United Nations

A/50/422


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

21 September 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session

Item 98 (e) of the provisional

  agenda*



     * A/50/150.





      ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:  IMPLEMENTATION OF THE

      OUTCOME OF THE GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

                     OF SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES



        Action taken by the organs, organizations and bodies of the

        United Nations system to implement the Programme of Action

        for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing

                                 States



                    Report of the Secretary-General





                                CONTENTS



                                                         Paragraphs  Page



INTRODUCTION ..............................................  1 - 4    3



      A. Background .......................................  1 - 2    3



      B. Methodology and structure of the report ..........  3 - 4    3



 I.   PLANS AND PROGRAMMES ................................. 5 - 164  4



      A. United Nations ...................................  5 - 66   4



      B. Funds and programmes ............................. 67 - 84  17



      C. Specialized agencies ............................. 85 - 138 21



      D. Regional commissions .............................139 - 164 32



II.   INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ..........................165 - 191 38



      A. United Nations ...................................165 - 169 38



      B. Funds and programmes .............................170 - 173 39



      C. Specialized agencies .............................174 - 186 40



      D. Regional commissions .............................187 - 191 42



III.  CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS .............................192 - 198 43



Annex.  List of organizations that responded to the request for 

        inputs to the present report...............................  46





                                 INTRODUCTION





                                A.  Background



1.   The Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small

Island Developing States was held in Bridgetown, Barbados from 26

April to 6 May 1994.  The General Assembly, at its forty-ninth session

considered the Conference under agenda item 89 (e) and in its

resolution 49/122 endorsed the outcomes of the Conference, including

the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small

Island Developing States. 1/ 



2.   In the same resolution, the Assembly requested the Secretary-

General, among other things, to report to the General Assembly at its

fiftieth session on action taken by the organs, organizations and

bodies of the United Nations system to implement the Programme of

Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing

States, and in that regard also to invite those organs, organizations

and bodies of the United Nations system that had not already done so

to consider the establishment of focal points and other similar

mechanisms to enable them to respond effectively in the implementation

of the Programme of Action.  The present report has been prepared in

response to that request.  As requested in paragraph 128 of the

Programme of Action, a similar report (A/49/425 and Add.1) was

submitted to the General Assembly at its forty-ninth session; The

present report represents an incremental update and does not repeat

any information that is already contained in the previous report. 





                  B.  Methodology and structure of the report



3.   In order to gather the information needed to prepare the report,

the Secretariat invited the organizations and bodies of the United

Nations system to provide information on measures taken to implement

the Programme of Action, and requested those that had not already done

so at the time of the preparation of the previous report to also

provide information on any specific institutional arrangements they

had put in place to implement the Programme of Action.  A majority of

the organizations that were approached responded to the Secretariat's

request; they are listed in the annex.  A number of organizations and

bodies that were not covered in the previous report have since

responded with information and are thus covered in the present report

for the first time.



4.   The report is divided into three chapters:  chapter I provides

details of the plans and programmes adopted by the organizations and

bodies of the United Nations system to implement the Programme of

Action; chapter II reviews the institutional arrangements either

already in place or envisaged to support such implementation; and

chapter III presents a few concluding observations.  Information on

specific projects that seem to have implications for programme

development and refinement, except for pilot and other experimental

projects,  is contained in an addendum (A/50/422/Add.1).





                           I.  PLANS AND PROGRAMMES



                              A.  United Nations



              1.  Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable

                  Development



5.   The Programme of Action for the Sustainable  Development of Small

Island Developing States, in paragraph 123, assigns the Department for

Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United Nations

Secretariat with the primary task of providing secretariat support for

facilitating its effective implementation. 



6.   The Department has focused its attention simultaneously on

establishing the appropriate institutional mechanisms for effecting

coordination, monitoring and review of the implementation process;

monitoring the substantive implementation of the Programme of Action;

preparing statutory reports for the General Assembly and the

Commission on Sustainable Development; and organizing expert group

meetings on specific issues on the sustainable development of small

island developing States, as called for in General Assembly

resolutions 49/122 and 49/100, and/or the Programme of Action.



7.   The above-mentioned tasks are carried out by the Small Island

Developing States Unit of the Department's Division for Sustainable

Development.  Regarding system-wide coordination, the Department has

drawn the attention of the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable

Development (IACSD) to the work arising from the Programme of Action. 

At its sixth meeting (Geneva, 12-14 July 1995), IACSD gave

consideration to the matter, in keeping with paragraph 122 of the

Programme of Action.  Upon the recommendations of the Department,

IACSD decided on mechanisms for such coordination.  IACSD endorsed the

recommendations of the Department for the inclusion of substantive

aspects of the Programme of Action in the established inter-agency

mechanisms for reporting to the Commission on Sustainable Development

on the implementation of Agenda 21. 2/  IACSD decided to extend the

existing system of task managers to include the coverage of all

substantive areas of the Programme of Action that coincide with the

specific themes of Agenda 21, and requested task managers to include a

separate section on small island developing States in their respective

reports.  In addition, new task managers were designated for areas of

the Programme of Action not covered by Agenda 21, namely, tourism,

maritime transport, air transport, energy resources, natural and

environmental disasters, and telecommunications.



8.   The Department will continue in its role of liaison with IACSD

task managers and focal points within organizations and bodies of the

United Nations system in ensuring system-wide implementation and

coordination of the Programme of Action as well as in the preparation

and monitoring of all reports for submission to the General Assembly,

the Commission on Sustainable Development and other relevant

intergovernmental bodies.      



9.   The institutional modalities for coordination at the regional

level have also been addressed with the involvement of the Department. 

Meetings to discuss the critical issues of coordination and the

determination of priorities were convened by the Economic and Social

Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP):  Meeting of the Special

Body on Pacific Island Developing Countries (20-21 April 1995), and by

the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC): 

Caribbean Meeting of Experts on the Implementation of the Programme of

Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing

States (17-19 May 1995).  At those meetings, the Department provided

briefings on the issues and work arising from the Programme of Action.



10.  The Department convened a meeting of member States of the Alliance

of Small Island States (AOSIS) and representatives of relevant United

Nations and non-United Nations organizations and bodies on 8 May 1995,

at which the issues of implementation, coordination and the setting of

immediate priorities were discussed.



11.  The Department has undertaken the preparation of a publication

entitled Selected Sources of Funding for Environmental Projects

Accessible to AOSIS Member States, for use by Governments and other

interested groups or organizations; Selected Sources will be issued

shortly as a United Nations publication, and will be revised and

updated in the future as additional information becomes available.



12.  In addition to the present report, the Department, acting on a

mandate contained in paragraph 120 of the Programme of Action, has

initiated the preparation of a report on current donor activities in

support of the sustainable development of small island developing

States, for submission by the Secretary-General to the Commission on

Sustainable Development at its fourth session, when the Commission

will conduct an initial review of progress achieved in the

implementation of the Programme of Action, preparations for which have

been initiated by the Department through IACSD.  The Department will

prepare that report in collaboration with the Development Assistance

Committee of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

(OECD) and other United Nations bodies.  



13.  As part of the preparation of thematic reports for the above-

mentioned session, the Department has undertaken to prepare, in

collaboration with UNEP, a comprehensive report on the sustainable

development of tourism in small island developing States. 



14.  An issue of considerable importance to small island developing

States and specifically requested in the Programme of Action is the

development and construction of a vulnerability index.  Work is

currently under way in the Department to convene, in collaboration

with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD),

a meeting of experts from within and outside the United Nations system

on approaches to the index.  The conclusions and recommendations of

that expert group meeting will also be submitted to the fourth session

of the Commission.  Actual construction of the index will begin

thereafter, taking into account the recommendations of the Commission.



15.  The Department plans to begin work on the compilation of an

information database on small island developing States for use by task

managers and other interested parties, to be linked with similar

databases held by other organizations. 



16.  An important facet of the work of the Department in its monitoring

and coordination activities concerns the involvement of a number of

major non-governmental organizations in the implementation of the

Programme of Action.  The Department has established a dialogue with

several major non-governmental organizations regarding their specific

activities, which range from the convening of seminars and conferences

on selective aspects of the Programme of Action to actual

implementation of specific provisions of the Programme of Action.





            2.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development



17.  UNCTAD continues to carry out the activities reported previously

(see  A/49/425 and Add.1); planned activities reported therein are

also currently under implementation. 



18.  As indicated previously (see A/49/425), UNCTAD will undertake

further activities - in the areas of science and technology, human

resource development, regional economic cooperation, institutional

capacity-building, and measurement of the vulnerability of small

island developing countries - when its capacity is strengthened, as

recommended in paragraph 127 of the Programme of Action.  



19.  The General Assembly, in its resolution 49/100, invited the

Commission on Sustainable Development to convene, during its session

in 1996, a high-level panel to discuss the challenges faced by island

developing countries, particularly in the area of external trade, and

to assist the Commission in its review of the implementation of the

Programme of Action.  The panel is to be organized by UNCTAD, in

cooperation with the Department for Policy Coordination and

Sustainable Development.





                   3.  United Nations Environment Programme



20.  The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has incorporated

many of the special needs and vulnerabilities of small island

developing States into its 1996-1997 work programme, which was adopted

at the eighteenth session of the UNEP Governing Council, in May 1995.



21.  More specifically, in its decision 18/34 on small island

developing States, the Council welcomed the action already taken by

the Executive Director, including the establishment of a focal point

and task force within UNEP to coordinate UNEP activities relevant to

the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small

Island Developing States; urged the Executive Director to ensure that,

in implementing the work programme agreed by the Council, appropriate

attention be given to the needs and vulnerabilities of small island

developing States; and encouraged an integrated approach within UNEP

to addressing issues of relevance to small island developing States

through the effective use and involvement of the Task Force in both

programme and policy development. 



22.  The 1996-1997 UNEP work programme gives priority to translating

the  Programme of Action into mechanisms that can help small island

developing States put in place policies and strategies to achieve

sustainable economic and human development.  While still undergoing

further development and review, the work programme has identified the

following programme elements in which special consideration will be

given to small island developing States:  (a) caring for freshwater,

coastal and marine environments, and (b) caring for biological

resources.  



23.  UNEP recognizes that the development challenges being faced by

small island developing States can only be tackled through an

integrated approach to the management of human activities and their

supporting resource base.  UNEP and the United Nations Centre for

Human Settlements (Habitat) will continue to make a joint effort to

promote integrated island management in small island developing

States, while developing closer ties with the programmes of other

United Nations bodies that have similar goals.



24.  Current and planned UNEP activities and programmes are set out

below within each of the priority areas of the Programme of Action. 

Only information additional to that contained in the previous report

(A/49/425) is listed here. Previously reported UNEP activities will in

general continue but at reduced funding levels, due to an overall

reduction in the Environment Fund.



(a)  Climate change and sealevel rise



25.  UNEP co-sponsored with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.  It prepared a special

report for the Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention

on Climate Change in 1995, and a second assessment report will become

available later in 1995.  The information provided through the Panel

should be of considerable value to small island developing States,

particularly information on the vulnerability of States to sealevel

rise and its impacts.  The reports provide essential information to

enable the development of effective adaptive strategies.



26.  A special project on climate change impacts and adaptations

assessment will be initiated in Antigua and Barbuda.  The following

activities will be undertaken:  (a) a country-wide vulnerability

assessment; (b) in-depth studies in areas and sectors identified as

particularly vulnerable; and (c) identification and testing of

adaptation options.  This activity will assist other small island

developing States in formulating comprehensive strategies and measures

to facilitate their adaptation to climate change and sealevel rise

through the development of management tools and plans.  



