United Nations

A/50/432


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

14 September 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Item 108 of the provisional agenda*


CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

Progress made in the implementation of General Assembly
resolution 49/158

Report of the Secretary-General


CONTENTS

    Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION ...........................................1 - 23

II.  CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE:  A CRITICAL NEED3 - 93

III.  PROGRAMME ACTIVITIES:  A SIGNIFICANT YEAR ..............10 - 626

  A.  Major events .......................................11 - 146

  B.  Research and information dissemination .............15 - 177

  C.  Implementation of United Nations standards and norms18 - 218

  D.  Operational activities .............................22 - 479

  E.  Support to the Commission ..........................48 - 4917

  F.  Collaborative initiatives ..........................50 - 6218




                       

  *  A/50/150.

95-28145 (E)   131095/...
*9528145*
 CONTENTS (continued)

    Paragraphs  Page

IV.  RECENT MANDATES AND THEIR PROGRAMME IMPLICATIONS .......63 - 9622

  A.  Action by the Commission ...........................64 - 9022    

  B.  Programme implications .............................91 - 9530

  C.  Further tasks ...................................... 9631

V.  STRENGTHENING PROGRAMME CAPACITY .......................97 - 12631

  A.  A proper place in development assistance ...........100 - 10832

  B.  Role in peace-building and emergency assistance ....109 - 11235

  C.  Information management and transfer of knowledge ...113 - 11536

  D.  From coordination to partnerships ..................116 - 11738

  E.  Harnessing the means ...............................118 - 12338

VI.  CONCLUDING REMARKS .....................................124 - 12640
I.  INTRODUCTION


1.   The General  Assembly, at  its forty-ninth  session, adopted resolution
49/158  of  23 December  1994  on  strengthening  the  United Nations  crime
prevention  and  criminal  justice  programme,  particularly  its  technical
cooperation  capacity.   In  that  resolution,  the Assembly  recognized the
direct  relevance of  crime  prevention and  criminal  justice  to sustained
development, stability,  security and  improved quality  of life.   It  also
recognized the  urgent need to  increase technical cooperation activities in
order to  assist countries,  especially  developing countries  and those  in
transition, in translating  United Nations policy guidelines into  practice,
including  training and  upgrading of  national capacities,  and to  improve
regional, interregional  and international cooperation  and coordination  of
activities  aimed  at   combating  crime.     The  Assembly  reaffirmed  the
importance  of  the United  Nations  crime  prevention and  criminal justice
programme and  its crucial role  in promoting  international cooperation  in
that  field, in responding  to the needs  of the  international community in
the face  of both national and  transnational criminality,  and in assisting
Member States in preventing crime within and among States and improving  the
response to crime.

2.  However, the  Assembly also noted the considerable obstacles to the full
and  effective  implementation of  the  crime-related  programme activities,
resulting from the increased workload of  the Crime Prevention and  Criminal
Justice  Branch  of  the  Secretariat,  owing  to  the  lack  of appropriate
institutional  capacity,  and  called  for  an  appropriate  share  of   the
resources to be allocated to that  highpriority United Nations programme, so
that its capability to  respond to requests from countries and to fulfil its
other tasks could be enhanced.  A number of specific steps were  recommended
towards that end, including the implementation of relevant previous  General
Assembly  and  Economic  and  Social Council  resolutions  calling  for  the
reinforcement  and upgrading  of the  Crime Prevention  and Criminal Justice
Branch.  The Secretary-General was requested  to submit a progress report on
the implementation  of the  resolution, which  is contained  in the  present
document.


II.  CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE:  A CRITICAL NEED

3.  The  Fiftieth Anniversary of  the United Nations  offers an  opportunity
for serious analysis of  the world situation and for assessment of its  role
in meeting  urgent  needs.   In making  this balance  sheet, the  undisputed

gains made during this  time in various sectors  must be recognized, as well
as the  overall progress towards enhanced  human development.   Wars between
States seem to  be subsiding and the ideological cold war is largely a thing
of  the past.    But  violence and  human  suffering are  not yet  receding:
internal conflicts  and ethnic strife plague  different parts  of the world,
and the  threat of crime  looms larger than ever even where  it did not hold
sway before.   Organized  crime has  spread its  tentacles over much  of the
globe, fed  by corruption  and the  mercenary pursuit  of riches,  laundered
through  sophisticated means,  especially  when legitimate  businesses  have
been  infiltrated.  Terrorist  violence, usually  by a  fanatic fringe, sows
panic and fear.   In some places, the entire  economy has been subverted and
the  system  destabilized by  the  impact  of these  deleterious activities,
which  pose  a danger  to  the rule  of  law and  democratic  change.   Even
relations  between States  have been  negatively affected  by  transnational
crime and violence, which keep widening their reach.

4.  At  the same time, common criminality  is generating a haunting  feeling
of  insecurity in  cities of  both developed  and developing  regions:  some
areas  have become veritable  "urban war  zones", where  violence, drugs and
deprivation are  the order of the day and hopelessness  the common currency.
Adverse economic conditions have exacerbated survival problems and  material
constraints lacerated social safety nets, compounding disadvantage.   In the
burgeoning towns  of developing regions, and  where poverty prevails,  urban
slums are likely to proliferate.

Notes

  According to recent forecasts, the world's  population will have more than
quadrupled this century, reaching  nearly 7 billion by the year 2000, and  a
projected 8.5 billion by 2025, of which 6.5  billion are likely to be living
in poor  areas, with  approximately two  thirds in  the urban  slums of  the
developing world.   The greatest  population increase will  be in the  15-25
age group, which  is the most  highly crime-prone.   It  is estimated  that,
even if the crime  rate remains stable, crime will increase in proportion to
increases in these highrisk groups.   These demographic trends are  expected
to be reinforced by negative economic trends:   even if global wealth grows,
it is expected to  further widen the gap between  rich and poor, between and
within  countries.  This is  likely to foster social unrest, instability and
crime.

5.   Failure to give proper  weight to the detrimental effects  of crime has
exacted  a  heavy  human  and  material   toll,  undermining  the  gains  of
development, the  quest for greater  equity and the  prospects for a  better
life.   It has also hampered  United Nations  peace-keeping and institution-
building  efforts,   which  cannot   succeed  in   situations  of   complete
lawlessness, as recent experience has all  too painfully shown.   The lesson
to be  learned is that the creation  and proper functioning of the legal and
judicial system are a sine qua non  for any viable society and for sustained
progress.    The  component on the re-establishment  of the criminal justice
system, introduced during  the Somalia mission, was insufficient to  counter
the situation which had escalated  beyond control.  The  Foreign Minister of
Australia  noted  in  his   analysis  of  the  United  Nations  Transitional
Authority  in Cambodia operation in  Cambodia, "It now seems  clear that the
Paris  Agreements should  have included  specific  measures for  building  a
functioning  criminal  justice  system   and  post-conflict   peace-building
exercise, as the rule of law and the  institutions needed to support it  had
clearly broken down in Cambodia" (Gareth  Evans, Cooperating for Peace:  The
Global Agenda for  the 1990s  and Beyond  (Allen and Unwin,  1993)).  It  is
likely that the relative  success achieved by UNTAC was in no small  measure
due  to  the adoption,  in September  1992,  of provisions  relating to  the
judiciary and criminal law and procedure  applicable to Cambodia during  the
transitional  period which sought  to ensure  respect for  human life, human
rights  and property  and to  apply penalties  in  their enforcement.   For,
justice is  the foundation  upon which  civil society,  good governance  and
democracy  rest,  and  its  promotion an  essential  condition  for building
social trust.   As  noted in  the SecretaryGeneral's  report, "in  countries

where peace  efforts are  in progress,  it is  vital to provide  the police,
prosecutors,  judges,   prison  staff,   and  the   legal  profession   with
international  experience and  expert  knowledge -  indispensable  tools  in
building an effective and  fair criminal justice system, one of the  pillars
of  democracy."    Boutros  Boutros-Ghali,  Building Peace  and  Development
1994:  Report  on the Work of  the Organization (United Nations publication,
Sales No. E.95.I.3), para. 94.

6.  The task is all the more  difficult since vested interests, particularly
armed bands, local gangs and other  organized criminal elements will  resist
the  establishment  or  re-establishment of  "law and  order".   Yet,  it is
particularly  needed  in   conditions  of  civil  war  and/or   humanitarian
assistance,  when offences  against  persons  and  property  are  likely  to
proliferate.    All  possible measures  are  required  to  increase  safety,
including that  of mission personnel.  Proscriptions to avoid  interpersonal
violence, and  especially  crimes  against  humanity, need  to  be  properly
enforced  and  a  functional  criminal justice  system  set up  where  it is
lacking.   Prosecution of  major offenders  in international  tribunals is a
necessary  course,  especially as  a normative  device of  the international
community  seeking  to  assert  its  moral  authority,  particularly   where
national mechanisms  do not  exist or are  not properly  utilized, or  where
transnational offences  are involved.     "The global  neighbourhood of  the
future must be characterized by law and the reality that all, including  the
weakest, are equal  under the law,  and none,  including the strongest,  are
above it".   Our  Global Neighbourhood.   The  Report of  the Commission  on
Global Governance (New  York, Oxford University Press,  1995), chap. 7.   "A
call to  action:   strengthening the rule of  law", p. 347.   It is crucial,
however,   that  national   and  local  courts  be   activated  and  proceed
expeditiously, perhaps under international supervision, so that justice  can
be  seen to  be  done and  the rule  of law  restored,  as  a means  also of
promoting  public confidence and social cohesion.   Protection, recourse and
redress for the  victims also  have to  be assured.   This requires a  well-
functioning justice  system.  The creation  of legal monitors to help spread
the culture  of law has been suggested  to help curtail violence and abuse. 
See also Lucio Ghia, The Future  of Peace Keeping, World Jurist Association,
April 1995.
  7.  As was  pointed out at the United Nations World Ministerial Conference
on Organized Transnational Crime, held at  Naples, Italy, in November  1994,
in the  prevailing vacuum created  by institutional  breakdown and dwindling
social controls, organized crime is likely  to establish itself through  the
sale  of arms,  drugs, prostitution,  diverting  badly  needed aid  from its
envisaged recipients  and dissipating assistance potential.     See also the
report of the Conference  (A/49/748).  Even technical cooperation programmes
are vulnerable  to fraud, as the  experience of some United Nations agencies
has, unfortunately,  revealed,  but such  practices  tend  to be  even  more
pernicious  in  complex emergencies  where mutual  trust and  efficiency are
essential.  To  avoid the dwindling of scarce  resources in this way,  crime
prevention elements should be built  into development assistance projects as
an indispensable element of quality control.

8.   The new approach  to United Nations  activities, as  articulated by the
Secretary-General, emphasizes the complementarity  of peace and development,
and the need  to address problems which, if  left unattended, are likely  to
undermine  both.   Human security  ranks high  on  the  list, not  mainly as
protection  from  external foes  but, increasingly,  as  the maintenance  of
social peace and freedom  from fear, conducive  also to the satisfaction  of
other basic  needs and  the  development process.    The  lack of  a  secure
environment  for economic  growth has  discouraged foreign  investment,  and
illicit operations  have siphoned off  vast sums that  could have been  used
for  the  common  good.    The   failure  to  incorporate  crime  prevention
considerations  in  national  planning  has   contributed  to  dysfunctional
development, compounding inequities and precluding the  enjoyment by all the
people of the fruits of progress.

9.   Neglect  of  this  aspect may  also  jeopardize the  success  of  major
reforms, including  the movement towards  market economies.   Some countries

in transition  have borne  the consequences:   organized  crime is  becoming
entrenched, taking  advantage  of  the legal  flux and  enforcement  vacuum.
This  could have been  predicted and  perhaps even  avoided.   If preventive
measures are not instituted in good time, they  may be unable to contain the
seemingly  inexorable progression  of crime, or  there may be  a backlash of
repression  jeopardizing  democratic reforms  and  the  enjoyment  of  basic
freedoms.  A strengthened United Nations  capacity to forecast and forestall
such   negative  effects   of   institutional  transformations,   and  wider
utilization of this expertise in technical  cooperation, would help to avert
and mitigate  such dangers.   The  urgency is very  real, not  only for  the
countries  directly  affected  but  also because  of  the  spill-over effect
deriving  from  the  internationalization  of  crime,  which  has  permitted
criminal  organizations to  cross  national  borders  and  to  expand  their
operations - a continuing  malignant process likely to  subvert the rule  of
law  and   to  endanger   popular  well-being.    Regionalization   and  the
establishment of  common markets  are expected  to accentuate  it, with  the
increased permeability of frontiers and economic integration susceptible  to
infiltration  by organized  crime.   They  may  also facilitate  the illicit
traffic in human cargo  with severe violations of basic human rights.  These
may be further  infringed by xenophobic  reactions to the  tide of  migrants
and other extremist acts that utilize  violence to threaten personal  safety
and  social  peace.    The  promise  of  "one  world"  and  of  the  "global
neighbourhood"  risks   being  perverted  unless  effective,   wide-ranging,
collaborative strategies are instituted to reverse this perilous trend.


 III.  PROGRAMME ACTIVITIES:  A SIGNIFICANT YEAR

10.  The  year under review was an  eventful one, with two world conferences
and a session  of the Commission on  Crime Prevention and  Criminal Justice,
that  highlighted many of the aforementioned concerns  and proposed concrete
directions  for future  work.   It  also witnessed  a  wide range  of  other
programme   activities,  particularly   strengthened  technical  cooperation
efforts.


A.  Major events

11.    The  results  of  the   World  Ministerial  Conference  on  Organized
Transnational  Crime  were  submitted to  the  Assembly  at  its forty-ninth
session (A/49/748), leading to the adoption of  its resolution 49/159 of  23
December 1994.    By that  resolution,  the  General Assembly  approved  the
Political  Declaration  and   the  Global  Action  Plan  against   Organized
Transnational Crime,  and  urged States  to implement  them as  a matter  of
urgency,  and  all  entities  of  the  United  Nations  system  and relevant
organizations  to  provide their  full support.   The  Secretary-General was
requested to  transmit  the Naples  decisions  to  the Commission  on  Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice for  appropriate action, and the Commission,
to keep  them under  regular review.   A higher  level of  priority for  the
United Nations  crime prevention and criminal  justice programme was  urged,
as  well  as  adequate  funds,  particularly  in  the  light  of  its  added
responsibilities, and to enable  it to respond  to the most urgent needs  of
States in  the prevention and control of organized transnational  crime.  As
requested  in  the  resolution, a  progress  report  on  its  implementation
(A/50/433) has been submitted to the Assembly.

12.  The  Ninth United Nations Congress on  the Prevention of Crime and  the
Treatment  of Offenders,  held at  Cairo from  29 April  to 8  May 1995, the
first Congress to  be held in Africa, was  very well attended and  generated
wide interest.   It was a first  in other ways:  by  using a new format,  as
recommended by  the General  Assembly in  resolution 46/152  of 18  December
1991,  and by  being the  first  major United  Nations Conference  to employ
remote  translation,  with  considerable  savings.    The  Congress,   which
involved  intensive preparatory  work had,  inter alia, input  from regional
preparatory meetings   Organized under  the United Nations crime  prevention
and criminal justice programme in  January-February 1994; some  further ones

were  organized, for  example, by  the  Group  of Mediterranean  States. and
extensive other documentation.  It adopted  a number of resolutions and made
a  series of practical and far-reaching recommendations.   The report of the
Congress is  before the  General Assembly  as document  A/CONF.169/16 and  a
note by the Secretary-General summarizing the  results has been submitted as
document A/50/373.

13.  The Commission  on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice at its  fourth
session, held  at Vienna from 30 May  to 9 June  1995, considered the report
and  decisions of  the Ninth  Congress,  and  adopted a  comprehensive draft
resolution on  the  implementation of  its  recommendations,  as well  as  a
number of other draft resolutions on priority themes.   It also formulated a
draft resolution  related to the Congress  for consideration  by the General
Assembly.   The report of the  Commission is available  to the Assembly as a
background document.   Official Records of the Economic and Social  Council,
1995,  Supplement No. 10.   The Council, at its substantive session, adopted
the draft resolutions recommended by the  Commission, as resolutions 1995/8-
15 and  1995/27, of  24 July  1995.  The  mandates deriving  from the  Ninth
Congress,  the Commission and the Council, and their programme implications,
are considered later in the present report. 

