United Nations

A/50/413


General Assembly

Distr. GENERAL  

7 September 1995

ORIGINAL:
ENGLISH


Fiftieth session
Item 111 of the provisional agenda*


           REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES,
           QUESTIONS RELATING TO REFUGEES, RETURNEES AND DISPLACED
PERSONS AND HUMANITARIAN QUESTIONS

Assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa

Report of the Secretary-General


Introduction

1.   By its  resolution 49/174  of 23  December 1994, the  General Assembly,
inter alia,

  (a)   Called  upon  the  Secretary-General,  the  High  Commissioner,  the
Department of  Humanitarian Affairs  of the Secretariat  and United  Nations
humanitarian   organizations  to   continue   their  efforts   to   mobilize
humanitarian  assistance for  the  relief, repatriation,  rehabilitation and
resettlement of refugees,  returnees and displaced persons, including  those
refugees in urban areas;

  (b)  Called  upon Member States and intergovernmental and non-governmental
organizations to continue  to provide  the necessary  support and  financial
assistance to the High Commissioner to  enhance her capacities and abilities
to  implement emergency  operations,  care and  maintenance  activities  and
repatriation  and reintegration  programmes  for the  benefit  of  refugees,
returnees  and,  as appropriate,  certain  groups  of  internally  displaced
persons;

  (c)   Requested the  High Commissioner  to continue her  efforts with  the
appropriate United Nations organizations, the Organization of African  Unity
and


________________________

  *  A/50/150.


95-27227 (E)   121095/...
*9527227*

 intergovernmental,   governmental  and  non-governmental  organizations  to
consolidate  and increase  essential  services to  refugees,  returnees  and
displaced persons;

  (d)    Also  requested  the  High   Commissioner  to  review  her  general
programmes in  Africa, taking  into account  the increasing requirements  in
that region;

  (e)   Appealed  to Member  States and  international and  non-governmental
organizations  to  provide  adequate   financial,  material  and   technical
assistance for relief and rehabilitation programmes  for the large number of
refugees, voluntary returnees and displaced  persons and victims  of natural
disasters and to the affected countries;

  (f)  Expressed deep concern at  the serious and far-reaching  consequences
of the presence of  large numbers of  refugees and displaced persons in  the
countries concerned and  the implications for  the security  environment and
their long-term socio-economic development;

  (g)   Called upon  the international  donor community  to provide material
and financial assistance for the  implementation of programmes  intended for
the  rehabilitation of the environment and infrastructure  in areas affected
by refugees in countries of asylum;

  (h)  Requested the Secretary-General to  continue his efforts to  mobilize
adequate financial and  material assistance for  the full  implementation of
present  and  future projects  in  rural and  urban  areas affected  by  the
presence of refugees, returnees and displaced persons.


               I.  ACTION TAKEN BY THE OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS
                   HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES

Overview

2.   Since the  General Assembly  adopted resolution  49/174 on  23 December
1994, Africa has continued  to be plagued by  refugee crises.  The continent
currently hosts  nearly 50  per cent of  the world's refugees.   This  year,
UNHCR assisted nearly  8 million refugees  in Africa,  as well  as almost  5
million internally displaced persons and returnees.

3.     During  the   reporting  period,   the  main   causes  of  population
displacements  and  refugee flows  were  man-made,  provoked  by  political,
ethnic  and economic  conflicts.   Widespread famine,  insecurity,  violence
exacerbated  by poverty,  and  environmental degradation  also  incited  new
population movements.

4.  Following the massive exodus of  more than 2 million people  from Rwanda
to neighbouring  countries  last year,  the  situation  in the  Great  Lakes
region  throughout  the reporting  period  remained  extremely  fragile  and
displacement continued.   Abuse  of human rights, violence,  uncertainty and
insecurity have  been widespread.   Refugee  flows also  continued in  other
parts of  Africa, most notably  in Liberia,  Sierra Leone,  Somalia and  the
Sudan, with little  hope of an early solution.  The number of  those in need
of  protection  and  assistance  grew daily.    The  traditional  generosity
towards refugees in Africa  has become strained.   Thus, the institution  of
asylum is  under threat,  and more  restrictive policies  and practices  are
becoming evident in a number of countries.

5.  In  at least two major incidents  in early 1995,  borders were closed to
refugees  fleeing danger  in their  countries of  origin.  Large  numbers of
refugees have been forced to return  to the life-threatening situations from
which they fled.   Some have been killed in  refugee camps, others have been
brutally  attacked  and terrorized.    In  several cases,  Governments  have
expressed their inability to  receive new or additional influxes.  In  other
cases,  they have  been reluctant  to  receive  refugees from  countries not

immediately adjacent to them.

6.  In spite  of this sombre picture,  the peaceful democratic  changes that
have occurred  in several  parts of  Africa have  created opportunities  for
large numbers  of refugees  to return to  their homes.   There are  improved
prospects  for  voluntary repatriation  of  refugees  and  reintegration  of
returnees.   Today,  nearly all  of the  1.6 million  Mozambican refugees to
whom UNHCR  was providing  assistance have returned  home.  In  the Horn  of
Africa, over 600,000 Ethiopians have returned from Djibouti, Kenya,  Somalia
and Sudan since 1991.   The repatriation of  Eritrean refugees is under way,
with some  25,000 having  so far  gone back  under a  pilot programme  which
started in  November 1994.   In  May this  year, the  repatriation of  8,000
Chadian refugees from the Central African  Republic was completed.  UNHCR is
currently  finalizing arrangements  for the  voluntary repatriation  of  the
Togolese refugees in Benin and Ghana.

7.  The Office also is following closely  developments in Mali, in the  hope
that the 150,000 Malian refugees  of Tuareg origin in  Algeria, Burkina Faso
and Mauritania will  soon be able  to go back  home.  The  peace process  in
Angola, which should  pave the way for the  300,000 Angolan refugees in  the
Congo,  Namibia,  Zambia and  Zaire  to  repatriate, is  also  a  source  of
encouragement to  UNHCR.  Planning  for the operation has  been completed in
close consultation with the Government of  Angola and with the  neighbouring
host countries.   A  series of  agreements  has been  concluded between  the
concerned Governments  and  UNHCR,  concerning  the process  of  return  and
reintegration.

8.   Whether  in  the  case of  Eritrea or  Angola, Mozambique  or Ethiopia,
refugees  are returning to countries  in the process  of profound change, to
villages  which  have  been  devastated  by   war,  homes  which  have  been
destroyed,  schools and hospitals  left in  ruins, roads  and fields heavily
mined.   The reintegration  of returnees is  a major  challenge under  these
circumstances but, given the  mandate of UNHCR, what  it can do  is limited.
As in  the case  of Mozambique,  UNHCR has  set up small-scale  quick impact
projects  (QIPs)  that  promote  self-sufficiency  of  returnees  and  their
communities.  But these fall far short of the overall needs.