27.  Current and planned UNEP activities within this priority area also

include: (a) a number of country and site-specific case studies in the

south-west Pacific, Indo-East African and Caribbean subregions on the

vulnerability of selected small island developing States to the

effects of climate change and sealevel rise and their socio-economic

implications; and (b) the development and application of a

decision-support system that will allow policy analysts to anticipate,

explore and counter the risks associated with climate change and

sealevel rise in small island developing States. 



(b)  Natural and environmental disasters



28.  The joint UNEP/Habitat Task Force on the Continuum from Relief to

Development will continue to address a wide range of disaster-related

issues in the natural and man-made environments, including many that

are of particular concern to small island developing States such as

their peculiar vulnerability factors.  UNEP is working with

subregional bodies, such as the South Pacific Regional Environment

Programme (SPREP), the South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme

and the Caribbean Environment Programme, to promote improved hazard-

risk mapping (landslide, flood prone areas etc.) as a means to plan

and prepare for the effects of disasters.



(c)  Management of wastes



29.  New activities that are presently being considered within the

context of the 1996-1997 UNEP work programme include:  (a) preparation

of a handbook on cleaner production in small island developing States

aimed at raising awareness and providing information and concrete

examples on cleaner production technology solutions, and (b) train the

trainer workshops on environmental management systems for small island

developing States.  Activities under this priority area will

complement similar activities under the priority areas "Coastal and

marine resources" and "Freshwater resources". 



(d)  Coastal and marine resources



30.  Building upon earlier activities and based on qualitative and

quantitative assessments of the coastal and marine pollution loads

from land-based sources in the eastern African subregion, including

the Comoros and Seychelles, the planned development of a regional

overview and strategy will lead to the implementation of various

additional activities, such as monitoring programmes.  A coastal

profile for Grand Comoros is currently in preparation that will result

in the development of an integrated coastal area strategy by the end

of 1995.  Within the context of the 1996-1997 UNEP work programme, it

is anticipated that the Comoros will comprise demonstration or pilot

projects in integrated island management.  The demonstration projects

will be closely linked to similar activities under the priority area

entitled "Freshwater resources".



31.  The environmental assessment and information management activities

previously reported now include the development of a geographical

analysis laboratory within the University of the South Pacific.  This

will support the development of data analysis and applications skills

in the western Pacific.  The geographical analysis skills,

environmental information systems and state-of-the-environment

assessment activities identified under this priority area are also

relevant to the following priority areas:  "Freshwater resources",

"Land resources", "Tourism resources", "Biodiversity resources",

"National institutions and administrative capacity" and "Regional

institutions and technical cooperation".



(e)  Freshwater resources



32.  UNEP activities within this priority area will be expanded to

include a greater number of diagnostic studies on small island

developing States and action planning for the environmentally sound

integrated management of freshwater resources within the context of

sustainable development.  Recognizing the real linkages between the

fresh and marine waters of small island developing States and the

integrating role of the hydrological cycle, pollution control and

resource management activities associated with freshwater will

complement similar activities under the priority areas "Coastal and

marine resources" and "National institutions and administrative

capacity".



(f)  Land resources



33.  UNEP, jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the

United Nations (FAO), the South Pacific Institute for Research,

Extension and Training in Agriculture, and SPREP, plans - subject to

the availability of resources - to implement a project for providing

small island developing States of the South Pacific subregion with

improved knowledge for natural resources appraisal and ecosystem

analysis, using the World Soil and Terrain Digital Database/

Geographical Information System.  In cooperation with Habitat and the

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UNEP is coordinating

activities in the Caribbean in the area of environmental information

management, specifically geographic information system development,

for environmentally sustainable land use planning and settlements

development.   



(g)  Tourism resources



34.  New activities that are presently being considered within the

context of the 1996-1997 UNEP work programme include:  (a) training

workshops on environmental management of hotels, and (b) training

workshops on environmentally sound forms of tourism development. 

These would be based on existing programmes that will be modified to

meet the special needs and vulnerabilities of small island developing

States.  Other activities related to tourism are included under

"Coastal and marine resources" and "Freshwater resources". 



(h)  Regional institutions and technical cooperation



35.  Ongoing UNEP activities in this area will include the control of

land-based sources of pollution that degrade their waters in the

programme priorities for 1995 of the International Waters Strategy of

the Global Environment Facility (GEF), of which UNEP, UNDP and the

World Bank are implementing agencies.  This could be an important step

in helping UNEP and other agencies address problems in small island

developing States.  



36.  In the programme areas "Energy resources", "Biodiversity

resources", "Science and technology", "Human resource development" and

"National institutions and administrative capacity", UNEP activities

will continue unchanged (see A/49/425).  Additional information on

specific UNEP activities in the area of national institutions and

administrative capacity is included in an addendum (A/50/422/Add.1).



                4.  United Nations Centre for Human Settlements



37.  Habitat gives the highest priority to supporting the efforts of

small island developing States to elaborate strategies for the

integrated management of their economic and social activities, natural

resources and environment. Habitat research and development activities

focus on the formulation and application of planning and management

instruments in key areas of small island developing States'

development, such as land use and settlements planning; infrastructure

provision; waste minimization and pollution control; and natural and

environmental disaster mitigation.  A substantial part of Habitat capacity-

 building and direct support capability on settlements issues is

directed to technical cooperation activities in small island

developing States.  Habitat is particularly active in the execution of

technical support programmes in the  countries of the Caribbean and

Pacific subregions.



38.  Issues related to sustainable settlements development in small

island developing States are being considered in the preparatory

process for the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements

(Habitat II), scheduled to be held in Istanbul in June 1996.  Those

issues will represent an important component of the declaration of

principles and global plan of action to be adopted at Habitat II.



(a)  Climate change and sealevel rise



39.  Habitat is collaborating with UNEP in the preparation of case

studies and training materials on the impact of climate change on

coastal populations and human settlements.  Selected small island

developing States will participate in the initial activities of the

project, which focus on the Indo-East African subregion.  It is

expected that the successful completion of the project could lead to

the execution of a wider capacity-building programme in other regions

and small island developing States.



(b)  Natural and environmental disasters



40.  Habitat is providing support to several Caribbean small island

developing States in the application of building codes and standards

especially designed for seismic and hurricane-prone areas.  General

codes and standards developed under an earlier Habitat programme are

now being applied to specific Caribbean countries as part of a

collaborative programme with the Organization of American States and

the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS).



41.  Following the creation of the Habitat UNEP/Task Force on the

Continuum from Relief to Development, Habitat is establishing a

disaster management unit to support its operational activities related

to disaster prevention and rehabilitation in the area of human

settlements.  Particular issues related to the vulnerability of small

island developing States to natural and technological disasters will

be addressed by the activities of the unit.

 

(c)  Management of wastes



42.  Habitat is executing several field research activities on

municipal solid-waste management in developing countries.  Pilot

projects take into account the specific characteristics of small

island developing States in relation to waste generation and disposal,

fragile ecosystems, limited resource base, geographical isolation and

scarce human resources.  Strategies for sustainable resource

utilization and recovery, as well as for waste minimization, are

integral components of such activities.  In order to develop and

maximize the utilization of indigenous capacities, pilot projects

focus on the promotion of private-sector and community participation

in waste management.



43.  The regional offices of the Urban Management Programme (UMP) are

actively promoting the execution of national consultations on

sanitation and environmental infrastructure services in small island

developing States.  The UMP office for Latin America and the Caribbean

has made an evaluation of solid-waste management needs in the

Caribbean, and it is programming the execution of follow-up national

consultations.  The UMP regional office for Asia and the Pacific is

supporting Pacific island States in the execution of national

consultations on urban management and environmental sanitation.



44.  As a result of their review of waste management conditions in

small island developing States, Habitat and UNEP have initiated the

formulation of a proposal for a global project on waste minimization

and pollution prevention in small island developing States.  The

proposal emphasises, inter alia, the strengthening of regional and

national capacities and institutions for waste minimization and

pollution control; the introduction of monitoring and auditing

techniques; technology transfer and the production of information

referral instruments; and the development of management tools through

field applications.  It is envisaged that the final proposal will be

submitted for GEF funding.



(d)  Coastal and marine resources



45.  Habitat is collaborating with UNEP on the formulation of

integrated plans for settlements and coastal zone management in Saint

Vincent and the Grenadines. The project is developing guidelines and

management tools for the incorporation of marine and coastal zone

considerations into settlements planning.  It is expected that the

management instruments to be developed by the project will be

replicated in other small island developing States.



(e)  Land resources



46.  Habitat has a broad programme of operational activities in support

of small island developing States for the formulation and application

of land-use and management plans, and land development control

instruments and legislation. Habitat technical cooperation programmes

consider land-use planning as an integral component of overall

environmental and national development management. Habitat is in the

process of expanding its programme on human settlements and related

environmental management issues in the Caribbean in collaboration with

OECS, the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and UNDP.  The new programme

puts emphasis on strengthening the linkages between natural resources

and environmental management and the planning of land use and

settlements for social and economic activities.



(f)  Tourism resources



47.  The dramatic increase of tourism in small island developing States

is rapidly changing traditional development patterns and is exerting

additional pressure on their resource base and the environment. 

Habitat operational activities support the formulation of land-use and

settlement development plans in Caribbean small island States, giving

special attention to the effect of tourism on land use, settlement

planning and infrastructure requirements.



(g)  National institutions and administrative capacity



48.  Current and planned Habitat operational activities in small island

developing States aim to build the capacity of national institutions

in formulating land-use and settlements development plans, development

control and the application of management information systems. 

Habitat projects are giving increasing attention to strengthening the

capacity of local authorities (municipalities) to perform such

functions. 



49.  Consultations with local stakeholders in settlement development

are an integral part of Habitat technical assistance programmes. 

National consultations aim to increase settlements' efficiency by

promoting the participation of the private sector and communities in

management processes.  Efforts are also being made to establish

institutional coordination mechanisms for the integration of land-use

and settlement planning in overall environmental and national

development management.



(h)  Regional institutions and technical cooperation



50.  Current and planned Habitat activities include collaboration with

regional institutions in the Caribbean region, namely, CARICOM and

OECS, as well as research and academic institutions, through regional

and subregional programmes in human settlements planning and

management.  Habitat is also collaborating with other regional bodies,

ESCAP, ECLAC and OAS in the execution of technical cooperation

activities in small island developing States.



(i)  Science and technology



51.  Habitat has established a significant in-house capacity to support

countries in developing and applying technical instruments for land-

use and settlement planning.  Geographical information systems (GIS),

visual information systems for settlement planning and indicators for

human settlement management are some of the technologies developed by

Habitat and currently being disseminated and applied in small island

developing States as part of its operational activities.



(j)  Human resources development



52.  Habitat operational activities in this priority area cover

advanced training programmes extended through fellowships and

attachments, workshops, seminars and consultations on settlement

planning and integrated island development management.  Given the

limited human resource base of small island developing States, Habitat

promotes the strengthening of regional training institutions and

horizontal exchange as key elements of its human resource development

activities.