14.   Expert meetings and  seminars were organized during  the year, largely
as  collaborative ventures.   Other major  events, such as  the World Summit
for Social Development and the Fourth  World Conference on Women,  also made
some relevant recommendations.   These are mentioned,  as appropriate, under
other headings.


B.  Research and information dissemination

15.   The fourth  United Nations  survey of  crime trends and  operations of
criminal justice  systems was  largely completed  during this  year, and  an
interim report    A/CONF.169/15 and Add.1. on  the results was  submitted to
the Ninth Congress, as  requested by the Commission  on Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice.  It offers a preliminary overview of the changes in  world
patterns  and dynamics  of  crime,  including violent  and  property  crime,
during the years 1986-1990.  The report contains information drawing on  the
situation in  100  countries of  different  regions  that responded  to  the
survey  questionnaire, including  the trends  of  violence (and  dynamics of
homicide)  in the  world;  available  criminal  justice  resources  and  the
situation of prisons.   A  new feature  was the  accompanying assessment  of
trends  of transnational  crime, especially  organized crime,  conducted  in
pursuance of Economic and Social Council resolution 1993/34 of 27 July  1993
and the  Naples Global Action  Plan to serve  also as an  early warning  for
appropriate counteraction.    Ibid.   Regional trend  analyses were prepared
by the United Nations institutes.   Extensive research was also  carried out
in  connection with  the  working papers  for  the  Ninth  Congress and  the
background papers  for the workshops.   Surveys on  special subjects falling
under the priority themes  of the Commission, such as measures to combat the
smuggling  of  illegal  migrants,  were  prepared for  it  on  the basis  of
government  responses,  as were  some  other  survey  reports.   The  United
Nations  institutes  continued  their   research  and  training  activities,
including some  relating to the Ninth  Congress and  Commission agendas (for
example,  The  United  Nations  Interregional  Crime  and  Justice  Research
Institute (UNICRI)  on penal protection of  the environment,  and the United
Nations  Latin  American Institute  for  the  Prevention  of  Crime and  the
Treatment of Offenders (ILANUD) on trafficking in children).

16.  A great deal  of material was generated during  the year in  connection
with  the  major conferences,  as listed  in the  annexes to  their reports.
This included public information issuances, such  as a Department of  Public
Information  pamphlet describing  the United  Nations crime  prevention  and
criminal  justice  programme,  press kits  and  other  releases.    National
statements  were submitted  to the  Congress  and  other inputs  provided by
intergovernmental and non-governmental  organizations (NGOs).  For  example,
a   special  publication  on   migration  and   crime  was   issued  by  the

International  Scientific  and  Professional  Advisory  Council  (ISPAC)  in
cooperation with  the  Pioom  Foundation, in  connection with  an  ancillary
meeting  on  this  subject.    Also,  a  volume  on  the  Inter-organization
Colloquium  on  Criminal  Justice Management  was  published  by  the Centro
Nazionale  di   Prevenzione  e   Difesa  Sociale  with   support  from   the
International Penal and Penitentiary Foundation.

 17.   Special issues  of the United  Nations Crime  Prevention and Criminal
Justice Newsletter  on the Ninth Congress and other recent  events have been
prepared. Also in connection with the Congress, vol. 2, No. 3 of the  UNCJIN
Newsletter was devoted  to trends in urban crime  and crime prevention.   An
issue  on violence and conflict resolution is in preparation.   No. 4 of the
Newsletter  highlighted the  potential  of  the  United  Nations  Crime  and
Justice Information Network (UNCJIN) now that it is  well established on the
Internet.   A commentary on  the United Nations  Standard Minimum Rules  for
Non-custodial Measures (Tokyo Rules) for the non-institutional treatment  of
offenders  has been issued,  and manuals  prepared on  the implementation of
the Model  Treaties on  Extradition and  on Mutual  Cooperation in  Criminal
Matters,  adopted by  the General  Assembly  in  its resolutions  45/116 and
45/117 of  14 December 1990.   A manual  on basic  education in  prisons was
also issued.   The United  Nations Manual on  the Prevention  and Control of
Computer-related  Crime was  published  in No.  43-44  of  the International
Review of Criminal Policy.  No. 45-46 of the Review is to mark the  Fiftieth
Anniversary of  the  United Nations,  containing  a  topical review  of  the
progress  made,  as well  as  a  comprehensive  bibliography  of all  United
Nations  crime prevention  and criminal  justice publications,  reports  and
other  materials  issued  since  the  programme's  inception.    A  selected
bibliography on penal protection of the  environment has also been prepared.
Several joint publications  which have  been produced in collaboration  with
other United Nations entities are mentioned below.


C.  Implementation of United Nations standards and norms

18.  The United Nations standards  in crime prevention and  criminal justice
represent  internationally  agreed  upon  norms  that  provide  a  yardstick
against  which  countries can  gauge their  current  policies and  desirable
reforms.    They  are  useful  training  material  for  countries  eager  to
modernize their criminal  justice systems  and upgrade  the capabilities  of
their  personnel.  They  also serve  as a  guide for civil  police and other
United Nations  peace-keeping personnel.  Their  importance and  the need to
monitor  their  use  and  application  have  led  the  Commission  on  Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice to include  the United Nations standards and
norms as  a standing  item on  its agenda,  and to  convene an  in-sessional
working group on the subject.  The one  held during the Commission's  fourth
session discussed the  best ways of  monitoring the  use and application  of
the  United  Nations  guidelines  and  norms,  and endorsed  the  guidelines
established to  gather information on actual  practices as  well as relevant
legislation.

19.  The responses of Governments to four  surveys of the progress  achieved
in the implementation  of the first set  of four United  Nations instruments
are  being analysed  and  collated  for  reports  to  be  submitted  to  the
Commission  at its fifth session, at  which it will also review  a new draft
questionnaire for the next  set of norms, dealing  with juvenile justice.  A
manual on juvenile  justice has been prepared to  serve as a training  guide
for judges and social workers dealing  with juvenile offenders and  children
at risk.  The manual will provide information on how to make optimum use  of
the United  Nations standards  in this field,  particularly with  a view  to
preventing juvenile delinquency  and assuring the reintegration of  juvenile
offenders in the community.

 20.  In pursuance of Economic and Social  Council resolutions 1745 (LIV) of
16 May 1973, 1984/50 of 25 May 1984, 1989 (64) of 24 May 1989 and 1990  (51)
of 24 July 1990, the quinquennial report on capital punishment was  prepared
for submission  to the Council  at its substantive  session in  1995, on the

basis  of government replies;  it included information on the implementation
of safeguards guaranteeing the protection of  the rights of those facing the
death  penalty.   E/1995/78 and Add.1 and Corr.1.  It  served as a basis for
the Council's deliberations on this subject and for its resolution 1995/57.

21.    The  implementation  of  the  international  instruments  for  mutual
assistance in  criminal  matters and  of  the  model treaties  on  different
aspects of  bilateral and multilateral  cooperation also requires  technical
assistance, and  efforts have been made to provide this,  beginning with the
Economic  Community  of West  African States  (ECOWAS) countries  of western
Africa.   The manuals  on extradition and  other kinds of  mutual assistance
should  help in the  adoption of  national provisions  that would facilitate
cooperation in this regard.


D.  Operational activities

22.    In  paragraph  5  of  its  resolution  49/158, the  General  Assembly
recognized that operational  activities should continue to receive  priority
attention among United  Nations activities in  crime prevention and criminal
justice.   By highlighting this aspect  and giving  further indications, the
Naples  Ministerial Conference, the Ninth Congress, the  Commission on Crime
Prevention  and Criminal Justice  and the  Economic and  Social Council have
helped to define the parameters of this work.   The practical orientation of
the Congress, with its technical assistance-oriented workshops, the  special
sessions on technical cooperation, both in  the Congress and the Commission,
and the  ongoing dialogue  with countries about  their technical  assistance
requirements, have  all contributed to  the increased operationalization  of
the programme, which is expected  to continue with the implementation of the
established action plans.   However, the  degree to  which this  aim can  be
realized and major inroads made in  helping countries to curtail criminality
and  improve criminal  justice administration  will  depend largely  on  the
operational capacity of the programme to render the  necessary aid.  If  the
theme of the Ninth  Congress, "Less crime, more justice:  security for all",
is  to become a  reality, an  appreciably strengthened  effort and increased
programme  capability are required.  Some steps in  this direction have been
taken, but much more  is clearly required if the  chasm between the needs in
this field and the international response is, if not bridged, then at  least
reduced.

23.    The  range  of  possible  initiatives  is  daunting,  including needs
assessments   and  fact-finding   missions,  assistance   in  planning   and
implementing  comprehensive  strategies,  advisory  services  to  deal  with
priority  issues,  formulation  and  implementation  of  specific  projects,
including expert assistance in  law review and reform, and in promoting more
coherent and effective criminal justice systems  and subsystems, such as the
police, the judiciary, correctional services and juvenile justice;  training
and educational  programmes, including  the development  of model  curricula
and  training  materials;  fellowships;  the  exchange  of  information  and
experience;  the  computerization  of  criminal  justice administration  and
statistics; and experimental  innovation through feasibility studies,  pilot
and demonstration schemes.


1.  Multiple requirements

24.   The  multiplicity  of  needs  in  this  field  has  been  conveyed  by
Governments on various occasions:  through  urgent requests directed to  the
Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch and its affiliated  institutes;
and  during short-term advisory  missions, which  often have  to help define
these needs; through United  Nations Development Programme  (UNDP) or United
Nations International  Drug Control Programme  (UNDCP) channels; and  during
global  and  regional  conferences.  The  Ninth  Congress  highlighted   the
pervasive  needs of  many  countries  in this  field.   Often,  they are  so
extensive  and  interrelated   that  they  are   difficult  to  isolate  and
prioritize.    In those  cases,  particularly,  a comprehensive  approach to

foster  multi-pronged  action offers  the best  prospects,  with a  coherent
policy framework and  phased implementation  of measures aimed at  capacity-
building.

25.    Many  developing  countries  and   those  in  transition  have  found
themselves  overtaken   by  rapid  political   and  socio-economic  changes,
including the  growing incidence  and  sophistication of  crime, with  which
they are  ill-equipped  to deal.  In  some  cases  legal provisions  can  be
updated; more often  they have to  be completely revised.   Obsolete,  alien
criminal  codes  and lack  of  trained  personnel  have  made most  criminal
justice systems a poor match for  criminals disposing of technological means
and the latest know-how.   Where the entire system  is being changed,  as in
countries moving towards a market economy,  existing laws and structures are
being overhauled, often with  external assistance.  It  is no wonder,  then,
that  legal  reform,  including  new  penal  codes  and  codes  of  criminal
procedure, ranks high on  the list, as does special legislation to deal with
particularly  worrisome problems,  such  as  organized transnational  crime,
corruption and money-laundering.

26.   Where democracy  has been restored  or has only  recently taken  root,
there is  a special need for the  projected changes to reinforce the rule of
law and  democratic institutions rather  than placing them at  risk.  Expert
advice,  drawing on  international guidelines  and the  experience of  other
countries, can  be particularly  helpful in  this connection,  and has  been
widely solicited.  Some  UNDP country programmes  specifically include crime
prevention  and  criminal  justice  reform      For  example,  Estonia  (see
DP/1995/16,  para. 16). and judicial training;   For example, Latvia (ibid.,
para. 80).  in  other  cases they  may be  subsumed  under "governance"  and
broader   administrative  reform,   including  public   service   upgrading.
Legislative  prototypes are  sought, which  could  be adapted  to particular
needs;  they can  also help  to harmonize  laws  so as  to reduce  gaps  and
differences capitalized upon by astute offenders likely to shift  operations
to areas  of lesser  control, in  terms of  both the  existing statutes  and
their enforcement.

27.    Countries  recovering  from  civil  war  or  from  dictatorships  are
particularly eager to  improve their system of  governance and are aware  of
the central  role of the administration  of justice in  this regard.   Where
the  police   has  played  a  repressive   role,  not   only  its  technical
capabilities but  also  its  image  has  to  be upgraded  to  foster  public
cooperation.  There is considerable interest  in community policing and,  in
the  words of  one African  government official, a  real need to  do a great
deal of sensitive  training of the police in  how to behave  in a democratic
society.  There also seems  to be a widespread need for judicial reform  and
the training  of judges,  especially in  human rights  and in  the range  of
possible sentencing options,  to counter the over-reliance on  imprisonment.
New  skills are sought to deal with seemingly  intractable problems, such as
the  difficulties in  investigating  and prosecuting  complex  economic  and
technological crimes, where there  is an acute dearth of expertise or it has
to be utilized in new ways, such as the use of multidisciplinary teams.

28.   There is  a strong  interest in  improving the efficiency  of criminal
justice operations, especially through their computerization, but the  basic
equipment is  usually lacking,  as is  the necessary  personnel.   Automated
data  collection  is  often but  a desideratum,  and  an empirical  base for
decision-making, a future  aim.  This aspect can  often be included as  part
of  broader  telecommunications projects,  reflecting  the  need for  aid in
context.  This is true also of correctional  systems, with their dilapidated
facilities and overcrowded prisons, which need  to be upgraded in accordance
with United  Nations  standards, cleared  of detainees  awaiting trial,  and
used only  as a punishment of last  resort.  Many  countries, for example in
Africa, in their  customary justice traditions  have victim  restitution and
mediation mechanisms that  could be much more  widely applied, but  they may
seek  more  "modern"  alternatives,  in  spite  of  the  trend  towards  de-
institutionalization   and   community-based  "restorative   or   reparative
justice"  in some  developed  countries,  which  is consonant  with  African

customary traditions.   Technical  assistance providers  in such  situations
should be particularly careful to suggest  compatible options rooted in  the
culture  rather   than  introducing   further  alien   models.     Technical
cooperation among developing countries (TCDC) holds special  promise in this
regard.

29.  Many countries seek assistance  with mounting juvenile delinquency  and
the  treatment  of  juvenile  offenders.    In  many  instances,  these  are
imprisoned with adults in improper facilities, under severe prison  regimes.
The whole area of  juvenile justice and the  re-education of juveniles for a
productive role in society is a  major concern, including the  reintegration
into the community of those who had taken an  active part in armed conflict.
Assistance  with other  young persons  in difficult  circumstances,  such as
street children, is also being sought.  There is a growing realization  that
preventive steps are  needed to reverse the  progression of crime or,  where
it  has not  yet made  serious inroads,  to stop  it from  doing so.    This
provides a singular opportunity for instituting an integrated  multisectoral
approach, in  which  a whole  range  of  requirements can  be  incorporated,
including  coordinating  mechanisms  and  more   rational  criminal  justice
systems.

30.  A recurrent motif is the  need for training, and requests for different
kinds and levels of  training have been  multiplying.  There is  significant
scope for it,  if still a  limited capacity,  including the organization  of
seminars,   workshops  and  training   courses,  fellowships  and  personnel
exchanges, the development  of model curricula  and training  materials, and
teaching  modules for the training  of trainers that would have a multiplier
effect.   Intensified and more widespread  efforts are  urgently required to
build the  cadres needed to  upgrade national  and local capacities,  and to
impart a broader perspective necessary  for dealing with  new, transnational
crime  forms   and  ramifications,   including  jurisdictional   issues  and
reciprocal arrangements.  Finally, there is  an extensive need for equipment
of  all  kinds  and  the  capability   of  handling  it.  The   communicated
requirements  are being analysed  as a  basis for strategic  planning of the
responses, given the shortage of means.

31.    This  refers  not  only  to national  projects,  for  in  the era  of
transnational  crime concerted action is indispensable.  It adds a whole new
dimension to technical cooperation, including efforts to harmonize  national
laws  in accordance  with  international  guidelines  (such  as  the  United
Nations norms), to elaborate implementing model legislation; and to  develop
collaborative  agreements and  arrangements,  utilizing the  United  Nations
instruments  (for example, model  treaties on  mutual assistance in criminal
matters, extradition,  transfer of criminal  proceedings and of  prisoners),
with  particular scope  for regional  and subregional  cooperation, and  the
integration of  bilateral initiatives into  a wider international  approach.
Training at the  interregional, regional and  subregional levels can promote
joint strategies and reduce  training costs.  To increase and gauge  impact,
provision  must be  made  for proper  monitoring,  evaluation,  feedback and
follow-up, and for  the coordination of assistance projects and  activities,
so  as  to  avoid  overlap  and  achieve  a  synergistic effect.    Resource
mobilization and  expenditure rationalization are a  key aspect,  aimed at a
favourable  cost-benefit  ratio  in  the  initiatives  taken.  Cost-sharing,
innovative partnerships  and other  means of  increasing programme  capacity
are  options  being pursued  but  are  themselves  limited  by the  existing
constraints.