9.    More  comprehensive,  timely  and  sustained  efforts  are  needed  to
rehabilitate  war-torn societies.   They must  be comprehensive  in order to
address  both the range of needs  faced by the  country and the diversity of
beneficiaries, whether they  be returning refugees, internally displaced  or
those who remained behind. The efforts must be  timely because peace is most
fragile  in its infancy, and  must be seen  to pay  early dividends to those
who are  most affected by war  or conflict.  While  recognizing the work  of
development   agencies   and   financial  institutions,   the  international
community must  press for  new means  and methods  to respond faster  and to
meet  rehabilitation needs earlier.   Development  should not  follow in the
footsteps of humanitarian relief but,  wherever possible, should be launched
simultaneously,  and in  a  complementary and  mutually  supportive  manner.
Most   importantly,  for   peace  to   be  consolidated,   development   and
rehabilitation resources must be provided in a sustained manner.

10.  The persistence  of population movements and refugee flows calls for  a
comprehensive approach  focusing on three  principal elements:   prevention,
the adverse  impact  of refugees  on asylum  countries, and  the search  for
durable solutions.

  (a)     Prevention.    Poverty,   environmental  degradation,   population
pressures and  competition for scarce resources  often fuel ethnic,  social,
political  and religious tensions.   They,  in turn,  provoke violence which
leads to  refugee flows.  Therefore,  economic development  is essential for
the  prevention  of  refugee  problems.    But  this  cannot be  pursued  in
isolation from  political efforts to promote  respect for  human rights, the
rule of law and accountable governance;

  (b)  Impact on asylum countries.  The  impact of displacement on countries

of asylum is often damaging to  the local socio-economic infrastructure  and
to the natural environment.  Countries  like the United Republic of Tanzania
and Zaire,  hosting large numbers  of refugees, cannot  be expected  to bear
fully this  burden  without the  financial  support  and solidarity  of  the
international  community.    However,  international   assistance  does  not
compensate for  the  collateral negative  impact  of  refugees on  the  host
country.  A concerted  effort on the part  of the international community to
provide comprehensive development assistance would relieve, to some  degree,
the considerable strain often caused by  large refugee populations on  their
host countries.   While acknowledging the  burden borne  by asylum countries
and  the  generosity  which  they  have   shown,  the  application  of  more
restrictive policies and practices  by some countries  has been a cause  for
concern.    The High  Commissioner  has  urged  Governments  to continue  to
receive refugees  and to provide  them with the  safety and  protection they
need, in accordance with internationally recognized principles;

  (c)   Durable  solutions.   Development  is  crucial in  promoting durable
solutions to  refugee problems.  The  prospects for voluntary  repatriation,
the  most favoured durable solution, are considerably improved when refugees
have  some assurance  of  assistance in  rebuilding their  home communities.
Large-scale population movements, as most  recently experienced in the Great
Lakes region,  threaten  regional peace  and  security  when left  too  long
unresolved.  Successful  voluntary repatriation depends on political  action
to achieve peace, and economic action to rehabilitate war-torn societies.

West Africa

11.  The refugee  situation in West Africa has continued to be characterized
by further  substantial outflows, including  170,000 Liberian refugees  into
Cote  d'Ivoire and Guinea,  as well as  some 50,000  Sierra Leonean refugees
into   Guinea.    In  response,  UNHCR  mobilized   and  provided  emergency
assistance to these new groups of refugees.

 12.    Although  no  efforts  have  been  spared  to  establish  peace  and
stability, and  to find  a lasting  solution to  the humanitarian  crisis in
Liberia, attempts to restore peace have  failed during the reporting period,
despite   the  full  deployment  of  the  West  African  Economic  Community
Monitoring  Group  (ECOMOG)  and  the  United  Nations Observer  Mission  in
Liberia (UNOMIL) in the country.   The reconciliation initiative brokered by
the leaders of the Economic  Community of West African States (ECOWAS) never
really went into  effect, despite the signing  of the Akosombo  Agreement on
12 September  1994 by  the Liberian  warring factions. Instead,  hostilities
increased in  the  north-eastern  region,  forcing Liberians  to  flee  into
neighbouring  countries.  As  a result,  the prevailing  precarious security
conditions  made   it  impossible   to  implement   the  planned   organized
repatriation.  On 20 August 1995,  leaders of all Liberia's warring factions
met at Abuja and signed a peace accord.   It is hoped that this  may lead to
improved security  in Liberia, which  could allow UNHCR  to begin its  long-
planned   voluntary  repatriation   programme  for   displaced  and   exiled
Liberians.    However,   some  spontaneous  return  continued  despite   the
prevailing  uncertainty  and   violence.  In  1994,  UNHCR  assisted   6,700
spontaneous  returnees  from  neighbouring  countries.  The  repatriation of
Sierra Leonean  refugees has  also been  adversely  affected by  intensified
conflict and the continuing state of insecurity in the country.

13.  While overall developments in the region give cause for concern,  there
is  now renewed hope  for the  organized voluntary  repatriation of Togolese
refugees from  Benin and  Ghana, and  of Malian  Tuareg  refugees, who  have
begun  to  return  spontaneously  to  northern   Mali.    UNHCR  is  closely
monitoring these  developments with a view  to planning  assisted return and
reintegration programmes.

The Horn and Eastern Africa

14.   Throughout  the Horn  of  Africa,  large-scale situations  of internal
displacement,   ethnic  conflict,   drought,   and   refugee  and   returnee

emergencies   take  place  in  the  context  of  poverty  and  environmental
degradation.  The  resulting immense humanitarian needs require  imaginative
and flexible approaches in the  planning of assistance  programmes, resource
mobilization and cost-effective means of delivering assistance  to all those
in need.

15.   Since the  beginning of  1994, a  number of donor  Governments, member
States  of  the  Intergovernmental  Authority  on  Drought  and  Development
(IGADD), United Nations agencies, as well as non-governmental  organizations
(NGOs),  have  developed  various   initiatives  addressing  the  political,
humanitarian,  social  and economic  development  concerns  of  the  region.
UNHCR  is following these  initiatives with  the intention  of formulating a
conceptual  framework and  programme for  durable solutions  in  the region.
The framework  would focus  on voluntary  repatriation of  refugees and  the
linkage  of  returnee  operations  to  national  and  regional   programmes,
benefiting all categories of persons in need in the same geographical area.