             5.  International Research and Training Institute for the

                 Advancement of Women



53.  In 1993, the International Research and Training Institute for the

Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) prepared a training module on the theme

"Women and waste management".  This module provides an integrated

approach to water supply, sanitation and waste management, and women's

role in the organization and management of waste management programmes

and projects.  The module contains examples of successful experiences

of women's role in waste management schemes in various countries,

including small island developing States.



54.  In the area of "Freshwater resources", INSTRAW, in collaboration

with the former Department for Technical Cooperation and Development

of the United Nations Secretariat and the International Labour

Organization (ILO)/Turin Centre in Italy, prepared in 1991 a

multimedia training package on the theme "Women, water supply and

sanitation".  This training package provides a new approach to the

organization and management of water supply through participation in

the planning, technical operations, maintenance, assessment and

implementation of water supply and sanitation projects. 



55.  INSTRAW has also given priority to promoting women's participation

in new and renewable sources of energy, in accordance with the

priority area "Energy resources".  In 1990, the Institute, in

cooperation with the ILO/Turin Centre, prepared a training package on

the theme "Women and new and renewable sources of energy".  The

training package aims to promote the integration of women's needs and

their participation in energy project planning and implementation,

paying special attention to the development and use of new and

renewable sources of energy.  From 1990 to date, seven national,

regional and international training seminars have been held.



56.  Following the United Nations Conference on Environment and

Development (UNCED), the Institute's programme has responded more

directly to the guidelines and recommendations of the Conference. 

Environmental challenges are considered within the framework of

combating poverty; hunger and disease; ensuring better access to

education and health care; and productive resources, such as water,

energy and environmentally sound technologies.  For example, in 1994,

INSTRAW prepared a comprehensive training manual on women,

environmental management and sustainable development".  The aim of

this manual is to assist policy makers and development officials in

enabling more participatory roles for women in sustainable development

and environmental management, and to establish multisectoral and

multidisciplinary linkages between women, sustainable development and

environmental matters.  The manual contains four modules on (a) women

and environmental health; (b) women as agents of change in the

development sector; (c) women as managers of the environment; and (d)

women, environmental indicators and capacity-building programmes.



57.  Although INSTRAW research and training activities under the above-

mentioned areas are of world-wide scope, its main recommendations and

the analyses and strategies that they propose can be applied to the

environmental and developmental problems facing small island

developing States.  In its 1996-1998 work programme, INSTRAW will seek

special funds for conducting training in small island developing

States.  





                         6.  United Nations University



58.  The United Nations University (UNU) has established the Small

Islands Network to strengthen and link research related to small

islands.  The Network involves the academic community.  As an

autonomous organization, UNU tackles difficult problems in close

cooperation with the universities of the world, and develops research

and training programmes to deal with the latest issues in sustainable

small island development.  The functions of the Small Islands Network

are the following:



     (a) To network the global academic community and link scholars so

as to strengthen the academic role in the sustainable development

process, by fostering increased interaction among interested scholars

and organizations for the purposes of promoting research, training and

the dissemination of information related to small islands; 



     (b) To integrate research on small islands and sustainable

development under the auspices of a global network of scholars, reduce

research overlap and promote collaboration in research efforts, where

possible;



     (c) To create a small islands information base to act as a point

source directory of scholars, organizations and research findings

pertaining to small islands and sustainable development;



     (d) To disseminate and provide information to responsible United

Nations and government bodies, as well as policy makers, official

development assistance (ODA)-related donor and recipient Governments,

corporations, and non-governmental organizations, for effective

environmental management, risk management and government strategies

for sustainable development at the global, regional and local levels; 



     (e) To run electronic seminars and develop a body of scholars

that can act as a global think tank to test and provide scholarly

input to new ideas, concepts, issues, research proposals and

development projects related to small island development issues.



59.  Research and training activities incorporate regional and global

perspectives, with an overall focus on environmental management and

governance.  The objective of Network activities is to provide

research methodologies and training for the purposes of developing,

supporting and promoting comprehensive and integrated development

policy planning and management.  Impetus for the proposed set of

activities to be implemented by UNU was derived from an examination of

the lines of action recommended in Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the

Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island

Developing States.  Network activities will centre on three major

thematic areas:





                                       I



                 Appropriate technology transfer and training



         As a first step, UNU will accumulate data and technology

     available in Okinawa, Japan, to see what technology is available

     for small islands and how that technology may be transferred,

     including through ODA.  To that end, UNU will liaise with the UNEP

     Environmental Technology Transfer Centre at Osaka, especially in

     the area of water technology.  



         As a second step, UNU will encourage the development and

     implementation of the zero emissions concept to technological

     transfer and development.  This builds on the Zero Emissions

     project of UNU, and focuses primarily on beer brewing and sugar

     industry restructuring.  



                                      II



                     Sustainable management of ecosystems



         UNU maintains major programmes in land management and natural

     disaster risk management, which will be extended to small islands. 

     In particular, its work in responding to the needs of the

     International Decade for National Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) has

     particular applications for small islands.  The approach will

     focus on training the trainers and risk preparedness.  



                                      III



                       Environmental law and governance



         Environmental governance is a major area in which UNU is

     undertaking work within its environmental programme.  The project

     being developed focuses primarily on the Pacific Islands, and is

     concerned with designing new frameworks for regional cooperation

     among small islands to promote sustainable development.  In

     particular, mechanisms for cooperation among the islands in

     tourism, fisheries, energy, population/migration and export/import

     management are of key concern.  UNU will work with key

     institutional bodies in the region in this area.



60.  The above-mentioned activities are rounded out by the inclusion of

two further related areas for action by UNU: 



     (a) Academic capacity-building and education, which is concerned

with supporting the development and capacity-building of academic

institutions to effectively educate in environmental issues; 



     (b) A small island forums series, concerned with promoting

regional economic cooperation and the effective utilization of

resources for sustainable development. 



61.  While focusing on the academic community, the UNU Small Islands

Network will include a public education function by informing local

non-governmental organizations of research efforts and their results

through electronic and audio-visual and other means.





             7.  International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction/

                 Department of Humanitarian Affairs



62.  The Department of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations

Secretariat was entrusted, in General Assembly resolution 46/182, with

the task of strengthening and making more effective the collective

efforts of the international community, particularly those of the

United Nations system, in providing humanitarian assistance.  The

Emergency Relief Coordinator, as Under-Secretary-General for

Humanitarian Affairs, directs the Department's efforts to ensure both

a rapid, integrated and effective international response to

humanitarian emergencies, and the implementation of measures for

disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation.



63.  In order to give particular attention to the aspects of natural

disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness related to the

Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island

Developing States, the Department will serve as task manager for this

issue and will prepare a report for the Commission on Sustainable

Development through its focal point, the Director of the IDNDR

secretariat, in close collaboration with WMO and in cooperation with

other interested organizations.



64.  The IDNDR secretariat within the Department of Humanitarian

Affairs works with countries to reduce their vulnerability to

disasters.  Guided by its 25-member Scientific and Technical

Committee, and promoted at the national level by national committees

and focal points, the objective of IDNDR is to increase international

cooperation to reduce the loss of life, economic damage and social

disruption that disasters can cause.  The concerted inter-agency

approach of the United Nations system to IDNDR is being ensured by the

Inter-Agency Committee on IDNDR and its working group.



65.  The Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action (A/CONF.172/9, chap. I,

resolution 1, annex I) adopted by the World Conference on Natural

Disaster Reduction in May 1994, as well as subsequent resolutions of

the forty-ninth session of the General Assembly including resolution

49/22 A, and the substantive session of 1995 of the Economic and

Social Council, have emphasized the particular challenge that natural

disasters pose for small island developing States.  They point to the

specific need for international cooperation in support of the concrete

reduction of vulnerability to natural hazards as an indispensable

component for sustainable development.



66.  The South Pacific Programme Office of the Department of

Humanitarian Affairs is implementing the South Pacific Disaster

Reduction Programme.  This is a four-year regional programme being

implemented in 15 Pacific island countries. The programme started in

May 1994 and is funded by UNDP and eight bilateral donors.  The

programme provides training and technical assistance to Governments

and non-governmental organizations; produces materials, such as

guidelines and manuals; helps to develop and implement national

disaster mitigation and preparedness programmes; and facilitates

regional cooperation and coordination in disaster management.  The

Department also carries out missions to assist small island developing

States in improving disaster management organizations and starting up

disaster mitigation projects.  Recent missions were undertaken to Cape

Verde and Papua New Guinea.





                           B.  Funds and programmes



                   1.  United Nations Development Programme



(a)  A framework for cooperation on implementation of the Programme of

     Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing

     States



67.  On the basis of UNDP consultations with the small island

developing States, particularly with AOSIS and relevant subregional

and regional United Nations bodies, it was felt that the

implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable

Development of Small Island Developing States could be maximized

through the establishment of a clear framework for cooperation among

all the development partners involved in the process.  That framework

will strive to promote coherence and to realign, as appropriate,

relevant ongoing activities at all levels in support of the objectives

of the Programme of Action, while  focusing on unmet priority needs in

technical cooperation, with particular emphasis on capacity-building

under the 14 priority areas of the Programme of Action.  While the

main responsibility for the creation of such a framework should reside

with small island developing States themselves since they are

primarily responsible for the implementation of the Programme of

Action, UNDP will none the less seek to facilitate that creation. 



(b)  Development of the Small Island Developing States Technical

     Assistance Programme Information Network



68.  In paragraphs 9 (a) and 9 (b) of General Assembly resolution

49/122 of 19 December 1994, the Assembly requested the further

development of the small island developing States technical assistance

programme (SIDS/TAP) and the small island developing States

information network (SIDS/NET), on which UNDP had prepared feasibility

studies, on the basis of continuing consultations with small island

developing States and other interested parties - including in regard

to SIDS/NET relevant small island developing States technical experts -

 so as to determine the most effective means for their implementation. 

In paragraph 8 of the same resolution, the Assembly endorsed the

request of the Global Conference that UNDP continue to carry out its

lead agency mandate under Agenda 21 to organize the United Nations

system in the area of capacity-building for the sustainable

development of small island developing States at all levels, national,

regional and interregional, particularly through its network of

country offices. 



Small island developing States technical assistance programme:  a

central element of the strategy



69.  At the subregional, regional and interregional levels, the small

island developing States technical assistance programme that is being

developed represents an important instrument, particularly in regard

to the use of technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC)

mechanisms for furthering the implementation of the Programme of

Action.  SIDS/TAP is designed to facilitate the exchange and transfer

of experiences, knowledge, policies and practices among small island

developing States intraregionally and interregionally, and between

small island developing States and other countries to enhance the

quality and broaden the choice of sustainable development approaches

of small island developing States. 



70.  In the context of SIDS/TAP, UNDP has initiated activities to carry

out assessment-cum-project formulation exercises in the various small

island developing States subregions.  These are designed to identify

unmet priorities in technical cooperation, with particular emphasis on

capacity-building, and to formulate TCDC-based technical cooperation

activities to address those priorities.  Such exercises, which should

be completed before the end of the year, involve appropriate experts

from within the regions and from national and regional institutions. 

They will follow a careful process of consultation with all

stakeholders to ensure support for the priorities identified.  The

objective is to develop an inventory of small island developing States

priorities in the various subregions for the purpose of mobilizing

support and funding for their realization.  



