the  Irish
Battalion of UNOSOM, a total of LIr 37,895.82  in humanitarian assistance to
Somalia.   Of  this amount  LIr 27,895.82  went to  the humanitarian  relief
programme in Baidoa, while LIr 10,000  went towards emergency assistance for
relief operations in Baidoa.   In 1995,  a donation of LIr 272,591  was made
to  the  Irish non-governmental  organization  Trocaire  for  rehabilitation
assistance in the health and education sectors.

57.  In fiscal  year 1994, the Government  of Japan provided  US$ 2  million
for assistance  to Somali refugees  in Kenya, US$ 200,000  for assistance to
Somali  refugees in Djibouti,  and US$  1.5 million for  the repatriation of
Somali refugees  in Kenya  and under  the cross  border operation.   All  of
these contributions  were  made to  UNHCR.   The  Government  of Japan  also
provided a  total of US$  11,320,000 to WFP  towards assistance for  African
refugees affected by the conflicts in Somalia, Liberia and the Sudan.

Luxembourg

58.   In  1993,  the  Government  of  Luxembourg  provided  US$  57,877  for
emergency and humanitarian assistance to Somalia.

Yemen

59.  Despite its economic difficulties,  Yemen is currently sheltering  more
than  60,000 Somali refugees  in its  cities and is doing  so in cooperation
with UNHCR. Yemen, in  cooperation with UNESCO, hosted a seminar from 17  to
20 April  1995 entitled "A culture of peace in Somalia".  It was attended by
70 Somali intellectuals  representing various regions and political  trends.
At  the  seminar,  an  appeal was  made  for  a  halt to  violence  and  for
commitment  to  the  peace  and  reconciliation   process  with  a  view  to
rebuilding Somalia.


VII.  CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS

60.   Since  the last  report  of the  Secretary-General on  assistance  for
humanitarian  relief and the  economic and  social rehabilitation of Somalia
(A/49/456), the country,  while the current  situation remains  fragile, has
slowly moved  towards recovery and reconstruction.   However, insecurity  in
many areas  of  the country  continues  to  affect  negatively the  pace  of
recovery  and   has  prolonged   the  need   for  humanitarian   assistance,
particularly for vulnerable and disadvantaged  groups.  Faced with continued
inter-clan conflict and the absence of central  authority, Somalia continues
to  suffer from a  chronic crisis  of governance  characterized by banditry,
political  instability,  violence  and the  threat of  a  renewed full-scale
civil  war.    While  the  overall  humanitarian  situation  in  Somalia has
improved over the  past year, these gains  remain precarious in the  absence
of peace and effective civil institutions.

61.   Until March 1995,  UNOSOM continued  to provide an  umbrella structure
for  the  humanitarian  operations  of  United  Nations  agencies  and  non-
governmental organizations,  as well as  substantial logistical support  for
the resettlement  of internally displaced persons  and military escorts  for
humanitarian  convoys.     In   late  1994,  United  Nations   agencies  and
organizations  reaffirmed their  commitment to  continue operations  in  the
country beyond  the termination  of the  mandate of  UNOSOM, in  cooperation
with  the Somali  people  and  subject to  favourable  security  conditions.
Following the  departure of  UNOSOM in early  1995, 8  organizations of  the
United  Nations system  have maintained  and  in  some cases  expanded their
humanitarian  and  rehabilitation  activities  in  15  of  the  country's 18
regions.  Some 40  international non-governmental  organizations  maintain a
presence  in  the  country,  playing  a  critical  role  in  the  relief and
rehabilitation process.

62.  In a context of political unrest, United Nations agencies in the  post-
UNOSOM period  have developed appropriate  strategies to maintain  effective
operations  and ensure that  their relief and rehabilitation activities have
the most  positive impact  on the  intended beneficiaries.   United  Nations
agencies  and   organizations  have  focused   on  community-based  efforts,
adopting  a  low-profile  regional  approach  and  maintaining   operational
centres in  those  areas where  security  of  personnel can  be  guaranteed.
United  Nations   agencies  are   taking  a   flexible  approach  in   their
relationships with the variety of local  authorities and the growing  number
of regional administrations that are being  established in various areas  of
Somalia.    The  current  situation  in  the  country  has  underscored  the
importance  of  effective coordination  of  activities  and  policies  among
United Nations agencies  and their  partners, and appropriate measures  have
been  taken to  increase and  enhance  inter-agency cooperation  in Somalia.
One form  of such  cooperation is  the direct  link that the  United Nations
agencies  have  established and  maintained  with  the  international  donor
community at the field level through the SACB.

63.   The  situation  in  Somalia  poses a  question  for the  international
community: how can agencies obtain funding  for humanitarian assistance in a
situation where the emergency  has receded but  the country is far from  out
of danger?  In  the absence of national institutions capable of coping  even
with  minor emergencies,  Somalia  will  continue  to remain  vulnerable  to

future  disasters.     How   then  can   the  transition   from  relief   to
reconstruction occur  when the  balance can  be  so easily  tipped, and  the
gains  made over  the  past three  years  through  the  combined efforts  of
international  relief  agencies and  committed  Somali  partners  so  easily
undone?

64.  What is sorely required in today's Somalia is  a commitment from donors
to  proactively  support the  presence  and  targeted  programmes of  United
Nations agencies  and organizations so as  to prevent  Somalia from slipping
back into another  period of acute crisis.   I take this opportunity to  ask
donors to  support generously current efforts  to assist  the Somali people.
Such efforts  can  help Somalis  sustain  a  process of  rehabilitation  and
reconstruction,  thus enabling  them  to  move  away  from  the  destructive
process which has threatened to consume their country.


Notes

  1/  S/1994/1393.


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