16.   A major  repatriation operation  of camp-based  Ethiopian refugees was
implemented from September  1994 to March 1995.   During this  period, about
17,000  refugees repatriated  voluntarily  from Camps  in  Djibouti  through
UNHCR's organized movements.  Consequently,  Aour-Aoussa camp was  closed at
the end of February  1995.  The remaining 1,500 refugees at Aour-Aoussa (625
Ethiopians and  875 Somalis) were all  transferred to  Ali-Ade refugee camp.
Of the remaining 23,000  refugees in three camps,  87 per cent  are Somalis,
most of whom are women and children of nomadic origin.

17.   Following the  signing of the "Peace  and Reconciliation" agreement on
26  December 1994  between the  Government  of  Djibouti and  the opposition
movement Front  pour l'Unite  et la  Democratie (FRUD),  the authorities  in
Djibouti   expressed   readiness  to   facilitate   the   repatriation   and
reintegration  of Djiboutian  refugees of  Afar  origin  who fled  to north-
eastern Ethiopia during the years  1991 to 1993.  The agreement has also led
to a general normalization of the  socio-political situation in Djibouti and
has encouraged the return of many families to their places of origin.

18.  UNHCR and  the Governments of Djibouti  and Ethiopia agreed  in January
1995  to continue  transfer operations  for the remaining  15,000 unassisted
and unregistered  urban refugees  and displaced  persons in  Djibouti-ville,
out  of the  30,000 estimated  in 1993.    The  transfer operation  is being
carried out in the context  of voluntary repatriation whereby it is intended
that  repatriates will  not stay  for a  long period  of time  in  a transit
centre.

19.   The continuation  of the  transfer programme and  the repatriation  of
about  18,000 Djiboutian  refugees of  Afar  origin  from Ethiopia  were the
subject  of a letter  of "Mutual  Understanding" signed  by both Governments
and UNHCR on 15 January 1995.

20.   During  the course  of 1994, two  separate Memoranda  of Understanding
were signed by UNHCR  with the Governments of Eritrea  and the Sudan.  These
provide the  framework for the  voluntary repatriation of Eritrean refugees.
The pilot  phase, which  planned for  the repatriation  of 25,000  Eritreans
from  the  Sudan  within  the  Programme   for  Refugee  Reintegration   and
Rehabilitation  of  Resettlement  Areas  in  Eritrea  (PROFERI),  began   in
November 1994.   Some 24,200 Eritreans were assisted to return at the end of
the  pilot  project.    In  addition,  29,530  Ethiopians  and  172 Zairians
benefited from UNHCR's assistance in their voluntary repatriation  movements
during 1994-1995.

21.    As  of  May 1995,  Ethiopia  was  hosting  nearly  365,000  refugees,
comprising 284,200 Somalis  in the east, 53,300 Sudanese in the west, 18,000
Djiboutians, 8,700 Kenyans and 640 urban refugees of various nationalities.

22.   The planned repatriation  of Somali refugees from  eastern Ethiopia to
north-west  Somalia  in  1994  was  suspended  due  to  renewed  fighting in
Hargeisa. The  fighting resulted  in a  fresh influx of  some 80,000  Somali

refugees into eastern Ethiopia.  With  relative calm returning to north-west
Somalia,  plans have been  revived to  pursue the  voluntary repatriation of
Somali refugees during the second half of 1995.   The repatriation of  about
10,000  Somali refugees  is  foreseen  for the  end  of 1995  under a  pilot
project, while the repatriation of some 100,000 is envisaged in 1996.

23.   Reintegration assistance  to 530,000  Ethiopian returnees from Somalia
and some 60,000  from the Sudan, Kenya and  Djibouti who had repatriated  in
earlier years  was phased out,  concluding on  31 December  1994.   However,
reintegration  assistance is  continuing in  1995 to some  35,644 Ethiopians
who repatriated  in 1994  from Djibouti, Kenya  and Sudan.   Repatriation of
some 60,000 Ethiopian refugees  in the Sudan had  been planned for  1995 but
the  slow pace of return led to a revised plan for an expected total of only
30,000  returnees  in  1995, with  the  remainder  in  1996.    In addition,
repatriation  started  in  1995  of  some  35,650  Ethiopian  refugees  from
Djibouti (25,000), Kenya (10,000)  and other countries (650).  By the end of
May, about 3,000  refugees had returned from Kenya, and 9,256 from Djibouti.
The  majority  of  returnees  in  1994  and  1995  have  received individual
reintegration   packages   in   the   form   of   agricultural   implements,
reintegration grants and, where feasible, income generation grants. 

24.   The year 1994 saw  a marked decline in the influx of refugees to Kenya
with a substantial increase  in repatriation movements.   In 1994, only  926
persons were  recorded as arrivals in  Kenya while more  than 81,520 persons
returned  to their  countries  of  origin.   By  31 March  1995, there  were
195,094 registered refugees in Kenya, the majority of whom were Somalis.

25.   A combination of repatriation  and relocation  movements allowed UNHCR
to  close and  consolidate several  camps.   Refugees who  did not  wish  to
return or could not return to their home  areas were relocated to the Dadaab
axis camps or to Kakuma camp.

26.   Marafa camp, which  hosts 31,000 Somali  refugees, is  scheduled to be
closed during  the second half of 1995.   The planned closure of the smaller
coastal  camps hosting minority  Somali ethnic  groups suffers  from serious
constraints. The relocation of these minority  Somalis to Dadaab axis  camps
or their repatriation to Somalia is  not feasible without jeopardizing their
personal security.  Therefore, UNHCR is  negotiating with the Government  of
Kenya  for the  retention of  these coastal  camps or the  identification of
suitable alternative sites.

27.  The repatriation from border sites in  the North-East Province of Kenya
to  the Gedo and Lower  Juba regions of  Somalia was  completed in the first
half of  1994.   In 1995, an  organized voluntary repatriation  programme to
Lower Juba has been ongoing  from Dadaab camps.  With  the withdrawal of the
United  Nations  Operation  in  Somalia  (UNOSOM   II)  in  March  1995  and
subsequent insecurity, all international staff members  in Somalia had to be
withdrawn temporarily. Implementation of QIPs, the main UNHCR  reintegration
assistance in Somalia, was suspended.

28.   In addition to the  above movements to  Somalia, UNHCR  completed on 4
June 1995  the voluntary repatriation of  1,554 Ethiopians  of Somali origin
from Dadaab  camps.  Repatriation from  Kenya to Rwanda  and Uganda is  also
ongoing in 1995.