2.  Advisory services

32.  The proliferation of requests  for crime and justice-related assistance
has led to  the provision of a second  interregional adviser post under  the
regular  programme  of technical  cooperation  (part  V,  sect.  20, of  the
programme  budget for  the biennium 1994-1995), so  that short-term missions
to  countries could  be resumed  in late  1994, after a  hiatus of  almost a
year.   Economies in their  deployment have permitted some  of the earmarked

funds  to be used for training  and project support.   Since the services of
interregional advisers  are provided  to countries  at no  cost to  them for
short  periods of  time, appropriate  preparation and  follow-up,  including
longer-term project development, are particularly important.

33.    Since  being  appointed,  each adviser  has  carried  out some  needs
assessment  missions.    Occasions  such  as  the  Ninth  Congress  provided
opportunities  for consultations  with government  officials regarding their
particular requirements.  Other needs  assessments were carried  out in  the
context of  peace-keeping operations, as for  Haiti and  Rwanda (see below).
In  addition   to  comprehensive  needs   assessments,  some  requests   for
interregional  advisory services  sought  expert guidance  in  defining  the
needs in  a specific  area or  sub-sector.   Thus, in Peru  an interregional
adviser conducted a needs assessment for the Prison Administration,  centred
on the  training requirements  to upgrade prison  staff. In  Pakistan, in  a
collaborative  mission,  the  concern  was  how  to  deal  with  the rapidly
increasing threat of organized crime.   A correctional needs assessment  for
the Caribbean countries formed  the basis of a  workshop on the  training of
trainers.    In  Albania,  the  objective  was  to  ascertain  the  need and
readiness to undertake  administrative reform of the correctional  services,
and to institute a new system of juvenile justice.

34.   Even where requests were  rather specific,  however, the ramifications
were often  unanticipated, necessitating broader  projects and further  work
to  clarify the  requirements  and  help choose  the best  option.   Thus, a
mission  to the  former Yugoslav  Republic of  Macedonia, to  advise on  the
establishment  of  proposed  crime  prevention  councils,  and  on  measures
against  corruption and  money-laundering, enlarged  its scope to  deal with
other  aspects  related  to  organized  crime,  and to  provide  appropriate
follow-up.    Missions  to  Benin,  Chad  and  Lesotho  are  foreseen.   The
interregional advisers also provided support for activities  of the regional
United Nations institutes and participated in some of their activities.

35.   Advisory  services  were  also rendered  by the  Crime  Prevention and
Criminal  Justice Branch and  its experts,  for example,  in connection with
the new Criminal Code and Code of Criminal  Procedure drafted in Belarus and
the proposed Criminal Code of Ukraine.   Continuing assistance was  provided
in  the implementation of  a criminal justice reform  project in the Russian
Federation, including participation in the evaluation  of the results of the
implementation of new forms of legal proceedings (Sochi, 3-7 October 1994).


3.  Training

36.  A substantial  number of training courses,  seminars and workshops were
organized and  serviced during the period  under review,  in accordance with
the emphasis placed on training by  United Nations policy-making bodies  and
the Ninth Congress, and in response to  the acute need for training  and re-
training  in developing  countries and  those in transition,  as a  means of
imparting knowledge (for example, on the  United Nations standards and norms
and  other  elements of  desirable  practice),  effecting  attitude  change,
sharing  experiences and  upgrading  skills,  including problem-solving  and
conflict management capabilities.

37.     In  most  cases,  the  training  activities  undertaken  were  of  a
collaborative nature.   A major initiative,  implemented in cooperation with
the Resource  Committee on Corrections of  ISPAC, was a  series of workshops
for  prison   personnel,  using  the   ISPAC  Basic   Training  Manual   for
Correctional Workers.  The  first one was a seminar on penitentiary  issues,
organized jointly  with  the Government  of Argentina  (Buenos Aires,  27-31
March  1995),  attended  by   over  400  participants  from  Latin  American
countries; the second was a workshop  for trainers from Caribbean countries,
held  in cooperation  with the  Government of  Barbados (Christchurch,  9-13
April  1995).    The  third,  organized  with  the  United  Nations  African
Institute  for  the Prevention  of  Crime  and  the  Treatment of  Offenders
(UNAFRI)  (Kampala,  10-14 July  1995),  was  attended by  participants from

African  anglophone  countries.   A  further  one  was  organized for  Latin
American prison  personnel (Valenca,  Brazil, 28  August-2 September  1995).
Other  training courses are also foreseen, for example,  on the treatment of
prisoners  and  on  juvenile justice  in  Gabon  and  on  the  treatment  of
prisoners,  crime prevention  and juvenile  justice  in  Burkina Faso.   The
interregional advisers  have been involved,  where possible, in the planning
and  execution of  such  projects  so  that they  could  be integrated  into
broader technical cooperation  strategies and given appropriate support  and
follow-up.

38.   Collaborative training projects with  organizations such  as the Raoul
Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and  Humanitarian Law, in Lund, Sweden,
continued, with  members of the Branch  serving as trainers  in seminars for
African  countries, held  in Burundi,  Namibia,  South Africa,  Uganda,  the
United Republic of Tanzania,  Zambia and Zimbabwe, most of which dealt  with
human  rights  in  law  enforcement.    Subregional  initiatives included  a
training seminar  on juvenile delinquency,  juvenile justice, the  treatment
of  offenders  and  crime  prevention  strategies,  for  Portuguese-speaking
African countries, with the support of the  Government of Portugal (Sao Tome
and Principe,  23-28 February 1995).  Assistance was also  given in training
initiatives  sponsored  by   other  organizations,  such  as  Penal   Reform
International  and Caribbean  Rights,  for example,  a  seminar  on criminal
justice and the rule of law in sentencing, for Latin American and  Caribbean
participants (Christchurch, 15-17 September 1994).

39.  Collaboration continued in training  ventures sponsored by other  parts
of  the United  Nations system,  such as  the  Centre  for Human  Rights and
cooperation with UNDCP  was intensified during this period, as called for by
the  General  Assembly and  other  bodies.    The  Branch provided  resource
persons  for two training  courses on human  rights in  law enforcement, for
Egyptian police  officers (Cairo,  31 May-14  June 1994),  and another,  for
police trainers, in the former Yugoslav  Republic of Macedonia (Skopje,  23-
27  January 1995).   A Branch  member served  as a  resource person  for the
United Nations  Children's Fund (UNICEF)  and AsiaNet-sponsored Asia-Pacific
Training  Programme  on "Juvenile  justice  and  the  rights  of the  child"
(Bangkok, 12-17 December 1994).

40.   Joint training  projects were also undertaken  with UNDCP, including a
two-week  training course  for police  officers  in  charge of  drug control
units in Ukraine (Kiev,  20 February-3 March 1995) and in Belarus (Minsk, 2-
15 October 1995).  An interregional adviser served as a resource person  for
the UNDCP  ministerial forum against corruption  and the  legal workshop for
senior  officials dealing with  corruption and  drug trafficking in southern
and eastern  Africa (Pretoria, 11-14 November  1994).   The regional adviser
on crime prevention and criminal justice for Asia  and the Pacific, based in
the Economic  and Social Commission for  Asia and the  Pacific (ESCAP), took
part  in training  courses  and workshops  on community-based  approaches to
drug demand reduction.

41.   A  series of  regional seminars  is projected  to follow  up,  provide
training  and  promote  joint action  in  pursuance  of the  recommendations
concerning  organized  crime  and  corruption.    These  will be  high-level
meetings,  convened  in   cooperation  with  the  United  Nations   regional
institutes in  Africa, Asia  and Latin America,  in November-December  1995.
They will consider the wider application  of the United Nations  instruments
on mutual  assistance  in  criminal matters,  extradition, the  transfer  of
criminal  proceedings, etc.,  and  of  the  guidelines on  measures  against
corruption,  and  money-laundering,  with  a  view  to  devising   concerted
strategies,  strengthening  regional cooperation,  and  developing  regional
agreements (such as possible conventions) and collaborative arrangements  to
combat these problems.

 42.  The interregional advisers and Branch  members also served as resource
persons  for  other training  activities,  including  a seminar  on  "Police
apprehension  and  remand  detention  in  the  light of  fundamental  rights
guarantees",  organized   by  the   International  Penal   and  Penitentiary

Foundation  (Macao, October 1994); an international conference of experts on
"International   Criminal    Justice:       historical   and    contemporary
perspectives", organized by  the Institute  for Higher  Studies in  Criminal
Sciences (Syracuse, December 1994);  the first meeting of the Task Force  on
Democracy,  Governance and  Participation  of the  UNDP  regional  programme
designed  to  support  these and  foster international  cooperation  in East
European States and the former Soviet  Republics (Geneva, February 1995);  a
conference on  "Crime  and  criminal  justice  in  the  Mediterranean  area:
promotion  of   informed  decision-making   and  international  cooperation,
organized  by UNICRI  (Malta,  February 1995);  the  Curriculum  Development
Committee and  seminar for law enforcement  officials from  Central and East
European countries (Budapest, February and April  1995); a seminar on  human
rights in the administration  of justice, for  magistrates from  francophone
African  countries, organized  by the  Ecole  nationale de  la  magistrature
(Paris, November  1994); a seminar  on forensic techniques, for participants
from these countries (Toulouse, France, June  1995); and a training  seminar
for specialist liaison  officers for offences  against minors,  organized by
the  International  Criminal  Police Organization  (INTERPOL)  (Lyon,  April
1995).


4.  Fellowship programme

43.   A  recent  innovation  has  been  the  establishment of  a  fellowship
programme, primarily for candidates  from developing countries and some from
countries  in  transition,  funded  from  both  regular  and  extrabudgetary
sources.   These  opportunities were  widely  advertised,  with the  help of
United  Nations resident  coordinators, and  eight fellows (four  male, four
female) selected  for 1995  out of  183 government  nominees (from  Albania,
Burundi,  China,  Cook  Islands,  Dominican  Republic,  Guinea,  India   and
Jamaica),  who  will be  able  to upgrade  their  own  and  their countries'
expertise in areas of particular concern.


5.  Involvement in peace-keeping operations

44.   The  General  Assembly, in  paragraph  13 of  its  resolution  49/158,
welcomed  the   assistance  rendered  to  States   and  urged   that  it  be
strengthened,   including  the  training   of  peace-keeping  and  emergency
personnel.    In  accordance  with  the   mandate  to  respond  to  requests
channelled  through  United  Nations peace-keeping  missions,  assistance in
crime control  and justice-related  matters was rendered in  Haiti, Somalia,
the former  Yugoslav  Republic  of  Macedonia and  Rwanda/Burundi.  In  some
cases, as in Haiti, this involved  successive short-term missions,  starting
with an  overall needs assessment, carried  out by  an interregional adviser
and a  staff member  in December  1994, in  cooperation with the  Centre for
Human Rights.  The mission analysed  the existing situation, including  both
the  major  needs   and  available  bilateral  and  multilateral   technical
assistance.  Among  the   recommendations  for  priority  action  were   the
modernization of the  judicial system, including  a revision of the  code of
criminal  procedure,  training  of prosecutors  and  judges,  creation of  a
prison administration, assistance in  training the police and teaching human
rights for a functioning civil society.   Under these priorities,  proposals
were  made  to   meet  the  immediate,  medium-term  and  long-term   needs.
Following a  specific request  from the  UNDP Resident  Coordinator and  the
Head  of the  International  Civilian Mission  in Haiti  (MICIVIH), advisory
services for the modernization of the  correctional system were provided  in
January 1995  to help  remedy the  unsatisfactory prison  conditions, and  a
series of proposals made, with a basic project proposal for the  development
of   correctional  services,  including   personnel  training  and  material
requirements,  such as the  renovation of  facilities, with  cost figures. A
training  course  for  prosecutors  was   held  from  3  to  15  July  1995.
Cooperative arrangements were pursued in both  the mission and the suggested
follow-up.   The  project is  being  implemented  with support  from  France
(Ecole de la Magistrature) and the  United States (Agency for  International
Development (USAID)).   See also the report  of the Secretary-General on the

United  Nations Mission  in  Haiti  (S/1995/614), pp.  7-8.     An associate
expert  from  the Branch  has  been  recruited  by MICIVIH  for  a six-month
period.

45.   One  of the  interregional advisers  and a  consultant of  the  Branch
participated  in  the  UNDP  round-table  on  the  mid-point  review  of the
assistance  rendered to Rwanda,  held in  Kigali in July 1995.   The request
was  conveyed  via the  Department  of  Development  Support and  Management
Services,  whose   project  on   governance  includes   assistance  in   the
administration  of  justice,  which  in  this   case  means  the  de   facto
(re)establishment of a  functioning justice system and improvement of prison
conditions, particularly the treatment  of minors.  A workshop on the reform
and rehabilitation  of the  justice system  in Rwanda,  convened during  the
meeting, included the problem of prison treatment and  the need for training
of  judicial,  correctional  and  law  enforcement personnel.    The  United
Nations standards and norms in crime  prevention and criminal justice, still
insufficiently known, were  highlighted in this  connection.   Assistance in
criminal  investigations is  also required,  as  is the  reintegration  into
society of  those detained without  adequate grounds, especially  juveniles.
Recommendations for  follow-up were made  in the collaborative  multi-agency
framework of the  Rwanda operation, and conveyed  to the special meeting  on
prison  conditions  in  Rwanda,  convened  in  Geneva  on  14  August  1995.
Advisory services  are to  be further  provided in  this context.   A  brief
fact-finding  visit to  Burundi confirmed  the  problems  facing it  and the
urgent need to tackle justicerelated issues, also as  a preventive tactic to
avoid the  escalation of  ethnic conflicts,  pursued further  at a  training
course  for  law enforcement  officials, held  in Bujumbura,  from 21  to 25
August 1995, in cooperation with the Raoul Wallenberg Institute.

46.  The project on re-establishing the  criminal justice system in  Somalia
made some progress but was  handicapped by the breakdown of the rule of  law
in  the  country,  which  negatively  affected  the  overall  situation  and
prospects of the mission.  The project director was among  the last to leave
the country when the United Nations  Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) withdrew.
The  events necessitated the  cancellation of  a planned  donors' meeting on
law enforcement and re-establishment of the  justice system in the  country,
to  be convened at  the request  of the coordinating group  of major donors.
In  the Middle East, two seminars on police and criminal justice management,
for Palestinian  police officers, were  conducted (Gaza,  27-30 November and
4-8   December  1994),  with  the  support  of   the  Swedish  International
Development  Authority (SIDA).   They were organized  as part  of the United
Nations  Integrated  Assistance  Programme  for  Palestinian  Civil  Police,
coordinated by the  Secretary-General's Special Representative on the  Peace
Process in  Palestine.   The aim was  to sensitize the  participants to  law
enforcement in a democratic society, relations with the public,  limitations
on the  use of  force and  other  practical problems,  such as  cross-border
communication.   The  participants are  to  serve  as future  trainers.  The
Branch  also  undertook  the  training  of  civil  police  for peace-keeping
missions,  organizing  the United  Nations  Civilian  Police/United  Nations
Protection Force (UNCIVPOL/UNPROFOR)  Station Commanders' workshops, held at
Wiener Neudstadt (4-6 November 1994)  and a workshop for  the United Nations
Preventive Deployment  Force (UNDEPREP)  (Skopje, 23-27  January 1995).   It
participated in the workshop on civilian  training for United Nations  field
operations,  organized by  the Office  of  Human Resources  Management  (New
York, 24-26  May 1995) with a  special contribution  on "Rebuilding criminal
justice systems in post-crisis peace-building".

