United Nations


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

12 September 1995


Fiftieth session
Item 20 (b) of the provisional agenda*


International assistance for the economic rehabilitation of Angola

Report of the Secretary-General


  Paragraphs  Page

I.  INTRODUCTION .........................................1 - 63

II.  HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME ....................7 - 524

  A.  Emergency assistance during the civil conflict ...  7 - 164

  B.  Developments following the signing of the Lusaka
    Protocol .........................................  17 - 526

III.  PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE ACTION .........................53 -7313

  A.  Resettlement of internally displaced persons and
    returnees ........................................  53 - 5513

  B.  Demobilization and reintegration .................  56 - 6413

  C.  Mine action ......................................  65 - 6915


  *  A/50/150.

95-27686 (E)   290995/...

CONTENTS (continued)

  Paragraphs  Page

  D.  Round-table conference ...........................  70 - 7115

  E.  Other activities .................................  72 - 7316


V.  OBSERVATIONS .........................................89 -9120


1.   By  its resolution  48/202 of  21  December  1993 the  General Assembly
called  upon  all  parties  to  do  their utmost  to  achieve  the  full and
effective implementation of  the Peace Accords for  Angola, signed on 31 May
1991 (S/22609,  annex), thus creating conditions  conducive to the  economic
rehabilitation of the country.  The  Assembly expressed its appreciation  to
all donors for the emergency humanitarian  assistance rendered to Angola and
requested  the  Secretary-General, in  cooperation  with  the  international
community, to  continue to mobilize organizations  and organs  of the United
Nations  system  in  order  to  ensure  an  appropriate  level  of  economic
assistance for Angola.  Furthermore, the  Assembly welcomed the decision  of
the Government of Angola to organize a round-table  conference of donors for
the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Angola,  in collaboration with  the
United Nations Development  Programme (UNDP), the African Development  Bank,
the  Government of Portugal  and other  interested countries.   The Assembly
requested the Secretary-General to report  to it at its  fiftieth session on
the implementation of the resolution.

2.   The  present report  describes the  humanitarian assistance  activities
carried out  in Angola  since the  issuance of  the previous  report of  the
Secretary-General (A/48/473) in October  1993, with emphasis on the increase
in activities noted after the signing  of the Lusaka Protocol  (S/1994/1441,
annex)  in  November   1994  and  the  specific  humanitarian   requirements
resulting from this peace accord. The  report also outlines the humanitarian
assistance activities foreseen in the near future.

3.  The single most  significant development during the reporting period was
the  signing  of the  Lusaka  Protocol  on  20  November  1994, whereby  the
Government  of Angola and the  National Union for the  Total Independence of
Angola (UNITA) reaffirmed the  validity of the Peace Accords for Angola  and
undertook,  inter alia,  to re-establish  the cease-fire;  demilitarize  all
UNITA military forces; disarm all civilians;  complete the formation of  the
Forcas  Armadas Angolanas  (FAA), including demobilization;  integrate UNITA
members  in the  Angolan National  Police; implement  UNITA participation in
the  central,  provincial and  local  administration  and in  the diplomatic
missions  abroad; and  complete the  electoral  process.   To  supervise the
implementation  of the various  undertakings, the  Lusaka Protocol  set up a
Joint Commission,  chaired by the  United Nations,  with the two  parties to
the  Protocol as  members and  the three  observer  countries to  the Lusaka
peace  talks (Portugal,  the Russian  Federation  and  the United  States of
America) as observers.

4.  Mr.  Jose Eduardo dos  Santos, the  President of  Angola, and Mr.  Jonas
Malheiro Savimbi, the  President of UNITA, met at  Lusaka on 6 May 1995  and
at Franceville, Gabon, on 10  August 1995.  In addition to the provisions of
the Lusaka Protocol, the  Government of Angola offered one of two  positions
as Vice-President of the Republic to  UNITA.  The constitutional  amendments
for the  creation of  these posts  were passed  by the National  Assembly in

5.  By its  resolution 976 (1995) of 8  February 1995, the  Security Council
authorized  the  establishment of  a  peace-keeping  operation,  the  United
Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),  to assist the parties  in

restoring  peace and  achieving  national reconciliation,  with  an  initial
mandate of six months and a  maximum deployment of 7,000 military personnel,
as  well as  350  military observers  and 260  police observers.   As  of 30
August 1995, 4,000 military  personnel had been deployed  in Angola.  By its
resolution  1008 (1995) of  7 August 1995, the  Council extended the mandate
of UNAVEM III until 8 February 1996.

6.   In accordance with the  report of the  Secretary-General of 1  February
1995 (S/1995/97 and Corr.1 and Add.1), outlining the mandate  of UNAVEM III,
the Unit for Coordination of Humanitarian  Assistance (UCAH), which has been
operational  in  Angola  since  March  1993,   continues  to  serve  as  the
coordinating body  for all humanitarian operations.   The  Unit supports and
coordinates the  efforts of the operational  agencies of  the United Nations
and  various  non-governmental  organizations  in  relief  and  resettlement
activities,  rehabilitation,   action  related  to   land  mines,  and   the
demobilization and social  and economic reintegration of former  combatants.
Two  new  offices   have  been  created  within  the  Unit  to  address  the
humanitarian  requirements   arising  from   the  peace   agreement:     the
Demobilization  and Reintegration Office and the Central Mine Action Office.
The Demobilization and  Reintegration Office assists in organizing  services
for the demobilizing soldiers and programmes  to facilitate their return  to
productive life  in civilian society, while  the Central  Mine Action Office
coordinates all activities relating to mines  and other explosive devices so
as to ensure  the safest possible  conditions for  the deployment of  United
Nations  personnel, the implementation of humanitarian assistance operations
and the  resumption of  productive activities  throughout  the country.  The
Special  Representative of  the Secretary-General,  who,  on behalf  of  the
Secretary-General, exercises  executive authority  over all  aspects of  the
United Nations operation in Angola, has  established a variety of mechanisms
to ensure efficient collaboration between  UCAH and the  military components
of UNAVEM III in all areas of mutual concern.