29.  In  view of the relative peace  and stability which north-west  Somalia
enjoyed from  mid-1993, a number  of preparatory  activities were undertaken
by UNHCR  during 1994 to  encourage and facilitate  the voluntary  return of
the  Somali  refugees   in  neighbouring  countries,  mainly  Ethiopia   and
Djibouti.  However, with the outbreak of fighting  in and around Hargeisa in
November 1994, the plan for organized  repatriation of 10,000 refugees  from
eastern Ethiopia to north-west Somalia was  suspended pending resolution  of
the conflict.

 30.   In June  1995, the central  administration in  Hargeisa gave  written
approval to  UNHCR for the repatriation of 10,000 Somali refugees from camps

in  eastern Ethiopia under a pilot  project.  At  the same time, the central
administration  also approved  the voluntary  return of  all Somali refugees
from  asylum countries.  In view  of  this  positive development,  the UNHCR
Office in Hargeisa, in consultation with  the UNHCR Regional Liaison  Office
in   Addis  Ababa,   is  planning   the  reception,   onward  movement   and
reintegration  of returnees  to their  homes.  This  pilot project  began in
August 1995.  Lessons learned will pave the way for  the implementation of a
large-scale repatriation programme from Ethiopia planned for 1996.

31.   Although some 727,000 refugees  are reported to be  in the Sudan,  the
exact number is difficult to assess because there has been no recent  census
of the refugee population.  A  UNHCR technical and interdisciplinary mission
to the  Sudan in  March 1995  recommended  that a  registration exercise  be
carried  out jointly with  the United  Nations Population  Fund (UNFPA), the
Office  of  the  Commissioner  for  Refugees  (COR)  and  the  Government in
collaboration with  UNHCR.  The registration  exercise is  scheduled for the
last quarter of 1995.

32.  In  the Sudan, continuing armed  conflict, often combined  with natural
disasters  such as  floods,  have taken  an enormous  toll  on  the civilian
population.   This has led  to a continuous  flow of  Sudanese refugees into
the Central  African Republic,  Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda  and Zaire.   It has
also  resulted in  the massive  internal  displacement  of over  1.7 million
persons in southern Sudan, the transitional  areas between the north and the
south,  and in urban  areas, particularly  Khartoum.   These persons  are in
desperate  need of  a broad  range  of  assistance, including  food, medical
supplies, water and shelter. United Nations agencies and NGOs  participating
in  Operation Lifeline Sudan  are continuing  their efforts  to provide aid,
but access to those in need has been problematic, owing to ongoing  security
problems.

33.   Since mid-1994, some  60,000 Sudanese refugees  have sought asylum  in
Uganda, bringing the total number of  assisted Sudanese refugees to 325,000.
The  influx  of  new   refugees  necessitated  the  launching  of  emergency
assistance  and  rural  settlement  programmes  in  early  1995.    Care and
maintenance  assistance,  including  basic  aid,  food,  water  and   health
facilities,  are being provided  by UNHCR  in coordination  with the Ugandan
Government, WFP and a range of NGOs.

Central Africa

34.  During  the reporting period  the refugee situation  in Central  Africa
has been  marked by  continued uncertainty in  Rwanda, with  over a  million
Rwandans  still  living in  exile;  the  resurgence  of  ethnic conflict  in
Burundi  followed  by  the  simultaneous  return  and  exodus  of  Burundian
refugees;  the  outflow  of  Sudanese  refugees  into  the  Central  African
Republic and Zaire;  a new era of national  reconciliation in Chad; and  the
repatriation of Rwandan refugees from Uganda.

35.   In February 1995, UNHCR  and the Organization  of African Unity  (OAU)
organized the  Regional Conference  on Assistance to Refugees  and Displaced
Persons  in the  Great  Lakes  Region, which  was  held at  Bujumbura.   The
Conference adopted a plan of action addressing a wide range of concerns  and
agreed  that no  meaningful solution  could  be found  to problems  of  this
magnitude   without   active   cooperation  between   States   and  relevant
international and regional organizations.

36.   Following the dramatic  events which  provoked large-scale  population
movements  from Rwanda  in 1994,  UNHCR  has  been providing  protection and
assistance to  varying  refugee caseloads  in  Burundi.   Between  June  and
December  1994, a total  of 250,000  Rwandan refugees  crossed into Burundi.
During the first months of 1995, the number of arrivals increased, with  the
closure of internally  displaced person (IDP) camps in Gikongoro  Prefecture
in  Rwanda.  More  than 20,000  new arrivals were reported  during the first
four months of the year.

37.   UNHCR transferred  refugees  from the  unstable border  area to  seven
different camps and established a care  and maintenance programme for  their
assistance.   By  the end  of 1994,  basic  services  were available  in all
refugee camps:   access roads were opened  and sanitation, health and  water
facilities were  established. Individual assistance in  the form of  plastic
sheeting, blankets,  jerrycans  and cooking  sets was  provided to  refugees
upon their arrival in the camps.  These programmes continued in 1995.

38.    Following  a  series  of  security  incidents  affecting  refugees in
Burundi,  some  30,000 Rwandan  refugees  fled  to  the  United Republic  of
Tanzania during  1994.   During  1995,  a  further 80,000  Rwandan  refugees
attempted to cross into the United Republic of Tanzania.

39.   A  Tripartite Agreement  for  the  voluntary repatriation  of  Rwandan
refugees was signed between the Governments of Burundi and Rwanda and  UNHCR
on 14 December 1994.   The planning assumption for the 1995 UNHCR assistance
programme  was  that,  while  care  and  maintenance  assistance  needed  to
continue, at least 100,000 Rwandan refugees  accommodated in camps, as  well
as "old"  caseload refugees, would opt  for voluntary  repatriation in 1995.
It is expected  that refugee interest  in repatriation from  Burundi can  be
enhanced through  confidence-building measures  currently being implemented:
dissemination of  factual information on  the situation  in Rwanda;  refugee
visits  to  their  areas  of  origin;  and,  whenever  possible,  visits  of
returnees already resettled in Rwanda to their former camps in Burundi.

40.   Beginning  in 1994  and continuing  in 1995,  assistance to  returnees
(some  200,000 who returned to  Burundi from the United Republic of Tanzania
in  early 1994  and 300,000  who  fled to  Rwanda in  the  aftermath  of the
October 1993 events and then returned to Burundi after April 1994) has  been
disrupted by several  factors:  lack  of security  in areas  of return;  the
geographical spread of areas of return; and the priority  given to providing
assistance to Rwandan refugees in Burundi.  Some 50,000 have benefited  from
UNHCR's  assistance,  principally through  the  distribution  of  seeds  and
tools.