47.     An  interregional  adviser  served  as  a   resource  person  in  an
international conference  on peace-keeping, maintenance  of order and  crime
control, organized by Ramkhamhaeng University (Bangkok, December 1994),  and
cooperated in a  seminar on the selection and training of civilian personnel
(including civil  police) in United  Nations peace-keeping operations,  held
at the Austrian Centre for Peace  and Conflict Resolution (Stadt Schlaining,
July  1995),  highlighting the  need for  justice and  relevant institution-
building  for United  Nations mission  success and  lasting peace prospects.
Expertise was also provided for a similar seminar  held at the University of

Pisa  (18 September-7 October  1995).   The United  Nations Criminal Justice
Standards  for Peace-keeping  Police  (Blue Book)  proved a  useful training
guide for this and  other such initiatives.   The regional adviser  on crime
prevention  and  criminal justice  for  Asia  and  the  Pacific undertook  a
mission to Cambodia,  where further work on criminal justice  administration
and measures  against corruption is  planned, including training courses, as
follow-up of the assistance  rendered by the programme in the context of the
United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC).


E.  Support to the Commission

48.   In paragraph 12 of  resolution 49/158, the  General Assembly requested
the  Secretary-General  to  take  all  necessary  measures  to  assist   the
Commission  on  Crime  Prevention and  Criminal  Justice,  as the  principal
policy-making body  in  that field,  in  performing  its functions,  and  to
ensure  the proper coordination  of all  relevant activities,  in particular
with  the Commission on Human  Rights and the  Commission on Narcotic Drugs.
The Secretariat has sought to facilitate  the Commission's task by reporting
regularly on  the implementation of its  recommendations as  approved by the
Economic and  Social Council  and other relevant  bodies.   It provides  the
Commission with  annual  reports on  coordination  of  the work  with  other
United Nations entities and  on the activities of the United Nations network
of institutes  and  affiliated centres,  based  on  their submissions.    As
requested, the  collaborative initiatives  taken with  the Centre  for Human
Rights  and the UNDCP have been highlighted in the reports, as have been the
activities  of United  Nations entities  in  areas  of special  concern (for
example, violence against women and children).

49.    The Secretariat  prepares a  substantial  number  of reports  for the
Commission's annual sessions (12  reports were prepared,  as requested,  for
the fourth session, and some 30  are mandated for  the fifth)   A number  of
reports are  based on government  responses, and a series  of notes verbales
have  been sent  out  to  elicit the  required information.  in  addition to
conference room papers (for example, on  the Congress results), submitted to
facilitate the Commission's work further.   In connection with the envisaged
activities, the  Commission expressed  interest in  receiving more  detailed
information,  especially on  the programmatic  implications of  the  various
mandates, and urged  that the recommendations of the recent meetings be duly
taken into account in  the programme budget.  In addition to the substantive
support provided  to the Commission, the  technical servicing functions  now
also  rest with  the United  Nations Office  at Vienna,  in  accordance with
Economic and  Social Council resolution  1994/16 of 25  July 1994.   Regular
briefing sessions  were  organized with  members  of  permanent missions  in
connection  with the Ninth  Congress and  the Commission,  and meetings with
its Bureau members held between sessions.


F.  Collaborative initiatives

50.  As requested by the General Assembly in  paragraph 11 of its resolution
49/158,  cooperation with UNDCP  was strengthened  during the  past year, as
also  urged  by the  respective  commissions,  through  joint missions,  for
example, to Pakistan, to combat organized  crime, and joint training courses
for  law  enforcement personnel  dealing with  drug  offences, as  mentioned
earlier.   A  joint seminar/workshop  with  UNDCP  and the  Organization for
Security  and   Cooperation  in   Europe  (OSCE),   Office  for   Democratic
Institutions  and  Human  Rights,  on  drug  trafficking  and  crime-related
matters,  is to  be  held in  Bishkek,  Kyrgyzstan, in  November  1995,  and
another  one in Budapest.   Joint planning and  implementation of some other
activities are  also envisaged, particularly  on measures against  organized
crime,  corruption   and  money-laundering.     Ongoing  consultations   and
information exchange are helping to ensure coordination and  complementarity
of the projects undertaken.

51.   Joint activities were  also undertaken with the  United Nations Centre

for  Human  Rights,  including  the  aforementioned  training  courses   and
seminars on human  rights in law  enforcement (for  example, in Romania,  in
November  1994), and  other  activities.    This included  participation  in
meetings of the Commission on Human  Rights, the Subcommission On Prevention
of Discrimination and  Protection of Minorities and an inter-agency  meeting
on  support  of  the  Committee  on  the  Rights  of  the Child.    A  joint
publication  was  issued  on  human  rights  in  pre-trial  detention,  as a
handbook of international  standards in this area.    Human Rights and  Pre-
trial  Detention.  A  Handbook of  International Standards  Relating to Pre-
trial  Detention,  Professional  Training  Series  No.  3  (United   Nations
publication, Sales No.  E.94.XIV.6).  Cooperation with UNICEF also increased
during this period.   A  three-way collaborative  project (Crime  Prevention
and Criminal Justice  Branch, Centre for  Human Rights  and UNICEF) was  the
United  Nations  expert   group  meeting  on  "Children  and  juveniles   in
detention:   application of human  rights instruments" (Vienna, 30 October-4
November  1994),  organized  with  the  cooperation  of  the  Government  of
Austria.   A joint publication, Children  in Trouble,  containing the report
of  the  meeting, with  extensive  recommendations  as  well  as the  papers
presented, has been issued.  Collaboration with  the Committee on the Rights
of the  Child also involved  a three-way  partnership, for  example, in  the
third regional  consultation on juvenile  justice (Hanoi,  7-12 April 1995),
which adopted a consensus  on the practical  steps to  be taken to meet  the
requirements of  the Convention, particularly in  the implementation of  the
relevant United Nations juvenile justice instruments.
  52.  The ancillary  meetings at the Ninth  Congress, on the  reintegration
of children following armed conflict and  on the United Nations  Declaration
of Basic Principles  of Justice for  Victims of  Crime and  Abuse of  Power,
elicited wide interest.   Joint initiatives with regard to other children in
difficult  circumstances,  such as  street  children,  are  also  envisaged,
especially in view of  the priority given to  violence against children.   A
prospective United Nations publication on trauma victims, with  multi-agency
contents, includes  a chapter on  United Nations work  on crime victims,  as
well as chapters by other entities on the United Nations  system.  A meeting
of  experts  on  crime victims,  to  be held  towards  the end  of  1995, is
designed to take  into account all  the relevant  contributions in order  to
further a concerted, system-wide approach to victims.

53.  With regard to violence against women, the  Commission on the Status of
Women was notified  of the decisions  of the Commission on  Crime Prevention
and Criminal Justice and its  collaboration invited on the action plan which
is to be developed.  Cooperation  between the Secretariat offices  concerned
also continued, and the relevant parts of the Ninth  Congress and Commission
reports have been transmitted  to the Division for the Advancement of  Women
and the  Secretary-General of the  Fourth World Conference on  Women for its
consideration  (Beijing, 4-15  September 1995).    Relevant input  was  also
provided  for  the Secretary-General's  report to  the  General Assembly  on
trafficking in women  and children.  The Special  Rapporteur on the sale  of
children,  child   prostitution  and  pornography  attended  the  commission
session upon a special invitation.

54.   Cooperation with the  Office of  Legal Affairs was  also strengthened,
particularly  on  issues such  as  terrorism  and  the  establishment of  an
international  criminal court.   Suggestions  were submitted  regarding  the
statute of the proposed  court, as well as  the draft international  code of
crimes against the  peace and security  of mankind.  There is  also room for
enhanced collaboration in  the work of international criminal tribunals, for
the former  Yugoslavia and  for Rwanda,  both  with regard  to expertise  in
criminal  prosecutions and  evidence  collection, and  in  the  treatment of
victims,  a matter on  which detailed  recommendations were  conveyed.  Some
recent   decisions  have   collaborative  implications  (for   example,  the
Commission  resolution   on  the   succession  of   States  in   respect  of
international treaties  on combating  various manifestations  of crime),  as
will, if undertaken, the development of further international conventions.

55.    Close  cooperation  has  been  established  with  the  Department for
Development Support and Management Services,  especially in the promotion of

sound  governance and  accountable  public administration.    Proposals  for
joint seminars  on  measures against  corruption  and  for the  training  of
criminal justice  personnel, using the  draft international  code of conduct
for public office  holders, have been submitted.   One of the  interregional
advisers participated in the preparatory meeting  for the special session of
the General Assembly on  governance, and a role  is envisaged for  the crime
prevention and  criminal justice  programme  during the  special session  on
this subject.

56.  Collaboration with  the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements  is
being pursued  in areas  of common concern,  such as urban  criminality.   A
representative of the Centre participated  in the Congress deliberations and
workshop on  this subject,  and the  Crime Prevention  and Criminal  Justice
Branch  is following  the  preparatory  activities for  the  United  Nations
Conference on Human Settlements  Habitat II to be  held at Istanbul,  from 3
to 14 June 1996, planning  a special contribution.  This is also an area  in
which cooperation  with  the  UNDP  Urban  Management  Programme  and  other
entities  is  being  pursued  and  a  collaborative  proposal  on  crime  in
megacities drafted.

57.     Cooperation  with  the   Department  for   Policy  Coordination  and
Sustainable Development was pursued  in the preparations  for and  follow-up
of the  World Summit for Social  Development (Copenhagen,  5-13 March 1995),
which  included the problem  of crime  and violence  among major present-day
concerns.   The  meeting called  for  specific  policies and  programmes  to
eliminate all forms of violence in  society, particularly domestic violence,
and  to  protect  the  victims  of  violence.    It  also  urged  preventive
programmes for  children and young persons  to avoid  their participation in
crime,   violence   and  drug-related   activities,   including   preventive
education, community service and the reintegration of offenders,  especially
young offenders, in society.   The Programme  of Action of the World  Summit
also envisages  the development  of mechanisms for  conflict resolution  and
reconstructive  and  reintegrative  policies,  with  emphasis  on  the   re-
establishment of  the rule of  law and respect for human  rights.  The crime
prevention and criminal justice programme clearly  has a major  contribution
to make in the implementation of these recommendations.   This is also  true
for  those urged by  the Summit  to strengthen  international cooperation in
devising  strategies, policies,  legislation and  other measures  to  combat
national and  transnational organized  crime, and  the use  of violence  and
terrorism, including effective  measures against trafficking in persons  and
in drugs, corruption and money-laundering (see  also A/50/433 on the follow-
up of the Naples Action Plan).
58.  Coordination with  the United Nations institutes and other elements  of
the United  Nations crime prevention and  criminal justice  network has been
further strengthened, through joint  planning and programme  implementation.
The Congress  and Commission sessions  provided occasions for  consultation,
and  the annual coordination meeting is scheduled to  be held at Courmayeur,
Italy, with  the support of ISPAC, in  October 1995.   A detailed account of
the activities of members  of the network was submitted to the Commission on
Crime Prevention and  Criminal Justice  at its fourth  session.    E/CN.15/9
and  Add.1.    Among the  joint  publications  issued  is  a  volume on  the
institutions  which  form part  of  the  programme  network  issued for  the
Congress,  and  a  publication  on  the  implementation  of  United  Nations
mandates on juvenile justice administration in  the ESCAP region, issued  in
cooperation  with  the  Asia  Crime Prevention  Foundation,  ESCAP  and  the
Australian Institute of Criminology.

59.   Collaboration with  specialized agencies  on certain  aspects has been
fruitful in the past (for example, with the World Health Organization  (WHO)
on the  treatment of  HIV-positive/AIDS prisoners)  with the United  Nations
Educational,  Scientific  and   Cultural  Organization   (UNESCO)  (on   the
protection of  cultural patrimony),  etc.   In cooperation  with the  UNESCO
Institute for  Education in Hamburg, Germany,  a manual  on prison education
was prepared, with the assistance of  the Maryland, United States,  Division
of  Corrections.  It  reflects different  approaches to  prison education in
various regions  and cites  country examples  of good practices.   There  is

major scope for the  agencies to collaborate in areas such as the prevention
and control  of violence  (UNESCO and  WHO)  and of  nuclear terrorism  (the
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)), the computerization of  criminal
justice  (the International  Telecommunication Union (ITU)),  economic crime
control  (the   World  Tourism  Organization   (WTO),  the  United   Nations
Industrial  Development   Organization  (UNIDO)   and  the  United   Nations
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)), etc.

60.   There  are other  entities of  the  United  Nations system  with which
collaborative  relationships exist or could be pursued, including the United
Nations  Environment  Programme   (UNEP)  and  the  Department  for   Policy
Coordination and Sustainable  Development (for example, on penal  protection
of  the  environment),  the  Department  of  Peace-keeping  Operations   (on
training  of civil police), and the Departments of  Political Affairs and of
Humanitarian  Affairs (on  preventive deployment  and emergency assistance),
the  Office of the High  Commissioner for Refugees (for example, on violence
against  refugees  and  displaced  persons  and   the  impact  of  migration
patterns), the Transfer  of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals  (TOKTEN)
programme, United Nations Volunteers, and so  on.  The regional  commissions
are  involved in the  programme via  the United  Nations regional institutes
and regional adviser  (ESCAP), whose  services could  usefully be  continued
or,  if possible,  expanded to  other  regions.  Progress in  the successful
implementation  of the  results of  major recent  crime and  justice-related
events,  and of  the Assembly's  recommendations,  will  depend in  no small
measure  on the cooperation  extended by  all relevant  parts of  the United
Nations system.

61.    Cooperation with  intergovernmental  organizations  was  strengthened
during  the  period  under  review,  within  the  existing  logistical  (for
example, travel) constraints.  Contacts  were pursued with  the Organization
of American States and  the Organization of African Unity in order to assist
the respective institutes, and to assure  appropriate follow-up of the Cairo
Congress.   The programme was represented at some major meetings convened on
priority topics, for example,  by the Council of Europe (on criminal justice
management), the  European Union (on urban  crime and  delinquency), and the
Organisation  for   Economic   Cooperation   and  Development   (OECD)   (on
corruption).  A  working paper was submitted  to the meeting on  cooperation
between  the United  Nations and  the League of  Arab States  (Vienna, 19-21
July 1995), which also permitted  consultation with the Assistant Secretary-
General of the Arab Interior  Ministers' Council.  Other  Arab States events
were also attended,  such as the symposium  on crime prevention  (Abu Dhabi,
26-30  November  1994).    Close  contacts were  maintained  with  INTERPOL,
especially  on  action  against  organized  and  economic  crime,  including
traffic in persons for prostitution, offences  against minors, terrorism and
international  cooperation  in law  enforcement.    Collaboration  with  the
International Committee of the  Red Cross was  also pursued as well as  with
the Commonwealth Secretariat  and the Agence  pour la cooperation culturelle
et   technique  (Delegation   Generale  a   la  cooperation   juridique   et
judiciaire).

62.   Cooperation  with  non-governmental organizations  (NGOs),  especially
through ISPAC  and the  NGO Alliances  in Vienna  and New York,  was further
enhanced.  The  contribution made by  ISPAC and its  resource committees  to
training,  research and  information management,  is mentioned  above.   The
annual meeting of ISPA,  to be held  at Courmayeur, Italy, in October  1995,
will  provide an occasion  for celebrating  the Fiftieth  Anniversary of the
United Nations and for stock-taking, with  a view to further  developing the
modalities  for  involving professional  organizations  and  the  scientific
community organically  in  United Nations  work  in  the crime  and  justice
field.   Perhaps  because cooperation between  NGOs and the  programme is of
such  long  standing,  it  has  an extensive  constituency.    ISPAC has  an
impressive membership:  many organizations took  part in the Ninth Congress,
a  number  of   them  sponsoring  ancillary  meetings  and  other   Congress
initiatives,  and some  providing important  documentation.  Some  new links
with  major  NGOs  have  been forged,  for  example,  the Interparliamentary
Union.  With the increased importance of NGOs  in the United Nations system,

this constituency and the  scholarly community have a  major role to play in
channelling relevant information  and research results, developing  teaching
materials,  engaging   in  advocacy   and   sponsoring  fruitful   technical
assistance   activities,  as  the  correctional  training  initiatives  have
recently demonstrated.  Their partnership could  be enhanced with some  seed
money,  and  those  Governments  which  have  provided  much-needed  support
deserve credit  for it.   Some United  Nations agencies provide  NGO funding
and could well entertain the possibility of doing so in this field.