A.  Emergency assistance during the civil conflict

7.  Following the resurgence of civil conflict in late 1992, United  Nations
agencies    and    non-governmental    organizations    transformed    their
reconstruction and development  plans into  emergency assistance  programmes
to meet  the immediate  needs of Angolans  affected by  the war.   In  March
1993, the Department of Humanitarian Affairs created UCAH as  a field office
to  coordinate the  work of  the  various agencies  involved in  the  relief

8.   As  of May 1993,  2 million  Angolans were estimated  to be in  need of
humanitarian assistance.   For most  of 1993, access  and security  were the
main  issues  affecting emergency  relief  programmes.   The  period through
October 1993  was characterized by intense  fighting throughout  most of the
country, a series  of grave security incidents  bringing death and injury to
relief workers,  and protracted and difficult negotiations on delivery plans
and   security  guarantees.  The   result  was   a  stop-and-go  pattern  of
deliveries, and many  locations, especially besieged  cities such  as Kuito,
Huambo,  Malange  and Menongue,  remained  entirely  inaccessible  for  many
months.   Conditions  deteriorated daily  in  the  besieged cities,  and  an
inestimable number of people died either as a direct result of the  conflict
or through starvation  or related diseases.   In  mid-1993, more than  1,000
Angolans were believed to be  dying each day; in Kuito  alone, where some of
the fiercest  fighting was concentrated, 25,000  people are  thought to have
died in 1993.

9.   In October 1993, a decrease in the level of fighting allowed new routes
of access  to be  opened.   United Nations  aid officials  managed to  reach
Kuito, where thousands  of people were  dying of starvation  and the  living
conditions were  horrific.  A few  days later, the  United Nations and  non-
governmental organizations also started a  large relief programme in Huambo.

For  the  rest  of  the  year,   the  emergency  relief  programme  expanded
throughout the  country and  considerable progress  was made  thanks to  the
increased   involvement  of  international  non-governmental  organizations.
Gains were also made  in negotiations with both  the Government and UNITA on
questions of  access following a mission  to Angola  by high-level officials
of the Department of Humanitarian  Affairs in early December.  By the end of
the  year, the  relief  needs  of the  coastal areas  and all  major cities,
including the once critical besieged cities, were being addressed.

10.   Confirmation of donor  pledges, previously delayed  in coming, gave  a
muchneeded impetus  to the overall operation.  Altogether, more than US$ 129
million was contributed by donors for  humanitarian activities in Angola  in

11.    However,  the overall  situation  remained  fragile, with  persistent
security  problems limiting access to  several areas such as Dondo in Kwanza
Norte province, Cubal in Benguela province  and, particularly, the  isolated
cities  of  Malange   and  Kuito,  where  the  security  situation   started
deteriorating  again  in  early  1994.    Shelling  and  fresh  outbreaks of
fighting  in Malange and  Kuito during  this period  caused cancellations of
relief flights  to  these cities  and  the  temporary evacuation  of  relief
workers from Kuito.

12.   By early  1994, it  was evident that humanitarian  needs were far more
serious than had been detailed in the United  Nations consolidated appeal of
May  1993.   Malnutrition  and  mortality   rates  were  exceedingly   high,
especially in the besieged cities and in newly  accessed areas.  In February
1994,  under the  coordination  of UCAH,  a revised  appeal was  prepared to
cover needs until July  1994.  This appeal, which included NGO projects  for
the  first  time, attracted  international  attention  to  the  humanitarian
situation  in  Angola  and  elicited  immediate  commitments  from   several

13.    Starting  in   May  1994,  military  activities  intensified  sharply
throughout the  country.   As a  result, humanitarian  programmes in  places
such as Uige, Negage, Kuito, Malange and Huambo  were curtailed.  The period
leading  to the  signing of  the  Lusaka Protocol,  in November  1994,  also
witnessed  increasing  politicization  of  humanitarian  activities  by both
sides.   Flight  clearances  were issued  selectively and  proved  to be  of
limited value.  Thus,  relief planes of  the World Food Programme (WFP)  and
of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) were shot  at in July
1994 in spite of such clearances.  Under  these circumstances, the focus  of
the emergency  programme was to regain  access to  all previously accessible
locations, especially Kuito and Malange, and  to extend assistance to  other
locations that had not yet been reached.
  14.   As of mid-September 1994,  the affected population  was estimated at
3.6 million, representing an  increase of 10 per  cent since February  1994.
This  increase took  place particularly  in  places close  to the  scene  of
intensified fighting and reflected the growing  inability of both rural  and
urban populations to  cope with the  daily problems caused by  the fighting,
the collapse of social services and the unstable economic situation.

15.   An  updated  appeal  was launched  in  September 1994  to  extend  the
emergency  programme until  the end  of  the year.   Approximately  US$  158
million   was  pledged   against  the   1994  United   Nations-NGO   appeal,
representing 83 per cent of the requirements.

16.   Despite the increased insecurity and reduced  access during the second
half of  1994, the  United Nations  agencies and  international and  Angolan
non-governmental organizations  continued to  provide substantial  emergency
assistance to  the affected population.   Owing to  the persistent conflict,
emergency  supplies had  to be  airlifted to  most of  the country  in  what
became  the  largest airlift  operation  in  the  world.    From January  to
December  1994, WFP  airlifted 110,000  tons of  food aid  and  other relief
goods  to  the besieged  towns in  the interior  of  Angola.   The food  aid
operation peaked  in November 1994,  bringing 21,000 metric tons  of food to

some 2.2 million beneficiaries.

B.  Developments following the signing of the Lusaka Protocol

1.  General

17.   Since the  signing of  the Lusaka  Protocol in November  1994 and  the
establishment of the cease-fire in Angola,  United Nations agencies and non-
governmental organizations have reoriented  their efforts towards supporting
the peace process and addressing the  lingering humanitarian effects of  the
past three years of civil conflict.