41.   A total  of 400  Burundi returnees who  have so  far repatriated  from
Rwanda during  1995 are  being assisted  in one  site by UNHCR,  pending the
allocation  of land for their resettlement by the Burundian authorities.  It
is expected  that a  further 2,500  Burundian refugees  currently in  Rwanda
will  repatriate  during  1995.    Reception  facilities,  as  well  as some
reintegration activities,  principally the distribution of repatriation kits
consisting of seeds and agriculture tools,  are being established.  However,
a significant number of  these returnees may remain dependent upon aid  from
the international community until  a solution is found to the issue of  land
scarcity.

42.  UNHCR, in collaboration with WFP and  several NGOs, provided assistance
to  IDPs  located in  sites close  to  the  refugee camps.   This  helped to
alleviate  tension between refugees,  the local  population and  IDPs in the
north  of  Burundi.  Assistance  consisted  mainly  of  complementary   food
assistance  provided  by  WFP. Basic  camp  planning,  water and  sanitation
infrastructure  and basic health  facilities were  provided by UNHCR through
its implementing partners.

43.   Following  the constitution  of a  new Government  in mid-July,  UNHCR
resumed  its activities in  Rwanda, assisting  and monitoring  the return of
refugees  and  IDPs  to  their  communes  of  origin.    UNHCR concluded  an
agreement with the International  Organization for Migration  (IOM) for  the
transport  of  returnees and  IDPs.    NGOs  have  been providing  technical
support  for the transport operation and are running the "way stations", the
"reception" and  "transit" centres  in which  returnees and  IDPs have  been
receiving the necessary assistance  on their way home.  UNHCR has also  been
providing returnees with  a repatriation package containing soap,  blankets,
jerrycans  and  mats.   In  addition  to  individual  assistance, UNHCR  has
supported  activities towards  community  rehabilitation, focusing  on  four
main sectors - water, health, housing and primary  education - in the  areas

most affected by the return of refugees and IDPs.

44.   Several NGOs, the  International  Committee  of the  Red Cross (ICRC),
UNICEF and UNHCR are working towards developing solutions to the problem  of
unaccompanied minors through family tracing and support to foster  families.
UNHCR has set up a Regional Support Unit  for Refugee Children which carries
out a  coordinating  function within  the  framework  of UNHCR's  policy  on
"Refugee  Unaccompanied Minors".   UNHCR is  also assisting  the Ministry of
the  Family  and Promotion  of  Women  (MIFAPROFE)  to  help returnee  women
reintegrate into Rwandan society.

45.   Since  September  1994,  the Government  of  Rwanda (and  notably  the
Ministry of Rehabilitation) has been confronted with  the particular problem
of the  massive return  of refugees from  the "old" caseload.   The  lengthy
duration of their  exile implies that these  returnees do not have  property
or land  to return to.   A large  proportion of them  have settled in  urban
areas, principally in Kigali and Butare, where they live in houses owned  by
"new"  caseload refugees.  Smaller  groups have also  settled in other urban
areas and along the main  roads.  UNHCR is helping  the Government to settle
"old"  rural   caseload  returnees   in  new,  Government-designated   rural
settlements and providing them with building materials.

46.  Voluntary repatriation continues to  be the preferred durable  solution
to the  refugee problem in the  region, but the  recurring internal security
problems in Rwanda, coupled  with arbitrary arrests  throughout the country,
have  emerged as major  obstacles preventing  refugees from  returning.  The
forced closure  of IDP camps  and the outbreaks  of violence  in Kibeho camp
also have had a negative impact on refugee repatriation movements.

 47.   In the United  Republic of Tanzania,  the number  of Rwandan refugees
grew  from  practically  none  to  almost  575,000  in  the  Kagera  region,
beginning  in April  1994 when  about  200,000  Rwandans crossed  the border
within a period  of 24 hours.  The influx from Rwanda continued  from May to
the end  of October with a daily average influx of some 1,500 persons.  From
November 1994  to  March 1995,  Rwandan  refugees  in Burundi  also  started
entering  the United Republic of Tanzania to escape  insecurity in the camps
in Burundi.   A massive emergency response  was initiated by the  Government
of  the United Republic  of Tanzania,  UNHCR, donor  countries, other United
Nations agencies, notably WFP and UNICEF, and NGOs.

48.  At  the beginning of 1994,  about 250,000 Burundi  refugees repatriated
spontaneously.  About 45,000  of them remained in  the Kigoma region  at the
United  Republic of  Tanzania.   A  new  influx of  about  60,000  refugees,
however, took  place  in  March  1995,  following  disturbances  in  Muyinga
Province.   On 31  March  1995 the  Government  of  the United  Republic  of
Tanzania closed  its border  with Burundi.   The  Government has  maintained
that   positive  steps   must  be   taken  towards   implementation  of  the
recommendations  of  the January  1995  Nairobi  Presidential Summit  on the
voluntary repatriation of Rwandan  refugees before reopening  of the  border
can be considered.

49.    Other developments  in the  United  Republic  of Tanzania  during the
reporting period  included the  organized voluntary  repatriation of  13,000
Mozambicans, completed on schedule in October 1994.

50.  In Zaire, the signing  of a peace accord in 1994 paved the way for  the
repatriation of  5,370 Ugandan refugees during  the latter part  of 1994 and
the  beginning  of  1995.    A  total  of  4,640 Ugandans  are  expected  to
repatriate in 1995.

51.   Meanwhile, the  political and  security situation  in Sudan  heightens
fears of  yet another  influx of Sudanese  into Zaire.   Some 6,000  arrived
during the first  months of 1995.   On  the other hand,  there is hope  that
Angolan refugees  may return home following the signing of  the Lusaka Peace
Accord  between the  National Union  for  the  Total Independence  of Angola
(UNITA) and the Government of Angola on 5 May 1995.

52.   Prior to  the massive  influx of  Rwandan refugees into  Zaire in July
1994,  there  were  18,000  Rwandan  refugees  in  North  Kivu  and  106,000
Burundian refugees in South Kivu.  The arrival  of over 1.7 million Rwandans
into both North and South Kivu called for  the mounting of a large emergency
aid programme,  including the  use of international  military resources,  to
allow  the  international   aid  community  to  address  this   unparalleled
humanitarian disaster.

53.    The  first  few  weeks  of  the  emergency  were  especially  tragic.
Thousands  of refugees  died from  waterborne diseases and  dehydration; the
towns  of  Goma,  Uvira  and  Bukavu  were  completely  overwhelmed  by  the
transient refugee populations; violence and insecurity dominated daily  life
in the  camps; food distribution was  manipulated by the  refugee leaders to
the  detriment  of vulnerable  refugees;  the  population  of  unaccompanied
minors  swelled as  mothers abandoned  children to  the NGO  community in  a
desperate attempt  to  ensure  their  survival; and  the  unique  ecological
preserve of the  Virunga National Park was violated  daily in the quest  for
cooking fuel and supplementary food.