IV.  RECENT MANDATES AND THEIR PROGRAMME IMPLICATIONS

63.   The recommendations of the  Ninth Congress, as  further concretized by
the Commission  on  Crime Prevention  and  Criminal  Justice at  its  fourth
session and  approved  by the  Economic  and  Social Council,  indicate  the
parameters  of  their  follow-up and  have  a  number of  wider  policy  and
programme implications.    The  directives  for  the  prospective  work  are
contained  in several  "omnibus"  resolutions  and in  others  dealing  with
specific aspects.


A.  Action by the Commission

1.  Congress follow-up

64.  In  its comprehensive resolution 1995/27  on the implementation of  the
resolutions and recommendations of the Ninth  United Nations Congress on the
Prevention of Crime and  the Treatment of Offenders  adopted on 24 July 1995
on  the recommendation of  the Commission  on Crime  Prevention and Criminal
Justice,  the  Economic and  Social  Council  invited Governments,  in their
efforts to combat crime  and ensure justice, to  draw on the resolutions and
recommendations of the Ninth Congress.  It also approved their follow-up  in
accordance with their work plans and  the United Nations programme  planning
and   budgeting  regulations,  in   the  context   of  the  priority  themes
established for  the crime prevention and  criminal justice  activities.  By
paragraph  13  of  General Assembly  resolution  49/157,  the  Congress  was
requested   to  formulate   concrete  recommendations   for  improving   the
effectiveness of the United Nations activities  and mechanisms in the  field
of  crime  prevention  and  criminal   justice,  taking  into   account  the
recommendations  of  the  regional  preparatory  meetings,  with  particular
attention to the operational programme activities.

65.  The different  parts of resolution 1995/27  correspond to the four main
topics of the Ninth Congress, and focus mainly on the action to be taken  in
pursuance   of  its   recommendations,  by   the  United   Nations   system,
particularly  the Commission  on Crime Prevention and  Criminal Justice, and
other entities concerned.

(a)International  cooperation   and  practical   technical  assistance   for
strengthening  the  rule  of  law:    promoting  the  United  Nations  crime
prevention and criminal justice programme

66.   In response to  the acknowledged  need to  strengthen the  operational
capacity of  the United Nations  programme, UNDP, the  World Bank and  other
international,  regional and  national funding agencies were  called upon to
support technical cooperation  activities devoted to strengthening the  rule
of  law,  in  cooperation  with  the  United  Nations  crime  prevention and
criminal justice programme,  including proper coordination and  fund-raising
efforts.    The  Secretary-General  was  requested  to  further   strengthen
operational activities in developing countries and countries in  transition,
by providing advisory services and training  programmes and by carrying  out
field studies  at the national  level. The  cooperation of all  the entities
concerned  was  requested  in  the  preparation  of  manuals  and   training
curricula, and in the  organization of courses in the various areas of crime
prevention and criminal justice.

67.     The  development   and  promotion  of  mechanisms  of  international
cooperation  in  criminal  matters  were called  for,  including  the United
Nations  model  treaties, and  model  legislation  on extradition  and other
forms  of cooperation.    In that  connection,  an  intergovernmental expert
group meeting was to be convened,  with extrabudgetary resources, to explore
ways  and means  of increasing  the  efficiency  of extradition  and related
forms of cooperation in  criminal matters, having due  regard to the rule of
law and  the protection of human rights.   That was to include the provision
of technical  assistance for the development  of bilateral and  multilateral
agreements, based  on the United Nations  model treaties  and other sources,
and   the  drafting   of  proposed   model  legislation   or  agreements  on
international cooperation in criminal matters,  alternative or complementary
articles  for  existing  model treaties,  and  articles  for  possible model
multilateral  instruments.   A comprehensive  report  on the  subject,  with
practical recommendations,  was to be submitted  to the  Commission on Crime
Prevention and Criminal Justice at its fifth session.

68.  An intergovernmental working group was also  to be convened during  the
first two days of  the Commission session  to study, with the assistance  of
the Secretariat and input from other  relevant entities, the proposal,  made
at the Ninth Congress, for the establishment of  a regional centre, based in
Cairo, for  training and research in  crime prevention  and criminal justice
for  the Mediterranean  States,  taking  into account  Economic  and  Social
Council  resolution   1994/23  on  the   criteria  and  procedures  for  the
affiliation  with  the United  Nations  of  institutes  or  centres and  the
establishment of United  Nations subregional institutes  in this  field, and
should report to the Commission on the matter.

 (b)Action against national and transnational economic and organized  crime,
and  the  role  of  criminal  law  in  the  protection  of  the environment:
national experiences and international cooperation

69.  In this part of resolution 1995/27,  the Commission on Crime Prevention
and Criminal Justice was  requested, in its  review of the priority  themes,
to continue  placing special emphasis on  the development  of strategies for
the effective prevention and control of  organized transnational crime.  The
Secretary-General  was asked to  continue studying the actual situation with
regard to such crime, and effective measures for its control, and to  assist
interested Member  States in adjusting their  national legislation  so as to
make   the  investigation,   prosecution  and   adjudication   of  organized
transnational crime more effective.

70.    The Secretary-General  and  the  United  Nations  institutes for  the
prevention  of  crime and  the  treatment  of  offenders  were requested  to
continue  research,   exchange  of   information,  training   and  technical
cooperation  facilitating  the  development of  preventive,  regulatory  and
other  strategies on  the role  of criminal  law in  the protection  of  the
environment,  with emphasis  on  needs assessments  and  advisory  services,
assistance  in  the  review or  redrafting  of  legislation,  development of
effective infrastructure,  and training of  criminal justice and  regulatory
agency personnel.

71.   Measures  for the  prevention and  control of  illicit  trafficking in
motor vehicles were also to be considered, and  the views of Governments and
relevant   organizations  sought   in  the  matter.     The  feasibility  of
establishing  an   integrated  system   for  the   periodic  gathering   and
dissemination  of information  on  national crime  prevention  and  criminal
justice legislation  and its  implementation was  to be  determined, with  a
view  to  encouraging  appropriate  alignment  in  international cooperation
through such means as extradition and  other modalities of mutual assistance
in criminal  matters.  Close coordination  between the  crime prevention and
criminal justice programme and other relevant  United Nations programmes and
entities was to be assured, including joint activities and projects.

72.   Special concern  was expressed  about the  links between transnational
organized  crime   and  terrorist  crimes,   including  their  effects   and

appropriate  means for  countering them.   Information-gathering  and  ready
access to it were called for, as well as the establishment  of an open-ended
intergovernmental working group, at the fifth  session of the Commission, to
consider  the  issue,  including  envisaged  countermeasures  such  as   the
drafting  of  a code  of conduct  or  other legal  instrument, and  possible
placement of the matter on the agenda of the Tenth Congress.

(c)Criminal justice  and  police systems:    management  and improvement  of
police  and  other   law  enforcement  agencies,  prosecution,  courts   and
corrections; and the role of lawyers

73.   The Secretary-General was  requested to  promote technical cooperation
projects  on penal  law reform  and  the  modernization of  criminal justice
administration,   particularly   with  regard   to   data   collection   and
computerization,  the training  of law  enforcement officials, non-custodial
measures and  prisoners' welfare,  taking into  account the  relevant United
Nations standards  and norms,  which were  to be  disseminated more  widely.
The Commission  was invited to  keep the  matter of prison  conditions under
regular  review,  with the  development  of  efficient information-gathering
mechanisms and  attention by the sessional  working group  on United Nations
standards and norms.

74.  One of the draft action plans that the Secretary-General was  requested
to prepare,  in cooperation with the  network of institutes  and taking into
account  other  relevant  developments  and  expertise  in  that field,  for
submission  to the  Commission,  dealt with  international  cooperation  and
assistance with regard  to statistical and computerized applications in  the
management   of   the  criminal   justice  system.     That   would  require
strengthening of the  United Nations  Crime and Justice Information  Network
(UNCJIN), as well as the development of the  large number of databases  that
the  programme had been requested to establish,  expanding its clearinghouse
facilities.

(d)Crime prevention strategies, in particular as  related to crime in  urban
areas  and  juvenile and  violent  criminality,  including  the question  of
victims:  assessment and new perspectives

75.   As recommended by the  Congress and the  Commission, the Economic  and
Social  Council  approved  the  guidelines  for  cooperation  and  technical
assistance  in  the field  of  urban  crime  prevention,  formulated by  the
Commission.    At  the  same  time,  continued   study  of  the  effects  of
criminality in  urban areas  was recommended, including the  possible impact
of  migratory flows,  and  preventive measures,  using  a  multidisciplinary
approach, and  considering recent  developments, inter  alia, in  sociology,
psychology, health,  criminology and  technology, including  environmentally
sound  planning, city planning  and housing  design.   Seminars and training
programmes were  to be  organized on the  prevention of crime  in urban  and
other areas, and  sound crime  prevention strategies  developed, capable  of
being  adapted  to  local  conditions,  with  particular  reference  to  the
approaches  suggested  at  the relevant  workshops  held  during  the  Ninth
Congress.    Information  dissemination  for  crime  prevention  was  to  be
fostered, and a manual for public awareness campaigns prepared.

76.  Special attention in the resolution was focused on firearms  regulation
for  purposes  of  crime  prevention  and public  safety,  in  view  of  the
correlation between  easy  access to  firearms  and  the high  incidence  of
crimes, suicides  and accidents.  The  Commission, at its  next session, was
to  consider measures  to regulate  firearms commonly  applicable  in Member
States,  such as  the prevention  of  transnational illicit  trafficking  in
firearms,  to suppress their  use in criminal activities,  and to ensure the
proper  regulation  of  firearms  at  both  the  national and  transnational
levels.   Regular data and  information exchange on  specific aspects was to
be  undertaken  and a  study  conducted  as  a  basis  for the  Commission's
consideration  of the  matter.    A  phased  work  plan,  submitted  by  the
Commission, was endorsed by the Council.   Input from Governments,  relevant
entities of the United Nations system  and other relevant organizations  was

to be sought, as  a basis of recommendations for concerted action, as called
for by  the Ninth Congress, with  the possible formulation  of a declaration
on the subject.    During the second half  of 1995, the Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Branch, in cooperation with the  United Nations institutes,
are to  collect data  and information  on firearms  regulations in  selected
countries, utilizing  a team  of national  coordinators and  a small  expert
group   which  is  to   meet  in   late  1995  or  early   1996  to  prepare
recommendations  for the Commission's  fifth session.   These  would include
analysis  of  the  data  collected,  publication  of  a  periodic  report on
firearms regulation, and establishment  of a database on the subject.   Four
interregional workshops on firearms regulation are planned for 1996.

 77.  The Congress,  Commission and the Council placed major emphasis on the
improvement  of juvenile justice  systems, in  line with  the United Nations
standards  in   this  field,   which  were   to  be   integrated  into   the
informationgathering process.   The  situation of  children as  both victims
and perpetrators of crime was highlighted  under the crime prevention  item,
and the  elimination  of violence  against  children  was to  be  considered
within  that  priority theme.  Enhanced  inter-agency  cooperation  in  that
respect was  to be pursued, including  possible joint  activities.  Relevant
technical  cooperation  projects were  to  be  developed,  with  appropriate
evaluation  and  follow-up  procedures  involving  entities  of  the  United
Nations system,  including advisory services for  legal and justice  reforms
and  alternative measures for  the treatment  of juveniles  to curtail their
detention.

78.   The Secretary-General  was requested to ascertain  the views of Member
States on  the elaboration  of an  international convention  on the  illicit
trafficking   of  children   as  a   particularly  reprehensible   form   of
transnational  organized  crime, and  to  convene  an  expert  group on  the
prevention  of "sex  tourism",  if extrabudgetary  resources  permitted.   A
programme  of action  was to  be elaborated  to promote  the application  of
United Nations  standards on  juvenile justice  and relevant United  Nations
human  rights norms.    A  report on  the implementation  of that  and other
recommendations was to be submitted to  the Commission at its fifth session.
The in-sessional working group of the Commission on  standards and norms was
to  seek  ways  of  promoting  practical  activities,  including   training,
research and  advisory services, with a  view to  preventing and eradicating
violence against children.

79.   The elimination  of violence against  women was  also deemed  to be  a
priority  issue.  A draft plan  of action on  the matter was to be prepared,
for submission to the  Commission at its fifth session and consideration  by
the  in-sessional  working  group.   For that  purpose,  also, the  views of
Governments  and  relevant  United  Nations  entities  were  to  be  sought,
including the Fourth World Conference on  Women, to which the Ninth Congress
resolution on  that subject was  to be submitted.  The  draft plan of action
was intended  to provide practical,  action-oriented suggestions  on how the
problem  of  violence  against   women  was  to   be  addressed,   including
legislative action,  research  and  evaluation, technical  cooperation,  and
other possible crime  prevention and criminal justice measures.  (Strategies
for Confronting Domestic Violence:  A Resource  Manual now available only in
English,  is  to  be  issued  also  in  the  other  official  languages,  if
extrabudgetary  resources  permit.)   The  United  Nations  institutes  were
invited  to undertake  and promote  practical activities designed  to reduce
violence  against women,  such as  training  and  advisory services,  and to
submit a report on that subject to the Commission.

80.   The  Ninth  Congress, under  this agenda  item,  also dealt  with  the
overall  question of  crime victims.   It expressed its  concern about their
plight  and  urged  the  full  use and  application  of  the United  Nations
Declaration  of Basic Principles of  Justice for Victims  of Crime and Abuse
of  Power, and intensified  action for the  protection of  and assistance to
victims  at  the national  and  international  levels,  including  training,
action-oriented research,  ongoing information exchange  and other means  of
cooperation   in  this   field.      The   Council,  on   the   Commission's

recommendation, requested the  Secretary-General, in resolution  1995/29, to
seek the  view of Member States  and relevant organizations  on the possible
preparation of a manual on the use and application of the Declaration.


2.  Other resolutions on priority themes

81.   The Economic and Social  Council, on  the Commission's recommendation,
also adopted seven other resolutions related to the priority  themes for the
period  1992-1996:   (1) national and transnational  crime, organized crime,
economic crime (including  corruption and money-laundering), and the role of
criminal  law  in  the  protection  of  the  environment;  (2)  urban crime,
juvenile crime  and violent criminality,  and (3)  efficiency, fairness  and
improvement in the management and administration of criminal justice.

82.   With  regard  to the  first priority  theme, and  in pursuance  of the
decisions  of the World  Ministerial Conference  held in  November 1994, the
Council,  on  the  recommendation  of  the  Commission,  adopted  resolution
1995/11  of  24 July  1995 on  the  Implementation  of the  Naples Political
Declaration and  Global Action Plan  against Organized Transnational  Crime.
It  emphasized  the   need  for  strengthened  and  improved   international
cooperation at all levels, and for  more effective technical cooperation  to
assist  States  in  their  fight  against  transnational  organized   crime,
including the review and reform of  their legislation and other measures, in
accordance with  practical models and  guidelines, expert advisory  services
and needs assessment; collation of relevant  provisions and experience;  and
training  and  capacity-building, especially  for  the  development  of  the
requisite  criminal  justice  infrastructure  and  human  resources.     The
separate report requested by the General  Assembly in its resolution  49/159
on the followup to  the Naples Conference and  submitted to the  Assembly at
the current  session in document  A/50/433 contains  further information  on
this subject.

83.    Joint  efforts  were  also  urged, drawing  on  the  contributions of
relevant organizations  and mechanisms, to  reinforce common regulatory  and
enforcement   strategies  against  money-laundering,  including  appropriate
technical   assistance,  needs   assessment  in   treaty  formulation,   and
development  of criminal  justice infrastructure  and human  resources.  The
possible  formulation  of  an  international  convention  against  organized
transnational crime  and a training  facility to  upgrade the skills  of law
enforcement and judicial personnel in fighting it, was also being explored.