18.  Under the  coordination of UCAH, a  United Nations consolidated  inter-
agency appeal  for 1995 was  prepared and distributed  to donors in  January
1995.  It  outlined funding  needs totalling  US$ 219  million for  a three-
tiered  programme of emergency  relief, mine  action and  the demobilization
and reintegration  of former combatants.   In the  appeal, approximately 3.2
million Angolans  were estimated to be  in need  of humanitarian assistance,
including  1.1  million  internally  displaced  persons,  100,000  potential
returnees, 1.9  million conflict-affected persons  and 90,000 combatants  to
be demobilized.

19.  A donor  consultation held at  Geneva on 23 February seemed to  bring a
positive response  from the  international community.   Based  on statements
made at the meeting, the Department  of Humanitarian Affairs projected  that
close  to  75  per cent  of  the  appeal's requirements  would  be  covered.
However,  actual  contributions  have  been far  below  what  was  expected,
particularly  compared to  the 1994  response and  taking into consideration
the present peace situation.   As of August, only 23 per cent of the  amount
requested had  been  donated.   In  the  non-food  sector,  delays  in  firm
commitments had  led  to depletion  of  stocks,  reducing the  capacity  for

  2.  Relief and resettlement

20.  Since November 1994, the cease-fire has largely been holding,  allowing
increased  freedom of circulation  of people and goods.   This new situation
has enabled  United Nations agencies  and non-governmental organizations  to
extend  their  humanitarian   and  rehabilitation   programmes  to   several
previously   inaccessible   areas.      The   number   of   non-governmental
organizations operating in Angola has nearly  tripled since 1993, from  some
40  at the end  of that year  to 115 (60  national and  55 international) in
July 1995.   The establishment of  UNAVEM III outstations has been essential
in  ensuring  access   and  security  for  the  expansion  of   humanitarian
operations to new areas.

21.   Roads that  had been closed for  more than two years  have been opened
for  humanitarian transport.    As  of the  end  of July  1995, passage  was
secured between Luanda  and Lobito; from Lobito to Sumbe, Gabela and Quibala
(Kwanza  Sul province); from Lobito  to Huambo and  Kuito (Bie province), as
well  as  to  Menongue  (Kuando  Kubango   province);  and  from  Luanda  to
Ndalatando (Kwanza  Norte  province) and  Malange.    Road assessments  have
started  east of Malange and on  the road linking the provinces  of Uige and
Kwanza  Norte, with  a  view  to expanding  road access  from Luanda  to the
provinces of Uige, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul and Moxico.

22.  The opening of  new roads has made it  possible to deliver humanitarian
assistance in a more cost-effective manner,  reducing the need for expensive
airlifts.  However, airlifts are still  required for provision of assistance
to the provinces of Moxico, Lunda Sul,  Lunda Norte, Uige and Zaire, as well
as for the southern parts of Kuando Kubango province.

23.   As the  nutritional situation  improved as a result  of road openings,
easier  access to  land and  markets and  increased supply  of food  by  the
Government and  commercial traders,  the number  of people  served with  WFP

food   decreased  dramatically,   reaching  1.1   million  in   July   1995.
Simultaneous to the phase-out of general  dry ration distributions, WFP  has
been promoting food-for-work schemes, most  notably in support  of de-mining
efforts and the rehabilitation of infrastructure.  In addition, WFP and  the
United Nations  Children's Fund (UNICEF) continue  to provide assistance  to
day-care centres  run by the  Ministry of Social  Affairs and  to assist the
Government in its programmes to feed the most vulnerable groups.

24.   It must be  emphasized that there  are still  pockets of malnutrition,
often related to access  or security constraints.   The crop and food supply
assessment mission fielded by the Food  and Agriculture Organization of  the
United Nations (FAO) and WFP in early May, noted  some positive signs in the
1995  harvest,  which,  none  the  less,  is  still  far below  normal.    A
substantial improvement in the food supply as a result of the present  peace
situation can  only  be expected  when the  currently displaced  populations
have been able to return to their areas of origin and to plant and  harvest.
In the meantime, substantial food aid is still needed.

25.  Humanitarian activities are now  increasingly aimed at facilitating the
resettlement and  reintegration of internally  displaced persons.   Seminars
held in July 1995 developed standard  guidelines for assistance to displaced
persons  returning to  their place  of  origin,  and several  provinces have
since  prepared their respective  plans of  action.  However,  the return of
the displaced is still  limited by the threat of  mines as well as localized
resistance  to the free movement of people.   Spontaneous return of refugees
has  been reported  from Zaire  and Zambia;  assistance is  provided by  the
Office  of the  United Nations  High  Commissioner  for Refugees  (UNHCR) in
collaboration with  non-governmental organizations  active in  the areas  of

26.   The  security  environment for  humanitarian  personnel  has gradually
improved since  the beginning of the  year, thus  facilitating the expansion
of humanitarian activities.  Unfortunately, this  is not a universal  trend,
as  there are still  areas with  limited freedom of movement  and threats to
the safety of international personnel.

27.   While the main coordination responsibility for humanitarian assistance
remains  with UCAH, steps  have been  taken to  create national institutions
for this purpose.   For example,  a Humanitarian Coordination Group  was set
up in  January 1995  to consider  humanitarian priorities  and questions  of
access.  The Group is co-chaired by the Angolan Minister for Social  Affairs
and  the  UCAH  Director, and  comprises  representatives  of UNITA,  United
Nations agencies,  the three  observer countries,  the European  Union, ICRC
and    international    and   national    non-governmental    organizations.
Coordination groups  are also  being created  at the  provincial level  with
responsibilities  to  plan, implement  and monitor  humanitarian activities,
with emphasis on assistance to internally displaced persons.

Sectoral responsibilities of United Nations agencies

28.   In its traditional  role as the  main channel for  food aid, WFP  has,
throughout the reporting period, provided food  commodities to its local and
international NGO  partners, at present  numbering more  than 60.   WFP  has
also   assumed    responsibility   for    overall   humanitarian   logistics
coordination,  providing  transport of  both food  and non-food  aid through
relief flights and road  convoys.  In  addition, WFP manages five  passenger
planes, which are  an essential means  of transport  for United Nations  and
NGO personnel.  WFP has  a permanent field presence, with staff in all major
provincial capitals.