71.  In keeping with the request of operative paragraph 9 (a) of the

above-mentioned resolution, UNDP has been collecting, over the last

several months, data relevant to the preparation of a directory of

institutions and scholars with expertise on small island developing

States.  The collection of this information has involved the concerned

UNDP country offices, which have engaged national expertise to

undertake the gathering of relevant data for the purpose.  The

directory will be substantially completed by the end of the current

calendar year.  When completed, it will be made available in hard copy

and will also be accessible via the Information Referral System of the

UNDP Special Unit for TCDC.   



Small Island Developing States Information Network:  the information

support mechanism



72.  The Global Conference recognized as a development constraint the

lack of access by small island developing States to information on a

range of subject areas of importance to them; SIDS/NET was conceived

against that background.  It is an information system designed to

provide access through the Internet to information, knowledge,

experiences, policies and practices on a range of technical subject

areas of importance to small island developing States, including those

falling under the 14 priority areas of the Programme of Action.  The

system aims at providing connectivity and access to existing databases

at the national, regional and global levels, such as the Small Islands

Information Network organized by the Institute of Island Studies.  Its

main objective is to provide access rather than to create databases,

many of which already exist in many specialized national and regional

institutions both within and outside of small island developing

States.  In recognition of the disparity in the levels of computer

development of the countries concerned, SIDS/NET is being structured

so that individual countries can phase in connectivity to SIDS/NET on

a gradual, modular basis in tandem with their overall national

computer and telecommunications development. 



73.  In keeping with paragraph 9 (b) of General Assembly resolution

49/122, UNDP is continuing its consultations with small island

developing States and relevant organizations in the further

development of SIDS/NET.  UNDP has widely disseminated the SIDS/NET

feasibility study, as well as the related technical papers, to

information specialists in small island developing States.  This

distribution included a questionnaire that focuses on key issues

requiring clarification and decision in regard to the development of a

strategy for the implementation of SIDS/NET.  Responses are expected

shortly from the countries concerned on the basis of which a decision

will be taken on the steps necessary for the effective implementation

of the system.



(c)  Elements of UNDP support 



Support at the subregional, regional and interregional levels



74.  Within the framework strategy and consistent with General Assembly

resolution 49/122, UNDP substantive support for the implementation of

the Programme of Action will be carried out at two levels.  The first

level of support will be at the subregional, regional and

interregional levels, through its role in the operationalization of

already dedicated facilities - SIDS/TAP and SIDS/NET - and also

through significant UNDP-supported ongoing regional and interregional

activities financed from the Indicative Planning Figure (IPF), Special

Programme Resources (SPR), GEF and the Capacity 21 Fund. 



Support at the country level



75.  The second level of UNDP support will be at the country level in

the context of its standing mandate through the UNDP resident

representative/United Nations resident coordinator systems to assist

Governments in coordinating the operational activities of the United

Nations development system.  In that connection, UNDP has mobilized

its country office structure in the various small island developing

States subregions to play an advocacy role for the Programme of Action

at the national level; help mobilize support and funding from country-

based entities, including the non-governmental organizations

community, the private sector and the locally based international

community; and support the formulation of small island developing

States national action plans, through which countries can seek such

support.  Furthermore, UNDP support is also provided in the context of

its country programme activities in small island developing States, in

which technical cooperation takes place through national IPF funding,

as well as through funding from SPR, GEF and the Capacity 21 Fund, in

many cases in areas covered by some priority areas of the Programme of

Action.



76.  At both the supranational and country levels, UNDP will assist

countries in addressing issues of coherence, coordination, focus and

advocacy in the context of the Programme of Action.  At both levels,

it will continue to provide relevant technical assistance and, in the

case of its support to SIDS/TAP and SIDS/NET, it will also act as

facilitator and mobilizer of resources for the countries concerned.  



Other plans and programmes



77.  Climate change and sealevel rise.  Through a GEF small grants

programme managed by UNDP, country activities targeting indigenous

non-governmental organizations and community-based organizations, such

as those in the Dominican Republic on education for the protection of

the ozone layer, and awareness programmes for public motorcyclists on

the hazards of carbon monoxide emissions, are particularly relevant to

the priority area. 



78.  Natural and environmental disasters.  In both the Caribbean and

the Pacific Island subregions, UNDP is supporting natural disaster

management and reduction programmes through regional IPF funding. 

Those activities are intended to create national and regional

capacities for dealing with natural and technological disasters as

they occur, and also to address the preparation and implementation of

contingency response measures and comprehensive long-term disaster

management plans integrated into the national development planning

process.



79.  In the context of the country programmes of some small island

developing States, UNDP has also supported, through the country IPF,

the preparation of national disaster management plans and disaster

management training of public officials, including participants from

the private sector, non-governmental organizations and local community

leaders. 



80.  Management of wastes.  The UNDP Special Unit for TCDC is currently

supporting, through funding from its SPR, an interregional programme

that is developing a monograph on effective urban management

practices, including urban waste disposal approaches, which will serve

as background documentation for a series of regional workshops in

which selected small island developing States will participate.  The

monograph as well as the results and findings of the regional meetings

will be presented to (Habitat II). 





                      2.  United Nations Population Fund



81.  UNFPA has reported a continuation of its activities as previously

reported (see A/49/425 and Add.1).  UNFPA has also reported that those

activities will fall within its technical assistance programme,

emphasizing in particular the needs of adolescents.





                      3.  United Nations Children's Fund



82.  Activities of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) will

continue as previously reported (see A/49/425 and Add.1).  In

addition, UNICEF has reported that over the past 18 months it has been

working closely with the Governments of 13 Pacific island countries to

develop a new programme of cooperation for 1997-2000.  A draft policy

framework has proposed five broad strategic goals, one of which calls

for strengthening capacities of Governments, non-governmental

organizations, communities and families to promote the optimal

survival, development and protection of their children.  Environmental

degradation has been identified as an underlying cause of malnutrition

and health problems among children.  Large-scale, high-chemical-input

cash-cropping is decreasing land fertility and availability, while

pollution is affecting the safety of food products, especially marine

resources.  Use of indigenous plants and sustainable gardening

patterns with low-input technologies, such as composting, crop

rotation, companion planting, and natural insecticides, will be part

of the UNICEF approach to producing food while protecting the

environment.  A working group meeting on the formulation of priorities

and strategies for the UNICEF Solomon Islands Programme of Cooperation

recommended that school curricula should include environment issues

and that non-formal community environmental education should be

promoted.





                           4.  World Food Programme



83.  Plans and programmes of the World Food Programme (WFP) continue as

previously reported (see A/49/425 and Add.1).





            5.  United Nations International Drug Control Programme



84.  Activities of the United National International Drug Control

Programme (UNDCP) continue as previously reported (see A/49/425 and

Add.1).  In addition, UNDCP has reported that it has been assisting

the Governments of small island developing States, particularly within

the Caribbean subregion, to develop and implement national,

subregional and regional programmes aimed at reducing the illicit

cultivation, trafficking and abuse of drugs, and also at improving the

effectiveness of controls over the legal supply of drugs.  In addition

to a number of national projects being supported by earmarked UNDCP

resources - mostly in the area of demand reduction - UNDCP is

financing a number of regional projects in the areas of the

coordination of police activities; customs cooperation; the training

of judicial personnel; the harmonization of legislation; the drug

curriculum; the harmonization of forensic laboratories; and the

training of laboratory technicians. 





                            C.  Specialized agencies



          1.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations



85.  FAO follow-up to the Programme of Action is largely based on the

conclusions and recommendations of the Inter-Regional Conference of

Small Island Countries on Sustainable Development and Environment in

Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, held in Barbados from 7 to 10

April 1992. 3/  Paragraph 34 of the Programme of Action for the

Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States notes that

those conclusions and recommendations contain the consensus position

of small islands in the agricultural sector.  Accordingly, FAO has

incorporated the recommendations into its programme of work, and the

Director-General has created two subregional offices, one for the

South Pacific and one for the Caribbean. 



(a)  Natural and environmental disasters 



86.  The objective of the FAO assistance is to rehabilitate the

agricultural sector in case of emergencies and natural disasters.



(b)  Coastal and marine resources



87.  The FAO Committee on Fisheries endorsed a proposal for a programme

of fisheries assistance to small island developing States in March

1995.  Programme formulation has been initiated for action in the six

priority areas identified by member countries:  (a) institutional

strengthening and national capacity-building; (b) conservation and

management of exclusive economic zone fisheries; (c) improved post-

harvest management and marketing; (d) safety at sea; (e) strengthening

the economic role of national fisheries industries; and

(f) aquaculture and inland fisheries conservation and management.



(c)  Land resources



88.  Sustainable agriculture and rural development has three essential

goals: (a) food security through an appropriate and sustainable

balance between self-sufficiency and self-reliance; (b) employment and

income generation in rural areas, particularly to eradicate poverty;

and (c) natural resource conservation and environmental protection. 

Achieving those goals implies a long process requiring a comprehensive

approach and heavy investments of labour, capital, technology and

research, all of which are rare in small island developing States.  In

order to open up avenues for improving small island developing States

capacity for the sustainable development of their resources, technical

cooperation is being promoted by organizing efforts more

systematically, for instance with programmed subregional support from

the international community (both FAO and other development agencies)

with ongoing assistance in small island developing States.  Two

subregional programmes are being formulated for sustainable

development in agriculture, forestry and fisheries in the South

Pacific and Caribbean islands.  Those programmes will be reviewed and

endorsed at two subregional workshops, one in Samoa in March 1996,

and - subject to availability of donor funding - one in Barbados,

tentatively in April 1996.  The programme frameworks will allow

harmonizing activities in small island developing States, in

particular those related to coastal and marine resources; land

resources, including agriculture, nutrition and forestry;

agro-biodiversity; human and institutional strengthening; and regional

cooperation.  Those programmes will be the basis for elaborating

subregional strategies for sustainable agriculture and rural

development, and for the identification of specific project proposals

for subregional technical cooperation and capacity-building.  The

implementation of the outputs emerging from the subregional programmes

will be closely followed up by the newly created FAO subregional

offices in the South Pacific and Caribbean.



(d)  Tourism resources



89.  Within the context of sustainable agriculture and rural

development, the diversification of primary production and income

generation are high on the agenda.  The vital link between tourism and

agriculture is being explored for promoting a regional response from

the sector to meet the standards of quality, quantity and regularity

of supplies of agricultural commodities to the tourism sector.



(e)  Biodiversity resources



90.  Within the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity,

agro-biodiversity conservation and use as well as farmer's rights are

promoted.



(f)  National institutions and administrative capacity



91.  National institutional strengthening is promoted through the

provision of policy advice, assistance in policy formulation and data

collection/processing for managing the conservation and use of natural

resources for sustainable agriculture, forestry and fisheries.



(g)  Regional institutions and technical cooperation



92.  Technical cooperation and capacity-building among island countries

is promoted through regional projects in order to make the most

efficient use of human resources and promote the exchange of

experience and technology in agriculture, forestry and fisheries.  The

subregional workshops mentioned under "Land resources", planned for

1996, will offer the means to establish collaborative arrangements and

networking in those sectors.



(h)  Human resource development



93.  National education/training and workshops are organized to build

farmers and fishermen capacities to sustainably use natural resources

and diversify their primary production.





              2.  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural

                  Organization



94.  During the 1994-1995 biennium, the United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and its

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) have pursued and

carried out a number of initiatives in response to the Programme of

Action, in particular the priority areas dealing with human resource

development, science and technology, coastal and marine resources,

climate change and sealevel rise, biodiversity, freshwater resources,

and natural and environmental disasters.  The UNESCO medium-term

strategy for 1996-2001 and programme and budget for 1996-1997 both

provide for the follow-up to the Global Conference.  