84.   In order  to combat  a serious  organized crime  problem, the  Council
adopted resolution  1995/10 of  24 July 1995  on Criminal justice  action to
combat  the  organized   smuggling  of  illegal  migrants  across   national
boundaries,  in violation  of international standards and  national laws and
without  regard to the safety, well-being and human  rights of the migrants.
It requested States  and relevant international organizations to  coordinate
their law  enforcement activities and  otherwise cooperate  to pursue  those
engaged  in the  smuggling  and transport  of such  human cargo;  to provide
technical assistance  to countries in  developing and implementing  policies
to prevent and criminalize clandestine traffic  in illegal migrants, and  to
punish its organizers,  enhancing the professional  skills of  the personnel
concerned.  The matter  was to remain under  the continuing scrutiny  of the
Commission and the international community.

 85.   In  its  resolution  1995/14  of  24  July  1995  on  action  against
corruption the Council welcomed the results  of the special plenary  meeting
held during  the Ninth  Congress on  experiences in  and practical  measures
aimed at  combating corruption  involving public  officials, and outlined  a
number of further  steps to  be taken.   States  were urged  to develop  and
implement specific  and comprehensive anti-corruption  strategies to enhance
accountability, by adopting and enforcing civil, administrative, fiscal  and
criminal law measures,  emphasizing, inter alia, transparency and  fairness,
including legislation to  regulate and  sanction corrupt forms of  corporate
behaviour; to provide  for the  forfeiture and/or  confiscation of  proceeds

derived  from corrupt  practices; and  to  increase  their capacity  for the
prevention, detection,  investigation and prosecution  of such practices  by
promoting public  awareness, strengthening  their  criminal justice  systems
and  establishing  independent  bodies for  the  prevention  and  control of
corruption.  Increased and improved international cooperation was urged  for
the  prevention  and  control  of  corruption,  including  arrangements  for
extradition, mutual  legal assistance,  the sharing  of information  and the
collection of evidence.   The Secretary-General  was requested  to cooperate
and coordinate  action with other entities of the United  Nations system and
other  relevant organizations in  undertaking, and maximizing the effect of,
joint  activities  for  the  prevention  and  control  of  corruption.   The
Secretary-General  was  also  asked  to  review  and  expand  the  manual on
practical measures against corruption, with a  view to increasing its use in
advisory services, training and other technical assistance activities.   The
draft international  code of  conduct for public  office holders  was to  be
finalized in  the  light of  the  comments  received from  Governments,  and
submitted  to the  Commission at  its  fifth  session for  consideration and
action.   The  Secretary-General, in  cooperation  with the  United  Nations
institutes,  was to study  the effects  on anti-corruption  strategies, as a
basis for  a comparative review  of the  most effective  practices, and  the
development  of  appropriate training  and  awareness  curricula.    States,
international organizations and  financing institutions were called upon  to
extend their  full  support and  assistance  in  the implementation  of  the
resolution.

86.   In its resolution 1995/9 of 24 July 1995, the Council formally adopted
the Guidelines  for Cooperation  and Technical  Assistance in  the Field  of
Urban  Crime  Prevention,  and  requested the  Commission  to  ensure  their
publication and consider practical ways of  ensuring follow-up for their use
and  application.  The  Secretary-General  was  requested  to  transmit  the
Guidelines  to the United Nations Conference for  Human Settlements (Habitat
II).   UNDP and  other relevant  United Nations  entities and  international
financial institutions  were urged  to include  projects dealing with  urban
crime prevention in their  technical assistance projects.   Governments, and
the United  Nations institutes, were invited  to take them  into account and
to report to the Secretary-General on their experiences.

87.   With  regard  to  the United  Nations  standards and  norms  in  crime
prevention and  criminal justice, and  technical cooperation  in this field,
on  the Commission's recommendation reflecting the work  of the in-sessional
working group on the subject, the Council  adopted resolution 1995/13 of  24
July  1995,  in  which  it  underlined  the  importance  of  United  Nations
standards, norms and guidelines developed in  that field; stressed the  need
for  coordination  of the  relevant  activities  with  other United  Nations
entities  concerned; and  requested  the Secretary-General  to  continue  to
promote the use and application of  the United Nations standards  and norms,
inter  alia, by providing  assistance to  Member States  in criminal justice
and  law  reform, and  organizing  seminars  to  train  law enforcement  and
criminal  justice personnel.  The progress made in the implementation of the
next  group  of  norms, on  juvenile  delinquency  prevention  and  juvenile
justice, was to be  gauged, followed by a  review of those  on non-custodial
measures, the role of prosecutors and the role of lawyers.

88.     Under  technical   cooperation,  there   are  two   major  sets   of
recommendations.  In  resolution  1995/15  of  24  July  1995  on  technical
cooperation  and interregional  advisory services  in crime  prevention  and
criminal justice,  the Council welcomed the  call of the  Ninth Congress for
intensified  efforts to  strengthen the  rule of  law  through international
cooperation  and practical  technical assistance,  and reaffirmed  the  high
priority attached  to them as a means for responding to the needs related to
both national and  transnational crime and the  goal of preventing crime and
improving the  response to  it.    The Council  stressed the  importance  of
continuing  to improve  the operational  activities  of the  United  Nations
crime prevention and criminal justice programme, particularly in  developing
countries  and  countries  in  transition,  through  advisory  services  and
training  programmes, field  studies  and action-oriented  research  at  the

international,  regional, subregional, national and local levels.  UNDP, the
World Bank and  other international, regional  and national funding agencies
were urged to  support technical  cooperation projects  in crime  prevention
and  criminal justice,  and all  relevant  entities,  to cooperate  with the
United  Nations crime  prevention and  criminal  justice programme  in  such
activities.   The SecretaryGeneral was  asked to facilitate joint activities
and  the  joint formulation  and  implementation  of  technical  cooperation
projects, and to recommend the inclusion  of the re-establishment and reform
of  criminal justice  systems  in  peace-keeping operations.    The  Council
called  for strengthening both  the regular and extrabudgetary resource base
for activities in that field.

89.  To help rationalize the  provision and utilization of international and
bilateral aid,  and to  improve the  clearing-house capacity  of the  United
Nations crime prevention and criminal justice  programme in that regard, the
Council  adopted resolution 1995/12 of  24 July 1995 on the establishment of
a  clearing-house  for  international  projects  in   the  field  of   crime
prevention  and   criminal  justice,  including   a  regional  database   on
collaborative  training and  technical assistance  projects in  Central  and
Eastern  Europe, ongoing, planned or  concluded, as a pilot  project for the
establishment of such databases for other regions and/or internationally.

90.  The Commission  on Crime Prevention and  Criminal Justice adopted three
further  resolutions.   The first  on  succession  of States  in respect  of
international   treaties  on  combating  various  manifestations  of  crime,
affirming that they would be bound by the obligations previously assumed  in
that respect,  and requesting the Secretary-General  to prepare  a report on
the subject for the  consideration of the Commission.  On the development of
Minimum  rules for  the administration  of criminal  justice, the Secretary-
General  was  requested  to  seek   further  comments  from  Member  States.
Finally, to further enhance  the efficiency of its work, and in pursuance of
a  similar earlier initiative,  the Commission  adopted a  resolution on the
Provision  of information  in accordance  with  the  plan for  the strategic
management  of the  United  Nations  crime prevention  and criminal  justice
programme by the Commission, to include  specification of the tasks involved
in proposed activities, their phasing, the available resources,  commitments
and expected outcome.


B.  Programme implications

91.   The recent mandates  entrusted to  the crime  prevention and  criminal
justice programme  expand the  scope of  United Nations  responsibilities in
this field  significantly.   They call for  the development of  an empirical
base  of   knowledge  on  the  nature,   dynamics  and   operations  of  new
sophisticated  and  diversified forms  of transnational  organized, economic
and  environmental  crime  that  pose  a  particular  threat,  and  on their
linkages with terrorist  violence, corruption and money-laundering.   Better
knowledge  of these  interrelationships  and constellations,  and  of  their
trends, as reflected  in the now  biennial world crime surveys  that include
these aspects  and criminal  justice responses, should guide  future efforts
at  prevention and control  in a  more rational and costeffective  way.  The
resolutions  and recommendations  addressed  to Governments  have  not  been
highlighted  in the present  document:   if implemented,  however, they will
enhance not  only national capabilities but also the overall response of the
international community  to  a world  scourge  and  prevent it  from  making
further inroads.

92.  But additional  steps are needed to ensure that concerted action  would
match or,  preferably, exceed the  collaborative potential of  transnational
crime.   For  that  purpose,  more effective  international  mechanisms  are
called for  to assist States and  to facilitate such  action.  The  updating
and  alignment  of   national  legislation,  use  of  modern   investigative
techniques, drawing  on scientific advances,  upgrading justice systems  and
personnel skills, are all part of this effort, but it requires more  -formal
agreements (including possible conventions)  and practical arrangements  for

cooperation by  the  services concerned,  with  the  United Nations  as  the
facilitator.

93.  In addition  to strengthening and expanding certain areas of  activity,
new  ones have been  identified for intensive follow-up  such as the problem
of firearms control, traffic in women  and children, including sex  tourism,
automobile theft and  a number of others.   In certain  instances, a  set of
guidelines  has to be  finalized, drawing  on governmental  and other input,
widely   diffused  and  used   as  a   training  aid   (for  example,  draft
international code of  conduct for public office  holders and the manual  on
practical measures against  corruption).   Monitoring of the application  of
the  United Nations standards  has to  be improved,  including field studies
and development of model implementing legislation.

94.   In the  latter case  and some  others, the  convening of  in-sessional
working groups  will pose additional  organizational and servicing  demands.
The transfer to  Vienna of the responsibility for  the technical as well  as
substantive servicing  of the Commission  and the  Congress will add  to the
workload and  require a special  unit.   It is hoped that  its creation will
further enhance the assistance rendered to the Commission.

 95.    At  the  same  time,  operational  activities  are  to  be  expanded
significantly  and a  solid base  for technical  cooperation and  assistance
established, to  strengthen the programme's role  as a  service provider, as
well as  an  honest broker  in putting  prospective  donors  and clients  in
touch,  promoting   international  exchanges,   coordinating  regional   and
interregional action, etc.  This will necessitate a reliable,  comprehensive
database, in addition to that previously  requested to match training  needs
with available facilities, and for  expert referrals.  The savings likely to
accrue  from  diminished  overlap  and  improved  coordination  warrant  the
initial  outlay.   Like the  other databases  to be  established,  access to
relevant information  of this kind is  in itself a  major form of  technical
assistance.  The  recent transfer of  UNCJIN to  Vienna should,  on the  one
hand, facilitate  its provision  but, on  the other,  imposes an  additional
onus on the small programme staff.


C.  Further tasks

96.   The spectrum of tasks  to be fulfilled in the near and longer term has
been traced in  the previous sections.  It is clear that,  even with careful
prioritizing, they  represent a major  undertaking, involving more  frequent
worldwide crime surveys and  studies of complex issues, such as the  factors
contributing to  and impact of urban  crime.  More effective strategies must
be  devised  against  recalcitrant  problems,  such  as  rapidly  escalating
organized,  economic and environmental  crime, and action efforts pursued at
multiple  levels -  international,  regional, national  and, with  the trend
towards decentralization, local as well.  There are several action plans  to
be  developed and/or implemented, in addition to giving effect to the Naples
Global  Action  Plan.   UNCJIN  and  clearing-house  facilities  have to  be
expanded and  various databases established to  meet the  necessities of the
information age  and permit all countries  to profit  from its technological
advances.   United Nations  standards have  to be  concretely applied, using
some prototypes,  and  international  agreements  and  arrangements  against
crime effectuated, including possible conventions.  Technical assistance  of
all kinds must be provided on the whole  range of problems related to  crime
and justice, helping  not only to  assess the  needs but  also to  formulate
concrete  programmes  and  projects  for  implementation.    Some  envisaged
directions of  this work are  outlined below, taking  account also of  other
possible  actors and  stakeholders,  and the  acknowledged  desirability  of
innovative approaches and new partnerships.


V.  STRENGTHENING PROGRAMME CAPACITY

97.  In  its resolution 49/158  of 23  December 1994,  the General  Assembly

reaffirmed the  high priority  of the  United Nations  crime prevention  and
criminal justice programme,  and the need  for an  appropriate share of  the
existing  United Nations  resources for  the  programme.   It  requested the
Secretary-General, as a  matter of urgency, to  give effect to the  relevant
resolutions  of  the  Assembly  and  the  Economic  and  Social  Council  by
providing   the  programme   with   sufficient  resources   for   the   full
implementation of its mandates, and to  build and maintain the institutional
capacity  of  the programme  to respond  to  requests  of Member  States for
assistance  in  that  field,  if  necessary  through  the  reallocation   of
resources.  Accordingly, and upon the  Assembly's renewed request to upgrade
the Crime  Prevention and  Criminal Justice Branch  of the Secretariat  to a
division, the Secretary-General, in his  programme budget proposals  for the
biennium 1996-1997,  included such an upgrading  and a  very modest increase
in the staffing  of the programme (two P-3  posts).  Considering that  under
section  13   of  the  programme   budget,  outlining  its  activities,  the
Secretariat  unit  disposed of  only  0.1 per  cent  of the  overall  United
Nations resources, this  is considered  a bare minimum  that still does  not
redress the acute imbalance in  the amount of work to be done vis-a-vis  the
means  for doing  it.     In a  recent editorial  article entitled  "Ways to
improve the United Nations", the Secretary-General  stated that:  "In  order
to  strengthen key  fields of  growing responsibility,  66 posts  are to  be
created   [while  201   others   will  be   eliminated]   to   increase  the
Organization's  effectiveness   in  areas  such   as  drug  control,   crime
prevention, human  rights and  peace-keeping".   Washington Post, 13  August
1995.

98.  Indeed, that significant efforts could be  made in assisting States, in
addition  to  carrying out  the regular  programme functions  and organizing
special events,  such as the  Naples Conference  and the Cairo  Congress and
their preparatory  activities, was  due largely  to the  generosity of  some
Governments, which have provided the services  of associate experts and some
modest funding.  Nevertheless, taking into  account the additional  mandates
deriving from  the World Ministerial Conference  and the  Ninth Congress, as
articulated by the Commission on Crime  Prevention and Criminal Justice  and
the Economic and  Social Council, and  the calls  from the General  Assembly
itself, as  well as  the extensive  crime and  justice-related needs  facing
countries throughout  the world,  a careful assessment  of the  steps to  be
taken  is  necessary   in  order   to  optimize  and  supplement   programme
capabilities in this critical but often  neglected field whose relevance  is
often most  apparent when  matters have  got out  of hand.   At  that stage,
effective assistance can  usually not be rendered, and  institutionbuilding,
social  peace, economic  investment  prospects and  sustained  developmental
progress are jeopardized.

99.  If, indeed, a more propitious context  for human development and global
stability  is to  be created,  then  the  relative marginalization  of these
aspects must  end.   For even the  best efforts to  achieve synergy  require
basic elements that can be combined for maximum impact, and coordination  is
largely futile  if it is mainly  a one-way  street.  This has  all too often
been  the experience  with  activities in  this area,  in spite  of repeated
calls to  all entities of  the United Nations  system to  cooperate in them,
and  to the funding  agencies to  provide the requisite support.   Thus, the
United Nations crime prevention and criminal  justice programme has tried to
make do with its limited means and sought to explore various  possibilities.
But  the  process  of  fund-raising itself  is  labour-intensive  and  time-
consuming; the sheer pressure of work and paucity of staff have prevented  a
systematic resource mobilization effort, with model project formulation  and
potential  donor  sensitization.   The  programme  is  still  insufficiently
known:   its visibility  and potential must  be enhanced.   This requires  a
joint effort.   It is hoped that  more Member States will take the necessary
action to  give practical  effect  to statements  declaring their  political
will, and  that the  international community  as a  whole will  rise to  the
challenge of creating a more peaceful and secure world.