29.  Throughout the  same period, UNDP  has continued  to operate, on a  24-
hour basis,  the country-wide  humanitarian communications  network that  it
established in  1991.   This radio  network is  used by  all United  Nations
agencies  and many  non-governmental organizations and has  been crucial for
the  logistical  planning   and  coordination  of  the  relief  effort,  for
negotiations with  the two parties on  flight clearances and access, as well

as  for security  purposes,  including situations  requiring  evacuation  of
humanitarian personnel.

30.   Towards  the end  of 1993,  UNICEF  moved  into an  emergency mode  of
operation, with  emphasis on  short-term high-impact  interventions in  four
priority areas:  emergency health care;  nutrition and food security; access
to  potable water; and education.   UNICEF has  international field staff in
14  provinces  and  maintains  rapid  response  teams  in  Luanda  that  are
routinely  dispatched to  emergency sites.  An  important component  of  the
UNICEF emergency programme has been the  distribution of relief and survival
assistance to the internally displaced.   The achievements of the  programme
include  the  containment of  cholera  and  meningitis outbreaks  in various
parts of the country.

31.   The  massive vaccination  of  children against  measles has  been  the
flagship of the UNICEF emergency programme.   In consultation with  national
health  authorities  and  partner  non-governmental  organizations,   UNICEF
developed  the  Measles  Plus Strategy  and  initiated  vaccination  in  six
accessible  provincial  capitals.   Along with  the  Measles Plus  Strategy,
UNICEF  emphasized  the  restoration  of  health  facilities  by  supporting
physical rehabilitation  and re-equipment of  peripheral health centres  and
posts, and  training of health  workers in basic services.   Therapeutic and
supplementary feeding  support was also  channelled through national  health
authorities and non-governmental organizations.

32.   Following the signing of  the Lusaka Protocol, UNICEF has been able to
extend its vaccination activities to several previously inaccessible  areas,
in a joint effort with provincial  government health authorities and  UNITA.
This is seen as an important achievement, both in terms of providing  health
care  to affected populations  and in  terms of  confidence building between
the two parties.

33.   The  United Nations  Industrial Development  Organization (UNIDO)  has
developed a number of industrial rehabilitation  programmes in areas such as
wooden modular bridge reconstruction; fisheries; pharmaceutical  production;
agriculture and  food industries;  the policy and  regulatory framework  for
small and  medium-sized industries; and  privatization and restructuring  of
state enterprises.    These  programmes stress  the reinforcement  of  local
implementing capacity and the training of local authorities.

34.   Within the framework of  the Finnish  International Development Agency
(FINNIDA)/Southern     African    Development     Community     (SADC)/World
Meteorological  Organization (WMO)  meteorology  project, assistance  to the
Angola   National  Meteorological   Service   includes  the   provision   of
fellowships, experts  and consultants,  and the supply  and installation  of
meteorological instruments and  equipment.  Twelve fellowships were  awarded
in meteorology, data  processing and equipment maintenance.  Furthermore, an
instructor in meteorology was fielded to  organize and implement a  training
programme  for meteorologists at the Mulemba Training  School.  Twenty-eight
students completed the  course.  The cost  of this project was approximately
US$ 1.7 million.

3.  Demobilization and reintegration

35.   As a vital component  of the Lusaka  peace process, as many as 100,000
combatants, including 30,000  disabled and  under-age soldiers,  have to  be
demobilized and reintegrated  into civilian life and productive  activities.
This will  be one  of the largest  demobilizations ever carried  out in  the
context of a peace-building effort.

36.   When  the Lusaka  peace talks  started  in late  1993, UNDP  and  UCAH
elaborated a  strategy paper on demobilization  and reintegration of  former
combatants.    This  document  identified the  limitations  of  the  1991/92
process  and formulated  the leading  principles of  a future demobilization
and  reintegration  programme: first,  that  the  process should  involve an

important  capacity-building component;  and  secondly, that  the transition
from demobilization to reintegration should be seamless.

37.  In May  1994, UCAH created the Demobilization and Reintegration  Office
to help facilitate  the transition to peace.   The activities of the  Office
have  thus far  focused  primarily, but  not exclusively,  on the  first and
crucial phase  of the  demobilization  process, namely,  the quartering  and
disarmament of  UNITA  troops.   The  strategy  for humanitarian  assistance
conceives of the  quartering phase as  an extensive workshop,  in which  the
beneficiaries   play  an  essential   role  in  the  implementation  of  the

38.  Between  December 1994 and  February 1995,  the Office conducted  three
feasibility studies  to identify  reintegration projects  for under-age  and
disabled  soldiers,  and  quick-impact  projects  for  the  resettlement  of
demobilized soldiers  in rural  areas.   The Office  also made  a survey  in
April 1995  of 300  UNITA soldiers  and 300  members of  the Forcas  Armadas
Angolanas, or the national army.   The objective was  to collect information
concerning  their social  profile,  educational background  and  social  and
economic expectations of  reintegration into  civilian life.  This  project,
carried out in close collaboration with the general  staff of FAA and UNITA,
was  the first formal survey by the United Nations in  the UNITA areas.  One
of the  basic findings of the  survey was that 80  per cent of the  soldiers
hoped to return to their community of origin.

39.   From February  to May 1995,  UCAH held  several preparatory  workshops
with  both  FAA and  UNITA  to achieve  consensus  on the  requirements  and
operational  modalities for  humanitarian assistance  during the  quartering

40.   Beginning  in May  1995,  reconnaissance  missions were  dispatched to
identify sites  and  plan for  the  construction  of the  future  quartering
areas.  The reconnaissance teams were  composed of technical personnel  from
UNAVEM III, UCAH, UNICEF,  WFP, the World Health  Organization (WHO) and the
International Organization for  Migration (IOM), and representatives of  the
Government and UNITA.   The teams assessed the  suitability of the  sites in
terms  of infrastructure,  logistics,  humanitarian  assistance requirements
and security conditions, including land-mine hazards.