(a)  Climate change and sealevel rise/coastal and marine resources



95.  IOC has been extending its programme on sealevel rise, climate

change and marine and coastal pollution.  IOCARIBE, an IOC programme

in the Caribbean, manages the Caribbean Marine Pollution Control and

Abatement Programme, which is addressing marine and coastal pollution

problems of regional concern and is the lead agency for the Wider

Caribbean Debris/Waste Management Programme, which is fully

operational in almost every island in the Caribbean.



96.  In the framework of the geological correlation studies and in

cooperation with the International Lithosphere Programme of the

International Council of Scientific Unions, sealevel changes and

surface vertical movements are being investigated in order to

characterize the interactions of climate change, sealevel rise and

natural and environmental disasters.



(b)  Natural and environmental disasters



97.  As a follow-up to the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action adopted

at the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, assistance is

provided towards the assessment of natural hazards and the mitigation

of their effects on small islands.  To mark the mid-term of the

International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, planning for risk

evaluation in urban systems, including island cities was discussed at

an international workshop organized by UNESCO in Jakarta.  It is

expected that the Pacific island countries will be the focus of

enhanced activities in disaster preparedness.  A programme of action

is being pursued in the Caribbean in order to increase the role of the

media in disaster management and preparedness, in liaison with the

Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency.  The production of an

information kit is foreseen.



(c)  Coastal and marine resources



98.  Central to the priority area is a new UNESCO specific

interdisciplinary project on environment and development in coastal

regions and small islands, which is intended to respond to both the

Programme of Action and chapter 17 of Agenda 21.  The overall

objective of the project is to advance knowledge on the sustainable

development of coastal regions and small islands, to promote the

application of research results towards achieving this development,

and to provide the required advanced training.  UNESCO aims to assist

member States in introducing integrated coastal zone planning and

management so as to resolve conflicts in the utilization of natural

resources and to mitigate the physical and social vulnerability of

small islands.  In this connection, the project builds on cooperative

activities among international and intergovernmental UNESCO programmes

in the environmental and social sciences, namely, IOC programmes, the

Man and Biosphere Programme, the International Hydrological Programme,

the International Geological Correlation Programme and the Programme

on Management of Social Transformations.



99.  In the framework of the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity

network, research is being carried out on the status of the coastal

ecosystems in the region, for example concerning the relation between

overfishing and the degradation of coral reefs.  The Coast and Beach

Stability Project for the Lesser Antilles continued its support for

the establishment and supervision of coastal monitoring programmes for

several small islands.



(d)  Freshwater resources



100.     Rational use of freshwater resources has been the subject of

a number of activities organized by UNESCO in the various small island

developing States subregions; specific project-related information is

contained in the addendum (A/50/422/Add.1).



(e)  Land resources



101.     Among the activities of the Man and Biosphere Programme,

studies on integrated forests, agroforestry and cropland management in

small islands are under way.  Preservation of biological diversity in

forests and coastal ecosystems is encouraged.  Action plans are being

developed to tackle threatened plants.



(f)  Energy resources



102.     In relation to energy resources, policy frameworks are

promoted and information materials disseminated regarding renewable

and solar energy.  These activities are carried out in the context of

the World Solar Summit process.  



(g)  Science and technology



103.     The management of environmental risks is addressed by

undertakings in the fields of marine, oceanographic and earth

sciences.  The IOC Global Programme on Global Ocean Observing System,

which was recognized by UNCED as an essential environmental monitoring

component, carries out activities aiming at achieving operational

systems capable of covering more effectively such issues as global

environmental and climate change.  



(h)  Human resources development



104.     Capacity-building to promote sustainable development in small

islands is encouraged through UNESCO educational, cultural, scientific

and communication programmes.  Technical cooperation is extended

through international and regional cooperative projects.  A new UNESCO

Project on Environment, Population, Education, and Information for

Human Development is expected to utilize existing interdisciplinary

and inter-agency frameworks.  Promotion of education is pursued at all

levels, formal and non-formal.  The establishment of communication

structures, including for distance education aimed at producing

trained communicators and building island production capacities,

continues.  The UNESCO-led World Decade for Cultural Development helps

to address the cultural dimensions of development in small island

States.





                         3.  World Health Organization



105.     Activities undertaken by the World Health Organization (WHO)

in support of the Programme of Action are summarized below; they are

additional to those previously reported (A/49/425 and Add.1), which

continue.



(a)  Natural and environmental disasters



106.     The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific (WPRO) has

been conducting a series of workshops on health support for disaster

management to strengthen national capabilities to prepare for and cope

with natural and environmental disasters.  As a result, national

action and activities were initiated in a number of countries in 1995,

including Samoa, Fiji and Papua New Guinea.



(b)  Management of wastes



107.     WPRO has initiated a project on solid waste disposal in

Pacific island countries and areas to demonstrate appropriate solid-

waste disposal methods; the project will culminate in the preparation

of guidelines on the subject for use by island countries and areas. 

The countries selected for this purpose are Papua New Guinea, Solomon

Islands and Tonga.



(c)  Freshwater resources



108.     The new WHO guidelines for drinking water quality for the

Pacific island countries/areas and their adoption were promoted with a

view to setting national standards.  As a result, Fiji, Tonga and Cook

Islands adopted national standards of their own. 



(d)  Regional institutions and technical cooperation



109.     WHO and the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) supported

the Pan American Conference on Health and Environment in Sustainable

Human Development (Washington, D.C., 1-3 October 1994), which

addressed various questions concerning small island States.  The

subject of small island States was on the agenda of the Third Meeting

of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (Barbados,

October 1994) to which WHO contributed, with particular reference to

the health implications, inter alia, of climate change and sealevel

rise, and natural and environmental disasters.



(e)  Human resource development



110.     WPRO conducted a workshop on training approaches in the

promotion of health through environmental health (Sydney, 17-25 July

1995).  Twelve of the participants were from six Pacific island

countries and areas.  WPRO is also collaborating with the Samoa and

Solomon Islands Governments to review the curriculum and training of

assistant health inspectors.  WPRO, in collaboration with the

UNDP/World Bank Regional Water and Sanitation Project Team based in

Jakarta, conducted an assessment of human resource development needs

as well as training opportunities in the following Pacific island

countries and areas:  Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Papua New

Guinea, Micronesia, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Samoa. 

Efforts are also under way to develop a Fiji school of medicine as a

potential regional human resource to assist in tackling such

challenges as health promotion, disease prevention and care of the

environment, including water, sanitation and waste disposal.  





                                4.  World Bank



111.     World Bank activities in the areas of human resource

development, sustainable infrastructure, waste management,

environmental management, natural resources management and policy

reform continue as reported previously (A/49/425 and Add.1). 



112.     Since the adoption of the Programme of Action in 1994, the

World Bank has provided financing in the amount of $186.3 million to

21 small island developing States through both World Bank and GEF

projects.  The focus of these projects is consonant with provisions in

the Programme of Action related to climate change, energy efficiency,

including renewable energy sources and related technologies, waste and

watershed management, biodiversity protection, regional institutional

cooperation, human resource development, technical assistance and

monitoring.  In addition, the Bank is actively involved in major

international initiatives for coral reef protection and management and

the adoption of a strategic approach to marine biodiversity

conservation within the framework of protected area management. 

Information provided by the World Bank on project-related activities

is contained in an addendum (A/50/422/Add.1).





                        5.  International Monetary Fund



113.     The substantive areas of the Programme of Action lie outside

the immediate mandate of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). 

However, in the context of its discussions with island member

countries during consultations and/or use of IMF resources

discussions, IMF will continue to pay close attention to their

environmental and other concerns as reflected in the Programme of

Action.





                 6.  International Civil Aviation Organization



114.     ICAO activities continue as reported previously (A/49/425 and

Add.1).  In addition, ICAO has reported that at its eleventh session

(Montreal, May 1995), the ICAO Facilitation Division, after

considering the question of disinfection of aircraft, recommended

limitations on aerosol spraying in aircraft cabins while passengers

and crew are on board, and called for a comprehensive review of

pertinent WHO regulations.  The Division also sought joint ICAO/WHO

guidance to minimize disruption of international air service during

epidemics. 





                   7.  International Telecommunication Union



115.     The activities of ITU continue as reported previously

(A/49/425 and Add.1).





                        8.  International Trade Centre



116.     As the United Nations body mandated to provide assistance to

developing countries in export development and import management, the

International Trade Centre (ITC) of UNCTAD/the General Agreement on

Tariffs and Trade (GATT), while not having a specific programme for

small island developing States, can offer cooperation assistance,

within its six core services, in the following technical areas: 

export product and market development; development of trade support

services; trade information; human resource development; international

purchasing and supply management; needs assessment and programme

design.  At present, ITC is implementing several projects of technical

cooperation with a number of small island developing countries in

Africa and the South Pacific, in the following areas:



(a)  National institutions and administrative capacity



117.     Ongoing and planned capacity-building activities for the

management of export development and international purchasing and

supply management in Cape Verde, Mauritius and a number of islands in

the Caribbean and South Pacific, including improving knowledge and

strengthening capacities of government trade strategy decision makers;

upgrading knowledge and skills of both private and public sector

enterprise personnel in techniques of exporting and importing;

improving structures and trade support facilities and services;

building permanent capacity in national institutions for trade-related

human resource development.



(b)  Regional institutions and technical cooperation



118.     Ongoing and planned activities in small island developing

States are focused on strengthening the capacity of regional and

subregional institutions in the areas of trade expansion and

diversification, including providing institutional support for export

development and import management.  These activities are carried out

in collaboration with the regional commissions and regional and

subregional intergovernmental bodies.



(c)  Human resource development



119.     Small island developing countries have benefited in the past

and will continue to benefit, from ITC human resource development

programmes and training materials which are focused on: 



     (a) Activities to strengthen the capacity of national,

subregional and regional training institutions in building up a

permanent capacity to design and present training courses in all

aspects of export development and import management, through the

training of trainers and the design of training materials, manuals,

case studies and visual aids;



     (b) Activities on direct training in trade-related subjects for

government personnel involved in national trade promotion, and in the

techniques and operations of export and import trade for the business

community;



     (c) Organizing short-term in-service training for trainees from

developing countries in technical institutions in other

countries/regions;



     (d) Publication of specialized training materials, manuals,

guides, case studies, training packages, videos and business games. 





                    9.  International Maritime Organization



120.     Although IMO measures with respect to maritime safety and the

protection of the marine environment are not generally aimed

specifically at small island developing States, by virtue of their

relatively long coastlines and proximity to the marine environment

they stand to gain from most IMO measures such as those aimed at the

prevention of pollution from ships, routing measures, collision

prevention regulations and improved radio communications.



121.     As the only international body for establishing and adopting

measures on an international level concerning the routing and

establishment of areas to be avoided by ships, IMO is looking into the

possibility of instituting measures for avoiding pollution from

specialized ships through the establishment of areas to be avoided by

oil, chemical or liquified gas tankers in the vicinity of certain

environmentally sensitive sea areas in small island developing States.