54.   Through  the massive  effort of  United Nations  agencies,  donors and
NGOs,  the crisis had eased by  the end of  August 1994 and the rudiments of
order and calm emerged over the next  six months.  The majority  of refugees
moved out of the towns  into the camps and UNHCR began the consolidation  of
camp and agency activities.  UNHCR  field staff succeeded in  effecting food
distribution  to heads of households and ensured a  more equitable access to
food.    Through  the  tremendous  efforts   of  the  health-oriented  NGOs,
mortality  rates  dropped   considerably.    After  many  delays  and   much
resistance  on  the  part  of  the  refugee  community,  UNHCR  successfully
registered all refugees.   By the end of March 1995, the population size was
known for all camps.

55.  Security  remained  the  greatest  problem   in  the  camps.    Serious
intimidation  of any  individual expressing  a  desire  to return  to Rwanda
occurred frequently  and  was a  major  deterrent  to repatriation.    Other
security   problems,   such   as   banditry,   weapons   smuggling,    rape,
misappropriation  of humanitarian  assistance,  violent attacks  against aid
workers, rioting and looting also abounded.  By January 1995, agreement  had
been  reached  on an  experimental  solution  -  the  Zairian Camp  Security
Operation.    Deployment  of  both  the  Zairian  Camp  Security Contingent,
composed  of Zairian  security  agents, and  the  Civilian  Security Liaison
Group,  composed   of  expatriate  police   and  military  officers,   began
immediately in the  North Kivu camps,  and was completed by 15  May in South
Kivu as well.

56.  At the  end of  October 1994, the Governments  of Zaire and Rwanda  and
UNHCR  signed a  tripartite agreement  which established the  conditions for
the voluntary repatriation of  Rwandan refugees in safety  and dignity.   By
mid-December 1994  the situation  had calmed  to the  extent that  organized
repatriation could begin; in 1994 at  least 154,000 Rwandans returned  home,
most  of  them  spontaneously.  Organized  repatriation  numbers  peaked  in
February 1995,  with nearly 1,000 refugees  per day  registering for return.
However,  there  was  a   sharp  decline  following   the  deterioration  of
conditions in  Rwanda and incidents of intimidation in Kibeho  camp in April
1995.

Southern Africa

57.    Continuing  political stability  in  Mozambique,  and  the successful
conclusion of  free  and fair  elections  in  October 1994,  encouraged  the
repatriation and  reintegration of some 1.6 million Mozambican refugees from
Malawi, South  Africa, Swaziland,  the United  Republic of  Tanzania, Zambia
and Zimbabwe,  including 316,118 whose  return transportation was  organized
by UNHCR.  Only  a few thousand Mozambican refugees remain to be assisted in
their return  home.   Almost all  the refugee  camps and settlements  in the
countries  of asylum, as  well as  the associated  infrastructure, have been
handed over to the respective Governments for alternative uses.

58.   The repatriation  programme  for Mozambican  refugees was  one of  the
largest in UNHCR's history.  Organized  movements at the peak period reached
well over 4,000 individuals per day and took  place simultaneously by truck,
bus,  train and  boat  to  a variety  of locations  inside Mozambique.   The
successful conclusion  of this  complex operation  has been  due largely  to
concerted  cooperation  between  UNHCR  and the  participating  Governments,
other United Nations agencies and NGO implementing partners.

59.   Until June 1996,  UNHCR will  consolidate its  activities in  returnee
areas   to   ensure   sustainability   of   its   reintegration   programme.
Rehabilitation projects for  major returnee  areas are being implemented  in
close cooperation  with the  Government and  other field  partners.  At  the
same time,  UNHCR's Branch  Office in  Maputo will  gradually phase  out all
field  offices  charged  with reintegration  projects  by  mid-1996  and  is
actively   pursuing  a   linkage   of  UNHCR   activities   to   longer-term
developmental programmes now under way in the country.

60.  These positive developments in Mozambique paved  the way for a regional
approach  which includes  the fostering of close  working relationships with
Governments  and  regional   institutions  such  as  the  Southern   African
Development Community  (SADC) as well  as local NGOs  on issues of  regional
concern such as  population movements, emergency preparedness and  irregular
refugee movements. 

61.   In Angola,  since the  signing of the November  peace agreement ending
nearly  two decades  of  civil war,  prospects  for the  return  of  Angolan
refugees  have improved.   As  a result, some  5,500 refugees  have returned
spontaneously to their country.   In June 1995, the Government of Angola and
UNHCR  signed a Memorandum of  Understanding at Luanda  for the promotion of
voluntary  repatriation  of  some  300,000   Angolan  refugees.     In  this
connection,  UNHCR has prepared  an integrated  regional plan  of action for
the voluntary repatriation and reintegration of  Angolan refugees over a 30-
month period starting from July 1995  and continuing through until  December
1997.

62.  During the first year of the operation, UNHCR will focus on  activities
aimed  at  establishing  the  necessary conditions  within  Angola  for  the
reception and  integration of  returnees.   UNHCR will  coordinate with  the
other agencies  and bodies within the  United Nations  system, including the
Office of  the Coordinator of Humanitarian  Assistance to  Angola (UCAH) and
the  United Nations  Angola  Verification  Mission (UNAVEM)  on  matters  of
primary  concern to  help  assure the  conditions of  safe  return,  such as
accessibility,  mine  awareness  and  de-mining  activities, water,  health,
sanitation and basic agricultural assistance.

63.  The  second phase of the  operation, from July  to December  1996, will
focus  on  a programme  of  organized  repatriation.    An estimated  82,000
Angolan refugees in  neighbouring countries may require organized  transport
to return.  Refugees who repatriate through  UNHCR-organized programmes will
be  transported from  countries of  asylum through  designated border  entry
points  to  reception  centres  in  Angola.    From  the  reception centres,
returnees  will be transported  on trucks  to final  destinations near their
home communities.

64.   It  is  planned  to begin  phasing  down  the operation  by  mid-1997.
Emphasis  will  be  placed,  during  the  last phase  of  the  programme, on
consolidation  of  reintegration assistance  to  provide  a solid  basis for
effective  integration  of  the returnees  into  their  communities,  and to
engage them in  a productive sustainable economic  life.  The efforts  which
have already been initiated,  in the first phase  of the operation,  will be
intensified in  order  to ensure  that  the  returnee programme  remains  an
integral  part  of  the  national  development   plan  by  coordinating  the
implementation  strategies   with  bilateral  and  multilateral  programmes.
These  concerted efforts, in  coordination with the Government, other United
Nations agencies and NGOs, should ensure  that the activities initiated  for
the benefit  of the returnees and their communities during the initial phase

are sustained and continued by the development agencies. 