41.    The  Special  Representative  of  the  Secretary-General  chairs  the
Demobilization  Committee,  comprising  representatives  of UNAVEM  III  and
UCAH.   At regular meetings of the Committee, the  humanitarian and military
aspects of the demobilization process are continuously being harmonized.

42.    UCAH  has  created  and  chairs  the  Humanitarian  Subcommittee  for
Demobilization and Reintegration,  with participation by UNDP, WFP,  UNICEF,
WHO,  IOM  and national  and  international  non-governmental organizations.
The  Subcommittee  has  been  mainly   concerned  with  the  preparation  of
humanitarian assistance  programmes for  the quartering  areas, and  support
for the  demobilization and  reintegration of  vulnerable groups  (under-age
and war-disabled soldiers).

 43.   The section of the  1995 humanitarian  appeal covering demobilization
and reintegration was readjusted in June 1995 to take account of  agreements
reached between  the Government  and UNITA  on the  global incorporation  of
UNITA soldiers into FAA,  and the extended and  phased demobilization of FAA
soldiers (see  para. 56 below).   The revised programme  (available from the
Department  of Humanitarian  Affairs) requires  US$ 102.3  million  worth of
assistance, of which $52.3  million is for the first and crucial  quartering
phase.   As of  22 August,  $4.2 million  had been pledged  for the  revised

4.  Mine action

44.  Throughout  the more than  30 years  of warfare, all parties  have used

mines extensively,  as a  result of  which more  than 10  million mines  may
currently be active in  almost all parts of  Angola.  It  is estimated  that
Angola  now has  70,000 amputees  resulting  from  accidents with  mines and
unexploded ordnance,  making it the country  with the  highest proportion of
citizens crippled and maimed this  way.  At least an equal number of  deaths
have occurred from  mines, but  most go unreported  because the victims  die
before  reaching a medical  facility where  their injuries  can be recorded.
Records of  minefields are  also either  sketchy or  non-existent, and  even
those that  have been made require  verification because the  back-and-forth
nature of  the war has  resulted in many  minefields being overlaid  several

45.  The demolition  of roads, bridges  and public works, and the  extensive
use of  anti-vehicle and anti-personnel mines  throughout the country,  have
left  the  national   land  transport  system  severely  incapacitated   and
seriously affected  the base  for economic  development.   Some cities  have
been  surrounded  by  mines,  resulting  in  a  siege-like  situation  where
minefields  must be  crossed by  those,  primarily women,  who wish  to feed
their families.  United Nations agencies and  NGO personnel are required  to
take  similar  risks  to  provide  relief   to  these  and  other   stricken
communities.   The deployment  of UNAVEM  III peace-keeping  troops and  the
establishment  of quartering areas  for UNITA  soldiers is  also hampered by
the existence of mines and damaged or destroyed bridges.

46.   In  early  1994,  while the  Lusaka  peace  talks  were under  way,  a
consultant  carried  out preparatory  work  for  the  creation  of a  United
Nations institution that would coordinate mine action activities in  Angola.
As a result, a  small Central Mine Action Office was established within UCAH
in  mid-1994.  The  Office plans  and coordinates  the following activities:
mine  awareness  and avoidance;  mine  survey;  mine clearance;  training of
Angolan managers  and  technicians; and  support  for  the creation  of  the
Angolan National Institute for the Removal of Explosive Obstacles  (INAROE).
Regular coordination  meetings are held between UCAH and UNAVEM III in order
to harmonize  the  humanitarian and  military  aspects  of the  mine  action

47.    The mine  situation  is  a long-term  humanitarian  issue  which  the
Government of  Angola  has the  responsibility  to  address, and  for  which
purpose  INAROE  was  created  by  governmental  decree  on  26  March 1995.
Assisted by the United Nations  in its initial stages, this institution will
organize programmes to deal with all aspects of the mine problem.

 48.   In cooperation  with UNAVEM  III, the Central Mine  Action Office has
developed   a  draft  mine   action  plan   for  Angola,   premised  on  the
establishment  of  peaceful  conditions  under  the  terms  of  the   Lusaka
Protocol.  The plan, which is  currently being reviewed by  the Constitutive
Committee  of  INAROE, has  the  following  main  features:   (a)  extensive
surveys of mined areas; (b) public education and awareness about mines;  (c)
training of Angolans in  all aspects of mine  action; and (d) mine clearance
in priority areas.   Activities and  preparations have started up  under all
four of these components.

49.   The mine  survey programme  follows priorities  established by  UNAVEM
III, INAROE and the  Central Mine Action Office,  with the current  focus on
the  deployment  of  UNAVEM  III  peace-keepers  and  the  establishment  of
quartering  areas.   Survey  procedures  are monitored  by the  Office.   In
cooperation  with  the  Office,  Norwegian   People's  Aid  (NPA),   a  non-
governmental  organization, has  been carrying  out  a  mine survey  in four
provinces since June 1995.

50.   The  Central Mine  Action  Office  is coordinating  the mine-awareness
activities  of all United  Nations agencies  and international  and national
non-governmental  organizations.   The Office  is  also carrying  out  fund-
raising activities  for public  education and  awareness.   The main  target
groups  of  the mine-awareness  programme  are  children,  women,  peasants,
internally  displaced persons  and  refugees.    In September  1994,  UNICEF

started  a  mass  media  campaign, with  mine-awareness  spots  on  national
television.  UNICEF  continues to take the lead  role in this campaign,  for
which  it has  received  more than  US$  850,000  out  of the  $1.8  million
requested  in   its  1995  mine   action  appeal.     The   non-governmental
organization Mine Advisory  Group (MAG) is active in mineawareness  training
in the  province of Moxico and in refugee camps in Zambia and is planning to
extend its activities to the province of Lunda Sul.

51.   To date, the  training of  Angolans in  mine-clearance techniques  and
procedures has been conducted  by international NGOs.  NPA, MAG, Halo  Trust
and  Komitee Cap  Anamur  have been  in the  forefront  of this  effort  and
currently  have  a combined  total  of  approximately 250  Angolan de-miners
formed into  11 de-mining teams in  the field  under expatriate supervision.
These teams  provide mineclearance support  to humanitarian relief  projects
conducted  by   both  United   Nations  agencies   and  international   non-
governmental organizations.