122.     Other measures of direct relevance to small island developing

States are the establishment of regional pollution combating centres,

direct assistance in the event of serious spills involving polluting

substances, and the conduct of seminars, workshops and courses on

various subjects relating to maritime safety and the protection of the

marine environment.  Work is under way to develop a liability

insurance scheme in cases where damage is suffered through hazardous

and noxious substances carried by ships.  Efforts are continuing to

establish regional maritime coordination networks in eastern and

southern Africa and the South Pacific.  Such networks, if established,

would benefit a number of small island developing countries. 





                    10.  World Meteorological Organization



123.     WMO has plans and programmes in nine of the priority areas of

the Programme of Action:  "Climate change and sealevel rise", "Natural

and environmental disasters", "Freshwater resources", "Energy

resources", "Tourism resources", "National institutions and

administrative capacity", "Regional institutions and technical

cooperation", "Science and technology", and "Human resource

development".  The activities of WMO continue as reported previously

(A/49/425 and Add.1).  New information supplied by the organization is

described below and in an addendum (A/50/422/Add.1).  



(a)  Natural and environmental disasters



124.     Under the World Weather Watch Programme (WWW), all WMO member

countries and territories cooperate and share responsibilities in the

generation and world wide exchange of meteorological observations,

forecast products and information based on agreed upon standards,

procedures and practices as well as shared infrastructure.  This

programme provides basic information and services for other WMO and

international programmes, such as those related to tropical cyclones

and other natural and environmental disasters.  WWW also includes

transfer of technology and other support activities to assist

developing countries in acquiring at least the minimum equipment and

capabilities for operating their own national meteorological services.



125.     Through its Public Weather Services Programme, WMO provides

guidance and assistance to its members, especially those vulnerable to

natural disasters, such as the small island developing States, thus

fulfilling one of its primary roles:  the provision of public weather

services, in particular forecasts and warnings of adverse phenomenon

in support of safety of life and property and for the welfare and

convenience of the people.



(b)  Land resources



126.     WMO implements the Agricultural Meteorology Programme which

supports food and agricultural production and services by providing

assistance in establishing  meteorological and related services to the

agricultural community.  The main theme of the WMO Commission for

agricultural meteorology is "operational agrometeorology for

sustainable, environmentally friendly and economically viable

agricultural production". 





                 11.  World Intellectual Property Organization



127.     WIPO plans to assist in the implementation of the Programme

of Action, as reported previously (A/49/425 and Add.1), remain

unchanged.





            12.  United Nations Industrial Development Organization



128.     UNIDO activities continue as reported previously (A/49/425

and Add.1).  In addition, UNIDO has supplied the information provided

below.



(a)  Management of wastes



129.     UNIDO has extensive experience in waste management, focusing

on industrial waste reduction/prevention, treatment and control. 

Technical assistance is provided at the policy, institutional and

enterprise levels within the frameworks of cleaner production and

industrial environmental management.



(b)  Coastal and marine resources



130.     In promoting industrial development in small island

developing States, UNIDO recognizes the importance of marine and

coastal resources as a base for industrialization.  Assistance is

provided in the field of industrial and technology policy formulation

and awareness-building, small- and medium-scale enterprise

development, investment promotion, and technical assistance at a

sectoral level.



(c)  Freshwater resources



131.     UNIDO provides technical assistance in the field of

industrial water management, focusing on efficient industrial water

usage, waste-water treatment and recycling.  Other areas include

seawater desalination technology.



(d)  Energy resources



132.     UNIDO work on energy-related industrial issues seek to assist

developing countries in developing cost-effective energy systems and

infrastructure to support industrial development, reducing the

environmental impacts of energy development and meeting their

commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change.  As part

of this programme, UNIDO is promoting the utilization of new and

renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, biomass and ocean

wave energy and the development of related energy technologies. 

Specific programmes address the needs of small island developing

States.



(e)  Biodiversity resources



133.     UNIDO is planning to increase its awareness-building and

promotional activities in the field of bio-safety and the sustainable

utilization of biological resources, and provides technical expertise

for the establishment of national biotechnology and biodiversity

development programmes.



(f)  Regional institutions and technical cooperation



134.     Promotion of a cluster of services for small island

developing States is directed towards providing industrial

information, regional cooperation mechanisms, technology management,

business development, and innovation and industrial investment

promotion.  UNIDO is planning a feasibility study in the eastern

Caribbean on remote sensing and decision support technologies for

integrated coastal area management.  In the Mediterranean, UNIDO is

carrying out a feasibility study for the establishment of a North-

South business development centre focusing on the marine industries

sector.  The concept is being considered for other regions, such as

the Caribbean and Indian Ocean.





                          13.  Universal Postal Union



135.     The Universal Postal Union (UPU) will assist in the

implementation of the Programme of Action in the area of communication

within the framework of the guiding policy principles for cooperation

adopted by the Universal Postal Congress (UPC) for the period 1996-

2000.  UPC has decided to accord priority to the least developed

countries, followed by the lower-middle income countries.  It has

requested UPU organs (a) to take the necessary measures to enable UPU

to continue providing assistance to least developed countries in the

area of development of postal services; (b) to allocate the highest

possible proportion of UPU resources to the least developed countries;

(c) to monitor continuously the general situation of the post office

in least developed countries and to report to it at its next session;

and (d) to help the least developed countries to enhance their

capacity for deriving further revenues from philately, international

accounting and new services.  All those measures will benefit small

island developing States that are classified as least developed. 

Moreover, UPU has created a post of Regional Adviser for the

Caribbean, which will become operational in January 1996.  During the

meeting of the postmasters-general and the Conference of Ministers

responsible for postal services in the Caribbean in April 1994, it was

decided to intensify efforts for the creation of a Caribbean Postal

Union, in collaboration with and with the assistance of the European

Union and regional organizations, notably the Caribbean Forum of the

African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States.  UPU proposes to

notify regional advisers of assistance to be provided to small island

developing States.  





             14.  International Fund for Agricultural Development



136.     In accordance with its lending policies and criteria, the

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) has mainly

provided financing for projects and programmes that are specifically

designed to introduce, expand or improve food production systems and

to strengthen related policies and institutions within the framework

of national priorities and strategies.  In allocating its resources,

IFAD is guided by the need to increase food production in the poorest

food-deficit countries, the potential for increasing food production

in other developing countries, and the importance of increasing the

nutritional levels of the poorest populations in the developing

countries and improving the conditions of their lives.  Since most

IFAD small island developing country members are poor food-deficit

countries, IFAD has devoted particular attention to the development of

such countries.



137.     From 1978 to July 1995, IFAD provided 25 loans to small

island developing States, for a total of 44.4 million special drawing

rights.  Of these, 80 per cent were provided on highly concessional

terms, another 16 per cent on intermediate terms and 4 per cent on

ordinary terms.  Such loans amount to some 1.3 per cent of a total of

US$ 4,216.7 million for the 413 loans that IFAD has provided in

respect of 402 projects in 104 member countries over the last

13 years.  





                    15.  International Atomic Energy Agency



138.     The International Atomic Energy Agency-Marine Environment

Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) is intensifying its activities in small island

developing States.  It is involved in pilot monitoring programmes

(e.g., using corals as historical recorders of micro-pollutants) as

well as in capacity-building and quality assurance activities in

island States of the Caribbean and East African region.  IAEA supports

studies involving isotopic and nuclear techniques to study

retrospective conditions (climate, sea level, pollution) and to

provide time scales for small island evolution.  Project-related

information provided by the organization is included in an addendum

(A/50/422/Add.1).





                           D.  Regional commissions



          1.  Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific



139.     ESCAP has undertaken specific actions in priority programme

areas to facilitate the implementation of the Programme of Action for

the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, as

described below.



(a)  Transport and communication



140.     The ESCAP project on inter-island shipping, as reported

previously (A/49/425), continues.  An additional project has just

commenced to develop policy options for the replacement of the ageing

ships in the Pacific island fleets.



(b)  Tourism resources



141.     Special efforts are being made to assist Pacific island

countries in strengthening national capabilities in integrated tourism

planning.  A workshop on integrated tourism planning in Pacific island

countries was held at Port Vila, Vanuatu, in June 1995.  Guidelines on

integrated tourism planning in Pacific island countries will be

completed in 1995.  Efforts continue to assist Pacific island

countries in strengthening national capabilities to create a

favourable investment climate in the tourism sector.  A study entitled

"Investment and economic cooperation in the tourism sector in Pacific

island countries", 4/ as well as studies on foreign investment in the

tourism sector in Samoa and Vanuatu, were published in 1995.  A

project to undertake a study on land-tenure issues related to tourism

development in Pacific island countries has been prepared and is

awaiting funding.



(c)  Natural and environmental disasters



142.     Continuing coordination with the IDNDR secretariat and the

Department of Humanitarian Assistance is being maintained to improve

natural disaster preparedness and response in the Pacific.  



(d)  Science and technology



143.     Small island developing States of the Pacific are rich in

natural resources, and their proper monitoring demands the use of

space technology.  In order to disseminate such technology, a remote

sensing/GIS workshop for land and marine resources and environment

management in the Pacific subregion was held in Suva, Fiji from 13 to

17 February 1995.  Participants from 18 countries, including the 14

Pacific small island developing States, attended.  The objectives of

the workshop were to expose senior officials to new developments in

remote sensing/GIS applications, formulate a subregional action plan

and to promote the use of remote sensing and GIS technology for

development.  A project portfolio consisting of eight projects was

also developed, covering various thematic applications, training and

data reception, for further implementation under the regional space

applications programme, with financial support from donors.



144.     The Ministerial Conference on Space Applications for

Development in Asia and the Pacific (Beijing, 1992) launched the

regional space applications programme for sustainable development,

which contains specific programme areas tailored to meet the

requirements and peculiar situations of island countries.



(e)  Land resources



145.     Most small island countries are characterized by limited land

resources and are dependent on the agricultural and fisheries sectors

for livelihood.  In order to make the agricultural sector more

efficient, ESCAP is promoting sustainable agriculture and rural

development by building the capacities of small island developing

States in planning and implementing rural development activities. 

Moreover, advisory services are provided in promoting the

environmentally friendly use of agrochemicals.  The dissemination of

information on agrochemicals continues; such information includes new

developments in agrochemicals, market and price situations, and the

protection of land resources.  Studies are planned to identify

available land resources and their proper use.  Recommendations

emerging from the studies will assist Governments in policy

formulation.



(f)  National institutions and administrative capacity



146.     A programme of work focusing on sustainable development

issues and their integration into economic decision-making is being

developed.  The aim of the overall project is to provide technical

assistance on the institutional setting and policy modalities for

integrating environmental considerations into macroeconomic decision-

making processes.  The project covers Pacific island countries, as

well as some other developing countries of Asia.  It is proposed to

conduct country studies, as well as subregional and regional workshops

to share experiences.  Supporting research involves a case study

involving two Pacific island countries on the formulation and

implementation of policies for promoting sustainable development,

focusing on population growth and mobility, urbanization,

international trade, agricultural production, and energy and transport

costs.  



147.     The ESCAP/Pacific Operation Centre assists SPREP in the

implementation of its Capacity 21 programme, including the design and

conduct of workshops.  Moreover, the Centre is working to incorporate

the essence of this training into other activities, such as advisory

services to small island countries on development finance and regional

and national planning.  It is also providing advisory services to the

South Pacific Commission (SPC) and the South Pacific Forum (SPF),

including recommendations for rationalizing the management of marine

resources among SPF, the Forum Fisheries Agency and the South Pacific

Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC).