Other developments

65.   Recognizing  the  dual  impact of  the  presence of  refugees  on  the
environment and  of the hostile environment  on the  well-being of refugees,
UNHCR has reassessed environmental  and related socio-economic issues with a
view  to reinforcing its  efforts to  address environmental  problems in the
following ways:

  (a)   By adopting a  more ecologically sensitive approach  in the planning
and implementation  of refugee site management.   For  instance, an expanded
provision  of   fuel  and  fuel-efficient   stoves  is  increasingly   being
considered  and an  improved design  for  a  drainage/waste water  system is
being applied at many sites;

  (b)    By  undertaking  studies  in  the sectors  of  shelter,  water  and
sanitation to minimize the negative impact  on the surroundings and  improve
the  conditions of refugee  camps and  settlements in  an ecologically sound
manner;

  (c)  By recognizing that refugees  themselves are an important  collective
force  for positive  change.   Through  the People-Oriented  Planning  (POP)
training programme  and greater refugee participation in the development and
implementation  of UNHCR programmes, awareness of environmental conservation
is being promoted;

  (d)    By  promoting  environmental  rehabilitation  programmes  aimed  at
attracting development assistance  funds for the rehabilitation of  refugee-
affected areas.

Expenditure

66.   UNHCR expenditure  and allocations  for assistance  in Africa in  1994
totalled  $506.1 million of  which $167.4  million were  made available from
General Programmes funds  and $338.7 million from Special Programmes  funds.
The  revised  1995  General  Programmes target  approved  by  the  Executive
Committee  at  its  forty-fifth  session  is  $163.1  million.    The amount
required for  Special  Programmes in  1995  is  estimated, at  mid-year,  at
$387.6 million.


II.  ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS

67.  During  the period covered  by the  present report,  the Department  of
Humanitarian Affairs  (DHA), on behalf of  the United Nations  system and in
pursuit of  its humanitarian  coordination function  under General  Assembly
resolution  46/182,   issued  appeals  for   emergency  assistance  to   the
populations affected  by the political  and humanitarian  crises in  Angola,
Burundi, Kenya, Liberia,  Mozambique, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia and  the
Sudan.

 68.   Operations  in Angola  have,  since  November 1994,  been  reoriented
towards  relief,   resettlement,  demobilization,   reintegration  and  mine
clearance action.  In connection  with the  ongoing crisis  in Burundi,  the
work of the humanitarian  agencies has focused  on those fleeing within  the
country and into the United Republic of Tanzania  and Zaire.  The successful
response to humanitarian needs  has so far offset  the likelihood of a major
humanitarian crisis.

69.   For Kenya, a consolidated appeal  was launched in  early 1994 to cover
one year; the donor response  amounted to $54.9 million (57 per cent of  the
amount sought for  a target population of  1,620,000).  Over  200,000 Somali
refugees are still  in Kenya.   In the  case of  Liberia, a  new appeal  was
launched  for January  through  June 1995:    $65.3 million  for  food  aid,
agriculture,  food   security,  health,   water,  sanitation,   shelter  and

education.  Less  than 50 per  cent was  donated in response to  the appeal.
While  the humanitarian  assistance  community issued  a joint  statement in
October 1994 regarding its decision not  to operate without minimum security
guarantees,  the  United  Nations  system  and  NGOs  nevertheless  provided
assistance to  1.5  million out  of  1.8  million Liberians  requiring  such
assistance.  The intensification of fighting  since early 1995 has  resulted
in an increased flow of IDPs.

70.   The successful  programme in  Mozambique has  addressed the  emergency
needs of  4 to  5 million  IDPs, 1.6  million returning refugees  and 90,000
demobilized soldiers.  There  was an 82 per cent response rate to the appeal
for the $775  million consolidated  Humanitarian Assistance  Programme.   In
Rwanda,  as  of  6  June  1995,  only  43  per  cent  of  the  $219  million
consolidated appeal had been  donated.  For the  subregion, of $588  million
required only 61  per cent had  been received.   Serious  food shortages  in
Rwanda and in the  region are especially  harmful for refugee camps and  for
the large numbers of internally displaced.  About 2 million refugees  remain
in  the region.   There  is great  concern  that  the pressure  of returning
refugees  and tensions  from neighbouring  countries will result  in further
deterioration  of  the  situation.    The  danger  of  a  major humanitarian
emergency in Sierra Leone  has worsened since late 1994; rebel attacks  have
resulted  in  an estimated  500,000  IDPs  and  in  an overconcentration  of
persons in  some areas.  An  inter-agency appeal on  behalf of new  refugees
and populations  affected by the humanitarian  situation in  Sierra Leone in
the amount  of $14.6  million for  March through  December 1995  has so  far
received very little response.

71.    For  the  post-UNOSOM  II   humanitarian  programmes  in  Somalia,  a
consolidated appeal was  launched in  January 1995 ($70.3 million  requested
for a  six-month period,  less than  20 per  cent  met by  donations).   The
programme  addresses the needs  of refugees,  returnees and  IDPs for relief
and rehabilitation.   As  long as  no stable  Government exists,  assistance
programmes aim at  self-reliance and community initiatives.   Rehabilitation
activities are initiated where  security conditions allow.  For the Sudan, a
new appeal  for $101 million to  benefit some 4,250,000  people was recently
launched.  The  donor response so  far has  been poor.   Operation  Lifeline
Sudan (OLS)  has made considerable  progress and its  area of operation  has
been expanded.   The improved harvest of 1994  has allowed the scaling  down
of the United  Nations consolidated  appeal by 45  per cent. Renewed  large-
scale  fighting and  denial  of  access  by air  have  impaired delivery  of
humanitarian  assistance,  although  the  two-month cease-fire  brokered  by
former United States President Jimmy Carter has offered some  respite in the
ongoing civil strife.  A basic review of OLS is planned for late 1995.


III.  ACTIVITIES OF THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME

72.  Refugees and internally displaced were again the main beneficiaries  of
WFP  relief assistance  during 1994.   In Africa, during  1994, WFP assisted
more  than  17  million  refugees,  internally  displaced  and  war-affected
persons  with a  commitment of  more than  1.4 million  tons  of food.   New
commitments  in the first half of  1995 already reached 1 million tons for 7
million beneficiaries.

73.    For  the region  of Africa  (23  countries), five  protracted refugee
operations and  18 emergency  operations were  approved for  a total of  $68
million in 1994.