52.   At  the present  time, limited  mine  clearance  is undertaken  on two
levels, by various organizations and with different  aims.  Level one, whose
objective is the deployment of the UNAVEM III peace-keeping  troops to their
areas of responsibility, entails clearance  and verification of  main supply
routes by  a mixture  of UNAVEM  III military  engineers and  FAA and  UNITA
sappers.    Level  two  is  the  humanitarian  de-mining  effort,  which  is
undertaken  by   non-governmental  organizations.    Three  non-governmental
organizations are currently active (NPA, MAG  and Halo Trust), with  another
two  possibly becoming  involved in late 1995  or early 1996.   The areas in
which the  non-governmental organizations work and  the number of  de-mining
teams that  they employ depends on  their individual  agreements with donors
and the Government of Angola.   The prevailing security situation is another
factor limiting the extent of NGO activities.


                A.  Resettlement of internally displaced persons
                    and returnees

53.  With the  opening of  roads and the main  planting season coming up  in
September, it  is  a priority  task  to  help internally  displaced  persons
return to their areas of origin,  resettle and resume productive activities.
The guidelines developed  in mid-1995 now have  to be translated  into plans
of  action for all provinces.   Mine-awareness campaigns have  to be further
expanded among  the displaced and mine  surveys and  priority mine clearance
carried out  in  their areas  of destination  in order  to avoid  accidents.
Simultaneously, wherever there  are military or security constraints on  the
return  of  displaced  persons,  efforts  have  to  be  made  to obtain  the
necessary guarantees from the two parties.

54.  A  plan to distribute seeds and  tools to displaced and other  affected
populations was prepared in July 1995.  Under the coordination of FAO,  more
than 7,000  tons of seeds  and over 1.2  million agricultural  tools will be
distributed  for the main  planting season  starting in  September.  Funding
has been secured for 85 per  cent of the plan, but  some seeds and tools may
arrive too late for this season.

55.    In June  1995,  UNHCR  signed  a Letter  of  Understanding  with  the
Government  of  Angola on  the  repatriation  of  refugees.   The  agreement
foresees the creation of a repatriation committee  responsible for promoting
and organizing the return  of the refugees and their integration in  Angola.
This repatriation programme is scheduled to start in  July 1996 and will  be
implemented over a  period of 30 months.  Approximately 300,000 Angolans are
refugees in other countries, mainly  Zaire and Zambia.  For the repatriation
exercise, UNHCR needs a total of US$ 44 million.

B.  Demobilization and reintegration

56.  According to  agreements reached between  the Government of Angola  and
UNITA in early 1995, the demobilization of troops will take place in  stages
over a period of  approximately 27 months.   The quartering of  an estimated
60,000  UNITA  soldiers  (three  months)  will  be  followed  by  the global
incorporation of all UNITA soldiers into  FAA and the phased  demobilization
and social reintegration of up to 100,000 combatants (24 months).

57.   The  humanitarian assistance  programme  prepared  for the  quartering
phase  has  the following  components:    identification  and  registration;
health care;  food assistance; provision of  relief and  survival items; and
civic training.    UCAH is  responsible for  the coordination  of all  these
activities, with the  participation of  UNITA, United  Nations agencies  and
national  and  international  nongovernmental   organizations.     Following
consultations  between  UCAH  and  the  NGO  community  in  Angola,  12 non-
governmental organizations have  been designated to  implement multisectoral
humanitarian programmes  in the  quartering areas.   These  non-governmental
organizations,  already  operating in  the  provinces  of  their  respective
quartering  areas, are  making their  final  preparations for  this  special
  58.   The quartering phase starts with the identification  of the soldier.
His name will be registered on a database,  together with information on the
community where  he wishes to be  resettled, his  educational background and
employment  expectations,   disabilities  etc.     UCAH  will  supply   this
information  to  all  concerned   government  institutions,  United  Nations
agencies  and non-governmental  organizations.   This  will  facilitate  the
monitoring  of  the  demobilization  process,   transport  and  resettlement
arrangements and follow-up in the resettlement areas.

59.  The  objective of the health programme  is to provide basic health care
to the ex-UNITA soldiers in the quartering  areas and their families  living
in the  outskirts  of  the quartering  areas.    The  target  population  is
estimated at  350,000 people.  The  programme, set up  jointly by the  UNITA
health authorities  and the  UCAH Demobilization  and Reintegration  Office,
aims  to strengthen the  capacity of  the local  health-care system, thereby
benefiting the needy populations even after  the quartering phase has ended.
Non-governmental  organizations  will   play  a  significant  role  in   the
programme.    WHO will  provide technical  assistance through  the continued
secondment  of a health  coordinator during  the implementation  phase.  WHO
will also  directly implement the  epidemiological surveillance and  control
measures for trypanosomiasis.  UNICEF will  supply kits of essential  drugs,
renewable  supplies and equipment  to be utilized  for the  set-up of health
facilities and  implementation  of the  health programme  by the  designated
non-governmental organization.

60.  The experience of past  demobilization programmes has demonstrated  the
importance of  adequate food supplies for  the soldiers  and their families.
WFP  has formulated  a daily  ration of  foodstuffs for  this purpose.    In
addition,  UNICEF has  developed special  kits (simplified  household  kits,
hygienic  kits  and  blankets) to  be  distributed  by  the non-governmental
organizations to the  soldiers and  their families at  the beginning of  the
quartering phase.

61.  The civic training programme  incorporates information about the Lusaka
Protocol,  the  ongoing  peace  process  and  the  institutions  of  Angola;
education  for  peace;  literacy  training;  and  sports  and   recreational
activities.   The  micro-programmes  will be  implemented through  the  non-
governmental organizations, with  the participation of monitors provided  by
UNITA.  Three communication  media will be used:   videos, radio  programmes
and graphic information, in Portuguese and local languages.

62.  Assessments of  proposed quartering areas are  under way. UNAVEM III is
organizing  the  construction  and  provision  of  infrastructure  for   the
quartering areas.    With the  recent  progress  made in  resolving  various
issues between the  Government and UNITA,  and the impetus  imparted by  the
visit of the Secretary-General  to Angola in mid-July, it is hoped that  the
quartering operation can start as early as the end of August 1995.