(g)  Human resource development



148.     The ESCAP secretariat is currently implementing a programme

on the theme "Reaching the poor through government/non-governmental

organizations cooperation in the planning and delivery of human

resource development services".  As part of the activities under that

programme, a national workshop is scheduled to be held in Papua New

Guinea.  The objective of the workshop will be to enhance the linkages

between government agencies and non-governmental organizations in

planning and implementing human resource development programmes.  The

participants in the workshop will be government officials and

non-governmental organizations personnel responsible for planning and

implementing human resource development programmes.  Moreover, in

pursuance of ESCAP resolution 51/10 of 1 May 1995, resources are also

being mobilized to conduct a feasibility study on the establishment of

a Pacific subregional training centre for drug demand reduction.



149.     The ESCAP secretariat is involving small island countries in

regional preparations for Habitat II and its follow-up, by inviting

them to address their particular concerns and formulate suitable

intervention at the Second Asia Pacific Urban Forum.  Local

authorities from small island countries are also being encouraged to

join - as some have already - the Network of Local Authorities for

Management of Human Settlements (CITYNET) through which ESCAP is

channelling assistance in urban management.



150.     In addition, a study on maritime manpower resources in the

ESCAP region is being carried out, to identify the requirements for

and availability of trained and qualified seafarers to meet the

growing world shortage.  This study will highlight the employment

potential for seafarers from small island developing countries, and

the economic benefits that may be derived from the training and supply

of seafarers to international shipping.





          2.  Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean



(a)  Coastal and marine resources



151.     ECLAC is developing a project proposal on the four essential

elements and components of information - availability of information,

effective means of delivery, responsiveness to user needs and

effective use of information - geared towards coastal conservation. 

To that end, the project will establish a mechanism to provide

individuals and groups of users with access to environment- related

information that is integrated with indicators for economic and social

policy-making in Caribbean countries.  The project will also seek to

enhance the  ECLAC/AMBIONET system as an effective tool for delivering

information and responding to the demand for the effective use of such

information by the public and private sectors.



(b)  Energy resources



152.     In collaboration with UNESCO and the Centre for Environment

and Development of the University of the West Indies (UWICED), the

Caribbean Council for Science and Technology (CCST) convened a high-

level regional workshop on renewable energy technologies (Saint Lucia,

5-9 December 1994), to discuss the role of renewable energy in the

development process of the region in the context of sustainable

development.  Delegates to the meeting focused on the scope of the

utilization of renewable energy as against conventional energy

sources, as well as on the need to improve dialogue and awareness of

the respective problems  faced by the principal users of energy.  The

meeting adopted a model energy policy and a resolution on renewable

energy.  The workshop brought together participants from member

countries, as well as representatives from many energy-based

industries involved in the production and use of energy. 



(c)  Tourism resources



153.     ECLAC work in this area continues as reported previously

(A/49/425 and Add.1).  Additional work in sustainable tourism includes

the preparation of chapters of a textbook and research on economic

instruments for tourism development.  



(d)  National institutions and administrative capacity



154.     As part of its programme of work for this biennium, ECLAC is

carrying out a critical examination of the availability of

environmental information in the Caribbean and an assessment of

implications for planning and decision-making. This environmental

database is intended to increase the awareness of member states of

work in the field of environment and development.  It will seek to

organize environmental statistics for the region and offer a directory

on the sources of the information.



155.     In order to focus on issues emanating from the Global

Conference and to carry out its mandate to increase hemispheric

cooperation, the ECLAC secretariat has included in its work programme

two new subprogrammes on the promotion of cooperation among member

countries of the Caribbean Development and Cooperation Council (CDCC)

and between the Caribbean and Latin America and island developing

countries; both subprogrammes will focus on the promotion of

cooperation in functional and sectoral areas among the member

countries of the Caribbean and countries of Latin America.  The ECLAC

programme of work will also include the needs of the non-independent

Caribbean countries, which will be addressed within the broad

framework of the analysis of issues related to island developing

countries in the subregion and the review of initiatives taken to

foster the integration of the member countries of CDCC within the

wider Caribbean as well as with other countries of Latin America. 



(e)  Regional institutions and technical cooperation



156.     In collaboration with the Department for Policy Coordination

and Sustainable Development, UWICED, UNEP and UNDP, ECLAC convened a

Caribbean meeting of experts on implementation of the Programme of

Action in May 1995 to discuss constraints on effective implementation

and to agree on priority areas for action.  The meeting identified

immediate sectoral priorities for the Caribbean region and for

institutional arrangements for regional coordination in, inter alia,

the following priority areas:  "Management of wastes, "Land

resources", "Coastal and marine resources", and "Natural and

environmental disasters".



157.     ECLAC has initiated activities that would strengthen its

cooperation and collaboration with regional institutions and other

United Nation agencies.  To that end, there is active collaboration

with UWICED, the UNEP Caribbean Environment Plan and UNDP in the

implementation of work in the field of environment and development. 

ECLAC has signed memoranda of understanding with CARICOM, UWI, UNEP

and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR). 



(f)  Science and technology 



158.     ECLAC is responding to the Programme of Action through

activities carried out under the aegis of CCST.  CCST assists member

countries in their elaboration of science and technology policy and in

increasing national science and technology capacities. 



(g)  National institutions and administrative capacity



159.     ECLAC is continuing to develop its programme on information

gathering and dissemination.  It has put into place a communications

package emphasizing the use of the UNECLAC/AMBIONET Electronic

Information Exchange System.  This system allows access to more than

33 libraries.  It also connected to outside databases and other

information systems through INTERNET.



(h)  Human resource development 



160.     The ECLAC subregional headquarters for the Caribbean

currently executes a project funded by the United Nations Population

Fund (UNFPA) on the integration of population policies into

development planning in the Caribbean subregion. Included in this

project is a study on the migratory patterns of Caribbean peoples and

a study on teenage fertility in selected Caribbean countries.  A

regional project on education, training and employment for teenage

mothers in the Caribbean has been submitted to UNFPA for funding. 

CCST has presented a training workshop on project preparation and

management for scientists in the region, and the Caribbean

Documentation Centre has offered training workshops in the use of the

CDS/ISIS and ECLAC/AMBIONET systems of operations.



161.     ECLAC also undertakes activities related to the integration

of women in development, focusing its attention on a range of issues

of particular importance to the development of women in the Caribbean,

as well as on the incorporation of population concerns and issues in

the design of social and economic development plans.  In addition,

ECLAC continues to work in close collaboration with regional and

national non-governmental organizations, and offers technical support

in developing their programmes of work.





                      3.  Economic Commission for Africa



162.     The activities of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)

continue as reported previously (A/49/425 and Add.1).  In addition,

consultations are under way between ECA and UNDP at the country level

for possible joint activities in identifying, within the context of

national workshops in the five African small island developing States,

areas for building critical human and institutional capacities, as

suggested in paragraph 129 of the Programme of Action.  Such

activities will benefit from those of the ongoing ECA framework agenda

for building and utilizing critical capacities in Africa.  The focus

will be on capacity-building in (a) environmental economics and

resource accounting; (b) impact assessment; (c) development of the

relevant legislative frameworks; (d) vulnerability assessment; and (e)

resource mobilization.  Consultations are also ongoing between ECA and

UNDP for a joint regional workshop on unmet priorities within the

Programme of Action in Africa.  A regional workshop will be held

during 1995 to examine the report on unmet priority assessment being

prepared by UNDP and a framework for an African regional programme of

action.  A number of ECA programmes are already responding to elements

of the global Programme of Action.  Information on ECA technical

assistance to the African small island developing States is included

in an addendum (A/40/422/Add.1).





                      4.  Economic Commission for Europe



163.     The activities of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)

continue as reported previously (A/49/425 and Add.1).





              5.  Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia



164.     The Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA)

has indicated that it is involved in the management of supply/demand

of water resources in Bahrain, which depends mainly on groundwater for

its water supply, supplemented by desalinated water and some treated

effluent.





                        II.  INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS



                              A.  United Nations



              1.  Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable

                  Development



165.     The responsibilities related to the implementation of the

Programme of Action and follow-up to the Global Conference are being

carried out by the Division for Sustainable Development of the

Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development.



166.     In accordance with General Assembly resolution 49/122, a

small island developing States Unit has been established within the

Division for Sustainable Development.  Essentially, the Unit is

responsible for four broad functions:  (a) to provide substantive

secretariat support to intergovernmental and inter-agency processes

related to the monitoring, review and coordination of the

implementation of the Programme of Action; (b) to act as a liaison or

focal point for Governments and organs, programmes and agencies of the

United Nations system on matters related to the follow-up to the

Global Conference and the implementation of the Programme of Action;

(c) to prepare reports for the Commission on Sustainable Development

and other relevant bodies on the implementation of the Programme of

Action; and (d) to provide support, as appropriate, to other

activities emanating from the Programme of Action.  The Unit is

currently staffed by a Chief of Unit and a Sustainable Development

Officer at the Professional level, supported by one General Service

staff member.  The Unit functions as a focal point within the

Department on issues related to the Programme of Action, with the

responsibilities outlined above.  The Department is coordinating the

implementation of the Programme of Action through the Inter-agency

Committee on Sustainable Development which, at its 6th meeting

(Geneva, 12-14 July 1995), took decisions on the modalities of system-

wide coordination on the recommendations of the Department.





            2.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development



167.     UNCTAD is planning to make new institutional arrangements to

carry out the aspects of the Programme of Action that fall within its

mandate when its capacity is strengthened.





                   3.  United Nations Environment Programme 



168.     No new institutional arrangements have been put in place

since those previously reported (see A/49/425 and Add.1).  UNEP

designated a focal point with respect to the Global Conference and its

follow-up activities, including implementation of the Programme of

Action, in 1993, and immediately following the Global Conference a

joint UNEP/Habitat task force was established.  It is anticipated that

the task force will oversee the development of a programmatic approach

to the implementation of small island developing States activities

within the 1996-1997 work programme of UNEP.  





                4.  United Nations Centre for Human Settlements



169.     Habitat has designated a focal point with respect to the

follow-up activities for the implementation of the Programme of

Action.  A joint UNEP/ Habitat task force is active in coordinating

inter-agency policies and strategies for the execution of activities

in support of the sustainable development of small island developing

States. 





                           B.  Funds and programmes



                   1.  United Nations Development Programme



170.     The Special Unit for Technical Cooperation among Developing

Countries has been designated to coordinate within UNDP the follow-up

on the implementation of the Programme of Action.  In this capacity,

the Unit will work closely with the various bureaux at UNDP

headquarters and the UNDP country offices responsible for small island

developing States to ensure effective follow-up activities.





                      2.  United Nations Population Fund



171.     No new institutional arrangements are envisaged by UNFPA to

implement the Programme of Action within those areas relevant to its

mandate.





                      3.  United Nations Children's Fund



172.     UNICEF will utilize its existing institutional arrangements

to support the implementation of the Programme of Action.  In

addition, a focal point has been established within the Environment

Unit to facilitate the coordination of activities regarding small

island developing States.  These arrangements reflect the

organization's response to Agenda 21, which has parallels with the

Programme of Action.





            4.  United Nations International Drug Control Programme



173.     UNDCP will implement the Programme of Action through its

existing institutional arrangements.