A.  A proper place in development assistance  

100.   That technical  assistance activities  could be  expanded during  the
past year is  due mainly to  the operational  opportunities afforded by  the
interregional  adviser  posts   and  related   funds.     These  have   been
strategically deployed  to meet priority  requests and  respond to  training
needs  expected  to produce  a multiplier  effect.   Some  inputs have  been
provided  for  collaborative  initiatives  which  could  profit  from  crime
prevention  and criminal justice  expertise.   The fact  that this expertise
was  repeatedly  sought  attests  to  its   usefulness.    Among  its  major
advantages are  the technical,  non-politicized and flexible  nature of  the
assistance provided.  In some cases, it represented a beginning; in  others,
an essential  complement to ongoing initiatives.  In all areas, it fulfilled
a pressing need.  However, even at best,  resource constraints and the  very
nature  of international  adviser  functions precluded  more  than  start-up
activities, which  usually  tackle only  the tip  of  the  iceberg and  soon
reveal the extensive needs  below.  If the  programme is to  engage in  more
ambitious  service delivery  to  meet  the expectations  and aspirations  of
Member States, as  called for  in General Assembly  resolution 46/152 of  18
December  1991  on  the  creation  of  an  effective  United  Nations  crime
prevention  and  criminal  justice  programme, then  it  must  have  greater
leverage and the  capacity not  only for one-time "pre-investment"  missions
(for which investments may  never come), but also for larger ones  requiring
substantial  resources and  continuing support.   This  is  particularly the
case since  activities, and  requirements, in this  area, are  interrelated,
necessitating a systemic approach.

101.    This  approach  could  well  be  followed  in  national  development
endeavours and in UNDP country programming  exercises.  Specific needs could
then be tackled in  this context, taking account  of the kinds of assistance
available and further help to be  provided, including both multilateral  and
bilateral initiatives.  The crime  prevention and criminal justice programme
can  render  a major  service  by  promoting  such  an integrated  approach,
developing  specific   assistance  packages  that   could  be  financed   by
international  funding  agencies  or  interested  donor  countries,  and  by
coordinating such aid.

102.   But to  render  effective aid  requires  a  recognized place  in  the
mainstream of United Nations development assistance.   In his recent  report
to  the Governing  Council, the  Administrator of UNDP  noted new  areas for
UNDP  aid, such as assistance in  the reform of criminal codes and access to
due process.  As indicated  above, UNDP country programmes,  for example for
the  Baltic  States,  approved  by  the  Governing  Council,  include  crime
prevention and criminal justice reform and  judicial training,   DP/1995/16,
pp. 16-17.  reflecting the priority attached  by countries  in transition to
this  aspect,  as  indeed  by  many   developing  ones,  judging  from   the
proliferation  of   requests.     However,  since  the   UNDP  basic   needs
questionnaire  does not include  this problem  area, and  countries or other
entities  are  often  unaware  that this  United  Nations  programme exists,
including  national  planning  offices  charged with  formalizing  technical
cooperation projects,  its potential contribution is  apt to  be ignored and
its  inclusion  in country  programmes,  with  their  competing  priorities,
unlikely or chancy at  best. A clearer identity  and higher profile  of this
sector,  and information on  the United  Nations assistance possibilities in
this field, should  help to correct  this lacuna, as  would its  integration
into  national and  international technical  cooperation planning.   But  it
also requires  recognition of  the relevance  of this  area not merely  as a
recurrent  overhead  but as  a  field  for  development  to investment,  and
adequate means to provide meaningful aid.

103.    The  Secretary-General  and  some   heads  of  State  have  recently
emphasized the  high priority they attach  to crime  prevention and criminal
justice,   As  the President of  the United  States of America has  recently
stated, "Today  the threat to  our security is not an enemy  silo but in the
briefcase  or the  car  bomb  of a  terrorist.   Our  enemies  are also  the
international  criminals and drug  traffickers who threaten the stability of
new democracies and the future of our children ... we must support,  through
the  United  Nations, the  fight  against  man-made  and  natural forces  of

disintegration, from crime syndicates and drug  cartels to new diseases  and
disappearing forests.   These enemies are  elusive.   They cross borders  at
will.  Nations can  and must oppose  them alone, but we know, and  the Cairo
conference reaffirmed,  that the most  effective opposition requires  strong
international  cooperation  and  mutual  support"  (remarks  at  the  United
Nations 50th  Anniversary  Ceremony, San  Francisco, 26  June 1995,  Federal
News  Service  (Reuters),  Washington,  D.C.).  as  indeed  did the  General
Assembly,  in  paragraph  10  of  resolution   49/158,  in  requesting   the
Secretary-General  "to facilitate,  as appropriate,  the creation  of  joint
initiatives  and  the joint  formulation  and  implementation  of  technical
assistance  projects,  benefiting  developing  countries  and  countries  in
transition, involving  interested  donor  countries  and  funding  agencies,
particularly the United Nations  Development Programme and  the World  Bank,
with  a view  to establishing  and maintaining  efficient [crime  prevention
and] criminal  justice systems  as an  essential component of  developmental
efforts".

104.     The  new   UNDP  programming  procedures   and  country   execution
arrangements  are intended to permit more flexibility in resource allocation
than  the previous, fixed indicative  planning figure (IPF) system.    UNDP.
Matters  relating  to   the  programming  cycles.    Successor   programming
arrangements.   Report of the Administrator.   DP/1995/32.   New initiatives
to make  assistance more dynamic and  more relevant are  being pursued.   In
this  context  and in  the  thematic  approach  to  programming, this  area,
directly  relevant  to  stability  and  sustained  growth,  merits   greater
attention, especially  since it  is closely  related to  the UNDP  principal
goal  of  promoting  sustainable  human  development.    The  importance  of
security,  as  an enabling  environment  for  development, and  of  personal
safety as an essential element  of human well-being, has been highlighted in
the  World  Summit for  Social  Development  and  in  the Human  Development
Report.   "Perhaps  no other  aspect of security is  so vital for people  as
their security  from physical  violence.  In  poor nations  and rich,  human
life is  increasingly  threatened by  sudden, unpredictable  violence.   The
threats take  several forms:   threats  from the  State (physical  torture);
threats  from  other States  (war);  threats  from  other  groups of  people
(ethnic tension); threats  against women (rape, domestic violence);  threats
directed  at  children based  on their  vulnerability and  dependence (child
abuse);  threats to  self  (suicide, drug  use)" United  Nations Development
Programme,  Human  Development Report  1994  (New  York,  Oxford  University
Press, 1994)  p.  30.    In the  pursuit  of  a people-centred  approach  to
development  that  is  in  large  measure   oriented  to  the  creation   of
institutional capacities, a participatory civil society and human  resources
development, technical cooperation in this key area assumes a crucial role.

105.   In the  "creative phase  of dynamic  programming", which  UNDP is  to
pursue,  adjusting it to changing situations and avoiding disruptions, crime
prevention and  criminal justice requirements  could profitably be  included
at all stages, starting  with the country  strategy notes,    This has  been
initiated in some cases, for example,  for Gabon. through country  profiles,
the cooperation frameworks and programme support documents, to the  mid-term
reviews and  final evaluations.   This  would help  to advance  institution-
building  and  good  governance,   as  well  as   "preventive  and  curative
development".    See, for example,  DP/1995/39, para. 155.   Support in  the
implementation of  the recommendations of  major United Nations  conferences
held since 1992 is  to be provided, building  on the consensus achieved, and
some  task  forces and  working  groups  have  already  been established  to
coordinate follow-up  and assist countries  in meeting  the commitments they
made in the programmes of  action adopted by these conferences.  Such a task
force  or  working  group could  usefully  be  established  and  appropriate
follow-up  provided  to  the  Global  Action  Plan  adopted  by  the  Naples
Ministerial Conference and  the decisions of the Cairo Congress.  This would
also  be in  line with  the UNDP  proposed shift  to strategic interventions
focusing on  major development issues or  themes, especially  since this one
is  pertinent in two major ways:  by its very content as a priority area for
assistance,    In  addition to  the area  of crime  prevention and  criminal
justice  as  a  whole, there  are  specific aspects  of  the United  Nations

programme  that mesh with  UNDP priorities, e.g. on environmental protection
and regeneration (e.g.  penal, protection  of the environment), and  gender-
sensitive  issues  (e.g. violence  against  women).    A  prospectus of  the
programme's capacity-building  capabilities in  environmental protection  is
available, as  are recommendations and a  manual on  violence against women;
plans of action  in these  and other  areas have been  formulated. and as  a
means of ensuring the integrity of  technical aid, including both  personnel
security and  quality  control (for  example,  prevention  of aid  diversion
through corruption and fraud).

106.   It  is also  hoped  that  the special  UNDP  fund, to  be set  up  in
accordance with the recommendations of the  Joint Inspection Unit (JIU),  to
help  Governments identify  their  countries' real  needs,  select  priority
sectors, formulate framework programmes and coordinate external  assistance,
 Joint  Inspection Unit,  "Operational activities  for development: national
execution of  projects"  (A/50/113,  annex).  will be  available  for  crime
prevention and criminal justice activities, and  that the projected training
activities  and  multi-disciplinary, multisectoral  teams will  include this
area of concern and relevant expertise.  In view also of the  UNDP intent to
reduce and mitigate  emerging development  crises deriving from the  rapidly
changing socio-economic environment, which would include reconstruction  and
rehabilitation efforts, the provision of an appropriate  legal framework and
development of crime prevention and criminal justice capacities should  rank
high on the  list.  Crime-related  exigencies could  usefully be taken  into
account  in  resource  mobilization  targets  (RMT)  and  strategies,  as  a
critical  component in  the target  for  resource  assistance from  the core
(TRAC)  exercises.    This is  also  true  in the  exchange  of  operational
experience, technological  innovation and  action-research, including  pilot
and demonstration schemes, as well as information exchange.

107.   TCDC, particularly  with its  new directions, as traced  by the High-
Level Committee in its  review,   "New directions for technical  cooperation
among developing  countries", report submitted  to the High-level  Committee
on  the   Review  of  Technical   Cooperation  among  Developing   Countries
(TCDC/9/3). offers viable prospects for the crossfertilization of  expertise
and experience  in an area  in which few  countries are  really "developed",
and where  indigenous approaches  have a major  contribution to  make.   The
crime prevention and  criminal justice  programme, including its network  of
institutes, could usefully be included in  the new combined promotional  and
operational  TCDC  activities,   and  priority  undertakings  such  as   the
replication   of    successful   innovative    projects,   development    of
subjectspecific TCDC  products, promotion  of joint strategies to  deal with
the problems  faced by  groups of  countries, and  mobilization of  support,
including triangular  cooperative arrangements.   Relevant input could  also
be included  in the  Information Referral System  for Technical  Cooperation
among Developing Countries (INRES).

108.  Other international funding agencies, such as  the World Bank and  the
International  Development   Association  (IDA),  have   been  called   upon
repeatedly to  provide support for efforts  related to  crime prevention and
criminal  justice, but  so far  to little  avail.   Yet,  the Bank  has some
relevant activities, especially in  the Urban Management Programme (both its
own and the UNDP one it  supports), and has given prominent attention in its
publication Urban Age  to violence and  crime problems.   It  has long  been
concerned  about  corruption.    The  pernicious  effect  of   transnational
organized and  economic crime,  including money-laundering,  on the  world's
financial  health and  investment climate  makes  a concerted  response long
overdue.   The Bank  and other  Bretton Woods  institutions, along  with all
relevant  United Nations  entities, have  the possibility  and, indeed,  the
mandated  task of supporting  this effort.  Since  a specific United Nations
programme in this  field already exists, rather  than starting anew they can
profitably  join forces  to strengthen  international capabilities  in  this
respect.   This is  true  also of  the regional  development banks     Some,
notably the  International Development Bank,  have undertaken some  relevant
activities,  which  could  be  expanded,  including  possible  collaborative
initiatives  with  the  United  Nations  Latin  American  Institute  for the

Prevention  of  Crime and  the  Treatment  of  Offenders  (ILANUD), and  the
African  Development Bank's  with the  United Nations  African Institute for
the  Prevention  of Crime  and  the  Treatment  of  Offenders (UNAFRI).  and
financing  institutions,  as  well  as  other  regional  and   international
organizations.


B.  Role in peace-building and emergency assistance

109.   The pivotal importance  of crime prevention  and criminal justice  in
peace-keeping  and post-conflict  nation-building has been  mentioned above,
and  some initiatives  taken  were  cited in  this context.    The increased
challenges facing United Nations peace-keepers in  the "new breed of  intra-
State conflicts", that have largely replaced  inter-State wars, are noted in
An Agenda for  Peace 1995, which  points out that  they are  also fought  by
militia and armed civilians with little  discipline, and that civilians  are
the main  victims and  often the  main targets:   "Another  feature of  such
conflicts is the collapse of State  institutions, especially the police  and
judiciary, with  resulting paralysis of governance,  a breakdown  of law and
order,  and general  banditry and  chaos.   Not only  are the  functions  of
government suspended, its  assets are  destroyed or  looted and  experienced
officials are killed or flee the country.  ...  social peace is as important
as strategic  or political peace... There  is an  obvious connection between
democratic practices -such as the rule  of law and transparency in decision-
making -  and the achievement  of true  peace and  security in  any new  and
stable  political order".   As a leading statesman has noted:  "The building
of a functioning criminal justice system  is a particularly crucial priority
if the  gains of  a peace-keeping  operation are  to be  consolidated and  a
relapse into conflict avoided.  We support the idea ... that United  Nations
'justice packages'  be a part of  any peacekeeping  and post-conflict peace-
building exercises in countries where the rule of law,  and the institutions
needed to  support it,  have manifestly  broken down.   Elements  of such  a
package would  include provision, as appropriate,  of a body of criminal law
and  procedures,  drawing  on  universal  principles;  civil  police,   with
training  as well as  law enforcement  responsibilities; a  panel of judges,
prosecutors and  defenders able to work  with available local  professionals
during the  transitional period,  again with  an obligation  to train  their
local successors;  and adequate  correctional facilities,  and personnel  to
staff  them  while  developing  local   replacements.  Basic  as  all  these
requirements  may be,  no viable  government  or social  order can  be built
without them, and there  will be situations where only the authority of  the
United Nations is capable of delivering them."  (Gareth Evans, op. cit.)

110.   The United  Nations crime  prevention and  criminal justice programme
can render an invaluable service  by helping to restore the  rule of law and
the  required public institutions,  among which a functioning justice system
is essential.    Boutros  Boutros-Ghali, An Agenda  for Peace  1995, (United
Nations publication, Sales No.  E.95.I.15), pp. 9  and 62.   It can also  be
drawn  upon  more widely  in  training  civilian  police,  using the  United
Nations  criminal justice  standards, especially  if it  is translated  into
local languages (a Serbo-Croat version of  the "Blue Book" already  exists).
These needs are often communicated to  local agency personnel (for  example,
UNHCR, human rights monitors), who may be unaware that they fall within  the
competence  of a  specific United  Nations  office  whose services  could be
enlisted.  Mission chiefs  and other key personnel  could be informed of the
availability  of this  resource and  its systematic  collaboration  enlisted
from the start.

111.   This  holds true  for other  United Nations  operations, designed  to
render humanitarian assistance, where a propitious environment is  essential
and the safe delivery  of goods and services  to target populations the very
purpose - too often threatened  by disruptions and the  illegal diversion of
aid.  This is  often the case after natural or man-made disasters when order
breaks  down.  A  crime prevention,  criminal justice  and victim assistance
component  in these  operations, especially  in "complex  emergencies",  and
ongoing cooperation could enhance such aid appreciably.

112.  This is  also true for emergency preparedness, including early warning
systems  and,  increasingly, "preventive  diplomacy"  to  forestal  conflict
escalation likely to erupt and create human disasters.   In some places (for
example,  the  Former   Yugoslav  Republic  of  Macedonia),  assistance   in
"preventive development"  is being  rendered.  In  acute situations,  crisis
intervention  teams   can  be  dispatched  and  help  provided  in  defusing
tensions.    A  meeting of  experts, organized by ISPAC  in cooperation with
the Crime Prevention  and Criminal Justice  Branch, and  Basque authorities,
recommended the establishment  of monitoring networks and regional  centres,
as well  as "victim  care squads".   ISPAC,  Victim Issues.   Prevention  of
Victimization,   Protection   and  Assistance   for  Victims   and  Conflict
Resolution (Milan, 1994).   See also  "Justice as  a pillar  of society"  in
Boutros  Boutros-Ghali,  An Agenda  for  Development  1995  (United  Nations
publication,  Sales  No.  E.95.I.16),  pp.  37-44.    Longer-term   conflict
resolution, actively  promoting the culture  of peace, requires  recognition
of  possible wrongs inflicted  and some measure of  redress, since the quest
for justice is an imperative of  peace-building and sustainable development.
 As the Secretary-General  notes, "Peace-building is a matter for  countries
at all stages of development.  For  countries emerging from conflict, peace-
building offers the  chance to establish new institutions, social, political
and judicial, that can give impetus  to development."  Boutros BoutrosGhali,
ibid., p. 21.