63.  Humanitarian personnel  for the quartering areas have started to arrive
in Angola.   There  will be one  UCAH Technical Officer  in each  quartering
area, who will be responsible  for coordinating all  humanitarian assistance
activities in  the area, including  the identification  and registration  of
UNITA soldiers to be carried out by United Nations Volunteers.

 64.  An Angolan  Institute for Reintegration is  being set up to strengthen
national   long-term  capacity   for   the  coordination   of  reintegration
activities. The  Institute will ensure  neutrality, autonomy and  efficiency
in  the  management  of  the  reintegration  process.   It  will  work  in a
decentralized  way, establishing provincial referral centres in resettlement
areas  with high levels  of demobilized  soldiers, and  will assign specific
functions to other Angolan institutions at  the provincial and local levels.
UNDP will  provide technical  assistance for  the reintegration  programmes,
with the Institute for Reintegration as its national counterpart.

C.  Mine action

65.   One of the main priorities in the short term is organizing the Angolan
Institute for the Removal of Explosive  Obstacles.  Local and  international
technical  assistance is needed  to build  up the  Institute's financial and
personnel  management, programming,  monitoring and  evaluation  capacities.
The immediate coordination of programmes and  activities will be carried out
by  the UCAH Central  Mine Action  Office, with control being  passed to the
Institute by  the expected  completion of the  UNAVEM III  mission in  early

66.   Nationwide mine  surveys have  to be  completed.   The most  immediate
priority is the reconnaissance of quartering areas  and the creation, at the
Central  Mine  Action  Office,  of  a  database  with  information  from the
participating organizations  (at present NPA, Halo  Trust, MAG, Komitee  Cap
Anamur and  SwedRelief).  This database  will initially show which roads and
areas are  known to  be mined, which are  thought to be mined  and which are
known to be clear of mines.

67.   The mine-awareness  activities will  be expanded.   Five international
non-governmental organizations  are now  planning mine-awareness  programmes
in the provinces  of Kwanza Norte,  Malange, Bie, Kuando Kubango,  Huila and
Benguela.   Various  Angolan   non-governmental   organizations   have  also
presented  mineawareness projects  to UCAH,  seeking  funds to  start  their
educational programmes.
68.  With regard  to the training of  Angolan de-mining personnel, steps are
being taken by UNAVEM III and the Central Mine Action Office to establish  a
national  de-mining school which  will eventually  be taken  over by INAROE.
Equipment   is  on  order  and  military  instructors  and  supervisors  are
preparing de-mining course syllabuses for the  new school, projected to open
in November 1995.

69.  Mine clearance  and verification will continue to expand in support  of
the deployment  of UNAVEM  III peace-keeping  forces, opening of  quartering
areas, access  for  humanitarian  assistance  and the  free  circulation  of
people and goods.

D.  Round-table conference

70.   Within the context  of the  peace process and to  consolidate the base
for social and  economic recovery, the Government requested UNDP  assistance
in   preparing  a  Community   Rehabilitation  and  National  Reconciliation
Programme  for  submission  to  the  donor  community.    The  Programme was
developed  with the  assistance of  UNDP teams  working an  average of three
weeks in each  province; it  is made  up of  specific provincial  programmes
aimed  at  rehabilitating  the  local production  capacity  and  the  socio-
educative framework.   The programme, which  comes to  approximately US$ 600
million,  will  be  presented at  a round-table  meeting  in Brussels  on 25

September 1995.

71.   As  part  of the  round-table  programme,  UNDP  will launch  a  major
initiative for community development.   The focus is  on creating a base for
sustainable human development  and poverty alleviation by strengthening  and
empowering  the local authorities  and civil  institutions.   The first step
will be  to  support  the  rehabilitation activities  financed  through  the
round-table meeting, with full participation of the stakeholders.

E.  Other activities

72.  The  Government started a  reform process  in 1992; unfortunately,  the
resumption of war interrupted  it.  With peace in sight, the Government  has
started negotiations  with  the International  Monetary  Fund  to set  up  a
structural  adjustment  programme.    In  the  meantime,  however,  two  key
decisions have  already been  put into  practice:   the return  to a  market
economy and  the adoption of  a debt redemption  strategy.   UNDP is putting
substantial resources into  assistance to key central government  structures
in this respect.

73.    A  national programme  for the  reform  of public  administration was
adopted in late 1994,  with special emphasis  on decentralization.  UNDP  is
supporting  this programme  with  substantial resources  both  from  special
funds  and from the country indicative planning figure  (IPF).  The strategy
is to concentrate on training and  capacity-building activities in order  to
create a  "critical mass"  of trained  reformers within  the civil  service.
Implementation is just starting.


74.  On 8  May 1995, the Secretary-General  invited Member States  and other
donors to  provide  information on  assistance  extended  to Angola  in  the
framework of  General Assembly  resolution 48/202.    Replies were  received
from the following States.


75.  Finnish contributions to Angola in 1994/95 are as follows:

  Organization          Amount (Markkaa)    Decision

  WFP       3 000 000   8 May 1994
  Finnish Red Cross/
    International Federation
    of Red Cross and Red
    Crescent Societies
    (IFRC)              300 000         7 July 1994
  Finnish Red Cross/ICRC       2 200 000         7 July 1994
  UNICEF       2 000 000         30 November 1994
      Total 1994       7 500 000

  UNICEF       2 000 000       25 April 1995
  ICRC       1 400 000         6 June 1995

76.   Finland  is also  considering a  contribution  to  the United  Nations
mineclearance programme in Angola.


77.  The  Government of Germany  has contributed the  following amounts  (in
deutsche mark) to  humanitarian programmes and food and nutrition programmes
in Angola:

         Food and nutrition  
  Year  Humanitarian programmes            programmes

  1992          789 000       7 979 273
  1993          2 154 355            6 581 657
  1994                      3 777 977            7 159 730
  1995          2 746 000            2 300 000

78.  In addition,  in 1994, the Government  sponsored a project of long-term
rehabilitation and development in the amount of 5.3 million deutsche mark.