                           C.  Specialized agencies



          1.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations



174.     The Director-General of FAO has incorporated the

recommendations of the Programme of Action into the FAO programme of

work, and has created two subregional offices, one for the South

Pacific and one for the Caribbean. 





                  2.  United Nations Educational, Scientific and 

                      Cultural Organization



175.     Prior to the Global Conference, the UNESCO Director-General

established a focal point for relations with small island States

within the Bureau for External Relations.  The focal point will be

responsible for facilitating relations with small island developing

States in all matters relating to follow-up to the Global Conference. 

In addition, as part of his overall coordination responsibility for

UNCED follow-up, the Director of the Bureau for Coordination of

Environmental Programmes will also be responsible for follow-up to the

Global Conference in terms of ensuring effective internal and

inter-agency programme coordination.





                         3.  World Health Organization



176.     The WHO global strategy and related action plan are being

implemented by WHO through its headquarters and regional offices.  The

American and western Pacific regional offices are the main offices

dealing at an operational level with small island developing States,

because of their proximity to the Caribbean and South Pacific regions,

respectively.  The western Pacific office recently established an

environmental health unit in Fiji, which will focus on the problems

faced by the Pacific island countries.  WHO offices in Africa, South-

East Asia and the eastern Mediterranean will also be involved in

supporting those small island developing States that fall within their

area of operations.  Also, a new Division for Emergency and

Humanitarian Action has been established, which is intended to

strengthen the capabilities of WHO in the area of natural and

environmental disasters.  In addition, an Associate Professional

Officer (APO-Environmental Engineer) was posted in Samoa to provide

closer collaboration also with American Samoa, Cook Islands, Niue and

Tokelau.  Efforts are under way to post an APO with environmental

skills and knowledge in Vanuatu and the Federated States of Micronesia

to support community water and sanitation activities, as well as other

environmental health activities.





                                4.  World Bank



177.     Existing World Bank institutional arrangements are supporting

the implementation of the Programme of Action.  An institutional focal

point for small island developing States has been designated. 





                        5.  International Monetary Fund



178.     IMF envisages no special institutional arrangements, because

the substantive areas of the Programme of Action lie outside its

immediate mandate.





                 6.  International Civil Aviation Organization



179.     ICAO will support the implementation of the Programme of

Action through its existing institutional arrangements.





                   7.  International Telecommunication Union



180.     The development of technical assistance programmes for small

island developing States is carried out by the Telecommunication

Development Bureau, which is the development arm of ITU.  The Bureau

has regional and subregional offices in the Americas, Asia and the

Pacific, and Africa.  The Caribbean subregion will be served by the

Barbados area office, while the Pacific will be served by the area

office at Jakarta.  Activities will be coordinated at ITU headquarters

at Geneva, where a focal point on small island developing States will

be established.





                        8.  International Trade Centre



181.     Activities for assistance to small island developing

countries are planned and implemented by ITC utilizing, in the main,

the resources of its existing institutional structure, supplemented by

extrabudgetary funds, when available. No new institutional

arrangements are envisaged by ITC to implement the Programme of Action

within those areas relevant to its mandate.





                    9.  International Maritime Organization



182.     Efforts are continuing to establish regional maritime

coordination networks in eastern and southern Africa, and in the South

Pacific.  These networks, if established, would benefit a number of

small island developing States.





                    10.  World Meteorological Organization



183.     WMO institutional arrangements to support the implementation

of the Programme of Action are included, to the extent possible,

within its existing scientific and technical programmes.  WMO has

designated the Director of the World Weather Watch Department as the

focal point for the implementation of the Programme of Action.





                 11.  World Intellectual Property Organization



184.     The World Intellectual Property Organization will utilize its

existing institutional arrangements to support implementation of the

Programme of Action.





            12.  United Nations Industrial Development Organization



185.     UNIDO will implement the Programme of Action within its

existing institutional arrangements.





             13.  International Fund for Agricultural Development



186.     Existing IFAD institutional arrangements will support the

implementation of the Programme of Action.





                           D.  Regional commissions



          1.  Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific



187.     A mechanism for the consultation and pooling of limited

resources through regional cooperation between United Nations bodies

and agencies, intergovernmental organizations, bilateral donors and

international organizations already exists in Asia and the Pacific,

through the Inter-agency Committee on Environment and Sustainable

Development.  In June 1994, the Inter-agency Committee considered the

outcome of the Global Conference, and decided that it would facilitate

the coordination and implementation of the Programme of Action, as

requested in paragraph 132 of the Programme of Action.  In this

connection, it was agreed that the Inter-agency Committee working

group would review the priority areas of the Programme of Action and

identify projects for joint implementation by the Committee members. 

ESCAP has also set up a special body on Pacific island States to

facilitate ongoing consultations with those States.  



188.     In addition, ESCAP has established the ESCAP Pacific

Operations Centre at Port Vila, Vanuatu, with a small complement of

core staff.  Its professional expertise is made available to the small

island developing States in the Asia and the Pacific region through

that Centre.  The Centre, as well as various substantive divisions of

ESCAP, also cooperate with other South Pacific regional organizations

in the delivery of their programmes, including the South Pacific

Forum, the South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency, the South Pacific

Commission, the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission, the South

Pacific Regional Environment Programme, the University of the South

Pacific, the Pacific Islands Development Programme and the Tourism

Council of the South Pacific.  Efforts are being made to further

strengthen the capacity of the Pacific Operations Centre to provide

technical assistance to member countries.



          2.  Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean



189.     ECLAC activities in relation to small island developing

States involve its subregional headquarters for the Caribbean in

Trinidad and Tobago, and the programme of work of the Natural

Resources and Energy Division.  The ECLAC/CDCC secretariat is

responsible for guiding and promoting the economic and social

development of those Caribbean countries that are members of CDCC,

consisting mainly of small island developing States.  An integral part

of the programme is being accomplished through programme elements on

environment and development of small island developing States.  The

secretariat has been mandated, at a regional meeting convened to

consider the status of the implementation of the Programme of Action,

to establish, jointly with CARICOM, a regional coordinating mechanism

to promote the implementation of the Programme of Action.





                      3.  Economic Commission for Europe



190.     Existing ECE institutional arrangements can support and

accommodate activities to implement the Programme of Action.  ECE

activities will continue as reported previously (A/49/425 and Add.1).





                      4.  Economic Commission for Africa



191.     In an effort to implement the Programme of Action with

immediate effect, ECA will endeavour to implement some of its proposed

actions within ongoing programmes and existing resources.  However,

additional resources will be needed in two areas:  the provision of

advisory services and data collection, and missions and training

seminars and workshops.  Additional resources will also be needed for

coordination, including consultancies and participation by African

women, and for providing increased access to resources in both the

formal and informal sectors.





                         III.  CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS



192.     The responses summarized above indicate that the relevant

organizations and bodies of the United Nations system are committed to

the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable

Development of Small Island Developing States.  They have incorporated

the elements of the Programme of Action that fall within their

respective mandates into their work programmes, and have begun to

implement projects to meet the priorities identified in the Programme

of Action.  The scope of activities undertaken varies among the

different organizations and bodies depending on the extent to which

the priority areas of the Programme of Action are covered by their

respective mandates.



193.     The information contained in the present report and an

addendum (A/50/422/Add.1) on the plans and programmes of the United

Nations system, which is additional to that contained in the previous

report (A/49/425 and Add.1), shows that several organizations and

bodies of the United Nations system have reformulated their work

programmes in direct response to the provisions of the Programme of

Action.  It also shows that several of them have expanded their plans

and programmes since their submissions for the preparation of the

previous report.  The present report contains information on the

activities of several organizations - UPU, ITC, IDNDR/Department of

Humanitarian Affairs, IFAD, UNU and INSTRAW - for the first time; many

of those activities represent new initiatives under the Programme of

Action. 



194.     The ongoing and planned activities of the organizations and

bodies of the United Nations system, taken together, cover all the

programme areas - sectoral and cross-sectoral - of the Programme of

Action.  In multisectoral areas, such as tourism, while the activities

of no single organization or body cover all dimensions, their

cumulative activities - if sustained and adequately funded - will go a

long way towards meeting the provisions of the Programme of Action.



195.     In the area of regional coordination of the implementation of

the Programme of Action, four regional bodies - ECE, ESCAP, ECLAC and

ECA - have reported that they have taken initiatives to fulfil their

mandates.  ESCAP and ECLAC have held regional meetings to identify

immediate regional priorities, and have established coordination

mechanisms in collaboration with regional intergovernmental

organizations.  ECA has reported that it is in consultation with UNDP

at the country level regarding possible joint activities to identify,

through national workshops in the five African small island developing

States, ways to build human and institutional capacities, as well as a

possible joint regional workshop on current priorities under the

Programme of Action.  Regarding coordination at the international

level, the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable

Development has established mechanisms for system-wide coordination

through IACSD.



196.     As to specific responsibilities under the Programme of

Action, UNDP has reported that it is actively pursuing the refinement

and operationalization of  SIDS/NET and SIDS/TAP in consultation with

small island developing States and other interested parties, and the

Department has taken the initiative, in collaboration with UNCTAD, to

organize an in-session panel discussion on trade-related issues

affecting small island developing States and to explore approaches to

the development of a vulnerability index.



197.     It is expected that the organizations and bodies of the

United Nations system will further sharpen the focus of their

activities under the Programme of Action on the basis of decisions

taken by the Commission on Sustainable Development at its fourth

session, in 1996.



198.     Of the organizations and bodies included in the present

report, nine have reported that they will implement the Programme of

Action through existing institutional arrangements.  UNCTAD and ECA

have indicated that they need additional resources to establish

appropriate new institutional mechanisms.  All the others have

established new mechanisms, which vary among the different

organizations and bodies, to oversee and coordinate the implementation

of the Programme of Action. 





                                     Notes



     1/  Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable

Development of Small Island Developing States, Bridgetown, Barbados,

25 April-6 May 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No. 94.I.18),

chap. I, resolution 1, annex II. 



     2/  Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and

Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions

Adopted by the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales

No. E.93.I.18), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.



     3/  Report of the Interregional Conference of Small Island

Countries on Sustainable Development and Environment in Agriculture,

Forestry and Fisheries, Christ Church, Barbados, 7-10 April 1992

(Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1993),

Part III.



     4/  ESCAP Tourism Review, No. 13 (ST/ESCAP/1386).





                                     ANNEX



              List of organizations that responded to the request

                       for inputs to the present report





1.   Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

2.   United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

3.   World Health Organization

4.   World Bank

5.   International Monetary Fund

6.   International Civil Aviation Organization

7.   Universal Postal Union

8.   World Meterological Organization

9.   International Telecommunication Union

10.  International Maritime Organization

11.  World Intellectual Property Organization

12.  United Nations Industrial Development Organization

13.  International Atomic Energy Agency

14.  International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/GATT) 

15.  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

16.  United Nations Environment Programme

17.  United Nations Children's Fund

18.  United Nations Development Programme

19.  World Food Programme

20.  United Nations Centre for Human Settlements

21.  United Nations Population Fund

22.  United Nations International Drug Control Programme

23.  Economic Commission for Europe

24.  Economic Commission for Africa

25.  Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

26.  Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

27.  International Fund for Agricultural Development

28.  United Nations University

29.  International Research and Training Institute     for the Advancement 

     of Women

30.  Department of Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations

     Secretariat/ International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction

31.  Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia





                                     -----



  

This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
Comments and suggestions: esa@un.org