C.  Information management and transfer of knowledge

113.     In  order  to  consolidate   available  information  on   technical
cooperation provision and needs, as a  guide to informed decision-making and
aid coordination, the Economic and Social  Council, in resolution 1994/22 of
25  July  1994, called  for  the  establishment  of  a technical  assistance
database (as part of the crime  prevention and criminal justice  programme's
clearing-house  facilities).   A questionnaire  on the  assistance  provided
bilaterally or  multilaterally has been prepared.    E/CN.15/1995/6, pp. 27-
30.    Relevant information  is  being  collected  from  the United  Nations
institutes, some of which already have  regional or subregional databases of
this kind (for example, the United Nations Latin  American Institute for the
Prevention  of  Crime  and  the  Treatment  of  Offenders  (ILANUD))  or are
developing them (for  example, the  European Institute for Crime  Prevention
and Control (HEUNI).  HEUNI has been requested  by the Commission to develop
such a  database as  a pilot  project for  countries of Eastern  and Central
Europe, which, it is hoped, to be expanded to other regions  for a worldwide
service.

114.  Elements of a global  programme clearinghouse already exist, including
UNCJIN, which is accessible to  all of the estimated 35 million users of the
Internet.   With its two complementary  components, UNCJIN  provides a forum
for the  exchange of information on  crime prevention  and criminal justice.
The first is an electronic discussion list  of over 750 members from over 40
countries.  The  second  is  a  World  Wide  Web  database  site  containing
thousands  of pages of  information and  providing connections  to all major
criminal  justice reference  sources.   With  the  assistance of  the United
States  National Institute of  Justice, a  United Nations  On-line Crime and
Justice  Clearinghouse (UNOJUST)  prototype has  been developed  which  will
expand  the  capabilities  of  UNCJIN  to  incorporate  material  from   the
affiliated and associated institutes.  A  computerized roster of experts  is
operational and  continuously  being  updated.   A database  containing  the
results of the global crime surveys,  which now also include  information on
transnational  crime, is  being  expanded with  information  on  current and
projected trends,     Such projections  are essential  for proactive  policy
planning, since  the likely developments may  change the  realities of crime
and the related  requirements.  See,  for instance, Larry E.  Coutorie, "The
future  of hightechnology  crime:   a  parallel Delphi  Study."   Journal of
Criminal Justice,  vol. 23, No.  1, 1995, pp.  13-27.   Information from the
Surveys  is  available electronically  via the  UNCJIN  World-Wide Web.  and
material from victimization  surveys. In connection  with the work requested
in  priority  areas,  data  collection  and  dissemination  on  a  number of

subjects  are under  way.    Some 15  databases  are also  envisaged:   some
already exist;  others need  to be  established.   The  Ninth Congress  gave
major  attention  to  computerized  data  collection  and  the  exchange  of
information,  with  impressive demonstrations  and discussions  that aroused
lively  interest.   Further  to the  concerns addressed  at the  Congress, a
meeting  of   the  World  Criminal   Justice  Library  Network   (Villingen-
Schwenningen,  Germany, 12-15 April  1995) was  held, under  the auspices of
ISPAC, to  promote  the integration  and  availability  of relevant  library
resources  with  a view  to  addressing the  needs  of  police  research and
training institutes.

115.    Advances   in  computerized  translations  should  offset   existing
linguistic  constraints and further increase the usability  of the available
information.   A universal digital code known as Unicode has been  developed
by a consortium  to allow computers to  represent virtually all the  world's
languages,  software   with  different  fonts   is  becoming  more   readily
available,  and automatic  translations are  becoming more  refined  (Andrew
Pollack, "Cultural  war of  words looms on",  International Herald  Tribune,
August 1995).    A  major  problem continues  to  be  the lack  of  computer
equipment and  Internet access in developing countries and some  of those in
transition.    Through  the  good  offices  of  the  UNDP  European regional
programme  and  the  United  States  National  Institute  of  Justice,  some
assistance in this regard  has been rendered to Eastern European States, but
elsewhere  the needs  are still  acute,  especially  in the  least developed
countries,  whose  overall  requirements  in  this  field  have been  gauged
through a special questionnaire. UNDP and  other funding agencies can render
a  precious service  by  providing  the necessary  equipment  and  linkages,
especially  for UNAFRI, which  is trying  to meet the needs  of countries of
the region in  this and other respects under tight constraints.   PADIS (The
Pan  African  Development  Information  System)  and  the  UNDP  Sustainable
Development Network can help to expand the information base  and linkages of
crime-related operations, involving also the NGO community.


 D.  From coordination to partnerships

116.   The collaborative  activities undertaken  during the  year were noted
earlier. Though coordination  has been  enhanced and joint initiatives  have
multiplied, much still  needs to be done  to develop a comprehensive network
of systematic relationships that will exploit  the potential of this  United
Nations  programme and its  professional contributions  in key  areas.  This
evidently requires  some outreach efforts  to sensitize other United Nations
entities to what  the programme has to offer.   Efforts are  being made, for
example, to enhance cooperation with UNDP  as coordinator in the development
and implementation  of Capacity  21  (capacity-building initiatives  arising
from  chapter  37  of  Agenda  21   of  the  United  Nations  Conference  on
Environment  and Development).   A  draft monograph  on capacity-building in
criminal enforcement of environmental law has  been prepared jointly by  the
Branch  and UNICRI, with  the assistance of national  experts.  Other United
Nations entities  also  have  to be  reached.   But  this requires  concrete
possibilities, and the means and time to pursue  them, as coordination is  a
major task in itself.

117.   This is  so even more  since the  aim, increasingly,  more than  mere
coordination,  is  to establish  effective partnerships  that would  help to
realize common aims.  However, true  partnerships require, if not  equality,
then at least some measure of parity in leverage.  The United Nations  crime
prevention and  criminal  justice programme  is  suffering  from a  lack  of
visibility, which  is due  largely to its  inadequate status.   It is  hoped
that  in  the future  its expertise  and  experience will  be enlisted  more
widely to advance common  aims.  The programme  stands ready to pursue joint
initiatives  in order  to create  a  network  of strategic  partnerships and
coalitions in  key  problem areas,  which  will  be  of mutual  benefit  and
enhance the work of the Organization as a whole.

E.  Harnessing the means

118.   The  gulf  between the  scope  of the  work  to  be  done to  make  a
measurable   difference  in   the  problems   related  to   crime   and  the
administration of justice afflicting most countries  and the world at large,
and the  paucity of  means for  this purpose,  has been  a recurrent  theme.
That some reinforcement of the  capacity to render much-needed  aid has been
effected, and  the  priority of  these  concerns  recognized, is  a  welcome
development.  It comes at a strategic time when  United Nations achievements
and   priorities  are   being  re-examined,   and  ways  of   enhancing  its
contributions to global  peace and  progress systematically explored.   Yet,
through the  confirmations of  the Organization's  unique contributions  and
crucial  role  runs  the  leitmotif  of  inadequate  funds  for  its various
operations.   They  have been  signalled in  the Secretary-General's  annual
reports.  Political and financial constraints  have curtailed the payment of
assessed  national contributions,  and donor  fatigue, competing  priorities
and  reliance on bilateral  aid have  reduced funds  earmarked for technical
assistance. A number of proposals  have been put forward by concerned States
and  international forums   Among them  are the 20 x 20  compact; a proposed
tax  on  pollution   and  a  fee   on  speculative  international  financial
transactions; using forfeited or seized funds  from drug traffickers for the
rehabilitation  of  addicts  and preventive  education;  waiving  a  part of
foreign  debt  if  used  for  environmental  protection  or  for  redress to
victims, etc.  Seized proceeds from  the activities of organized crime could
be used  for  action  against  it.    An  international  conference  on  the
financing of development has been proposed  by the SecretaryGeneral for  the
General  Assembly's consideration.   See,  also, Dragoljub  Najman and  Hans
d'Orville,  Towards  a New  Multilateralism:    funding  Global  Priorities,
Innovative  financing  mechanisms  for  internationally  agreed   programmes
(Paris/New York, Independent Commission on  Population and Quality  of Life,
May 1995). to redress this imbalance, which could well be pursued.

119.   All this,  admittedly, necessitates careful cost-benefit  analysis of
the value  obtained from  investments in  the different  sectors and  United
Nations programme  areas.   It also  requires critical  reassessment of  the
hierarchy of  commitments  for which  support is  pledged,  with  a view  to
mobilizing  enough "venture capital" to create global conditions of security
and  a climate of  confidence without  which other  investments may founder.
In this context,  support of crime  and justice-related efforts and  of this
United Nations  programme  acquires special  relevance.    It may  fulfil  a
larger  purpose,  increasing  the  pay-off  from  a  whole  range  of  other
investments that might otherwise be diverted or dissipated.   In this sense,
crime prevention and criminal  justice expenditures can have a developmental
significance and a multiplier effect far beyond the modest sums expended.

120.   That  this  fact is  not  yet fully  appreciated  is  clear from  the
precarious  situation of  the United  Nations Crime  Prevention and Criminal
Justice Fund.   A few  countries have been  its mainstay, especially  Italy,
which has contributed most generously  in cash and in kind, and some of  the
other host  countries  of the  United  Nations  institutes.   The  associate
experts offered  by some  States  have  been an  invaluable resource.    The
generous  support in  hosting major  United  Nations  meetings, such  as the
Naples  Ministerial Conference  and  Cairo Congress,  contributed  to  their
success.  But, if their impetus is to  be sustained, adequate follow-up must
be assured  and the  means for  it provided.   The  eloquent statements  and
consensus of the recent United Nations  global crime conferences deserve  to
be  translated into practical  reality as  a demonstration  of the political
will of  States to reverse  an ominous  trend.  The very  emphasis placed on
practical aspects of the work, especially on technical assistance,  deserves
no less.

121.  The next Pledging Conference  for Development provides an  opportunity
for a concrete demonstration of the  commitments made.  The Director-General
of the  United Nations  Office at  Vienna, on  8 August  1995, addressed  an
appeal  to Member States urging them to make contributions to the Fund.  The
response will  affect the  level of  services which  can be  provided.   The

General  Assembly's  own  actions  at this  historical  junction  will  also
determine the  outcome.   As the  United  Nations system  considers its  own
restructuring and  revitalization, and as  it engages  in strategic planning
for the  rest of  the century  and for  the years  to come,  it should  give
proper  attention to those  factors which  most impinge  on human well-being
and  the prospects  of sustainable  human  development  - its  declared aim.
Since  crime and violence top  the list of  public and governmental concerns
in  many of the  world's countries,  some international  parallels cannot be
avoided, especially with the continuing expansion of both transnational  and
national crime.

122.   In  addition  to  serious consideration  of this  aspect  in proposed
resource  allocations,  some specific  initiatives  might  be  envisaged  to
expand the  resource base, especially  for technical cooperation  activities
in this field.  This includes the donor "round-tables" convened for  certain
countries and  problems,  where crime  and  justice  aspects could  well  be
included, as  they were in the  round-table on the  mid-point review of  the
Rwanda operation.  Donor conferences to consider specific project  proposals
in crime  prevention and criminal justice  for targeted  countries or groups
of  countries are  also  planned,  as well  as  those with  a  regional  and
interregional scope.     A meeting  of possible  donors was  convened on  19
January 1995  to enlist support  for the Ninth Congress  workshops and their
follow-up, as called for in Economic  and Social Council resolution  1994/19
of  25  July  1994.    However,  the  results  were  modest,  although  some
assistance  in kind  was received  in  the  preparations for  the workshops,
mainly  through  intergovernmental (e.g.  Mediterranean  States)  and expert
group  meetings  (e.g.   International  Centre  for  Crime  Prevention,   in
Montreal)  for the  workshops on  urban  crime  and violence  prevention and
control, and some Governments (e.g. Canada,  which sponsored the workshop on
the mass  media and crime).   Some support  was also  offered for activities
approved  by the  congress  (e.g. seed  money for  the  project  on firearms
control, from the Government  of Japan) or related to it (e.g. for  Congress
posters, booklet  and T-shirts, from  the Asia Crime Prevention Foundation).
Some  Member  States  contributed  funds  for  Congress  participation  from
developing  countries (e.g.  France for  francophone African  participants).
As indicated,  ISPAC and  individual NGOs sponsored  ancillary meetings  and
some publications.

 123.    Further  efforts  are   envisaged  to  mobilize  additional  funds,
especially  for  operational  activities, to  meet  the  mounting  needs and
expectations of  Member States, but it  is no easy  task, especially in  the
prevailing financial climate. In  so doing, it is  intended to build  on the
advisory services and new  fellowship programme, and  to strengthen outreach
activities, including  those of the United  Nations institutes.   The alumni
networks built up by  some of them, especially  the United Nations  Asia and
Far  East Institute  for  the  Prevention  of  Crime  and the  Treatment  of
Offenders (UNAFEI),  with many  of them  in policy-making  positions, are  a
valuable resource, especially if adequately  supported, as the UNAFEI alumni
network is by the Asia  Crime Prevention Foundation.    The Foundation  will
hold its fourth world conference on strengthening international  cooperation
for crime  prevention, in  pursuance of the Ninth  Congress recommendations,
in Bangkok from 15 to 17 November 1995.


-----   It is hoped that,  with comparable support, functioning networks can
also  be developed  in  the  other regions  serviced by  the  United Nations
institutes (HEUNI already has a fellowship  programme, ILANUD, a network  of
"associated  experts" and  UNAFRI,  a growing  number  of  former trainees).
Combined  with  the  system  of  "national  correspondents",  UNCJIN  users,
collaborating  centres  and  organizations,  and  individual  experts,  this
represents an extensive network,  but it has to be fully activated, and that
requires at least  some funding.  It is  proposed to explore private  sector
financing for  this  purpose and  for  others,  but  this again  requires  a
systematic  effort that cannot  readily be  fielded by  the meagre programme
staff.

VI.  CONCLUDING REMARKS

124.   The past  year was  a significant  one in the  history of  the United
Nations crime prevention and criminal justice  programme, which is almost as
old  as the  Organization  itself, but  which is  called  upon to  meet  the
unprecedented challenges  that crime in its  new forms  and dimensions poses
to the world.   The major events  celebrated during this period, the  Naples
Ministerial  Conference, the  Ninth  Congress, the  Commission,  revealed  a
remarkable  unanimity  about  the  seriousness  of  the  situation  and  the
increased  expectations   of   effective   international   cooperation   and
assistance in remedying it.

125.  The provision of some  means for operational activities  has permitted
their expansion  to  the extent  possible  in  response to  the  multiplying
requests from  countries  and needs  of  the  international community  as  a
whole.   Although  much  has been  done, much  more remains  to be  done for
improved  crime  prevention,  greater  justice  and  effective international
cooperation against the mounting threat of  transnational crime.  The rising
toll  of violence  linked to  civil  strife,  terrorism and  ordinary street
crime,  and  the  price  exacted by  organized,  economic  and environmental
criminality,  have  jeopardized  some  of   the  gains  of  development  and
undermined future  prospects.  It has become clear that security and justice
are  indispensable conditions  for  sustained development  and  human  well-
being,  and for  both national  and world  progress.    The quest  for their
attainment  necessitates  the  inclusion  of  these  aspects  as   essential
elements of the United Nations agenda for peace and development.

126.  It  also requires a concerted effort by the United  Nations system and
by Governments to give practical  effect to the pronouncements  of the major
meetings  held during the  past year.   The United  Nations crime prevention
and  criminal  justice   programme  has  the  responsibility  of   providing
leadership and services  in this field.  It  is committed to  so doing.  The
Fiftieth  Anniversary  of  the  United  Nations  is  not  only  a historical
milestone  but also a  springboard for  new insights and  opportunities.  As
the  Organization  redefines  and  reinvigorates  its   role  to  meet   the
challenges ahead, a strengthened presence and  repertory to assure the  rule
of  law  and  democratic  governance  may  ultimately  determine  its  moral
authority  and efficacy  as a guardian  of global viability  and basic human
rights.


 

This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org