79.   In  order to  assist with the  special programme to  support the peace
process, the Government of Italy intends  to provide financial and  material
resources in the amount of 29 billion lire through the following projects:

  (a)  Food supplements for infants in difficult circumstances;

   (b)  Support for the quartering  and social reintegration of  demobilized
soldiers, in  particular:    (i)  supply of  seed  and equipment  to  36,000
demobilized soldiers;  (ii) vocational training and provision of small loans
for 10,000 demobilized soldiers;

  (c)  Rehabilitation of economic and social infrastructures.

80.  Italy's eventual participation  in such projects will be reviewed after
the indications that emerge from  the forthcoming UNDP  round-table meeting.
The projects could  be implemented through  further use of  local funds  and
Italian food aid that can be distributed this year.

81.   Italy will  provide the  Government of  Angola with 2.65  billion lire
worth of  cereals; 2.7  billion lire  worth  of various  products; and  5.38
billion lire  worth of freeze-dried  products, for a  total amount  of 10.73
billion lire, with no possibility of  financial modifications in the  above-
mentioned subdivision of goods.


82.  During the  fiscal year 1994,  the Government of Japan provided  11,970
tons of food through WFP for persons affected by the conflict in Angola,  at
an approximate cost of US$ 5.7 million.   Japan also provided 500,000  Swiss
francs through ICRC for relief assistance to refugees.


83.   In  1994, Luxembourg  provided US$  160,731 worth  of humanitarian and
emergency assistance to Angola.


84.  The  Kingdom of Lesotho, as a  founding member of the Southern  African
Development  Community, has  some very  important responsibilities  that  it
coordinates  on  behalf  of  SADC.     Lesotho  has  always  fulfilled   its
commitments,  both financial  and otherwise,  to  the  programme of  work of

85.  While Lesotho has not been able  to extend material assistance  towards
the alleviation  of the humanitarian difficulties  in Angola,  it has always
demonstrated  its strong solidarity  with the  Government and  the people of
Angola in  coping with  the difficult  situation that confronts  them.   The

Minister  for  Foreign  Affairs  of  Lesotho  was  part  of  the  high-level
representation  from  the  Organization  of  African  Unity  that  presented
Angola's  case to the  Security Council  in February  1995 when  the Council
took up the question of UNAVEM III.


86.   In 1995, programmes  amounting to 662,426,000 pesetas  will be carried
out  in   the  following   sectors:     health,  education,   infrastructure
rehabilitation, equipment and food aid.

87.   At the  same time, more than  600 million pesetas will  be provided to
non-governmental  organizations for  education  projects and  assistance  to
displaced persons and refugees.


88.   Below is a list  of contributions, in  cash and in kind,  of the Swiss
Confederation to the population in need in Angola:


To  the Igreja  Evangelica do  Sudoeste  in Benguela,  for the  purchase  of
fabric and used clothes, and for the Kalukembe Hospital:  100,000

To  the International  Committee of  the  Red Cross,  for the  emergency aid
programme,  the purchase  of 1,900  tons of  maize  for  the victims  of the
conflict, seeds,  agricultural equipment, and the  financing of  900 tons of
beans:  3,510,000

To the  Swiss Red Cross, for goods  for the population in need in the Huambo
region:  150,000

To  UNICEF,  for the  emergency aid  programme,  water supply  -Kuito/Kunje:

  To Caritas:  85,250.90

    Total contributions (in cash and in kind):  4,845,250.90

1995 (as of 31 May)

To the  Igreja Evangelica  do Sudoeste in  Benguela, for the  building of  a
small logistics base to be used for medical activities in the  south-western
part of the country:  50,000

To the  Luanda development workshop,  for the peri-urban emergency programme
in water and sanitation in Luanda:  200,000

 To  the  International Committee  of  the  Red Cross  at  Geneva,  for  the
emergency appeal in 1995:  1,000,000

To the Igreja Evangelica do Sudoeste in Benguela,  for the purchase of Swiss
milk products for distribution to needy persons:  300,000

    Total contributions (in cash and in kind):  1,550,000


89.  The signing of the  Lusaka Protocol has sparked hopes  for a new era of
peace  and  reconstruction  in  Angola.    The  international  community, by

providing  massive humanitarian  assistance during  the civil  conflict  and
fielding a  peace-keeping operation in support  of the  Lusaka Protocol, has
demonstrated  remarkable solidarity  with  the  people  of Angola  in  their
aspirations for a secure  and prosperous future.   The parties to the  peace
agreement bear  a heavy responsibility for  avoiding tensions and  conflicts
that could undermine those aspirations.

90.  Through its monitoring and verification  activities, as provided in the
Lusaka  Protocol, UNAVEM is playing  a pivotal role in  the consolidation of
the  peace  process  in  Angola.    Its  efforts  in  facilitating  national
reconciliation  and in  fostering mutual  trust between  the Angolan parties
have contributed to creating  an environment in  which the goal of  economic
and social rehabilitation can  be pursued.  It  is expected that the ongoing
deployment  of   United  Nations  infantry  units   will  help  to   further
consolidate that environment.

91.  The economic rehabilitation of  Angola presents a formidable  challenge
to  the Angolan people, their  leaders and the  international community.  It
is generally believed that the 1992-1994  conflict has been more devastating
for the  country than  all  the previous  years of  war  put  together.   As
previously inaccessible areas are visited  and assessed, the overall picture
that is  emerging is  one of  destitution, massive  destruction of  physical
infrastructure and  severe disruption  of socio-economic  activities.   This
dismal picture is compounded by the  large number of war-mutilated Angolans,
the current estimate being  70,000.  The extent  of pollution by  land-mines
and unexploded ordnance, already formidable in  1991, has further  increased
and  will  affect  productive  activities  and  the  lives  of  thousands of
Angolans  for decades.    Only  with lasting  peace will  Angola be  able to
surmount  the present  dependency  on humanitarian  assistance and  resume a
course of socio-economic development.



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