74.   WFP continued to strengthen  collaboration arrangements  with UNHCR in
refugee, returnee  and internally  displaced feeding operations.   A further
revision of the  joint working arrangements was  introduced in early 1994 to
improve  the  effectiveness  of  joint  feeding   operations.    Under  this
arrangement,  the  programme has  further  extended  its  responsibility  by
taking over management of the extended delivery points (EDP).

75.    In  the  protracted,   post-emergency  phase  of  relief  operations,

attention has increasingly  focused on identifying appropriate interventions
which merge  relief and rehabilitation objectives.   This has  been the case
in  major long-standing  operations such  as  those  in Liberia,  Rwanda and
Burundi.   In  order  to achieve  better  targeting and  to  facilitate  the
transition   to  long-term  self-security,  general   food  distribution  is
progressively phased out in favour of:  (i) food-for-work (FFW) schemes  for
construction/rehabilitation  of  agricultural and  community infrastructure;
and (ii)  special feeding programmes to  provide safety  nets for vulnerable
groups.

76.   The concept  of a  "continuum from relief  to development" has  been a
major  focus  in the  preparation  and  implementation of  WFP interventions
during 1994  and the  first half  of 1995.   These activities  have included
rehabilitation  programmes,  resettlement and  implementation  of  household
surveys  in  various  countries.    These   surveys  were  to  identify  the
beneficiaries' needs and to help develop a proper targeting strategy.

77.   A comprehensive  study of  WFP's policy  and practice  with regard  to
gender in emergencies was  initiated in 1995.   The objective of this review
was  to  look  into  the  diversity  and  persistent  character  of  certain
obstacles hampering the welfare of women and to  see how their special needs
could be integrated in programme planning and implementation.

78.   WFP, together  with UNHCR,  is  actively interested  in promoting  and
ensuring,   particularly  in  post-crisis  situations,  a  better  interface
between  humanitarian  interventions  and  development,  with  the  aim   of
ensuring  sustainable  solutions.    Humanitarian  assistance  is  used   to
facilitate reintegration  of displaced people into  a process  of social and
economic recovery.   WFP,  in conjunction  with UNHCR,  continues to  review
significant  reintegration  experiences  in  order  to  draw  upon   lessons
learned.  Future evaluations will cover Mozambique and Rwanda/Burundi.
  79.  WFP is involved in the major  refugee and IDP operations in Africa, a
summary of which is provided below.


A.  West Africa

Liberia region

80.  WFP continues  to provide food assistance  to over 2.5 million Liberian
and Sierra Leonean refugees and IDPs in  Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia  and
Sierra Leone.   Employment and  income-generation activities in  agriculture
and trade  exist for  refugees (many  of whom  are now integrated  into host
families)  both in  Guinea and  Cote  d'Ivoire.   A  progressive phasing-out
strategy has been introduced  for these beneficiaries while a safety net has
been maintained  for vulnerable  groups and  new  arrivals.   Under the  new
phase of  assistance, integration of  agricultural development projects  and
other efforts  to encourage self-sufficiency  will be  intensified by United
Nations agencies and donors.

Togo region

81.  The appointment of a new Government  in Togo led to some improvement in
the  economic situation  of the  country.   A household  survey carried  out
among refugees  in Benin  and Ghana  revealed that most  refugees have  been
integrated and have been able, with the support  of WFP and UNHCR, to  reach
a certain  level of self-sufficiency.   A programme of  repatriation is also
beingplanned.  WFPhas continuedits assistance to displacedpersons in Ghana.


B.  Great Lakes region

82.  As of June 1995,  an estimated 2 million refugees  had sought refuge in
Zaire,  the United  Republic  of Tanzania  and Burundi.    They  continue to
receive WFP  food assistance.   The food  aid requirement  for this  refugee
feeding emergency programme amounted to 60,000 tons of commodities a month.

83.  In Rwanda  and Burundi, WFP  began working closely with the  respective
Governments  to  channel  needed  assistance for  rehabilitation  work.   In
Rwanda,  priorities since September  1994 and  for 1995  have been  the seed
protection  programme  and  local integration  of  returnees  in  their home
communities.     In  addressing   the  emergency   and  rehabilitation   and
reconstruction initiatives in  Rwanda, WFP is planning to cover the needs of
beneficiaries  in the form of  FFW schemes rather  than free distribution to
avoid food aid  dependency among  the target  population.   In Burundi,  WFP
successfully initiated  programmes to resettle  IDPs.  "Returnee"  packages,
which  included  a  one-month  food  ration,  seeds  and  tools,  were  made
available to the 35,000 displaced families who resettled in 1994.


C.  Eastern and southern Africa

84.   WFP activities  with UNHCR  during the period under  review focused on
attaining  durable   solutions,  with   particular  emphasis   on  voluntary
repatriation.  Repatriation of Eritrean  refugees in the Sudan  began at the
end of  1994 and continued  in 1995.   It is expected  that 135,000 refugees
will  return.   WFP, together  with UNHCR,  is making  plans to  assist  the
voluntary  repatriation  of  Ethiopian  refugees  in  the  Sudan  and Somali
refugees in Kenya.

Mozambique

85.  During the reporting period,  reintegration activities were intensified
in  major returnee areas  with the distribution of  seeds and tools together
with food rations.

86.   WFP  has also  contributed  to  the  rehabilitation of  feeder  roads,
schools,  health centres  and  basic  urban  services.    Furthermore,  food
assistance  was extended  to health and  malnutrition-rehabilitation centres
and training institutes.  The monthly allocation of  food aid amounted to an
average of 25,000 tons.

87.   Food delivery  improved during  the reporting  year with  most of  the
returnee  areas accessible  and the  monitoring and reporting  capacities at
the provincial level enhanced.

Angola

88.  The resumption of the  Angolan civil war in 1992  had a dramatic impact
on  the living conditions  of the  Angolan population.  During  1994 and the
first half of 1995,  WFP emergency food assistance was provided to nearly  2
million  people including  displaced persons,  returnees and  conflict-  and
drought-affected victims.

Other

89.   WFP is also assisting with the supply and  delivery of food to several
smaller  refugee operations  in the  Central African  Republic,  Mauritania,
Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Uganda, Zambia and Burkina Faso.


             IV.  ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT FOR POLICY COORDINATION
                  AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

90.   In  the  recent  past, political  conflicts and  civil wars  have been
responsible for dramatic increases in the  number of refugees and  displaced
persons.     The  Department   for  Policy   Coordination  and   Sustainable
Development is  co-organizing, with  the Government  of Japan,  a high-level
symposium  in October  1995 at  Tokyo  on Peace  and Development:   Conflict
Prevention, Management and Resolution in Africa.   The purpose is to respond
to  the need to attack  the root causes of  massive population displacements
in Africa.

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Date last posted: 18 December 1999 16:30:10
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